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PROJECT REPORT ON A Comprehensive Study on Port Operations





I extend my heartfelt thanks to Management Trustee and other Board of trustee of Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust for providing us the necessary facilities to do this internship. I express my heartful gratitude and sincere thanks to Mr.A.K.Deshmukh Assistant Manager, HRD of JNPT given a very kind encouragement during the course of our study. My sincere thanks to Mr. Chincholkar, Asst Manager, Mr.Jayasekaran, Superintendent of Planning Department and for his valuable guidance and timely help and encouragement to complete our work. I also extend my thanks to other Departmental Staff. Respected guide Prof. Sanjeev Kadam, Faculty, YMT COLLEGE OF MANAGEMENT, MUMBAI for their undeterred guidance for the completion of the report.

I wish to place on record, my sincere thanks to my Family, Friends and Relatives for their help in completing this project.


I hereby declare that the project titled The Comprehensive Study of Port Operations is an original piece of research work carried out by me under the guidance and supervision of Mr.A.K.Deshmukh Assistant Manager, HRD of JNPT. The information has been collected from genuine & authentic sources and is true to the best of my knowledge.




This is to certify that the project entitled The Comprehensive Study of Port Operations submitted by Mr. Rajan Tandel in partial fulfilment for the award of Master in Management Studies of University of Mumbai is his original work and does not form any part of the projects undertaken previously. Also it is certified that the project represents the original work on the part of the candidate.

Signature of the Guide:-


Sr. No Topic Page No.

Executive Summary


Need and Scope of the Project

Objectives of the Study

Research Methodology

Limitations of the Study

Company Profile & Organisation Structure

Data Analysis and Interpretation



Recommendation and Suggestion




This report contains all the information about my work experience with JAWAHARLAL NEHRU PORT TRUST. The report undertaken at JN PORT has aimed at understating the process of the port operation. The report also gives the information about history of JNPT port as well as Organizational structure, services and Facilities provided by it. The Analysis and Interpretation of provided data is presented in the form of Bar Graph and Pie Diagrams The Data analysis gives the information of JNPT PORTs growth in 2012-2013 compared to past years and also the comparisons between 3 terminals JNPCT, NSICT and GTICT. The analysis shows that GTICT terminal is more efficient than other two terminals. The analysis also show that JNPCT Terminals has less productivity then other two terminals and some recommendations are given based on the analysis, like to improve the technology, to have some strictness among the employees work etc The recommendations of the project would, Shipping agents should make entries of the containers in advance, so that it becomes easy for the port planning departments to plan the container in yard and in vessels, the documents required should be kept ready for any transaction from port as well as from shipping agents side to avoid delay because of documentation, JNPCT should adopt newer technology for the smooth functioning, JNPCT should, like other terminals, provide their users with a unique username and password so that they can keep track of the containers online and should not send surveyors. This report also includes practical implications to understand how Port Operations are being managed in JNPT by taking into account Customer, Purchasing, Planning, Inventory, Technology and Transportation and also to analyze the activities involved in import and export. So efforts have been made to give a brief idea, its workings and benefits. The report also investigates the fact that the analysis conducted has limitations, they are Inaccessibility in some of the port areas is a major limitation of the study, Two terminals of JN Port are private terminals dont issue gate passes easily, Initially no proper guidance was provided about the sources of data collection, Its difficult to collect primary data due to confidentially policies, Complete Information was not provided from higher officials, Another difficulty was very limited time-span of the project, Sources for collecting the data were very limited.


The Indian subcontinent has had fame in the world map, in terms of trade since the ancient times. It was through the water route that various goods were imported and exported by the erstwhile Kings and the emperors in the older days. Britishers, Portuguese, and many voyagers came into India, partly because they found the water routes to be easy roads to the rich country of India. With about 7,500 kms long stretch of coastline, in the states of Maharashtra, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka and Kerala in the western part and Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and West Bengal in the eastern side, riches in India have been contributed much by the ports. Most of the ports in India are located in these states. There are 13 major ports in India of which the last 13th is the port of Port Blair in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which was declared as a major port in the year 2010. WEST COAST Kandla (Gujarat) Mumbai (Maharashtra) Jawaharlal Nehru (Maharashtra) Marmugao (Goa) New Mangalore ( Karnataka) Cochin (Kerala)

EAST COAST Tuticorin (Tamil Nadu) Chennai (Tamil Nadu) Ennore (Tamil Nadu) Visakhapatnam (Andhra Pradesh) Paradip (Orissa) Kolkata-Haldia (West Bengal)

The major ports in the eastern coast are Kolkata-Haldia (West Bengal), Visakhapatnam (Andhra Pradesh), Paradip (Orissa), Ennore (Tamil Nadu), Chennai (Tamil Nadu) and Tuticorin (Tamil Nadu). The western coastline ports are the Kandla (Gujarat), Mumbai (Maharashtra), Marmugao (Goa), Mangalore (Karnataka), Cochin (Kerala) and Jawaharlal Nehru port in Navi Mumbai (Maharashtra).

There are about 185 minor ports in the country. But, there has not been a strict demarcation of the major and minor ports based on the volume of traffic, which are being served by these ports. The major ports in India are those which come under the Central Shipping Ministry as per the federal structure of the Indian government. As per the data from the year 2007, the major ports were responsible for handling traffic of about 74% of the total cargo in the country, both exports and imports included. Of all the major ports, a majority of the traffic has been seen in the ports of Visakhapatnam, Kochi,Chennai, Kolkata and Kandla as per the tonnage capacity. The highest container traffic is seen in the ports of Mumbai and Jawaharlal Nehru port in Navi Mumbai. Except the Ennore Port the rest of the major ports are under the central government administration. One among the major ports in India is under the private-public partnership administration. Each of these 13 ports under the major category- has some specialty according to which there is also the handling of goods. Mumbai is the biggest one according to the area and is a natural harbour. This port handles the majority of traffic into India, mostly comprising of dry- cargo and petroleum products. Port of Kolkata-Haldia is a riverine port, operational since 1977, with mechanized dock system with provision of deep draft vessels. The products handled are dry- cargo, petroleum products and coal. Paradip port in the east coast has more of iron ore, coal and general cargo.

Tuticorn is another east coast port, which came into being in 1974 and handles salt, coal, edible oils, fertilizers, food grains and petroleum products. The port of Visakhapatnam is the deepest landlocked port and also has an artificially created outer harbor, which deals with export of iron ore to other countries, apart from crude oils and petroleum products. Jawaharlal Nehru port in Navi Mumbai is the 11th formed and biggest port in west coast and equipped with latest operational techniques and advanced equipments for handling cargo. In this manner, most of the India's export and import is being carried out by the well planned management going on in the major ports in India. With capacity to handle about 75% of India's trade requirement, these ports have been the gateway to India's development and economic advancement. 8

JN port is the Asias no 3 container handling port and ranked 28th in all over the world. It is the port run under the central government. This project is all about the comparative study of Port Operations This project deals with Infrastructure facility - like area, cranes, railway facility etc. Services - shipping and marines services. Performance of three terminals productivity, traffic handling etc. Growth of JNPCT terminal

Reason for selection of this topic In this competitive worlds every company is struggling for maintain its reputation in the market JN port as in whole is an the Asias no.3 container handling port but if we take as a three separate terminal then the JNPCT handles less traffic than the other two terminals GTIPL and NSICT. The Reasons are: Through this analysis organization can measure the growth of JNPCT in comparison to other two terminals i.e. why the growth of JNPCT is lower than the two terminals. For analyzing the customers view point about JNPCT. For maintaining its reputation in the domestic as well as in international market For gaining more and more experience from different dept, so that I can get benefit in future.

The project helps me to learn about the port operations. How the import-export is done? How they make the yard and vessel plan? It also helps to learn loading and unloading containers. This project is totally based on observation not any experiment as it is based on observation but every dept helped me a lot in collecting comparative data of each terminals and guiding me.



Objective of the project are as follows:

Primary Objective:

To get knowledge about operations To learn and understand about vessel planning

Secondary Objective: Documentation part of port procedures in JNPT (set by the government if India) To learn and understand about all the operation of JNPT Port including movement of export and import containers from ICD.


Need and Scope of the study

Port functionings and operation are very necessary in waterways, seaway trading of cargo. Seaway in most preferred way for heavy cargo. Nowadays, cargo is mainly transported in containers. Containerization is a recent phenomenon in Indias port sector. As such, the country has a trifling presence in the international scenario. Indias most modern port, Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust, which handled 4259314 TEUs in 2012 -13 does feature in the top 24 ports of the world in terms of container port traffic. As the container traffic is going to increase there are many private players entering in the market, JNPT need to improve a lot being favorite port in India. This project will going to help the JNPT to find out its contribution in the world container market as well as Indian trade market. This research will also provide the normal procedures held at port and what are the problems faced by Port and other entities related to port. There is scope to collect more information about other ports in India and then comparison can be made. Future talking about contribution, JNPTs is number one in handling container traffic in India, so there is scope of finding out what are new ways to make JNPT world class facility port. The project analyses the terminal wise performance of port and hence gives a brief idea about the present competitors. It also provides knowledge to the organization of the position it holds amongst its competitor.


Research Methology

Research methodology is considered as the nerve of the project. Without a proper wellorganized research plan, it is impossible to complete the project and reach to any conclusion. The project was based on the survey plan. The main objective of survey was to collect appropriate data, which work as a base for drawing conclusion and getting result.

