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The term personality is derived form the term persona :the mask used in makeup by actors in the roman theatre .In that setting the mask led the audience to expect a consistent pattern of behavior from the person enacting a particular role The initial conception of personality was that of a superficial social image that an individual adopts in playing life roles, a “public personality” that people project toward those around them. This view coincides with that of the contemporary layperson who equates personality with charm ,social poise,popularity,physical attractiveness, and a host of other socially desirable characteristics. Such a conception is generally outside the ralm of scientific psychology because it limits the number and kinds of behavior deemed worthy of inclusion in the study of personality.
Psychologist Walter Mischel(1976) wrote personality consists of the distinctive patterns of behavior (including thoughts and emotions) that characterize each individual’s adaptation to the situations of his or her life. Allport(1937)proposed a precise definition of personality which he subsequently revised to read as follows:”Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his characteristic behavior and thought” The phrase “dynamic organization” suggests that human behavior is constantly evolving and changing; a person is not a static entity in Allport’s theory, although there is an underlying structure that integrates and organizes the various elements of personality. The reference to “psychophysical systems” reminds us that both “mind” and “body” elements must be considered when describing and studying personality. The inclusion of the term “determine” is a logical consequence of Allport’s psychophysical orientation. Basically, the implication is that personality is comprised of “determining tendencies” which, when aroused by appropriate stimuli, give rise to actions through which the individual’s true nature is revealed. The word “characteristic” in Allport’s definition simply highlights the paramount importance that he attached to to the uniqueness in the single person. No two people are alike in this personological system. Finally ,the phrase “behavior and thought” is a blanket designed to cover everything the person does.Allport believed that personality expresses itself in some way in virtually all observable human actions. • Personality represents those distinct qualities that make one person stand out from all others • Personality represents an evolving process subject to a variety of internal and external influences, including genetic and biological propensities, social experiences and changing environmental circumstances
Most definitions construe personality as representing those characteristics of the person that account for consistent patterns of behavior
Theories of Personality
A theory is a set of interrelated ideas, constructs and principles proposed to explain certain observations of reality. A theory is always speculative in nature and therefore, strictly speaking, cannot be “right” or “wrong”. However a theory is generally accepted as valid or credible by the scientific community to the extent that factual observations of phenomena (usually based on data derived from formal experiments)are consistent with the explanation of the same [phenomena offered by a theory. Personality theories are actually elaborate speculation or hypotheses about what people are like, how the become that way, and why they behave as they do.
THE PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORY
The term “psychodynamic” refers to the incessant struggle among various aspects of personality .As such ,psychonanalytic theory exemplifies a psychodynamic perspective in that it gives a prominent role to the complex interplay among processes of personality that compete or wrestle with each other for control over the person’s behavior. The theory was founded by Sigmund Freud in Germany Levels of Consciousness: The Topographical Model. Freud employed a topographical model of Personality organization. According to this model, psychic life can be represents by three levels of consciousness-the conscious, the preconscious and the unconscious 1)The conscious level consists of whatever sensations and experiences you are aware of at a given moment in time. Freud insisted that only a small part of mental life(thoughts, perceptions, feelings, memories) is contained in the realm of consciousness. 2)The preconscious level encompasses all experiences that are not conscious at the moment but which can easily be retrieved into awareness either spontaneously or with a minimum of effort. In Freud’s view the preconscious bridges the conscious and unconscious regions of the mind 3)The unconscious level is the storehouse for primitive instinctual drives plus emotions and memories that are so threatening to the conscious mind that they have been repressed, or unconsciously pushed into the unconscious mind. For Freud, such unconscious material is responsible for everyday behavior The Anatomy of Personality Structure During the early 1920’s Freud revised his conceptual model of mental life and introduced 3 basic structures: 1)Id-It refers exclusively to the primitive, instinctive and inherited aspects of personality. The id functions entirely in the unconscious and is closely tied to instinctual biological urges (eat ,sleep, defecate)that energize our behavior .The id
