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March 2013

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The researcher wishes to express her sincere appreciation and extends her deepest gratitude to the most gracious and the most merciful almighty ALLAH (S.W.A) for the wisdom, strength and guidance to make this endeavour a success. To her ever loving and supportive family especially to her father, Mr. Zaiton H. Benasing and her mother Mrs. Calima D. Benasing for their moral, financial and spiritual support and for always there both in her ups and downs. To her brothers and sisters namely, Aisha, Ameera Jawaher and Ahmad who became a part of her inspiration and for their constant moral support, and to her cousins, Juwairiah Arumpac, Mizh-al Zacaria, Fatima Jannah Zacaria, Abdul Jabbar Macabato and Fatima Jasmina Decampong for their moral and material support. To her ever supportive uncles, Mr. Khadaffy Dimaporo and Hadji Noor Macabato. To her beloved aunties, Mrs. Lawanun Macabato, Mrs. Diamila Dimaporo and Mrs. Sahara Dimaporo for their encouragement and moral support. To her teachers, especially to Ms. Aiza A. Maguindanao & Mrs. Maria Cristina Sonza for their encouragement. Special mention is due to her friends; Sarangfriends , Hodah, Laial , Hafsah, Nor-ain, Hanina and especially to her fellow Darwinians datroubemakers , Nasib, Amina, Alinor, Yasmin, Nasiba, Fatma, Nafisah, Sittie Hasmin , Rohaidah and Hasanah for the support and sympathy.


Chapter I INTRODUCTION Language is definitely the medium of instruction. It is through language people do understand each other. In this light, language became a very important skill man has to learn in order for him to survive to the environment he is living in. Furthermore, man was born with his mother language language which he inherits from his parents. Moreover, he has a second language aside from his mother language. Coping-up and understanding others culture and way of life is essential this may help man to grow as well as his race. The ability of mimicking the foreign language will lead to interconnectedness and will bridge nations and culture towards progress. It is through language man can express his thought and free himself from the prison of ignorance. As stated by the theorist Halliday , language has seven functions: (1) the instrumental function : using language to get things ; (2) the regulatory function : using language to control the behaviour of others ; (3) the personal function : using language to express personal feelings and meanings ; (4) the interactional function : using language to create interaction to others ; (5) the heuristic function : using language to learn and discover ; (6) the imaginative function : using language to create a world of the imagination ; (7) the representational function : using language to communicate informations, (Halliday 1975 : 11-17 ) With the help of language, change for the better can be in our hand ; moreover, language also have the power to destroy things even life. It is in this reason, language became a powerful weapon man can have and a wonderful gift God has given to us. Philippines is known to be a good English-speaking country largest English-speaking country in Asia. English became the second language in the Philippines, if not in their mother language, Filipino use English language for communication. In schools from basic education up to college, English language is being taught. Almost everywhere in the country, English language can be heard ,

and almost all types of people regardless of race and educational attainment know the language. Even the Philippine constitution is written in English. Furthermore, this study is conducted to assess how the fourth (4 th) year students MSU-SND High School are familiar the English language and how proficient they are in using the language in communication specifically in speaking. Moreover, this study aims to determine the different factors and conditions that may affect the students performance in speaking. Furthermore, other related ideas in speaking proficiency will be discussed in the course of this study.

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Man is gifted with knowledge to acquire complex information, example of these is language acquisition. It is in this reason, man is superb to all beings God has created. Man has innate acquisition device ever since he is born as stated by Chomsky and Lenneberg that the innate knowledge is embodied in a little box known as the Language Acquisition Device (LAD) which consists the four innate linguistic properties to name : (1) the ability to distinguish speech sounds from the other sounds in the environment ; (2) the ability to organize linguistic events into various classes which can later be refined ; (3) knowledge that only a certain kind of linguistic system is possible and that the other kinds are not ; and (4) the ability to engage in constant evaluation of the linguistic system so as to construct the simplest the possible system using the data gathered. However, acquiring of language may be affected by some physical and social factors depending on the individuals perception. As stressed by (Applebee 1947:150) Individual were also seen as possessing unique interests, styles, needs, and goals, which should be reflected in the design of method of instruction. On the other hand, this is negated by the theorist Savignon (1983:47) Writes Montaigne, Without methods, without a book, without grammar or rules, without a whip and without tears, I had learned Latin as proper as that of my schoolmaster. In addition, the latter was affirmed by (Hillgard and Bower 1966) This antistructural view can be held to represent the language learning version of a more general learning perspective usually referred to as learning by doing or t he experience approach. It is through constant practice of the language man can acquire both cognitive (grammar and rules) and behavioural (automation). In Hymes view, a person who acquires communicative competence acquires both knowledge and ability for language use with the respect to : 1. Whether (and to what degree) something is formally possible ; 2. Whether (and to what degree) something is feasible in virtue of the means of implementation available. 3. Whether (and to what degree) something is appropriate (adequate, happy, successful) in relation to the context in which it is used and evaluated ;

