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Wyoming Public School District

STANDARD # ALG:5

Standard Analysis

Quarter 3

SUBJECT: Algebra I

TLW be able to translate between the three quadratic forms (polynomial, factored, and vertex), graph and connect a table of values to each form, and apply the graphs to real- world applications.

I will be able to change a quadratic equation from polynomial to factored to vertex forms and back again. I will be able to graph a quadratic equation from its table of values.

Enduring

Key features of a quadratic function and its graph can be identified and interpreted.

 

Understanding(s):

Solutions to quadratic equations can be found using graphical and square root methods.

Essential Question(s):

How do changes in the values of the parameters in a quadratic function change the behavior of the graph? What is the relationship between the number of real roots and the graph of a quadratic equation? Why does this relationship exist? What are the characteristics of quadratic change as shown in a graph, function rule, table, or real-world situation?

Prereq. Vocabulary:

quadratic function

 

New Vocabulary:

minimum

quadratic parent function

parabola

axis of symmetry

vertex

maximum

Common Core

 

Information/Rules/Procedures/Resources

CCSS: Mathematics, CCSS: HS: Algebra, Seeing

A-SSE Interpret the structure of expressions.

Unit Overview:

 

Structure in Expressions

An important nonlinear function category is quadratics. Understanding characteristics of quadratic functions and connections between various representations will be developed in

  • A-SSE.1. Interpret expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context.

this unit. In the table form of a quadratic function, the change in the rate of change distinguishes it from a linear relationship. In particular, looking at the second rates of change or differences is where a constant value occurs. The symmetry of the function

  • A-SSE.1a. Interpret parts of an expression, such as terms, factors, and coefficients.

values can be found in the table. The graphical form shows common characteristics of quadratic functions including maximum or minimum values, symmetric shapes (parabolas), location of the y-intercept, and the ability to determine roots of the function.

  • A-SSE.1b. Interpret complicated expressions by viewing one or more of their parts as a single entity.

Quadratic functions can be written in a variety of formats: polynomial form f (x) = ax 2 + bx + c, factored form f (x) = a (x -p ) (x - q), and vertex form f (x) = a (x - h) 2 + k. The impact of changing the parameters a, b, and c should be explored and understood.

CCSS: Mathematics, CCSS: HS: Algebra, Creating Equations

Connections should be made between each explicit form and its graph and table. Real- world situations that can be modeled by quadratic functions include projectile motion, television dish antennas, revenue and profit models in business, and the shape of

A-CED Create equations that describe numbers or

suspension bridge cables.

relationships.

  • A-CED.1. Create equations and inequalities in

Resources

 

one variable and use them to solve problems. Include equations arising from linear and quadratic functions, and simple rational and

Common Summative Assessment (Still Working on)

 

www

exponential functions.

Topic Mapping to Prentice Hall Geometry Textbook

 
  • A-CED.2. Create equations in two or more variables to represent relationships between

Section 10.1, 10.2

 

quantities; graph equations on coordinate axes with labels and scales.

NCTM Illuminations(

NCTM Illuminations <a href=( " id="pdf-obj-0-178" src="pdf-obj-0-178.jpg">

CCSS: Mathematics, CCSS: HS: Algebra, Reasoning with Equations & Inequalities

Egg Launch Contest: Students will represent quadratic functions as a table, with a graph, and with an equation. They will compare data and move between representations.

A-RE I Represent and solve equations and inequalities

A-RE I Represent and solve equations and inequalities
 

graphically.

 
  • A-REI.10. Understand that the graph of an equation in two variables is the set of all its solutions plotted in the coordinate plane, often forming a curve (which could be a line).

Building Connections: This lesson focuses on having students make connections among different classes of polynomial functions by exploring the graphs of the functions. The questions in the activity sheets allow students to make connections between the x- intercepts of the graph of a polynomial and the polynomial's factors. This activity is

CCSS: Mathematics, CCSS: HS: Functions, Interpreting Functions

designed for students who already have a strong understanding of linear functions, some knowledge of quadratic functions, and what is meant by a polynomial function.

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F-IF Understand the concept of a function and use function notation.

F-IF Understand the concept of a function and use function notation. <a href=http://illuminations.nctm.org/LessonDetail.aspx?id=L282 " id="pdf-obj-1-6" src="pdf-obj-1-6.jpg">
  • F-IF.1. Understand that a function from one set (called the domain) to another set (called the range) assigns to each element of the domain exactly one element of the range. If f is a function and x is an element of its domain, then

Hanging Chains: Both ends of a small chain will be attached to a board with a grid on it to (roughly) form a parabola. Students will choose three points along the curve and use them to identify an equation. Repeating the process, students will discover how the equation changes when the chain is shifted.

f(x) denotes the output of f corresponding to the

f(x) denotes the output of f corresponding to the <a href=http://illuminations.nctm.org/LessonDetail.aspx?id=L628 " id="pdf-obj-1-23" src="pdf-obj-1-23.jpg">

input x. The graph of f is the graph of the equation y = f(x).