obeys the pleasure principle i.e. Immediate tension reduction thereby manifesting itself in an impulsive, irrational and narcissistic manner regardless of the consequences. Freud identified two mechanisms the id employs to rid the personality of tension a)Reflex Actions-The id responds automatically to sources of irritation, thereby promptly removing tension which the irritant elicits b)Primary Processes-The id forms a mental image of an object previously associated with satisfaction of a basic need. 2)The Ego-The ego is the decision making component of the psychic apparatus that seeks to express and gratify the desires of the id in accordance with the constraints imposed by the outside world. It must continuously differentiate between things in the mind and things in the outer world of reality. It obeys the Reality Principle, the aim of which is to preserve the integrity by suspending instinctual gratification until either an appropriate outlet or environmental condition that will satisfy the need is found. This enables the individual to inhibit , redirect, or gradually release the id’s raw energy within bounds of social restrictions and the individual’s conscience. Through secondary processes, the ego is able to establish appropriate courses of action to satisfy instinctual needs without endangering the safety of the individual and/or others. 3)The Superego In order for a person to function effectively in society, he must acquire a system of values, norms ,and ethics that are reasonably compatible with that society. These are acquired through the process of “socialization” and in terms of the structural model of psychoanalysis, are developed through the formation of a superego. Freud divided the superego into two subsystems a)The conscience-is acquired through the use of punishment by the parents. It is concerned with things that parents say are “naughty” behaviour and for which the child is reprimanded. It includes the capacity for punitive self-evaluation ,moral prohibitions,and guilt feelings b)The Ego Ideal-is the rewarding aspect of the superego is the ego-ideal. It is derived from whatever the parents approve or value and leads the individual to pursue standards of excellence which, if achieved, generate a sense of self-esteem and pride. Instincts Freud depicted human motivation as based entirely on energy aroused from body’s tissue needs. In Freudian theory ,mental representations of these bodily excitations reflected in the form of wishes are termed instincts. Instincts are therefore innate bodily states of excitation that seek expression and tension release Freud recognized the existence of two basic groups of them-life and death instincts. Eros-or life instinct includes all those forces that serve to maintain vital life processes and ensure the propagation of the species Thanatos-or death instinct underlies all the manifestations of cruelty ,aggression, suicide, and murder
All instincts have 4 features: a)Source-The bodily condition or need from which it arises b)Aim-The aim of an instinct is always to abolish or reduce the excitation deriving fro its need c)An object-refers to any person or thing in the environment or within the individual’s own body that provides the satisfaction of an instinct d)An impetus-refers to the magnitude of energy,force,or pressure that is used to satisfy or gratify the instinct . Personality Development: The Psychosexual stages Freud hypothesized a series of 5 sequential stages of personality development:oral,anal,phallic and genital. A period of latency ,normally occurred between the ages of 6 or 7 and the onset of puberty, was included by Freud in the overall scheme of development, but technically speaking, it is not a stage. All the stages are closely associated with erogenous zones, sensitive areas of the body surface that function as sites for the expression of libidinal urges. The term psychosexual emphasizes that the major factor underlying human development is the sexual instinct as it progresses from one erogenous zone to another over the course of a person’s life. according to this theory, at any particular point in the developmental sequence some region of the body seeks objects or activities to produce pleasurable tension. The table below summarizes the stages of psychosexual development identified by Freud.
STAGE AGE RANGE LIBIDINAL FOCUS DEVELOPMENTAL TASKS
ORAL ANAL PHALLIC
0-18 MONTHS 1.5-3 YRS 3-6 YRS
LATENCY 6-12 YRS GENITAL PUBERTY ONWARD
Mouth(sucking, biting, Weaning(from breast or chewing) bottle).Separation from mothering one Anus(retaining or exp Toilet training(self control) elling faeces) Genitals(masturbating) Identifying with same-sex adult role model None(sexually Expanding social/peer dormant) contacts Genitals(becoming Establishing caring heterosexually relationships; contributing intimate) to society through work
The logic of this formulation was explained by Freud in terms of 2 factors frustration and overindulgence. In the case of frustration, the child’s psychosexual needs are thwarted by the mothering one and thus fail to be optimally gratified. In overindulgence, the parents provide little or no incentive for the child to master internal functions. He also introduced the concept of regression i.e. reverting to an earlier stage of psychosexual development and displaying the childish behavior appropriate to that period.