Research Design A research design is the arrangement of condition for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure. It is blue print for data collection, measurement and analysis. The design of this project is done such that it provides knowledge about JN port in terms of its infrastructure, capacity, future plans, interaction with port users etc. In the time period available for the project, only shipping agents and their problems were studied. It was not possible to obtain information from CHAs and CFSs about their opinion of each port terminal. However, CHAs and CFSs provide data about their functionality and interaction with port which also valuable. The project explains problems faced by shipping agents and the port during interaction, port functionality and export/ import procedure. The project reveals ports role in the procedure. Duration of work: 7 weeks. Area of work: JN port and the nearby shipping agent offices.

Data sources Data collection is done with the help of two methods. Primary Data Secondary Data.


1) Primary Data Collection: Details information about organization structure, port functionality and port infrastructure was guided by Mr. Jaishekarn, Assistant manager, planning department. Through knowledge about export/import procedure and documentation was also given by him. Visits to different departments in port and each terminal of JN port has different department like planning, Operations, ICD, Port planning and development, Marine. In this case data is collected by interaction mode from the various staffs who were working in the JNPT port. Common Questionnaires to all departments was as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. What is the name of the department? What role does it play in import/ export procedure? What are the departments you need to interact with? What sorts of reports are generated? What technology/ software do you use to store the information? Are you satisfied with the available technology? Do you need any customization in software?

2) Secondary Data Collection: The secondary data is basically used for the purpose of enhancing the concept clarity regarding different variables of port operation. The sources are research articles, journals, magazines and internet. Annual records of the Company. Magazines & Journals. Textbooks, Internets & others.



\. The limitations of the Project are as follows: Inaccessibility in some of the port areas is a major limitation of the study. Two terminals of JN Port are private terminals dont issue gate passes easily. Initially no proper guidance was provided about the sources of data collection. Its difficult to collect primary data due to confidentially policies. Complete Information was not provided from higher officials. Another difficulty was very limited time-span of the project.

Sources for collecting the data were very limited. The project would have been more authentic, if the performance of port was judged on the basis of all port users and not only by the shipping lines.

More data would have been collected if the accessibility to port areas was better. For e.g. the custom house and private terminals were almost inaccessible.


Company Profile

Ever since its inception on May 26, 1989, JNP has charted India's international trade to a glorious course of success and achievements, breaking all records and creating new benchmarks, JNP is the biggest container handling Port in India, handling around 60% of the country's containerized cargo, crossing throughput. In its coveted role as the Hub Port on the Western Coast of India, JNP is ranked 24th among the top 100 Container Ports in the World. Fueled by a passion to excel, JNP has anchored its presence with pride, to offer a wonderful Port User experience. Having set for itself a long term goal of achieving 10 million TEU's by the year 2014-15, JNP throws open an array of worthwhile opportunities for Shipping Lines and Shippers to ferry their cargo to various sectors across the globe. Supported by top of the order, world class infrastructure with impeccable technological standards, facilities at JNP comprise a fully fledged Customs House, above 23 Container Freight Stations and a large number of ICD's across the country. Excellent hinterland connectivity both by rail and road as well as proximity to Airports, Hotels etc., give the Port an extra edge to address the shippers needs, efficiently and promptly. With its strong commitment to provide seamless service to its customers as India's prime facilitator of international trade, JNP strives to be the undisputed leader in the South Asian region in years to come



To be recognized as Indias premier container port providing integrated logistics to the best interest of trade and customers.

OUR MISSION The port is committed to meeting the needs and expectations of its customers through: Equipping itself with state-of-the-art equipment and technology and efficient, professional and computer integrated terminal operation systems. Conforming to international standards and offering competitive rates. Ensuring security and safety of life, equipment and cargo, perceiving the principles of sustainable development, Courtesy to Customers




Container Terminal

Three berths (Linear quay length of 680 Meters) can handle third generation container vessels. Rail mounted quay cranes - (RMQC): 8 Post Panamax - 6 No. Super Post Panamax - 2 No Rubber tyred gantry cranes - (RTGC): 18 numbers Rail mounted gantry cranes - (RMGC): 5 numbers. Present capacity: 6,00,000 TEUs per annum. Main Container yard: 35 hectares (30,000 TEUs capacity) Additional paved area: 1,80,000 square metres. Reach stackers: 10 numbers. Tractor Trailers: 120 numbers. Forklifts: 3 numbers. Reefer slots: 280 numbers.



Private Container terminal (NSICT):

In view of continuous growth in container traffic and meeting growing demand of business community and trade partners to have additional facilities for handling the same, the Port introduced private participation and invited global tenders for the first time in India to develop new Container Terminal to augment its container handling capacity . JN Port entered into a license agreement in July 1997 with M/s. Nhava Sheva International Container Terminal (NSICT) a consortium led by M/s. P & O Ports, Australia, for construction, operation and management of a new 2-berth container terminal on BOT basis for period of 30 years. The same was fully operational from July 2000. The project comprises construction of 600 meters quay length; reclamation of 20 hectares of area for container yards and requisite container handling equipment along with other related facilities. The design capacity of this new 2-berth container Terminal was considered as 7.2 million tons per year. However, this capacity is further augmented and currently assessed as 15.6 million tons per year.

Number of ground slots: 6222, of which 620 are at ICD. 600 Meters linear quay length Rail mounted quay cranes - (RMQC) Post Panamax 6; Super Post Panamax - 2 Rubber tyred gantry cranes - (RTGC): 29 Rail mounted gantry cranes - (RMGC): 3 Reefer points: 672 Backup Area - 26 Hectares (Container Yard) Railway Sliding for ICD - Two Tracks Tractor Trailers - 34 (owned) and about 100 hired Reach stackers - 3 Empty Handlers - 2 19


Gateway Terminals India (GTI) is a joint venture between APM Terminals and the Container Corporation of India Ltd (CONCOR). Incorporated in July 2004, GTI operates the third container terminal at Jawaharlal Nehru Port on a build, operate and transfer (BOT) basis for a period of 30 years. It commenced partial operations in March 2006 and became fully operational from October2006. The Terminal will have the following equipment: Rail-Mounted Quay Cranes 10 (post-Panamax, 18 wide reach) Rubber-Tyred Gantry Cranes Rail-Mounted Gantry Cranes Reach Stackers Empty Handlers Tractor-Trailers Fork Lifts (small) Twin Lift Spreaders 40 (for yard operations) 3 (for rail transfers) 2 2 90 4 61 mtrs rated load


Shallow Draught Berth

A 445 long Shallow Draught Berth for vessels up to 170 meters LOA and up to 9.00 meters draught has been commissioned for handling Feeder Container Vessels, Dry Bulk (Fertilizer , Fertilizer raw material, Sugar etc. ) & General Cargo vessels with a capacity addition of about 1.2 million tons per annum.


BPCL Liquid Cargo Jetty:

A license on BOT basis was awarded to M/s. Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited and M/s. Indian Oil Corporation Limited in August 1999 for construction of a twin-berth liquid cargo jetty. The twin-berth liquid cargo jetty is functional from March 2002.

A twin berth liquid cargo jetty developed by M/S Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited and IOC Limited on BOT basis for handling liquid cargo including POL products A 300 mtrs long and 40.5 mtrs Wide Jetty. Having capacity to accommodate two vessels: of 85,000 DWT in seaside berth & 30,000DWT on shore side berth. The dredged draught on seaside is 13.5mtrs and 12 mtrs on shore side. Three dock lines are provided for White and Black Oils. Estimates to handle 4.0 million tons of cargo in the next 5 years. Capacity of 5.5 million tons per annum. Jetty is provided with six 12' marine loading and unloading arms (3 on seaside and 3 on shore side), fire fighting system as per OISD 156 norms and state-of-art environmental protection measures.



Marine Services

Pilotage: The port provides round the clock pilotage to all ocean going vessels calling the port.

Night Navigation: Since February 1998, JNPT has launched night sailing of long Panamax Container Vessels upto 270 M LOA and 12 M draft on a regular basis which are largest vessels to transact the Mumbai Harbour at night.

Vessel Traffic Management System: Regular coordination of vessel movement is being carried out through collection,verification,organisation and dissemination of information through this system.

Anti Pollution measures: The pollution control cell carries out regular regular inspection and control checks on all vessels entering the port.