4. Whether (and to what degree) something is in fact done, actually performed, and what is doing entails;

(Hymes 1972:281)

Almost a decade the American military was present in the Philippines and controlled the country until after World War II (1939-1945). In this light, as early as 9th century Filipinos are engaged with English Language and prompted to speak the language because of the strict policy of the Americans to use the language as the medium of communication. In Philippine setting, a highly proficient English speaker gains respect from the community and earn a high profile identity. Moreover, the literacy of the language brings you more opportunity and opens gateway to a high paying job. On the other hand, the Philippine Education is trying to educate Filipino about the language (English) hoping that this will be of great help to the country in reaching progress.

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK It is conceived in this study that there are socio-cultural factors that influence communication arts in English. This means that such factors as ethnolinguistic affiliation, academic performance, sex, parents educational attainment, and reaction towards English as a subject influence in the speaking proficiency of fouth (4th) year students. This study uses the students ethno -linguistic affiliation, academic performance, sex, parents educational attainment and reaction towards English Oral Communication Subject as the independent variables, while speaking skills like pronunciation, fluency, and comprehensibility as dependent variables.




Schematic Diagram

Statement of the Problem This study basically aims to assess the English speaking proficiency of fourth year students of MSU-SND High School in relation to some socio-cultural variables during the school year 2012-2013. Specifically this study sought to answer these questions : 1. What is the profile of the fourth year students of MSU-SND High School in terms of: 1.1 Age 1.2 Sex 1.3 Ethno-linguistic affiliation 1.4 Mothers educational attainment 1.5 Fathers educational attainment 1.6 Academic Performance 1.7 Reaction towards English Oral Communication Subject

2. What is the level of the students English speaking proficiency in terms of: 2.1 Pronunciation 2.2 Fluency 2.3 Comprehensibility 3. Which language components in the speech process especially in vowels, consonants, stress, intonation pattern, phrasing and blending are the students most deficient? 4. Is there a significant relationship between the students proficiency and the following variables: 4.1 Age 4.2 Sex 4.3 Ethno-linguistic 4.4 Mothers educational attainment 4.5 Fathers educational attainment

4.6 Academic performance 4.7 Reaction towards English Oral Communication Subject

5. What are the common perceived problems encountered by the students inj the English Oral Communication Subject?

The Hypotheses The following were the Null Hypotheses formulated: 1. There is no significant relationship between the students age and their speaking proficiency level; 2. There is no significant relationship between their ethno-linguistics affiliation and their speaking proficiency level ; 3. There is no significant relationship between their sex and their speaking proficiency level; 4. There is no significant relationship between their mothers educational attainment and their speaking proficiency level; 5. There is no significant relationship between their fathers educational attainment and their speaking proficiency level ; 6. There is no significant level between their academic performance and their speaking proficiency. 7. There is no significant level between their reaction towards English Oral Communication subject and their speaking proficiency level.

Scope and Limitations The present investigation limits its respondents to the fourth year students of MSU-SND High School in the year 2012-2013. This study is also limited to some variables such as age, ethno-linguistic affiliatin, sex, academic performance, parents educational attainment and reaction towards English Oral Communication subject and to what extent these factors will influence the speaking proficiency in terms of pronunciation, fluency, and comprehensibility of these students.