Texas Instruments (

Texas Instruments <a href=( " id="pdf-obj-1-35" src="pdf-obj-1-35.jpg">

F-IF Interpret functions that arise in applications in terms of the context.

Applications of Parabolas(TI-84+): In this activity, students will look for both number patterns and visual shapes that go along with quadratic relationships. Two applications are

  • F-IF.4. For a function that models a relationship between two quantities, interpret key features of

introduced after some basic patterns in the first two problems.

graphs and tables in terms of the quantities, and

graphs and tables in terms of the quantities, and <a href=http://education.ti.com/xchange/US/Math/AlgebraI/12236/Alg1_AppsParabolas_TI84. " id="pdf-obj-1-58" src="pdf-obj-1-58.jpg">

sketch graphs showing key features given a

pdf

verbal description of the relationship.

Exploring the Vertex Form of the Quadratic Function(TI-84+): Students explore the

  • F-IF.5. Relate the domain of a function to its graph and, where applicable, to the quantitative relationship it describes.

vertex form of the parabola and discover how the vertex, direction, and width of the parabola can be determined by studying the parameters. They predict the location of the vertex of a parabola expressed in vertex form.

F-IF Analyze functions using different representations.

F-IF Analyze functions using different representations. <a href=http://education.ti.com/calculators/downloads/US/Activities/Detail?id=5560 " id="pdf-obj-1-87" src="pdf-obj-1-87.jpg">
  • F-IF.7. Graph functions expressed symbolically and show key features of the graph, by hand in simple cases and using technology for more complicated cases.

Car Stopping Distances (TI-84+): This activity uses the transformation graphing application on the TI-84 calculator to discover the equation for the stopping distance of a car on dry pavement.

  • F-IF.7a. Graph linear and quadratic functions and show intercepts, maxima, and minima.

 F-IF.7a. Graph linear and quadratic functions and show intercepts, maxima, and minima. <a href=http://education.ti.com/calculators/downloads/US/Activities/Detail?id=4070 " id="pdf-obj-1-106" src="pdf-obj-1-106.jpg">

NUMB3RS - Season 1 - "Structural Corruption" - Exploring Parabolas(TI-84+):

  • F-IF.7c. Graph polynomial functions, identifying zeros when suitable factorizations are available, and showing end behavior.

When a Cal Sci student apparently commits suicide by jumping off of a bridge, Charlie investigates and suspects foul play. He believes the parabolic path followed by the student terminates farther from the bridge than it should for a jumper. While Charlie was

  • F-IF.8. Write a function defined by an expression in different but equivalent forms to reveal and explain different properties of the function.

ultimately wrong in his assumption of foul play, he was correct that the body would follow a parabolic path in its descent.This activity allows students to discover the effects the parabola's coefficients have on its graph.

<a href=http://education.ti.com/calculators/downloads/US/Activities/Detail?id=7721 " id="pdf-obj-1-132" src="pdf-obj-1-132.jpg">
  • F-IF.9. Compare properties of two functions each represented in a different way (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, or by verbal descriptions).

Pass the Basketball Linear and Quadratic Activities: Many teachers have probably seen a linear version of this activity. Students determine the time it takes for different numbers of students to pass a ball from one student to the next. If the students pass the

CCSS: Mathematics, CCSS: HS: Functions, Building Functions

ball at a relatively constant rate, the data collected and graphed (time versus number of students) can be modeled by a linear function. The activity can be modified to collect data that is logically modeled by a quadratic function. Questions are provided for each version

F-BF Build a function that models a relationship

of the activity. A basketball and a stopwatch are needed for both activities.

between two quantities.

  • F-BF.1. Write a function that describes a

 F-BF.1. Write a function that describes a <a href=http://educator.schools.officelive.com/Documents/Pass%20The%20Ball%20Activity- " id="pdf-obj-1-167" src="pdf-obj-1-167.jpg">

relationship between two quantities.

 
  • F-BF.1a. Determine an explicit expression, a recursive process, or steps for calculation from a context.

Kitchen Parabolas: Students use kitchen bowls to determine the equation of a quadratic function that closely matches a set of points.

F-BF Build new functions from existing functions.

F-BF Build new functions from existing functions. <a href=http://www.thefutureschannel.com/pdf/algebra/kitchen_paraboloids.pdf " id="pdf-obj-1-192" src="pdf-obj-1-192.jpg">
  • F-BF.3. Identify the effect on the graph of replacing f(x) by f(x) + k, k f(x), f(kx), and f(x + k) for specific values of k (both positive and negative); find the value of k given the graphs. Experiment with cases and illustrate an explanation of the effects on the graph using technology. Include recognizing even and odd

Quadratic Functions: Quadratic Functions are explored through two lessons in this unit. The first lesson requires students to explore quadratic functions by examining the family of functions described by y = a (x - h) 2 + k. In the second, students explore quadratic functions by using a motion detector known as a Calculator Based Ranger (CBR) to examine the heights of the different bounces of a ball. Students will represent each bounce with a quadratic function of the form y = a (x - h) 2 + k.

functions from their graphs and algebraic expressions for them.