Flotilla: Pilot Launches: 5 Tugs: 8 (3-30 Tons Bollard Pull and 2-45 Tons Bollard Pull) Mooring Launches: 2 VIP Launches: 2


Shipping Services


JNPCT Fixed Berthing Windows wef 02 January 2013 Vessel Day Service From Slot To Liner Op Id Routes Operator CMA-CGM CMA-CGM line CCA1 Agencies (India) Pvt Ltd Karachi - Nhava Sheva Hapag Lloyd - Mundra - Damieta Hapag Lloyd line HLI1 India Pvt. Ltd. Newyork - Norfolk Sun Mon SUN INDAMEX 36:00 NYK Line India Charleston -Savannah 07:00 19:00 NYK Line NYK1 Ltd. Orient Overseas OOCL India Port said - - KarachiOCL1 Nhava Sheva Container Line Pvt.Ltd. APL India Pvt. Ltd. Hyundai Nhava Sheva - Pipavav Hyundai Merchant HMM1 Merchant Marine -Singapore Mon Wed Marine Line India Pvt. Ltd. 60:00 Kwangyang -Pusan 07:00 19:00 Ningbo TS Lines (I) Pvt. Shanghai TS Line OAS1 Shekou. Ltd. APL Line APL1 Simatech Shipping Sima Marine SMM1 LLC. India Pvt.Ltd. Evergreen Xingang.- Qingdao Evergreen Line EGI1 Shipping Agency Leam Chabang (India) Pvt Ltd. Mon Wed Singapore - Tianjin 48:00 K' Line (India) 19:00 19:00 K' LINE KKK1 Pelepas - Port Kelang Pvt. Ltd. Nhava Sheva Logistic Services Colombo. STX Panocean STX1 Pvt. Ltd. Hapag Lloyd Hapag Lloyd HLI1 India Pvt. Ltd. Simatech Shipping Sima Marine SMM1 LLC. India Pvt.Ltd. Jebel Ali - Nhava Wed Fri Relay Shipping 36:00 OEL Line RSA1 Sheva - Mundra - Abu 19:00 07:00 Agency Ltd. Dhabi - Khalifa Sea Consortium Sea Consortium SEC1 Singapore Pte Ltd. Shipping (India) 24










Wed Fri Oasis Shipping Mundra -Nhava Sheva36:00 TS Line OAS1 19:00 07:00 Pvt.Ltd. Jebel Ali-Bandar Abbas Sea Consortium Sea Consortium SEC1 Singapore Pte Ltd. Shipping (India) Fri Sat Relay Shipping 36:00 OEL Line RSA1 07:00 19:00 Agency Ltd. Nhava Sheva-Jebel AliSimatech Shipping Sima Marine Bandar Abbas SMM1 LLC. India Pvt.Ltd. Shipping Shipping Corporation of JMB1 Corporation of India India Ltd. K' Line (India) K' Line KKK1 Shanghai - Ningbo Pvt. Ltd. Hong Kong - Singapore Fri Sun Pacific 48:00 - Port Kelang - Nhava 07:00 07:00 International Lines PIL Mumbai Pvt. Sheva - Colombo PIL2 (PTE) Ltd. Ltd. Singapore - Shanghai. Singapore. Wan Hai Wan Hai Lines WHI1 lines(India) Pvt. Ltd. CMA-CGM Sat Mon Nhava Sheva-Khor Al 36:00 CMA-CGM line CCA1 Agencies (India) 19:00 07:00 Fakkan-Jebel Ali. Pvt Ltd


Organization chart


Functions of the PORT

Import Cycle Import containers depart to: CFS Bound Cargo ICD Bound Cargo Empty Containers Transshipment containers


Pre Berthing Activities Registration of Shipping line for obtaining agency/ line code from port. Declaring Consortium / Service & route of ship, schedule, service throughput, etc. by shipping line. Getting prior permission from port for window/ non-window schedule by shipping line. Submitting vessel details to port. Depositing VRC & CRC to Finance section. Clearance from Marine section. Issuing VIA (Vessel Identification Advice) number from Port Planning.

Berthing of Vessel Declaring actual arrival of vessel by shipping line in pre-berthing meeting. Berth allotment w. r. t. window / non-window schedule by port. Submission of berthing application by shipping line. Pilot pickup and berthing of vessel at allotted berth. Customs clearance and immigration.

Vessel Discharge Operation Steps involved in the movement of import containers from ship to Import container yard Submission of import advance list to port by shipping line Preparing discharge plan destination wise. Deployment of container handling equipments at yard and wharf. Discharge and stacking of import containers at import yard as per planned location. Discharge and stacking of transshipment containers at Export yard as planned location.


Delivery of CFS bound cargo Filing of IGM (Import General Manifest) by shipping line through Customs. Submitting list of containers by shipping line to CFS. Placing job order by CFS to Port. Delivery of container by port. Transportation of loaded container by road to CFS through Port Out-gate.

Activities at CFS Terminal Shipper provides documents like invoice, packing list, Delivery order etc. to CFS Filing Bill of entry by CHA to Customs. Issue of Examination Order by Customs. De-stuffing for custom examination. Examination of goods by Customs. Payment of duties by consignee. Customs receive out of charge. Payment dues to CFS operators by CHA Delivery of goods to consignee.

Delivery of ICD bound container Generation of SMTP by shipping line through Customs. Custom forward SMTP through auto-mail to respective terminal and agent. Placement of rake by rail carrier. Preparation of loading plan by Port. Loading of containers on to the rake by Port equipment. Submission of removal memo to Railways/ carrier for hauling of the rake.


Activity at ICD terminal On arrival of containers at ICD, Train operator submits the details of containers to Customs. Customs checks details along with SMTP and endorses safe arrival of cargo. Shipper provides documents like Invoice, Delivery order to CHA nominated by consignee. Filing Bill of Entry by CHA to Customs and submits to Shipping Line Examination, Assessment of Duties and out of charge by Customs Payment of Customs duties and charges to Customs by Consignee. CHA pay all Dues and charges to ICD Operator and take the delivery of cargo. Carrier submit landing certificate to customs where SMTP was filed.

Delivery of Empty containers Discharge and stacking of Empty Containers at Import Empty Yard. Obtaining permission from Customs (Container movement cell- CMC ) by shipping Line and submission to Port. Delivery of Empty Containers to Local Empty Storage Terminals through Port Out Gate. Stacking at Empty storage Terminals nominated by Shipping Line


Export Cycle CFS Bound Cargo ICD Bound Cargo Factory stuffed Cargo


CFS Bound Cargo Steps involved from loading of cargo in the container from factory to departure of container from CFS. Transfer of cargo into Truck at origin Transportation of container/ cargo to CFS Entry to CFS (Generating Gate pass at CFS In-Gate) Transfer of cargo from truck to storage point/shed/yard in CFS Unpacking for customs examination Filing of shipping bill with customs by CHA Stuffing of cargo in container after customs examination Locking and sealing of container Duties are accessed and collected by customs Customs issues let export order Bill of lading generating and issuing to exporter by shipping lines Transportation of loaded container by road to port for onward loading on to the board

ICD Bound Cargo Steps involved from loading of cargo in the container from ICD to departure of container from ICD. Transfer of cargo into Truck at origin. Transportation of container/cargo to ICD Terminal. Entry to ICD (Generating Gate pass at ICD In-Gate). Transfer of cargo from truck to storage point/shed/yard in ICD. Unpacking for customs examination. Filing of shipping bill with customs by CHA. Stuffing of cargo in container after customs examination. Locking and sealing of container.


Duties are accessed and collected. Customs issues let export order to shipping line. Bill of lading generating and issuing to exporter by shipping lines Transportation of loaded container to port by road / rail for onward loading on to board.

Factory Stuffed Cargo Steps involved in the movement of factory stuffed FCL shipment container Transfer of cargo into container after Central Excise Clearance Sealing of container under supervision of CE inspector Shipper provides relevant documents like invoice, packing list, to CHA nominated by exporter. Duties are accessed and collected Filing of shipping bill with customs by CHA Transportation of container from factory to port buffer yard Custom clearance and sealing of container Customs issues let export order Bill of lading generating and issuing to exporter by shipping lines Transportation of loaded container to port by road for onward loading on to board


Activities at Port

Containers arriving by road Steps involved in the movement of containers arriving from CFS / ICD/ Factory by road Customs issues let ship order at port in-gate after duly endorsement on form 13 and let export order submitted by shipping line. Port issues in-gate pass with yard location to be stacked after receiving form13 duly endorsed by customs and copy of drivers license. Transportation of container to port export yard through in-gate after physical verification by Port security. Issue of drop out ticket. Stacking of container at designated export yard.

Containers arriving by rail Steps involved in the movement of containers arriving from ICD by rail Submission of form 11 to port by shipping line 6 hours prior to arrival of rake. Updating details of form 11 and planning of containers at export yard. Placement of rake at port rail tracks. Preparing discharge plan Discharge, Transportation and stacking of container at designated export yard by port equipments.


Loading of containers on vessel at Port Steps involved in the movement of containers from export container yard to ship Submission of manifested export list and pre-export stowage plan to port by shipping line prior berthing of vessel. Preparing export stowage plan by Port CT Planning section. Berth allotment by port and submission of berthing application at Marine section by shipping lines Berthing of ship at port container berths Confirmation of export stowage plan by ships chief officer. Deployment of container handling equipments at yard and wharf. Issuing instructions / plan to yard and wharf Operations. Feeding of export containers to wharf cranes as per stowage sequence. Loading of export containers by wharf gantries as per stowage plan. Issuing final export bay plan to shipping lines after completion of loading. Lashing of containers loaded on board. Submission of un-berthing application to Marine section by shipping lines. Pilot on board and sailing of ship. Filing of EGM (Export General Manifest) by shipping lines.