Significance of the Study Evaluating and determining the proficiency of the learner have been parts of the educational practice. The evaluation serves as a language guide for the learners, teachers, and school administrators and finds out where they are and how far they achieved, and in what direction they need to go. This study then will prove to be beneficial among the learners, teachers and school administrators. To the learners, the findings provide them an opportuninty to size up their speaking performance. Moreover, this study gives the learners an awareness of their strengths and weaknesses through the speaking proficiency examination. Through this study, the learner will be able to recognize the value of improved speaking skill in English and be able to understand the serious concerns of the teachers in imparting the best of their abilities and knowledge. With this realization, the students will be motivated to improve their speaking skill. To the teachers, the result of this study will provide them important information which are deemed necessary in making teaching adjustments, so as to fit their teaching to their students speaking potentials and capabilities. In doing so, the teachers are able to increase their teaching effectiveness in oral instruction. To the school administrators, this study will guide them in providing a condusive teaching learning atmosphere, well suited to the learners speech needs and in instituting measures for effective teaching oral communication to students.

Definition of Terms To give the readers a better understanding of some important terms that are used in this study, the following are defined conceptually and operationally: Evaluation. It is the process of examining and judging carefully. In this study, it refers to the process of determining the respondents level of speaking proficiency. Proficiency. This is the oral test given to measure the students ability to use spoken English. Speaking Skills. This refers to the capacity to speak with comfort and accuracy in the English language. In this study, it refers only to the pronunciation, intonation skills of the respondents including phrasing and blending. Variables. This pertains to the factors that have relevant correlations or influences on the learners speaking ability. As used in this study, variables are divided into independent like age, sex, ethno-linguistic affiliation, parents educational attainment, academic performance, attitude towards oral English subject and dependent variable like pronunciation, fluency, and comprehensibility. Stress. This refers to the loudness or softness with which a vowel, dipthong or a syllable is uttered. Vowels. This pertains to the speech sounds produced with relatively little obstruction of the vocalized breath. Consonants. This refers to speech sound produced by obstructing exhalation. Blending. This pertains to combinations of final vowel sound of a word and initial consonant sound of a word as it comes in succession. Intonation. This refers to the rising and falling movement of a voice. Sex. It is the two divisions of organisms distinguished respectively as male and female. Fluency. This refers to the smoothness and effortless speech production of the respondents. Pronunciation. This pertains to the intelligibility in the speech production of the respondents.

Comprehensibility. This refers to the understandability in the speech production of the respondents.


This chapter cites a considerable number of related literatures and studies. This related literature and research findings have been taken from both local and foreign sources.

Related Literature Over the time, the world had evolved from simple to complex so as the organisms living within it. In this light, man has also evolved from its apelike ancestors over 60 million years. Furthermore, language which is the premier tool for communication has also evolved, making it broadens its complex rules for reasons of accuracy and precise effect. It is for this reason, that a speaker must consider the specific language rules for him to be communicatively competent in communication process. For example, the English language has developed its rules : (Grammar 2006) An English grammar is a body of rules specifying exactly what sequence of marks and sounds are correct in the English language. Many accurate grammar exist, each describing a dialect or some portion of a dialect; some such grammar are essentially natural, having formed overtime due to random linguistic shift, while others have been subjected to some form of conscious manipulation. In this light, suppoted such contention is that, (Gats 1949) as cited by (Berrowa 1998), who said that there is little justification for the assumption of sex difference in capabilities of school achievements. It is in content, (Kahayon and Aquino , 1999) said that studies have indicated that girls baby talk earlier and that they have a wider vocabulary than boy babies. This was negated by (Unlinger and Stephens 1960) as cited by (Berowa 1998), revealed that studying with students of high ability found that high and low achievers are not differentiated by the strength of their needs for recognition and affection but that high achievers are those who have greater expectancy of success and higher goals as far as grades are concerned. These trends are much clearer than boys rather than girls. However, social and physical environment may also affect the learner in learning the language. In this content, (Armstrong et al 1991) study the relationship

between the spoken language and teaching of reading at the University of Michigan. Their study showed that when language of school instruction is similar to the childs spoken language, learning is hindered. In addition, (Woolfolk 1987) listed verbal comprehension memory, recognition, ability to visualizw, spatial, spatial relationship, word fluency and perceptual speech as the major mental abilities as determined by heredity, called polygenetic and experience or environmental. Improved intelligence is through improved nutrition, health care and social series. The different literature showed above is of related to this present study, such ideas are in relevance to languge acquisition and language use specifically in speaking. The above mentioned literature will support the present study to elaborate the nature of language and its grounds. Moreover, it stressed that the complexity of learning language have its own different factors and that the effectiveness or weakness of the speech depends on the speakers interpretation of the language.