ANXIETY Anxiety is an ego function which alerts the person to sources of impending danger that must be counteracted or avoided. As such, anxiety enables the person to react to threatening situations in an adaptive way(Freud,1926) Types of Anxiety Based on the sources of threat to the ego(the outside environment, the id, and the superego),psychoanalytic theory identifies 3 types of anxiety. a)Realistic Anxiety-The emotional response to threat and perception of real dangers in the external world(e.g. dangerous animals) b)Neurotic Anxiety-An emotional response to the threat that unacceptable id impulses will become conscious is called neurotic anxiety. c)Moral Anxiety-When the ego is threatened by punishment from the superego,the ensuing emotional response is called moral anxiety. EGO DEFENSE MECHANISMS The major psychodynamic functions of anxiety are to help the person avoid conscious recognition of unacceptable instinctual impulses and to allow impulse gratification in appropriate ways at appropriate times. Ego defense mechanisms help to carry out these functions as well as to protect the person from overwhelming anxiety. Some principal defense strategies are reviewed below. Repression-It is the process of excluding distressing thoughts and feelings from consciousness. As a result. repressing individuals are neither aware of their own anxiety-provoking conflicts nor do they remember emotionally traumatic past events Projection-the process by which the person attributes unacceptable internal thoughts, feelings and behaviors to other people or to the environment. Projection thus enables a person to blame someone or something else for his or her own shortcomings. Displacement-The expression of an instinctual impulse is redirected from a more threatening person or object to a less threatening one Rationalization-It refers to “fallacious reasoning” in that it misinterprets irrational behavior in order to make it appear rational and thus justifiable to oneself and others. Reaction Formation-Sometimes the ego can guard against a forbidden impulse by expressing its opposite on both thought and behavior. Regression-This involves reverting to immature and childlike patterns of behavior. It is a way of alleviating anxiety by retreating to an earlier period of life that was more secure and pleasant.
Sublimation-It enables the person adaptively to divert impulses so that they may be expressed via socially approved thoughts or actions. Denial-When someone refuses to acknowledge that an unpleasant event has occurred, he or she is engaging in denial. Evaluation Criticism 1)Method of Data Collection-Freud used observation of his own patient .No controlled experiments. His patients did not represent the general population 2)Criticism for definition of terms. Freud’s concepts were difficult to be operationally defined such as quantifying psychic energy,Oedipus-electracomplex 3)The validity of the interpretation of Latent symbols of dreams was also questioned 4)Overemphasis on sex-Many of Freud’s colleagues and pupil’s criticized over emphasis on sex as a motive for Human Behavior .For them to see sexual motivation was extreme and unnecessary .For the personality theories can be explained, just as well by employing motives(other than sexual ones). 5)Dogmatism-Freud saw himself as the leader of psychoanalytic movement and would not tolerate ideas that conflicted with his own. 6)The length, cost and limited effectiveness of psychoanalysis. Since it takes years to complete and not available to most troubled people. Only affluent people could participate ,only reasonably intelligent would benefit because patients need to be able to articulate their inner experiences and also understand the analysts interpretation of those experiments Contributions 1)Expansion of Psychology’s domain-His was the 1st comprehensive theory of personality wherein he extended psychology’s domain by studying the relationship among unconscious motivations, dreams and anxiety 2)Freud made much of normal behavior, comprehensible. Understanding of such day to day phenomena as dreams, forgetfulness, slip of tongue mistakes, ego defense mechanisms was made possible. 3)It helped to demystify mental disorders by arguing that they have their roots in the same processes as normal behavior. It established a continuum ranging from adaptive to maladaptive, rather than two extremes of sick and healthy.