The gate represents a significant part of any container terminal. The activities over here determine the efficiency and productivity of the whole terminal. The gate plays a vital role in case of a container terminal, as it controls the flow of container terminal, as it controls the flow of containers in and out of the terminal. The typical inbound/out bound containers are inspected and the documents are verified, this can take time depending on the number of problems encountered. The gate should not act as bottleneck for the terminal, as the in and out of containers decides the revenue generation of the terminal. As congestion is a common problem in NSICT was scare yard space is constant incurring property. Pre check of documents and entry of form no.13 in the terminal system is an important process deciding the flow of containers which if erred can cause a big problem for the terminal. Incomplete documentation, misdirecting the trailers to their place in the yard and frequent occurring mistake at the gate. the preplanned traffic flow and unrestricted movement between parking slots or container stacks or increase of ODC to the QCs can help in reducing the truck around time can be effectively and fast handling of truck and around time can be effectively and fast handling of trucks at the gate. Increased cargo volumes, limited infrastructure, inefficient inland transportation interfaces are contributing to increased congestion delays at major gateway ports. Measures taken to improve throughput have included better scheduling process, higher manning levels, increased automation, extended operating hours and improved truck interfaces. Absent signification process and infrastructure reforms congestion at the ports is expected to continue


Gate operations are divided into following activates Pre advice section Here the information provided by CFS/Shipping agent in form no.13 is updated at pre advice section at the gate, which, is sent through the EDI connectivity to different terminal. The software named NAVIS is Used at the gate as its data feeding part. Types of containers entering the terminal, role of surveyor, different details entered in form no 13 (cargo identification customs seal no., GM/EGM no, POL /POD ETC) customs role and the follow up by operations department were explained as follows.

These are 8 gates at NSICT normally 4 gates are used as ingate and 3 as decided on the basis of flow of vehicles .on the basis of in and out process can be understood in the following two sections.

IN GATE TWO types of vehicles enter through the gate1) Container for export 2) Import container For export containers shipping agent submit form no.13(see annexure)to pre advice section which consists custom seal number, IGM/EGM number, POL/POD details, VIA number, vessel name, line(agent),ISO code and cargo details. The information is updated in the system and four receipts are generated and given to the agent one for himself, one to submit at in and one out to the gate and one submit to CISF. At least 7 days before the arrival of vessel, port authority starts the gate to accept containers and close the gate to accept to accept the containers minimum 6hours(cut off time)before expected time of arrival of that particular vessel .Once container reaches the gate its surveyed by the surveyor for the seal no. and condition of container if any found its mentioned on back of the form no.13 and the container reaches the gate the truck driver shows it to the operator at in gate which gives him EIR and BAT no. and directs him to the planned slot in the yard by the yard planner which he starts planning from the day form no13 details has been entered into the system at the pre advice. The truck


driver shows the BAT on to the RTG operator and he comes to know about which container to load on vehicle. After ETA (expected time of arrival) on container is allowed to enter into the terminal. It can happen in case of urgency if a special service request form is filled by the line/agent and submitted at gate. The container is then allowed to enter into the terminal and being loaded on the desired vessel. For this additional service rendered the line/agent is additionally charged. For import containers empty (form no 13) is submitted at the gates which contain information about the CFS name, ISO no.,vehicle no. And other details containers whose job orders are received by the documentation department from CFS are delivered. The vehicle is given a EIR no. And BAT no. To show to RTG operator to load the container identified by the respective BAT numbers. OUT GATE The out gate is for three types of vehicles: 1) Empty vehicle after discharging export container in the yard 2) Vehicle with loaded import container 3) Vehicle after discharging export container collect import container In first case the out gate receive the EIR copy from the vehicle as a proof that the vehicle that enter through in gate discharges the container and is now out of terminal. In second case the vehicle driver gives two copies of EIR at the out gate of these one contain a custom stamp which is check by the gate operator and then enter the transaction no., then lane no., then pre check container number with the number entered in document. In meantime he stamped the other copy with the number entered in document. In meantime he stamped the other copy with NSICT stamp and writes the time and signs it and gave to the vehicle which is released to go or called as out gate. In third case both above process is take place simultaneously. Container types are distinguished by ISO no....this unique for particular type of container. The whole process of import and export procedure at JNPCT can be summarized in the following import and export flow chart.


ICD Operation

An Inland container depot may be defined as a common user facility with public authority status equipped with fixed installations and offering services for handling and temporary storage of import/export laden and empty containers carried under customs control and with customs and other agencies competent to clear goods for home use, warehousing, temporary admissions, re-export, temporary storage for onward transit and outright export. Transshipment of cargo can also take place from such stations. ICD Facilities at JN PORT JN Port has 9 railway sidings for handling containers trains. JN Port has gateway connectivity with around 51 inland Container Depots (ICD). New Delhi, Ludhiana, Sabarmati, Dadri, Nagpur and Hyderabab are major ICSs and handle about *0% of total ICD traffic.


Rail Carriers Operating at JN Port Sr. No 1 2 3 Rail Operator CONCOR HIND TERMINAL CWC Sr. No 5 6 7 Rail Operator All(Adani Logistics Ltd) ETA Engineering CRR(Container Road Services Pvt.Ltd) rail

IILPL(Indian Infrastructure 8 Logistic Pvt.Ltd)

GRFL(Gateway Rail Freight Ltd)

Functions of ICD The primary function of ICD may be summed up as under: Receipt and dispatch/delivery of cargo. Stuffing and Stripping of Containers. Transit operations by rail/road to and from serving ports. Customs clearance. Consolidation and desegregation of LCL (Least Container load) Cargo. Temporary storage of cargo and containers. Reworking of containers. Maintenance and repair of container units.

The operations of the ICD Revolve around the following Centers of activity:-

Rail Sliding (in case of a rail based terminal) The place where container trains are received dispatched and handled in a terminal. Similarly, the containers are loaded on and unloaded from rail wagons at the siding through overhead cranes and/or other lifting equipments. Container Yard Container yard occupies the largest area in the ICD and CFS, It is stacking area were the export containers are aggregated prior to dispatch to port; import containers are stored till Customs clearance and where empties await onward movement. Likewise, some stacking area is earmarked for keeping special containers such as refrigerated, hazardous, overweight/overlength, etc. 40

Warehouse A covered space/shed where export cargo is received and import cargo stored/delivered; containers are stuffed/stripped or reworked; LCL exports are consolidated and import LCLs are unpacked; and cargo is physically examined by Customs. Export and import consignment are generally handled either at separate areas in a warehouse or in different nominated warehouses/shed. Gate Complex The gate complex regulates the entry and exists of the road vehicles carrying cargo and containers through the terminal. It is place where documentation, Security and container inspection procedures are undertaken. Benefits of ICD:The benefits as envisaged from an ICD are as follows Concentration points for long distance cargos and its unitization. Service as a transit facility. Customs clearance facility available near the centers of production and consumption. Reduced level of demurrage and pilferage. No customs required at gateway ports. Issuance of through bill of lading by shipping lines, hereby resuming full liability of shipments. Reduced overall level of empty container movement. Reduced inventory cost Increased trade flows.


Yard Operations

Yard operation is the central process through which all the other activities are connected and around which import &export process through all the other activities are connected and round which whole import and export process revolves in the terminal .yard operation includes yard planning offloading of import container and on loading of export container. The total area of JNPCT is 29 hectares of which can be stacked to 4 to 5 tiers according to traffic. The duty of yard planner is to reduce operational cost, increase efficiency in loading and unloading so that the average truck time for gate to yard or yard to berth can be minimized. Minimizing of shuffling of containers is also a important task in the hands of the planner so that it should not affects movements of containers in the yard etc. and planning location for containers accordingly. Yard numbering of the container for knowing the position of a container .Yard planning is done according to the break up ground slots for convenience and to reduce conjunction in the yard. In JNPCT, there 18 RTG cranes that are used for shifting ,unloading and loading of container in the yard and on the truck vehicles .Due to height these RTG cranes stack up to 5 tiers of containers in case of standard and 4 tiers in case of High Cube containers in the container yard. When export containers are planned to stack in the yard, priority is given to container weight and the Port of Discharge (POD) .There are 6 rows (A, B, C, D, E, and F) in each block. First and second row for low weight containers, third and fourth row for medium weight containers, fifth and sixth row. for heavy weight containers .Such type of stacking containers will help vessel planner to place weight containers under deck first, then medium and less weight on top. This also saves time of RTG crane operator to lift and place on truck with minimum time and need not to have search for heavy weight \light weight\medium weight containers. The yard planning starts before the container arrives in the yard through gate and prior to the vessel coming to the yard for discharge and loading. Agents fill the pre-advice letter in which form-13 is for road imports and exports while form-11 is for rail .Yard planner receives all information through EDI connectivity. 42

PARCS and EXPRESS software is used by the operation department to undergo various operations and to collect the database of the various containers .The yard operator serves the function in both cases of export as well as import. In case of export through the gate when the trucks are pre-advised the yard operations plays its part. The trucks are allocated their particular destination the yard in the export yard as soon as there data is fed in to the EXPRESS system. Similarly the containers coming through rail are also planned in advance in the yard .This planning operation has to be done considering the space in the yard to accommodate trucks altogether and minimize congestion. Yard operator visualizes the layout of the total yard which is divided in to various categories: IMPORT Containers yard EXPORT Containers yard HAZARDOUS Containers yard EMPTY Containers yard REEFER Containers yard For imports the vessel planner provides the list of import containers called as import advance list which provides information about to be discharged in the terminal and provide details which containers are for CFS, ICD, and transshipment. Accordingly the yard planner allocates the yard to these import containers .There are 7 yard 4M to 4P and 5K to 5P for import containers storage of dry\general cargo which has ground slots.4M to 40 are for ICD IMPORT CONATINER AND 5J to 5P for CFS import container. For export containers the containers starts coming through tt to the yard before the vessel arrives to the wharf through truck from various CFS's and also through rail line handled by the CONCOR. The cut off time for the containers is six hours before the vessel berthing that means containers can arrives in the yard before six hours prior to berthing. If container has to come after cut off time SSR form has to be filled which additional charges .There are 16 yard for export containers storage of dry\general cargo which has 3172 ground slots. 3 yards are used for both export and import reefer container namely 4 H, K, L yards. The function at reefer yard is to monitoring and temperature maintenance.


