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Chapter 19: Practical Nationalism in Dapitan

Gubernatorial decree of 1892- Rizal was deported to Dapitan. There he demonstrated practical nationalism by living out what he had preached to his countryment and fellow reformers.

Dapitan During the Arrival of Rizal Dapitan had long been a politico-military outpost of the Spaniards in the Philippines. o It was one of the forefronts of Spanish culture, religion and civilization in Muslim Mindanao. o It was headed by a politico-military commander and with a Spanish priest, tasked with the conversion of the island into Catholicism. He arrived in Dapitan via steamer CEBU. The place was swampy with unplanned streets, the land was fertile, no potable water, no lighting system, appeared desolate, and people were dying of different diseases because of lack of proper medical services.

RIZAL and CAPTAIN CARNICERO CAPTAIN RICARDO CARNICERO the politico-military commander of the town received as a prisoner. There, he resided at the Jesuit Mission House under the FATHER OBACH (the parish priest of Dapitan) based on the letter of FR. PABLO PASTELLS, the superior of the Society of Jesus in the Philippines. However, Rizal opted not to stay with the Jesuits because of these conditions to which he must comply according to the letter: 1. To make public retraction of his religious errors; 2. To issue public statements unmistakably pro-Spanish; 3. To undergo spiritual exercises of St. Ignatius; 4. To make a general confession of his past life; and

5. To lead a model religious and pro-Spanish life. Thus he stayed with Captain Carnicero. During his stay, he was able to get along with him. In due time, he was given Rizal free rein to help improve Dapitan and all other liberties except to leave the place. He was just required to report to the military outpost once a week. In Dapitan, he shared with the captains his political beliefs, that Philippines would be the happiest country in the world should it be granted: 1. Representation in the Spanish Cortes; 2. Securization of the parishes; 3. Reformation of the administration in all its branches; 4. Encouragement of primary instruction and elimination of friar intervention; 5. Granting teachers of both sexes better salaries; 6. Division of government jobs equally between the Spaniards and Filipinos; 7. Making the administration moral; 8. Creation of schools of arts and trades in provincial capitals; 9. Freedom of speech and press; and 10. Freedom of religion. Carcinero recognized Rizals rationality on advocating the aforementioned reforms, in fact, he offered him assistance that these reforms be made known in Spain. However, he knew that the friars will be out to oppose them. However, to show him his appreciation for his kindness and generosity, Rizal composed a poem for him entitled A DON RICARDO CARNICERO.

Rizal Builds His Home at Talisay After two months in the area, he was able to build his own home in Dapitan because his ticket won Php 1000 in the Spanish lottery. With cash on hand, he immediately bought land in Talisay which was more than 70 hectares. It is in Talisay where he used his talents and limited resources to be of service to his countrymen during the four years of his exile.

Community Leadership in Dapitan Father Sanchez his former teacher at Ateneo Municipal that helped him construct a huge relief map of Mindanao out of stones, earth, and grass. He conceptualized and implemented plans for beautifying the town, constructed a water system, and facilitated the putting up of lamp posts at every corner of the town. He also opened a school for young boys following the Atenean system of education, which centered on both academic and vocational pursuits. Dona Teodora, with Trining, had also traveled to Dapitan in order to have her eyes operated. His experiences in Dapitan led him to conclude that self-improvement and community development are very vital in the achievement of national integrity and good governance.

Rizal-Pastells Debate on Religion The debate was triggered by the sending of Fr. Pastells of Sardas book, with his advice that Rizal had to abstain from his foolishness of viewing religion from the prism of individual judgment and self-esteem. At that time, Rizal was 31 years old while Pastells, the superior or the high ranking Jesuit in the Philippines, was 45. For Rizal, he rejects faith and upholds reason as the sole norm of knowledge. He believes in God by reason, not faith and rejects the Christian revelation running counter to reason. For him, miracles are impossible; Christ is merely a great man; and the church is the best religious bodies but not divine. Rather, Rizal believes in Gods living revelation of nature. On the other hand, Pastells counters reason, damaged by its original sin, must be supported by faith; that revelation is verified by prophecies and miracles. His argument is from authority, the Church, which proposes dogmas, is worthy of belief as it is a divine institution, founded by Jesus Christ who proved himself as Gos son by miracles, especially by rising from the dead.

Rizals rationalistic rhetoric on religion consist of the following elements: (1) the primary of conscience; (2) a firm belief in God; (3) boundless trust in the Divine Providences; (4) the profound experience of God as loving Father; (5) a sense of mission; (6) strength of conviction; (7) Daily Recourse to prayer; and (8) an openness to dialogue.

Rizal and Josephine Bracken Josephine Leopoldine Bracken his most beautiful visitor who came with his uncle, Mr. TAUFFER, who was suffering from an eye ailment. Rizal saw in her the qualities which made him attracted to Nellie Boustead, and in less than a month after her arrival, he asked her to become his lifetime partner. When he asked for the consent of her uncle, he burst in rage. Thinking that she was the only one left to care for him and that he had lost the hope in regaining his eyesight, he tried to kill himself, however, Rizal prevented him. After which, he sent them to seek refuge with Rizals mother to whom she brought Rizals letter of introduction. A month after, Josephine went back to Dapitan and there, they tried to arrange their marriage ceremony, which was rejected by Fr. OBACH and the BISHOP OF CEBU. Thus, wanting to continue, they pledged themselves before the heaven lives as husband and wife without the formal matrimony. Francisco the first child of Rizal who died a few hours after birth, which he buried under the Santol tree in Dapitan. She gave birth as a consequence of a quarrel with Rizal. Josephine left for Hong Kong, with the permission of Rizal, however, seeing that life was unbearable, he returned to Dapitan accompanied by Narcisa. Though Rizal was irritated by her return, because he loved her very much, he welcomed her with open arms, the woman who shall be with him till his last days on earth.

Literary Works at Dapitan Hymn to Talisay a poem intended to be a college song for the pupils he was teaching in Talisay. This, however, was used as evidence against him in his trial.

Mi Retiro (My Retreat) portrays Rizals serene life in his place of rustication. This was also in response to his mothers request that Rizal should revive his interest in poetry writing. This poem expressed his acceptance of his fate for he believed that justice would prevail in the end.

Rizals as An Exile As an exile, he did not forget his high sense of honor, and the importance of good conduct and behavior. He also demonstrated values of obedience, self-control, and discipline. Juan Sitges replaced Carnicero and restricted his exercise of freedom. Rizal in Dapitan has become: o The first to introduce social and environmental engineering; o The first rural doctor; o The first professional to engage in business; o The first practitioner of town planning and beautification; o The first to introduce the principles of livelihood and self-reliance programs; o The first to show the way to community development; o the first ophthalmic surgeon sought by patients from foreign lands; o the first to set up a precursor of the modern community school, with himself as the first community teacher; o the first systematic collector of the Philippine shells, butterflies, and reptiles, and other fauna and flora in Mindanao; o the first sanitary engineering and public health work; and o the first Filipino doctor with a social conscience, who charged fees according to the patients ability to pay