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Comparison of the Common Core Standards for Mathematical Practices, NCTM Approaches to Process Standards and NRC Strands

of Proficiency
Standards for Mathematical Practices (CCSS)
Make

Principles and Standards Process Five Strands of Mathematical Standards (NCTM) Proficiency (NRC)
Problem

sense of problems and persevere in solving them. Explaining the meaning of a problem and looking for entry points to its solution. Analyzing givens, constraints, relationships, and goals. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. Make sense of the quantities and their relationships in problem situations. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. Understanding and using stated assumptions, definitions, and previously established results in constructing arguments. Making conjectures and building a logical progression of statements to explore the truth of conjectures. Analyzing situations and recognizing and using counterexamples. Justifying their conclusions, communicating them to others, and responding to the arguments of others. Model with mathematics. Applying the mathematics known to solve problems arising in everyday life, society, and the workplace. Use appropriate tools strategically. Using available tools when solving a mathematical problem. Sufficiently familiar with tools appropriate for their grade. Attend to precision. Communicating precisely to others. Use of clear definitions in discussion with others and in own reasoning. Look for and make use of structure. Looking closely to discern a pattern or structure. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning. Recognizing that calculations are repeating, and looking both for general methods and for shortcuts.

Solving Applying a variety of appropriate strategies. Monitoring and reflecting on the process of mathematical problem solving. Reasoning and Proof Making and investigating mathematical conjectures. Developing arguments and proofs. Communicating Organizing mathematical thinking coherently and clearly to peers, teachers and others. Use the language of math to express mathematical ideas precisely. Representing Creating and using representations to organize, record, and communicate mathematical ideas. Using models and interpreting mathematical phenomena. Connecting Recognizing and using connections among math ideas. Understanding how mathematical ideas interconnect and build on one another to produce a coherent whole.

Conceptual Understanding Comprehending mathematical concepts, operations, and relations. Procedural Fluency Carrying out mathematical procedures, such as adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing numbers flexibly, accurately, efficiently, appropriately and with understanding. Adaptive Reasoning: Using logical thought, reflection, explanation and justification in solving problems. Productive Disposition Seeing mathematics as sensible, useful, doable and worthwhile, coupled with a belief that if you work at it, you can achieve. Strategic Competence Formulating, representing, and solving mathematical problems.