The reefer container is monitoring 4 times a day. At 8:00, 16:00, 20:00, 00:00 and report about the temperature is prepared two times a day 12:00 noon, 8:00 pm. If there is any problem in reefer it is mention in the (face smile report) report which is given to local vendor employed by shipping lines. Block 5Q for export and 5R for imports are to be used for Hazardous containers .There are different types of hazardous cargo that are exported and imported .Hazardous cargo on their level of danger.1MCO class 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 are different types of specialization assigned for hazardous cargo depending on their level of danger. Chemicals stuffed in the hazardous containers can be identified when label of its level danger (i.e. IMCO 3\4\5\9) is affixed on the container. HANGING SLOTS: - This is the situation where containers (import\export) are stacked in the container yard one above the other, but updated wrongly in the system or updated twice over the other container number.i.e. Container below other container is shown blank in the system. Container is physically present in the yard below the other container but not visible in the system. This is actually a mistake of RTG operator in the container yard. In the below diagram blank squares are called as Hanging slots it is the duty of the yard planner to rectify such errors with the help of control officers. Supervisor will go physically in the respective block to know hanging slot container (blank space) and then he will inform yard planner\control officer to update the system with correction location and container number. This is explained diagrammatically.

Location: 5F25A 4 (Block 5F, Slots 25, A Row, 4th tier) 44

SHIFTING OF CONTAINER AMONG TERMINALS FOR LOADING: When there is shifting of containers internally among terminal in JNPT\GTI, there is separate block in which all these containers are kept .Shifting to containers from JNPT terminal to NSICT terminal for loading ,Block 4G is used and container yard #37is used in JNPT for shifting of containers from NSICT terminal to JNPT terminal. FREE DAYS FOR EXPORT CONATINERS: Seven free days are allowed for export containers arrived from container freight station (CFS) as well as Inland container depot (ICD), beyond which ground rent is applicable Yard planning has to be done keeping, in mind two yards 4 &5 in front of the berth .These two yard are divide into two several yards like Export yard, import refers, hazardous, ICD containers. The yard planner is to accommodated these containers in this limited yard of capacity 29 hectares in the most efficient manner so that there is minimum truck turnaround time, port congestion, minimum moves for the RTG, quirking feeding to vessel or train. ICD YARD:This is called as the 9 R yard and having two rows each alongside the rail and three row along there ICD office .There are 110 slots along the rail and 90 slots along the ICD office .This yard is provided with two rail lines where the CONCOR provides the train for export containers Two high stacking is done alongside the rail to rows on each side while there stacking is done alongside the office. The three high stacking yards is handled by reach stackers while the two high stacking is handled by RMCG.


Wharf Operation

The wharf operation includes all the activities that are carried out on the wharf related to container or vessels. Wharf is a place where the vessel berthed alongside for loading and discharging of containers .Prior to vessel arrival some necessary precaution is made like the boom of the crane should be up, spreader of the QC'S should checked, lashers should be present at wharf, plan should be given to deck checker, wharf checker, feeder and to the wharf, supervisor, ITV should be there for the start of operation .There is one deck checker, one wharf checker & seven lashers are present at each QC. At the wharf a 25m distance is maintained between two ships. At wharf the following important function are carried out. 1. Berthing and unearthing of vessel: The Berthing, Unberthing procedure at NSICT is handled by JNPT. The vessel has to fill berthing form and at Unberthing from shipping line\agent should obtain permission for berthing its vessel (under specific WINDOW) in the port in advance or as soon the vessel arrived in BFL area. Therefore its needs to submit Berthing Permission Form in PORT CONTROL OFFICE of JNPT. This form should be signed first by the shipping line\agent, then Operation Manager\superintendent of JNPCT who will allot container Berth Number (CB No.4 & CB No.5), Bollard Nos. for this particular vessel and then it is to be submitted in port control office of JNPT. Once the permission is obtained from JNPT, shipping line\agent submits one copy to NSICT for its records .Then JNPT will make arrangement of tugs, pilot to bring vessel from BFL to the port. Without this permission, vessel cannot take berth in the port. The vessel in anchored at the Mumbai floating light and then according window scheduled the pilots and mooring gang of JNPT help the vessel in berthing. After ship is berth inspection of 46

ship by group of supervisor is take place for the safety concerns and the required information is mentioned in vessel checklist. As the berthing operation is finished the operation on the vessel a vessel inspection is done on the basis of vessel inspection checklist by the vessel and terminal representative and after that handling of containers commences in the next 15 to 30 minutes .The allotment of the QC's and vessel planning basically the bay plan has already been dispatched in the respective hands before the arrival of the vessel so that no delay is there in starting the loading and unloading procedure. At the end of the loading unloading process the vessel chief gives notice of readiness to the JNPT official and accordance with the tide table and the window scheduled for the vessel the Unberthing take place. A Unberthing Permission Form is required to obtain permission for sailing the vessel form port it has to be submitted minimum 3 hours before actual sailing of the vessel .First, this form has to be submitted minimum 3 hours before actual sailing of the vessel .First, this form has to be stamped, signed by the Master\Chief Officer of the ship, then it should be signed by operation \superintendent of NSICT and finally it is submitted in JNPT. Then JNPT will arrange pilot for sailing of the said vessel .It contents all the details as mentioned in Berthing Permission Form .Again before Unberthing a check made on the vessel if anybody of the port is not left on the vessel and then pilots and the mooring gang of JNPT steers the vessel out of the BFL. So the sole role of NSICT in the vessel operation is monitoring the process while when JNIPT officials do the operation and do the safety inspection. 2. Handling of Containers After the berthing processes the ship is ready for discharging and loading of containers. There is standard rule for loading of containers, as loading is done from sea side to land and discharging is done from land side to sea side. First the discharging of container starts. In discharging of container the updating is done by the wharf checker by entering container no. in to the device provide to him known as VMT in case of empty container no., Seal no. is check is there and in case of loaded container the seal no. is also checked and if there is mismatch in crosschecking then a new seal is placed on the container and the agent is charged for that seal and the new seal no. is being updated into the VMT. Discharging is not done in particular sequences. Updating of loading is done by deck checker. In case of loading particular sequence is followed. LASHING ACTIVITIES: The first work on the deck starts with the unlashing of the containers which is carefully undertaken as it's a high risk involved task. The lashing supervisor supervise the team of lashers is on the deck for timely, fast and safe lashing activities. Lashing activities is always carried out away from the bay where QC is working and if on the deck then at least two container away from the containers being stowed by the QC's. BY QC's: The allotment of QC's is ready made by the vessel planner. A QC has a team of a deck checker, a wharf checker and a lashing team consisting of seven workers. At JNPCT there are 8 QC and each has 10 trailers assigned to it which can be altered according to the need .There is 60 ft distance at let between the QC's working on the same ship .A deck checker is there guiding the QC operator about the correct position of the containers being loaded and feed it into the VMT. Sometimes reemling takes place if the container are the same POD and


same line and misplacing of containers takes place .While unloading similarly the deck checker guides the QC operator to the containers. PUTTING AND REMOVING LOCKS: On arrival of containers on traitors for loading the locks from the gear box of the ship fitted in the containers as well when the containers are unloaded by the QC's on the trailers the locks are removed from the containers and put in the gear box. There are two important people playing vital role in increasing wharf productivity:1. ROLE OF WHARF CHECKER: In case of import he has an important role to play. The sole validity of the containers seal and condition depends on him as he is the first man to have a clear view of the condition of the container and the seal and after which the container is being moved from the wharf to the yard where it becomes the responsibility of the terminal. So it's important that the wharf checker is alert and on his feet to recognize any such occurrence to minimize a possible claim on the terminal. The wharf checker checks the seal number if it's there, if not puts one (it should at least have a plastic seal) and updates it in the system and informs the wharf supervisor .In case of ODC only container no is checked in case of any damage to the container is seen a damage report is made signed by the duty officer after which the container is accepted. In case of export the wharf checker has to just feed the container no. in the RDT and make sure they are placed according to the bay plan. 2. ROLE OF WHARF SUPERVISOR: The wharf supervisor has to control of all the operation going on the wharf as he is responsible for the activities going on. He has the task of making sure that all the loading and unloading operation are carried out smoothly and in safe efficient manner. The traitors are working efficiently or not ,also he can allocate them to a different QC if the QC they are designated to work for is busy so that fast unloading and loading takes place. He has more of a coordinating role between the lashers QC's, ITVS, Wharf Checker, Deck Checkers and the control tower. Following task is to be looked after by a Wharf Supervisor: Maintenance of vessel Loading Unloading Activities Lashing Unlashing Check Cargo Spillage, Damages Speed of QC movements Supervision of deck and Wharf Checker


SPECIAL SERVICE REQUEST (SSR) Form: In case of urgency the shipping line if request for any special service then he has to fill a SSR form and submit it to the documentation department its mostly provided by the third party in the terminal. When the shipping line\agent wants to avail some special kind of services in addition to normal service, then port will provided necessary services upon submission of Special Service Request form .But shipping line\agent has to make payment of charges to the port for these emergency\additional services. Charges depend on the nature of service offered and vary accordingly. In exports submission of container in the port after cut off time ,change of port of discharge loading and unloading of container twice on truck, general to hazardous etc, requires Special Service Request from to be submitted in the port. This form is issued by shipping line\agent and its contents container\seal no., type\size of container, weight, nature of cargo, FCL\LCL and IMCO class\temperature etc. The wharf and vessel operation also includes providing such facilities.