4)Popular projective test are interpreted to the Freudian notion that what the person reads into a picture is actually a reading of his own psyche POST- FREUDIAN DEVELOPMENT Subsequent theorists called Neo-Freudians have given attention to social determinants, and conscious reality. The theories developed in this period are characterized by less prominent roles to sexual and aggressive tendencies of Id and expansion of the concept of ego. Carl Jung Jung developed the concept of analytical psychology. He claimed that there is a collective unconscious also. Its contents are archetypes or primordial images. They are due to heredity. Some examples of archetypes include God, The mother Earth and the young potent hero et al. Jung proposed that the human psyche includes conscious as well as a covert or shadow aspect, that is unconscious. An individual’s personal growth involves an unfolding of this shadow and its gradual integration with the rest of the personality into a meaningful coherent life pattern. Alfred Adler In his theory known as individual psychology Adler believed that behavior is purposeful and goal directed. He thought that everyone of us has the capacity to choose and create. Our goals are the sources of motivation. The goals that provide security and help to overcome inferiority complex or feelings of inadequacy that are from childhood. Karen Horney She argued that the differences between females and males were largely the results of social factors, not because of any innate inferiority among the females. According to her each sex has attributes admired by the other and neither should be viewed as superior or inferior. The psychological disorders were not caused by the fixation of psychic energy but from disturbed interpersonal relationship during childhood. When parents behavior towards a child is indifferent, disparaging and erratic, the child feels insecure-a feeling termed by Horney as basic anxiety. Deep resentment toward parents or basic hostility occurs due to basic anxiety. Deep resentment toward parents or basic hostility occurs due to basic anxiety. The parents generate feelings of isolation and helplessness in their children that interfere with healthy development by showing indifference, or by providing too much approval and admiration or too little. These styles are described as moving toward people, moving against people and moving away from people. These patterns led to unhappiness. Only by overcoming them through appropriate therapy can recover the person. The theoretical developments and psychoanalysis are still taking place
Erik Erikson He offered a framework to understand the needs of people in relation to society in which they grow, learn and later make their contributions. He argued that development occurs throughout the life span. Erikson’s theory has 8 stages of development which are as given in the table Stage Age Crisis Adequate Inadequate Successful Resolution Resolution development leads to 1 0 to 1.5 Trust v/s Basic sense of Insecurity, Hope years Mistrust safety, security, anxiety Ability to rely on forces outside self 2 1.5 to 3 Autonomy Perception of self as Feelings of Willpower years v/s shame agent; capable of inadequacy and doubt controlling one’s about selfown body and control, control making things of events happen 3 3 to 6 years Initiative Confidence in Feeling of lack Purpose v/s Guilt oneself as being of self worth able to initiate and create 4 6 years to Industry v/s Adequacy in basic Lack of self Competence puberty Inferiority social and confidence, intellectual skills; feelings of acceptance by peers failure 5 Adolescence Identity Comfortable sense Sense of self Fidelity v/s of self as a person as role both unique and fragmented confusion socially accepted ,shifting ,unclear sense of self 6 Early Intimacy Capacity for Feeling of Love childhood v/s closeness and aloneness, Isolation commitment to loneliness, others separation, denial of intimacy needs 7 Middle Generativity Focus of concern Self-Indulgent Care Adulthood v/s beyond oneself, to concerns; lack Stagnation family,society,future of future generations orientation 8 Late Integrity v/s Sense of Feelings of Wisdom Adulthood Despair wholeness,basic futility,
satisfaction with life
Erikson considered each stage as involving a crisis. He viewed development as a lifelong process. In this process ego identity is central. His concept of identity crisis of adolescent has drawn considerable attention. Erikson believed that “human personality in principle develops according to steps pre-determined in the growing person’s readiness to be driven toward, to be aware of, and to interact with a widening social radius”. Thus young people must generate for themselves some central perspective and direction that gives them a meaningful sense of unity and purpose
THE DISPOSITIONAL PERSPECTIVE
Many personologists have emphasized the understanding of personality in terms of the dispositional qualities or tendencies that reside within the individual. Gordon Allport, one of the most influential advocates of the dispositional perspective believed that each person is unique and that person’s uniqueness an best be captured by specifying his or her particular personality traits. Allport (1937) proposed a precise definition of personality which read as follows;” Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his characteristic behavior and thought” The dispositional approach to personality asserts that no two people are completely alike. Any one person behaves in a consistent and different fashion for all others Allport’s explanation for this is found in his concept of trait which he regarded as the most valid ”unit of analysis” for representing what people are like and how they differ fro one another behaviorally”