functions from their graphs and algebraic expressions for them. <a href=http://www.learner.org/workshops/algebra/workshop4/lessonplan.html " id="pdf-obj-1-213" src="pdf-obj-1-213.jpg">

Toothpicks and Transformations: The lesson begins with a review of transformations of quadratic functions, vertical and horizontal shifts, and stretches and shrinks. First, students

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match the symbolic form of the function to the appropriate graph, then given the graphs, students analyze the various transformations and determine the equation for the functions. This review is followed by an activity where students explore a mathematical pattern that emerges as they build a geometric design with toothpicks. Students examine the recursive nature of the relationship. An explicit model for the relation is developed, and a third model is developed by examining the scatterplot and determining the equation from the transformations. Finally, the class uses the graphing calculators to develop another model and to verify that all of the models;factored form, vertex form, and general form;are

equivalent. <a href=http://www.pbs.org/teachers/connect/resources/4453/preview/ " id="pdf-obj-2-7" src="pdf-obj-2-7.jpg">

GeoGebra (

GeoGebra <a href=( http://www.geogebra.org/) " id="pdf-obj-2-16" src="pdf-obj-2-16.jpg">

Family of Functions: This applet allows the students to explore three different functions:

quadratic, absolute value, and square root. Sliders are used to manipulate parameters to see the effect on the functions. It is possible to turn on one function at a time, or all three at once.

<a href=http://www.geogebra.org/en/upload/files/english/Cullen_Stevens/TransformFunctions. " id="pdf-obj-2-28" src="pdf-obj-2-28.jpg">

Quadratic Fun 1: This geogebra applet allows the user to explore the relationship between the value of a in f(x)=a(xh)2+k on the shape vertex of a parabola. Also the relationship between and the axis of symmetry and the vertex of the parabola is explored.

Quadratic Fun 2: This applet explores how knowing the vertex and an additional point on the parabola can help generate the entire parabola. In addition, using the previous information, the student is asked to calculate a in the equation f(x)=a(xh)2+k.

Vertical Motion Interactvity: The motion of a mortar shell shot directly up from the top of a cliff is used to simulate free fall motion. Included are some very good questions or students to consider about the meaning of points along the path of the object. The good questions and worksheet provide scenarios to consider and pose questions for students to explore.

<a href=http://geogebrawiki.wikispaces.com/Vertical+Motion " id="pdf-obj-2-80" src="pdf-obj-2-80.jpg">

Professional Resources

NCTM (www.nctm.org)

Focus in High School Mathematics: Reasoning and Sense Making: This publication elevates reasoning and sense making to a primary focus of secondary mathematics

teaching. It shifts the teachers’ role from acting as the main source of information to fostering students’ reasoning to make sense of the mathematics.

<a href=http://www.nctm.org/catalog/product.aspx?ID=13494 " id="pdf-obj-2-99" src="pdf-obj-2-99.jpg">

Focus in High School Mathematics: Reasoning and Sense Making in Algebra:

Reasoning about and making sense of algebra are essential to students' future success.

This book examines the five key elements (meaningful use of symbols, mindful manipulation, reasoned solving, connecting algebra with geometry, and linking expressions and functions: identified in Focus in High School mathematics: Reasoning and Sense Making in more detail and elaborates on the associated reasoning habits.

<a href=http://www.nctm.org/catalog/product.aspx?ID=13524 " id="pdf-obj-2-115" src="pdf-obj-2-115.jpg">

Articles from National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (www.nctm.org)

Articles available as free downloads to NCTM members, or for a fee to non-members

Eraslan, A. and Aspinwall, L. (2007). Connecting Research to Teaching: Quadratic

Functions:Students’ Graphic and Analytic Representations.

Mathematics Teacher, 101(3), 223. Retrieved February 18, 2011 from

<a href=http://www.nctm.org/eresources/article_summary.asp?from=B&uri=MT2007-10-233a " id="pdf-obj-2-137" src="pdf-obj-2-137.jpg">

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Mathematics Assessment Project (MAP) Formative Assessment Lessons

Forming Quadratics: This lesson unit is intended to help you assess how well students are able to understand what the different algebraic forms of a quadratic function reveal about the properties of its graphical representation.

<a href=http://map.mathshell.org/materials/lessons.php?taskid=224 " id="pdf-obj-3-11" src="pdf-obj-3-11.jpg">

Assessment Resources

Mathematics Assessment Project (MAP) Assessment Tasks

Skeleton Tower: A tower is made of cubes stacked in a particular way. In this task, you must work out a rule for calculating the total number of cubes needed to build towers of different heights.

Table Tiling: In this task, you must work out how many whole, half and quarter tiles tiles are needed to cover the tops of tables of different sizes.

Sidewalk Stones: In Prague some sidewalks are made of small square blocks of stone. The blocks are in different shades to make patterns that are in various sizes. In this task, you will look for rules which let you work out how many blocks of different colors are needed to make different sized patterns.

Building Functions: This is a short assessment in which identify quadratic functions from a graph

Functions: You are given a set of points on a graph. Your task is to find one linear function and one quadratic function which, between them, pass through all the points.

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