Vessel Operation

The wharf and vessel operation are closely related at JNPCT. As most of the vessel related activities are carried out by JNPT the role of JNPCT in the vessel operation is negligible all the activities related to berthing and unberthing are carried out in supervision or done by JNPT. Whether its documentation process for arrival of vessels is berthed and ends when all the activities related to loading and unloading are finished. In vessel operation in case of sea transport, vessel carrying containers should be well planned depending upon containers weight, port of discharge, nature \type of cargo i.e. Hazardous ,Reefer, Over Dimension cargo, General\Dry cargo, Size of container etc; so that the vessel will be in balance position in the high seas it is also planned in such a way that the discharge and loading of containers can be completed in less time by optimum and efficient utilization of Quay Cranes and other resources. Therefore, all containers are well placed in different Bays for fast clearance and also to maintain the balance of the vessel. Shipping line\agent send Baplie to vessel planner well in advance i.e. before the arrival of vessel. Baplie is the file Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) Format which contains list of all containers loaded on the said vessel along with their complete details like container no. weight, nature of cargo, port of discharge, ISO Code etc. They also contents list pertaining to containers that will be discharge at NSICT, India. Then vessel planner downloads this file in the system. Shipping line\agent also send Import Advance List Documentation Department that contents segregated list of import containers as per place delivery i.e. containers for delivery to different Container Freight Station and Inland Container Depots. Documentation Department will then 50

update the system by segregating import containers according to Place of Delivery. Will then update the system segregating import containers according to Place of Delivery i.e. containers for CFS delivery, ICD by road or rail delivery, Transshipment. This Import Advance List is also verified with data already updated in the system (after downloading Baplie).After proper verification, Documentation Department will confirm updated list of all import containers, which are for the Nhava Sheva discharge to vessel and yard planner. Yard planner will then start planning space\location for all import containers as per each CFS\ICD by rail and also by road. Vessel planner will start vessel planning once he received confirm list of import containers and pre-stowage plan from the shipping line\agent. Containers in the vessel plan are indicated by the following marks.

1) Type Of Containers: a) Reefer Cargo Containers:

1. 2. 3. 4.

40' standard Reefer Empty Reefer 40' High Cube Reefer 20' Reefer Every ship has some reefer points on the deck to maintain the temperature of cargo in the reefer container. Same as above, Reefer containers are stacked/loaded on the deck of the ship only. When the Reefer containers are loaded on the ship, Reefer Technician of the port set the required temperature for each container and in case of any problem in the machine of Reefer Container or reefer point on the ship, it cannot be loaded. Chief Officer will check all requirements as per the documents and if he satisfied, then the same container will be loaded on the vessel. Chief Officer of the vessel is responsible for loading and unloading of cargo containers. Nowadays, few shipping line/agent has some ships carrying reefer containers under the deck also. Heavy weight dry cargo containers can also be loaded on reefer container. Hence as per the instructions given by the shipping line/agent in the Pre Stowage Plan, Reefer Cargo Containers has to be loaded on/under the deck of the ship.


Reefer Container Manifest is the document given by the shipping line/agent to documentation department of JNPT. It contents details regarding reefer container i.e. container number, temperature to be maintained, location of container of the ship etc. This document is submitted to JNPT, CFS, CONCOR, and Chief Officer of the ship. After receiving such container in container yard of JNPT, reefer technician of JNPT will maintain the required temperature. For loading this container on the vessel, technician will set temperature as mentioned in the documents. b) Restow Container:

Name Title

Name Title

Name Title

Name r Title

Name e Title

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Restow 20' Restow 40' Standard Restow 40' High Cube Restow Reefer Restow Empty Restow Hazardous Restow Container is loaded over other containers, which are for Nhava Sheva or other port of discharge and its need to be offloaded at the present port of call. Sometime this type of container is lifted from one bay and loaded in other bay also according to Port of Discharge. Restow container is discharge from the ship and loaded again on the ship. All this is done strictly as per the instructions given by the shipping line/agent through message or Pre stowage plan. Hazardous Cargo: 20 Hazardous 40 Standard Hazardous 40; High Cube Hazardous 20 Hazardous Reefer Empty Reefer Container

c) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Shipping lines/agents prefer these containers to load on the deck and away from the place of accommodation. Since the nature of the cargo is hazardous, it can be exploded or caused leakages/fire and will harm the crew of the ship in the high seas. Therefore, these hazardous containers are normally loaded on the deck in the starting bays (from bow). Shipping line/agent gives prior information to the vessel planner about hazardous cargo containers that are to be loaded on the deck i.e. while planning this type of containers, Vessel Planner follows Port of Discharge, container weight, size and instructions like 2 containers of a 52

particular IMCO class cargo should be kept together or keeps the distance of 3 containers between 2 containers of different class etc. 20' Hazardous Reefer containers are used for carrying chemicals that required certain level of temperature to be maintained in order to protect cargo from causing fire/explosion/loss. Special care is taken for such type of cargo while in container yard as well as on the vessel. In certain vessel, place for hazardous containers are allotted. Based on the structure of the ship if shipping line/agent insists to load hazardous cargo containers under the deck, then vessel planner does it accordingly. For some shipping line/agent, IMCO class 9 is considered as less hazardous cargo class than other hazardous cargo classes, therefore shipping line/agent wants to load such type of cargo under the deck and the vessel planner has to follow the instructions as mentioned in the PRE STOWAGE PLAN or instructions given by the shipping line/agent through message. For every hazardous container shipping line submits Manifest/IMO Declaration to port, chief officer of the vessel. This declaration contents all details pertaining to cargo stuffed in the container (IMCO class, UNNO No., temperature to be maintained +/- etc.) d) Over Dimension Cargo: 1. Open Top 2. Over Height, 3. Over Width 4. Over Width 5. Over Length These containers are also planned after cut off time. Shipping line/agent gives list of ODC containers to JNPT (Documentation Dept/Vessel Planner). It is also given in the Pre-Stowage Plan about such ODC containers. All Over Dimension Cargo (ODC) containers except Over Length ODC containers are loaded only under the deck. For such Over Length ODC containers, sometimes shipping line/agent specifies the location of such container in the Stowage Plan. Such containers are plan in such way that length of the cargo should not touch containers of other bays on both sides. Because while dischargelloading of containers on other bays, quay crane operator should .not face any difficulties due to such over length cargo.

e) Perishable Cargo Containers (ODD): Onions, potatoes, garlic etc. are stuffed in Dry Cargo containers and require ventilation. When doors are closed of such cargo containers, it smells badly and will spoil cargo. Therefore, one door of such cargo containers must be kept open for ventilation and they are always loaded on the deck.


For planning a vessel, Vessel planner follows pre-stowage plan sent by shipping line\agent. He plans each container as per Port of Discharge, weight, type of cargo and according to Bay allotted for one\more Port of Discharge. Containers for discharge at immediate port of call (i.e. next port of call after Nhava Sheva) are loaded on deck of the ship or sometimes they are loaded on and under the deck in one bay for easy and fast discharge\loading of containers at the ports .It also depends on number of containers to be discharge at a particular port. When there are more than 400 containers for discharge at next port of call, then obviously all these containers cannot occupy in one bay of a ship. If most of the containers for one port of discharge loaded only in two bays close to each other, then it is considered as bad planning because only one Quay Cranes can be deployed for discharge of these containers which will take many hours. When these 400-500 containers are loaded partly in one bay and in other bays equally, then it is easy to deploy two to four Quay Cranes to discharge containers and therefore less time will be required for discharge as well as loading of containers. Containers are also plan in such a way that loading and unloading of containers can be faster to reduce ship turnaround time this will benefit both parties i.e. port authority and shipping line\agent. Containers for one particular port of discharge are also evenly distributed among different bays, so that two or more Quay Cranes can be used for loading\unloading of containers and to keep the vessel also in steady\balance position. This is one of the key areas to be considered in the terminal operation in this operation there is a per vessel loading and discharging plan according to the window given to various service .In case of import the central plans sends the Baplie which is downloaded to text file. Import advance is also given by the agent that consists details about the details the number of containers in the vessel and which are for various CFS's and ICD's. The role of vessel planner is to make a discharge and loading plan for the containers keeping in mind various factors like stability of the ship, presence of reefer slots, POD, assignments of QC etc. SOME OF THE VESSEL PLANNER'S TASKS Vessel Log(Vessel Detail) Book Terminal Departure Report(TDR) QC Performance Report Ship Performance Summary Berthing Permission Form