Traits Allport defined a trait as a “neuro-psychic structure having the capacity to render many stimuli functionally equivalent ,and to initiate and guide equivalent(meaningfully consistent) forms of adaptive and expressive behavior” Allport’s theory predicts that a person’s behavior ids relatively stable over time and across situations. Traits are psychological entities that render many stimuli as well as many responses equivalent .Many stimuli may evoke the same response, or many responses (feelings, perceptions, interpretations, actions) have the same functional meaning in terms of the trait. For Allport, Traits are not linked to a small number of specific stimuli or responses rather they are relatively generalized and enduring. By uniting responses to numerous stimuli, traits produce fairly broad consistencies in behavior. a trait is what accounts for the more permanent ,enduring ,trans-situational features of our behavior. It is a vital ingredient of our “personality structure”
Common traits versus Individual Traits Allport(1937)distinguished between common traits and individual traits. The logic for assuming the existence of common traits is that members of a culture are subject to similar evolutionary and social influences;therefore,they develop roughly comparable models of adjustment. For example, proficiency in the use of language, political and/or social attitudes etc. Individual Traits on the other hand designate those characteristics peculiar to the person that do not permit comparisons among people. It is these ‘genuine and neuropyschic units that guide, direct and motivate specific acts of adjustment”. Allport came to realize that using the terms common traits and individual traits was quite confusing. He therefore revised his terminology and called individual traits as personal dispositions. Common traits were simply termed as traits. He proposed 3 types of personal dispositions: Cardinal Dispositions A cardinal disposition is one that is so pervasive that almost everything a person does can be traced to its influence. This highly generalized disposition cannot remain hidden unless it is a trait such as seclusiveness, where its possessor might become a hermit whose dispositions would be known to no one Central dispositions Less pervasive but still quite generalized characteristics of the person are called central dispositions-the so called building blocks of personality. As such they represent those tendencies n the person’s behavior that others can readily discern. Secondary Dispositions Traits that are less conspicuous, less generalized, less consistent and thus less relevant to the definition of personality are called secondary dispositions. food and clothing preferences, specific attitudes and situatonally determined characteristics of the person would be classified under this rubric. Evalauation Criticisms 1) With exception of the field of expressive behavior, this theory has not been an efficient generator of propositions for empirical test 2 Many psychologists feel that one reason the theory has difficulty in making predictions is that the concept of functional autonomy is not susceptible to empirical demonstration. 3.Allport provides no adequate account of the process or mechanism underlying functional autonomy. He tells us that the phenomenon takes place but provides no satisfactory explanation of how or why it takes place. 4.Allport’s assumption of partial discontinuity between normal and abnormal, between infant and adult and between animal and human..
5.The theory’s inability to specify a set of dimensions to be used in studying personality Contributions 1 Allport’s emphasis upon active ego functions and the concept of functional autonomy are highly congruent with recent developments in psychoanalytic ego psychology 2 Its plentiful novel features must have consequences for future developments in psychological theorizing 3 His emphasis upon the importance of conscious determinants of behavior and his advocacy of direct methods of assessing human motivation 4 Allports represents one of the few theorists who provides an effective bridge between academic psychology and its traditions on the one hand and the rapidly developing field of clinical and personality psychology on the other hand. RAYMOND CATTELL:A Trait Theory of Personality. Cattell’s theory seeks to explain the complicated transactions between the personality system and the more inclusive sociocultural matrix of the functioning organism. He is convinced that an adequate theory of personality must take into account the multiple traits that comprise the personality, the extent to which these traits are genetically and environmentally determined. According to Cattell(1965),personality is that which permits us to predict what a person will do in a given situation. He classified traits into several ways: 1)Surface Traits v/s Source Traits A surface trait is represented by a set of behavioral characteristics that all seem to “hang” together Source Traits on the other hand represent the unitary dimensions or factors that ultimately determine the consistencies in each person’s observed behavior. They exist at a deeper level of the personality. 2)Constitutional v/s Environmental –Mold traits Constitutional Traits derive from the biological and physiological conditions of the person. for example, recovery from cocaine addiction may cause a person to be momentarily irritable, depressed and anxious. Environmental-Mold Traits, on the other hand are determined by influences in the social and physical environment. These traits reflect learned characteristics and styles of behaving and form a pattern that is imprinted on the personality by the individual’s environment. 3)Ability,Temperament and Dynamic Traits Ability traits determine the person’s skill and effectiveness in pursuing a desired goal examples include intelligence ‘musical aptitude and hand-eye coordination. Temperament traits relate to other emotional and stylistic qualities of behavior examples include people may respond to a task either calmly or hysterically.