Related Studies Assessing the language proficiency of the students play a vital role in providing a useful and relevant information for the improvement of English education. Assessment becomes a positive force in the students language growth and development when it is in terms of what is important to them, and when it is a means which they can use for directing their studies. To give the students the opportunity to note which lacks and gaps block progress will enable them to experience acceptance of their needs as legitimate concerns for class time and effort. In this way, language learning will be facilitated and even maximized. Primarily , Harvey made an in-depth analysis of the situation of a group of eight professionalas who needed English for job-related activities. The target group was subjected to language tests, both oral and written. Written tests were aimed at evaluating reading comprehension, knowledge of basic language structures and lexis of the different specialization. To test oral-aural skills, they were asked to listen to a fifteen minute talk on professional matters, and then individual interviews were conducted and reviewed. An analysis of the test results showed significant difference within the group, especially with respect to speaking and writing skills. Nextly, Sulaiman made an assessment to students proficiency to help improve the English instruction in Indonesian schools. Her findings showed that the majority

of the students were unable to read of any textbooks prescribed at the university. The students sould not understand English magazines even after years of studying. They could produce English words but they could not understand what they are saying. The job of learning English was extremely uninteresting to them because they did not see that is produced any results. Similarly, in 1997, Dewing, Schutz and Yang conducted a survey to discover information that would be useful to foreign language for English in developing programs that would serve the Taiwan students. Through questionnaires and interviews, the survey lead to the following conclusions: a) about 40.00% indicated that in professional or occupational matters, they experienced difficulties due to lack of competence in English ; b) the four language skills were ranked in terms of need in this order : reading, listening, speaking and writing. In terms of frequency in use, listening rated higher than reading. In terms of desired command, speaking outweighed the other language skills. In speaking ability, the highest ratings were given to task of giving routine instructions for telephone conversation. For reading, text and outlines, summaries and lecture notes ranked at the top of the list ; c) sentence and vocabulary were considered both difficult and valuable aspects of learning English. Appropriate usage was the most difficult but the least important. Pronunciation and spelling ranked as the two easiest aspects. Morphology or word formation was rated fourth in difficulty but last in value. Furthermore, in a local setting, Salcedos research work on the study on the factors affecting the English proficiency of Elementary school in Cagayan de Oro City during the school year 1981-82, she found out that the proficiency of teachers in listening, reading and writing was generally average level. Low proficiency of teachers tended to be marked in the area of speaking. The factors found to have affected the teachers English proficiencies were : highest degree obtained, age, earned units in English, experience, socio-economic status and language use. Moreover, in another development, to determine the factors affecting the oral English proficiency of would-be-teachers, Chavez likewise interviewed 240 Education freshmen enrolled in the private schools in Cagayan de Oro City suring the school year 1990-91. The oral interview scored following the formula adapted from the Peace Corps Training Manual and the results were categorized into five levels : outstanding, very satisfactory, average, fair and poor. The score reveals that the Education freshmens oral English proficiency was only fair. In addition, her study

disclosed a significant relationship between the respondents oral English proficiency and the following independent variables : attitude towards English, socio-economic status, teachers traits and teachers methodology. However, frequency of language used and type of school graduated from did not influence the respondents oral English proficiency. For his study, Andamen found out that such factors as age, sex, religious affiliation did not significantly influence the level of reading comprehension and reading vocabulary of his respondents. Likewise the socio-economic status did not significantly affect the level of reading comprehension of the subjects, however, this factor significantly affected the reading vocabulary of the respondents. In another study, Disangcopan investigated the relationship of some socio-economic variables with reading achievements of the first year High school of Marawi City. She found out that age, family income, educational attainment or parent and academic achievement were related with reading ability. Lately, two recent studies o language communication were conducted. The first study was conducted by Boniao. This was on English language proficiency of college freshmen at MSU-Iligan Institute of Technology. The result of the study showed that college freshmens level of proficiency in English was similarly related to their CAT score, type of school attended in elementary and high school years and college enrolled in. Moreover, it was also found out in the same study that the students have better speaking proficiency were those from private schools, whose parents are professional and are working, who had adequate exposure to English through media and through a good language environment, who had been taught by efficient English teachers, and who have positive attitude towards English as a subject. The other study conducted by Dela Pea III entitled, Factors associated with academic Performance of AB freshmen MSU-IIT : Proposed Language Instructional Program. His study revealed that sex, language performance and academic lead did correlate with academic performance. The different studies reviwed above are in one way or the other related to the present study, since the methodology of the mentioned studies is more or less similar. In addition, the reviewed studies employed almost the same socio-economic variables and how these variables influenced the skill formation among the students. Moreover, some of the studies, specifically the foreign ones were geared towards assessing the