The Documentation is basically involved in the following main functions1. Vessel Operation Function 2. Delivery Function 3. Subsidiary Function 1) VESSEL OPERATION FUNCTION Vessel Operation Function can be further classified into:Import Operation Before the arrival of the vessel, the Documentation Department has to carry out certain function, so that Yard Planner can plan the discharge of Import containers properly and the containers can be stacked in the proper yards. The primary data for processing Import comes in the form of EDI file called as Baplie file. The Agent gives this Baplie file to our vessel planner who processes the same. The primary document for processing the imports of the vessels are:a. The baplie which processed by vessel planner (comes in soft copy). b. The hard copy of the import advance list along with summary. c. Details of Hazardous/Reefer/ODC containers to be discharged. d. The soft copy of import advance list (IGM) prepared in MS Excel. e. The import floppy is prepared in MS Excel which contains details like ISO code, Status whether loaded or Empty, Category- Local or ICD. The hard copy is the printout of the floppy or any/written copy which contains all the contents of the import floppy. The process: - Once the Baplie is downloaded we can see actual status of onboard containers on those particular coming vessels. Out of them which are meant for discharge at our port are called as Import container which can be further delivered locally or to ICD destination or some of them are transshipped from one terminal to other terminals as per the respective Agents to whom the containers belong. The entire details, the agent has to provide to us in Import advance list .As per the details provided all the containers are assigned to specified location. If the hazardous/reefer/ODC containers are discharged then all the details should be crosschecked and updated as per the manifest provided. After the entire pupation yard planner starts their work. 55

EXPORT OPERATION FUNCTION Details of all the export containers get updated in their system at the every moment when containers arrive in the in the port by gate. If the containers are arrived by the rail from ICD destination then agent provides the details in the Rail pre advice form (called as form 11) which are updated well in advance in the system and on actual arrival of the containers they are updated in the system with proper yard location for it. Thus all the export containers data are updated in the system before export finalizing of any vessel. Export finalizing of vessels take place only after he cut off of particular incoming vessels. Cut off is pre defined time for any vessels up to which export container be accepted to enter the JN port for that vessel (normally 6 hours arrival of the vessels). Before cut-off time VOA (vessel operating Agent) has to submit following things. A soft copy of final export advance text files in prescribed format. Hard copy of the final Export advance list along with summary. Details of Hazardous/Reefer/ODC containers to be loaded. After the receiving the export advance list & once the cut-off time is over the soft copy of export advance list is processed (using EXPRESS program).During this process computer system crosscheck the advance list with actual in the yard containers for the specific vessels, the system crosscheck all the related data of every containers (viz pod, weight, IMO code, ISO code) and generates a report with all description found. During this process the EXPRESS programs carry out the weight changes, POD changes. As stated in the containers EXPORT text file list given by the VOA. After having the manual check with actual released container summary which is obtained through SPRACS program. After all the releasing is finalized, this department informs the ship planner to enable him to start planning the ships.

BASIC DELIVERY FUNCTIONS A. Assigning job order for container delivery: - Once the import container is discharged from vessels, it is placed in the yard stacked as per the destination of the container is updated. But the container cannot be delivered unless and until proper confirmation is received from the agent. Once the agent clears all the customs formalities he gives the job order for the delivery of the containers to the respective destination. B. Delivery back-to-town containers: - In some cases due to some reasons containers which arrived for loading on vessels is needed to be taken back to the stuffing place. This is known as Back to town container. For this kind of transaction agent must have to obtain a necessary custom permission and submit to us so that containers are delivered.

C. Inter Container terminals shifting: - Many Shipping agents have their business running in this terminal as well as neighboring terminals so their containers lying at 56

JNPCT or vice versa. In such cases the terminals treats these containers as interterminals Transshipment containers. All the details are provided by agent are updated in system and then movement takes place accordingly.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION RELATED TO VESSEL OPERATION. Hatch cover: - Hatch cover is like layer that separate on deck and under deck part of the ship. It is also called Hatch lid/Hydraulic Hatch cover/pontoons lid. Hatch cover is automatically opened on both side of the vessel and remains on the vessel only. The per hatch cover/lid, six moves are considered. Reasons for shifting of containers in the vessel:- Container in vessels is shifted upon the request of the chief officer of the vessel in order to vessel stability and Gravational Meta Centre the measuring point of ship stability according to which vessels position can assured. Vessel Identification advice (VIA) number: - Minimum 15 days before.


Marine Service

Vessel Traffic Management System (VTMS) VTMS regulates the arrival of vessels of Jawaharlal Nehru Port channel. It has radar for monitoring and controlling the vessel real time position. VTMS comprises of one radar station at JNPT. The radar video along which control/status signals are transmitted to the harbor masters control tower by means of optical fiber cable. The radar data processor and radar of radar display are installed at control room to remotely control the radar of radar site. A microcomputer with stand by and interface to the port management computer system maintain the database of vessel movements, vessel related information and aid to scheduling of arrival of vessels at JNPT.

Features of VTMS Improvement in safety of vessel traffic by supervision of the entrance area, the anchorage area, main route to JNPT and identification of vessels leaving a waiting area. Providing information to vessels during bad weather conditions regarding traffic situation. Regulates maritime traffic flow. Improvement in the planning of berth, anchoring area occupancy and traffic. Communication media to prevent accidental stranding, collisions trenching of subside pipelines. Monitoring position of buoys and beacons in navigational channel. The whole area of interest is under radar coverage. Targets within the radar coverage Zone are automatically detected and tracked. Tracked targets are displayed on bright color display.


Data Interpretation

JN Port Total Traffic & Growth (1989-00 to 2012-2013)

YEAR 89-90 90-91 91-92 92-93 93-94 94-95 95-96 96-97 97-98 98-99 99-00 00-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13

Throughput 33880 54643 109495 142629 173071 244070 339136 423148 504149 669108 889978 1189780 1573677 1929531 2268989 2371338 2666703 3298321 4059841 3952770 4061343 4269811 4320902 4259314

% Growth 61.28% 100.38% 30.26% 21.34% 41.02% 38.95% 24.77% 19.14% 32.72% 33.01% 33.69% 32.27% 22.61% 17.59% 4.51% 12.46% 23.69% 23.09% -2.64% 2.75% 5.13% 1.02% -1.43%


Graphical representation of total traffic of JN Port

JN Port Container traffic(1989-90 to 2012-13)

5000000 4500000 4000000 3500000 3000000 2500000 2000000 1500000 1000000 500000 0 JN PORT Troughput

2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11








Analysis: - As per the above graph we can see JNPT has grown very well, but in 2012-2013 there is decrease in no. of TEUs handle by JNPT.IN 2011-2012 JNPT handled 4320902 TEUs whereas there is decrease in 2012-2013 i.e. 4259314.


91-92 92-93 93-94 94-95










Container traffic handled by 3 Terminals in JN PORT (2011-12 and 2012-13)





Wharf Unload 5,21,511 20112012 6,26,082 20122013

Wharf Load 5,06,440


Wharf Unload 6,65,371

Wharf Load 7,36,476


Wharf Unload 10,17,642

Wharf Load 8,73,462













Graphical Representation of Comparison between 3 Terminals Container Traffic in TEUS (In MN)








0 2011-2012 2012-2013


Analysis:-From the above analysis it is clear that GTIPL can handle more traffic as compared to other two terminals like NSICT and JNPCT. In Year 2012-2013 JNPCT has handle more container as compared to 2011-2012.

JN PORT Traffic Throughput 2012-2013

JNPCT Import Teus 2,07,991 Export Teus 2,01,752 Total Teus 4,09,743

NSICT Import Teus 1,33,779 Export Teus 1,54,932 Total Teus 2,88,711

GTICT Import Teus 3,25,141 Export Teus 2,82,225 Total Teus 6,07,366

Graphical Representation of JN PORT Traffic Throughput

700000 600000 500000 400000 JNPCT 300000 200000 100000 0 IMPORT TEUs EXPORT TEUs TOTAL TEUs NSICT GTICT

Analysis: - The Analysis shows that GTICT gives more throughput then other two terminals ie JNPCT and NSICT. GTICT has handled more TEUs than the other Terminals.


ICD Traffic by 3 Terminals in JN Port














20112012 20122013


1,05,178 1,99,237

1,89,794 1,95,365 3,85,159


1,84,638 4,67,193

1,04,185 1,05,949 2,10,134

1,70,702 1,67,580 3,38,282


1,42,681 3,78,597

Graphical representation of comparison of ICD Traffic of 3 Terminals

500000 450000 400000 350000 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 2011-2012 2012-2013 JNPCT NSICT GTIPL

Analysis: - From the above analysis It is clear that GTIPL Has handled more TEUs than other two terminals like JNPCT and NSICT. Above analysis also gives that there is fall in TEUs handled by GTICT and NSICT compared to previous year i.e. 2011-2012 Whereas JNPCT has handled more TEUs this year. 63

Vessel Performance Analysis

Average Berth Stay:Year JNP CT DRY BULK Average Average Average Average berth stay berth stay berth stay berth stay in days in days in days in days 1.23 1.04 0.56 3.31 1.19 1.02 0.65 3.30 NSICT GTICT BREAK BULK Average berth stay in days 2.08 1.09 Liquid Average berth stay in days 1.38 1.03 Overall Average berth stay in days 1.03 1.04

2011-2012 2012-2013

Graphical representation of Average Berth Stay (days)

3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 2011-2012 2012-2013 Overall Liquid BREAK BULK DRY BULK GTICT NSICT JNPCT JNPCT NSICT GTICT DRY BULK BREAK BULK Liquid Overall

Analysis: - Above Graph shows that GTICT requires less time for completion of loading and unloading of containers as compared to other terminals i.e. NSICT and JNPCT. Dry bulk requires more time for loading and unloading than any other terminal. Overall Berth stay has increase in 2012-2013.