Dynamic traits reflect the motivational elements of human behavior. These are traits that activate and direct the person towards particular goals. 4)Common v/s Unique Traits A common trait is one that is shared in varying degress by all members of the same culture. Unique traits in contrast are those shared by few or perhaps no other people.They are specially evident in interests and attitudes. Evaluation Criticism 1)Cattell’s theory has been overlooked by many personality psychologists and is virtually unknown among the general public 2)Cattell’s work is couched in technical language and thus difficult to understand. 3)Specific criticisms directed at his heavy reliance on factor analysis and the subjectivity involved in naming or interpreting the source traits derived from this statistical method. Contribution 1)His research touched almost every issue in personality theory 2)His efforts to construct a theory based on precise measurement techniques 3)It generated a lot of empirical research and data. HANS EYESENCK:A Trait-Type Theory of Personality The essence of Eyesenck’s theory is that the elements of personality can be arranged hierarchically. In this scheme, certain supertraits or types, such as extraversion, exert a powerful influence over behavior. In turn he sees each of these supertraits as being comprised of several component traits. The component traits either are more superficial reflections of the underlying type dimension or are specific qualities that contribute to that dimension. Finally traits are composed of numerous habitual responses, which, in turn are derived from a multitude of specific responses.
Basic personality types Eyesenck(1947,1952) found two basic type dimensions that he labeled as introversionextraversion and neuroticism-stability
Contribution 1)He is regarded by many psychologists as a first-rate scholar who is highly creative in his attempts to establish a scientific model of personality structure and functioning.
2)He stressed the need for rigorous measurement as the cornerstone for constructing a sound theory of personality.
THE LEARNING-BEHAVIORAL PERSPECTIVE IN PERSONALITY THEORY Personality from the learning perspective consists of all the tendencies a person has acquired over the course of a lifetime. The learning-behavioral approach thus concerns itself with the person’s overt actions as determined by his/her life experiences. B.F.Skinner formulated this approach to studying personality which involves the discovery of the unique pattern of relationships between the behavior of an organism and its reinforcing consequences Classical conditioning Ivan Pavlov through his famous experiment discovered that if a previously neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with the UCS(unconditioned stimulus),eventually the neutral stimulus acquires the capacity to elicit UCR(unconditioned response) when it is presented alone without the UCS. PHASE OPERATIONS TECHNICAL TERMS Pre-Experimantal 1.Dog in harness on several Habituation occasion 2.Exposure to bellsound(initially neutral stimulus) 3.One end of a tube grafted in a dog’s jaw and the other in a glass jar Experimental Trial Trial1:Paired representation Neutral stimulus of sound bell followed by ---Unconditioned food and saliva secretion. stimulus(US) Trial 2: US-Unconditioned Response(UR) Trial 3: “ Conditioning or acquisition trials Presentation of sound of Conditioned Stimulus(CS) bell only and measurement -conditioned of saliva secreted Reponse(CR) “
Respondent behavior is skinner’s version of Pavlovian or classical conditioning. He also called it Type S conditioning to stress the significance of the stimulus that comes before and elicits the response.
Operant conditioning This type of conditioning was first investigated by B.F. Skinner. Operants are those behaviors or responses which are emitted by animals and human beings voluntarily and are under their control. Skinner called it as ‘Type R conditioning. That is, a behavior is followed by a consequence and the nature of the consequence modifies the organism’s tendency to repeat the behavior in future .If the consequences are favorable for the organism, then the likelihood of the operant being emitted again in the future is thereby increased. when this happens, the consequence is said to be reinforcing and the operant response which has been affected by the reinforcement has been conditioned. This is termed as positive reinforcement Alternatively. if response outcomes are unfavorable then the likelihood of the operant occurring again has decreased. This is called a s negative reinforcement Schedules of Reinforcement The essence of operant conditioning relies on the fact that reinforced behavior tends to be repeated, whereas behavior that is non-reinforced or punished tends not to be repeated or is extinguished. The rate at which a behavior is acquired and maintained is a function of the schedule of reinforcement employed. A schedule of reinforcement is a rule stating the contingencies under which the reinforcements will be presented .the following our basic schedules of reinforcement have attracted the most attention a)Fixed ratio reinforcement schedule):In a fixed-ratio schedule, the organism is reinforced following a predetermined or ‘fixed’ number of appropriate responses. b)Fixed-interval reinforcement schedule: The organism is reinforced after a set or ‘fixed ‘ interval has elapsed since the previous reinforcement. c)Variabe-ratio reinforcement schedule: The organism is reinforced on the basis of some predetermined average number of responses d)Variable-interval reinforcement schedule: The organism is reinforced on this schedule after a variable time-interval has elapsed Controlling behavior through aversive stimuli Punishment-Punishment refers to any aversive stimulus or event whose presentation follows and depends on the occurrence f some operant response. Instead of strengthening the response it follows, punishment decreases the probability that the response will occur. the intended purpose of punishment is to induce people not to behave in certain ways. Negative Reinforcement-It is the process whereby the organism terminates. escapes or avoids an aversive stimulus .Any behavior that prevents an aversive state of affairs thereby tends to increase in frequency and is said to be negatively reinforced.