four language skills. However, present investigation focuses on evaluating only one of the four language skills the speaking skill.


This chapter presents the method and procedure followed in gathering the data needed to answer the problems and to test the various hypotheses. Particularly, the discussion focused on the following: a.) setting of the study, b.) research design to be used, c.) the respondents, d.) research instruments to be used.

Setting of the Study The setting of the present study is in Mindanao State University, Sultan Naga Dimaporo, Lanao del Norte. Sultan Naga Dimaporo is situated at the tip of the province of Lanao del Norte along Illana Bay. It is nestled amidst the north, Kapatagan on the west, and the province of Zamboanga del Sur in the southern portion of the municipality. Various barangays of Sultan Naga Dimaporo are over looking Illana Bay. This municipality has a total land area of 23, 090.74 hectares. It has a very fertile soil suitable for agricultural development. Being an agricultural community, the economy of the municipality is largely dependent on agriculture. Considering its potential area devoted to different agricultural production areas, it is capable of producing large volumes of agriculture products such as rice, corn, and others. Fishing is one of the major occupations of the people in the area notably because of the presence of Illana Bay, which is considered as the fishing ground in Central Mindanao because of the famous tuna fish and their allied species. There are no major industries in the area except the trading of agricultural products such as copra, rice, corn, and others. Fourteen elementary (14) and (18) primary schools serve the municipality of Sultan Naga Dimaporo. The other schools are Lanao Norte Agricultural College in Ramain, Sultan Naga Dimaporo. Tertiary education is provided by Lanao Norte Agricultural College, the only agricultural school in the province of Lanao del Norte. The Mindanao State University Sultan Naga Dimaporo High School is the only high school located in Sultan Naga Dimaporo. It has a total land area of 58,000 sq. M. Research Design Used

The descriptive survey method of research was used in this study in as much as it involves description, analysis and interpretation of the existing conditions. This study attempts to find out the extent of correlation or influence of the independent variables on the respondents speaking skills in English. The Respondents The respondents of this study were the fourth year students of Mindanao State University-Sultan Naga Dimaporo High School, enrolled in the school year 20122013. As of this school year, MSU-SND has a total of more or less than 140 enrolles in fourth year. Research Instrument Used There are two instruments used in the data gathering of this study. The first is the questionnaire. This was used to elicit information regarding the perceived problems encountered by the students in oral English and socio-cultural characteristics of the respondents. The second is the speaking proficiency examination. This was used to assess the speaking skills of the respondents. This is a ten minute oral production test and requires the examinee to read the passage aloud. The passage was entitled The Pine and the Bamboo. This has been modified to include words with other critical vowel and consonant sound such as /I/ , /e/ , //, /o/ , /u/ , //, /F/, /p/, /t/ and // and statements with the rising intonation pattern. Validation of Instruments In determining how much time was to be spent in answering the question and to thresh out the problems in understanding the items, the questionnaire from the twenty students from the try-out section, the modified copy was then showed to the researchers adviser for comments and suggestions. Moreover, the speaking proficiency tests are subjected to a try-out to determine the validity and the plausibility of the options. Prior to the try-out, copies of the speaking test will be shown to the researchers adviser with more or less than ten years of experience in teaching English , her comments and suggestions will be carefully consider in making the instruments for the try-out. The test will be administered to the same group of twenty (20) students who answered the

questionnaire. Furthermore, the validity of the coefficients was determined by establishing the inter-correlations between the questionnaire score items correlate with the speaking proficiency score, wherein the inter-correlations of the items range from 0.53 to 0.73. These values are interpreted to very high correlations, thus the test is valid.