Average Pre- Berthing Waiting Time:Year JNP CT Average Preberthing Waiting time (days) 2011-2012 2012-2013 0.95 0.47 NSICT GTICT DRY BULK Average Preberthing Waiting time (days) 1.07 0.74 BREAK BULK Average Preberthing Waiting time (days) 1.24 0.42 Liquid Average Preberthing Waiting time (days) 1.58 1.10 Overall Average Preberthing Waiting time (days) 0.57 0.35

Average Average PrePreberthing berthing Waiting Waiting time ( time (days) days) 0.24 0.05 0.13 0.02

Graphical representation for Average Pre- Berthing Waiting Time (days)

1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 2011-2012 2012-2013 Overall Liquid BREAK BULK DRY BULK GTICT NSICT JNPCT JNPCT NSICT GTICT DRY BULK BREAK BULK Liquid Overall

Analysis: - Above Graph shows that Pre berthing time required by the vessel is less at GTICT Terminal as compared to other terminals i.e. NSICT and JNPCT. Liquid Jetty requires Pre berthing time. Overall Pre Berthing time has decrease in 2012-2013.


Average Turnaround Time in Total:-



2011-2012 2012-2013

DRY BULK Average Average Average Average turn round turn round turn round turn round time (total) time (total) time (total) time (total) (days) (days) (days) (days) 2.87 2.21 1.22 5.86 3.43 1.92 1.28 5.36



BREAK BULK Average turn round time (total) (days) 4.30 2.22

Liquid Average turn round time (total) (days) 5.77 4.04

Overall Average turn round time (total) (days) 2.67 2.46

Graphical Representation of Average Turnaround Time in Total (days)


Analysis: - Above Graph shows that GTICT Turnover time is less as compared to other terminals i.e. NSICT and JNPCT. JNPCT Turnover time increased in 2012-2013. Dry bulk requires more time to complete load and unloading of vessels. Overall turnover time has decreased in 2012-2013 which is good based on the performance criteria.


Average Parcel size of Vessel:-


JNP CT Average Parcel Size

NSICT Average Parcel Size 33,195 Tonnes 32,985 Tonnes 2,428 TEUs 2,376 TEUs

GTICT Average Parcel Size 20,275 Tonnes 25,982 Tonnes 1,617 TEUs 2,027 TEUs

20112012 20122013

17,023 Tonnes 20,523 Tonnes

1,229 TEUs 1,452 TEUs

DRY BULK Average Parcel Size 13,468 Tonnes 12,645 Tonnes

BREAK BULK Average Parcel Size 2,310 Tonnes 788 Tonnes

Liquid Average Parcel Size 14,039 Tonnes 14,879 Tonnes

Overall Average Parcel Size 20,582 Tonnes 22,699 Tonnes 1712 TEUS 1937 TEUS

Graphical representation of Average Parcel size of Vessel in a day.

35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 2011-2012 2012-2013 JNPCt NSICT GTICT DRY BULK BREAK BULK LIQUID OVERALL

Analysis: - Above Graph shows that NSICT has handled more cargo in a day as compared to other terminals i.e. GTICT and JNPCT. JNPCT has handled more cargo in a day in 2012-2013. Overall Cargo handled has increased in 2012-2013.


Output per ship Berth Day:-


JNP CT Average Parcel Size

NSICT Average Parcel Size 31,947 Tonnes 32,364 Tonnes 2,337 TEUs 2,329 TEUs

GTICT Average Parcel Size 36,138 Tonnes 39,847 Tonnes 2,882 TEUs 3,118 TEUs

20112012 20122013

14,171 Tonnes 17,681 Tonnes

1,030 TEUs 1,264 TEUs

DRY BULK Average Parcel Size 4,068 Tonnes 3,830 Tonnes

BREAK BULK Average Parcel Size 1,109 Tonnes 726 Tonnes

Liquid Average Parcel Size 10,141 Tonnes 10,875 Tonnes

Overall Average Parcel Size 24,849 Tonnes 25,762 Tonnes 2,245 TEUS 2,356 TEUS

Graphical representation of Output per ship Berth in a day.

40000 35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 2011-2012 2012-2013 JNPCT NSICT GTICT DRY BULK BREAK BULK LIQUID OVERALL

Analysis: - Above Graph shows that GTICT has handled more cargo in a day from 1 vessel as compared to other terminals i.e. NSICT and JNPCT. JNPCT has handled more cargo in a day from 1 vessel in 2012-2013. Overall Cargo handled has increased in 2012-2013.


Berth Occupancy:-



2011-2012 2012-2013

Shallow Draught Berth Berth Berth Berth Berth Occupancy Occupancy Occupancy Occupancy % (days) % (days) % (days) % (days) 72.93 92.68 54.79 76.70 69.03 73.09 56.20 67.36



Liquid Berth (BPCL) Berth Occupancy % (days) 88.56 81.33

Graphical representation of Berth Occupancy.

100.00% 90.00% 80.00% 70.00% 60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% 2011-2012 2012-2013 JNPCT NSICT GTICT Shallow draught berth Liquid Berth

Analysis:- As per above data interpretation we can see that NSICT has more Berth occupancy as compared to other 2 terminals i.e. JNPCT and GTICT. But in 2012-13 there is decrease in berth occupancy of NSICT but still it has highest occupancy among other 2 terminals.


Overall Cargo Distribution of JNPT


GTICT, 24.24 Million Tonnes 29.61% 36.87% Cement & Other Dry Bulk, 0.71 million tonnes GEN CARGO, 0.13 million tonnes Liquid , 6.66 million tonnes 10.13% JNPCT, 14.53 million tonnes 1.08% 0.20% NSICT, 19.46 million tonnes


Analysis:- The analysis Shows overall Cargo distribution at JNPT PORT. GTICT occupy largest area in cargo distribution with 36.87% then NSICT with 29.61% and then JNPCT with 22.11%.



Delay in the functioning are caused due to Adverse environmental conditions and also no berth availability. JNPCT uses the old technology whereas GTIPL terminal uses latest technology and works faster. For e.g. obtaining permission for berthing of vessel. The shipping agent has to physically meet the port officer and ask for written permission, because the permissions asked through emails are left unanswered. Fixed window are given for each vessel as a result, previous vessel misses window then the next one too. In such cases the vessel has to wait outside the port and so, the average waiting time for three terminals varies. If the previous vessel takes more time for unloading and loading, or has broken down or is performing poorly then naturally, the vessel gets delayed, In JNPT, the container positions in yard are sometimes not updated so the shipping agent needs to send surveyors for physically visiting the container yards for updating container positions. Express database is so vast that it is difficult for the staff to access the data and analyze it quickly. Frequent Labor Strike. Lazy Behaviors of Employees. Radio Data terminal is not working fully. Quality of service provided by the GTICT and NSICT are superior as compared to JNPCT. If any Changes are required to be made in facilities so, in other to implement those changes lot of delay is caused.



As per the Analysis of the project following are the Recommendations and Suggestion for Shipping Lines/ Agents and Port:

To retain its position in comparison with other ports, JNPT should use updated technology, improve infrastructure and optimize the export/import procedure in various ways. Shipping agents should make entries of the containers in advance, so that it becomes easy for the port planning departments to plan the container in yard and in vessels. The documents required should be kept ready for any transaction from port as well as from shipping agents side to avoid delay because of documentation. JNPCT should adopt newer technology for the smooth functioning. JNPCT should, like other terminals, provide their users with a unique username and password so that they can keep track of the containers online and should not send surveyors. JNPCT however sends a codec which provides details of container positions, but the file is in different format and has to be changed and viewed and also not be updated .So, it is advisable to keep a single format.

The cargo to be transported by road should be compulsorily Insured. System should be updated regularly and also integrated software should be developed, especially for communicating between Marine, PPD dept. and other depts., so that updates about arrival and berthing can be updated. Cranes should be well maintained for better performance Charge heavy penalties to make employees work more efficiently.


Such technology that can improve Productivity and Performance of port:

1. Automated guided vehicle AGVs: Trailer automation: This automated trailer can carry 20, 40 &45 containers. It has computer controlled schedule, work automatically with accuracy of 3 degree. Position of truck checked by use of transponders in the ground.

2. Automatic Stacking Cranes: The ASC spreader is equipped with four camera positions showing the corners of the container, which assist it in automatically placing the container in the correct position. On the land side of the terminal, loading and unloading of road trucks will be remotely controlled with the assistance of cameras.


Automated Straddle carriers:



For India to retain its prominence as a maritime country more seaports with state of the art infrastructure/facilities are needed on its long coastline. JN port is one of the major ports in India. It is Asias no 3 container handling port. It has major competition wit h the ports of Vishakhapatnam and Kandla. The present scenario shows that all the three terminals have some strong and weak points due to which no terminal can be declared as the best. Presently there is stable demand for JNPCT, however the two terminals NSICT and GTIPL are improving their performance and will be competitive for JNPCT. On one hand, agents prefer JNPCT because last minute entries of containers are possible, while on the contrary they prefer other terminals for ease of billing.



Books and Magazines: Indian Ports(vol-39) Port Management