Stimulus Generalization and Discrimination In Skinner’s system, the tendency of reinforced behavior to extend to a variety of related settings is called stimulus generalization. Behavior strengthened in one situation is likely to recur when the organism encounters other situations that resemble the original one. Stimulus discrimination, the opposite of generalization is the process of learning how to repond appropriately in various environmental settings. Discrimination is acquired through through reinforcement of response in the presence of some stimuli and nonreinforcemnt of them in the presence of other stimuli. Evaluation Criticisms 1)An adequate understanding of human behavior must involve more than a slavish application of the experimental methods of physical science 2)The investigation underlying this theory have been carried out on animal species that is phylogenetically far removed from and manifestly different in many crucial aspects from the human species. 3)They do not provide adequate prior specification of stimulus and response. Learning theorists have been occupied with the process of learning and have not attempted to identify the stimuli occurring in the natural environment 4)The theory is too simple and molecular-Very little of the context of human behavior is seen that one cannot hope to understand or predict human behavior adequately. 5)The S-R theorists neglected language and thought processes and their concepts are inadequate to explain the acquisition and development of these complex cognitive functions. Contributions 1)The biggest contribution is in the careful detail with which this position represents the learning process. S-R theory provides a model to be emulated by other theoretical positions 2)The S-R theorists have a better sense of the nature and function of the theory in any empirical discipline than any other group of personality theorists. 3)This theory has been applied by cultural anthropologists more widely than any other theory of personality except psychoanalysis.
THE HUMANISTIC PERSPECTIVE IN PERSONALITY Humanistic psychology offers a radically different picture of our species. Personologists claim that human beings are intrinsically good and self –perfecting. According to this view, it is human nature to move consistently in the direction of personal growth,
creativity and self-sufficiency ,unless there are extremely strong environmental conditions to the contrary .
Abraham Maslow Abraham maslow is generally acknowledged as the foremost spokesperson for humanistic personality theory.Maslow believed that people are motivated to seek personal goals that make their lives rewarding and meaningful.As one general type of need is satisfied ,another surface s and commands the person’s attention and efforts.He proposed that all human needs are innate and that they are systematically arranged in an asending hierarchy of priority.
Underlying this scheme is the assumption that lower-order needs ,prepotent needs must be relatively satisfied before the person can be aware of or motivated y higher order needs. Gratification of needs lower in the hierarchy allows for awareness of and motivation by needs higher in the hierarchy.
1)Physiological Needs-They are directly concerned with the biological maintenance of the person and must be gratified at some minimal level before the next higher order need attains importance . 2)Safety and Security Needs-Included here are the needs for structure, stability, law and order, predictability freedom from such threatening forces as illness, fear and chaos. Thus these needs reflect concern about long-term survival. 3)Belongingness and Love Needs-The person operating at this level longs for affectionate relationships with others, or a place in his/her family and reference groups. Accordingly a person will feel keenly the pangs of loneliness, social ostracism, friendlessness and rejection. 4)Self –Esteem Needs-Maslow divided these into 2 basic types: self-respect and respect form others. The former includes concerns as desire for competence, confidence, achievement, independence and freedom. A person needs to know that he or she s worthwhile-capable of mastering tasks and challenges in life. Respect for others entails such concerns as desire for prestige, recognition, reputation, status, appreciation and acceptance. In this case the person needs to know that what he or she can do is recognized and valued by significant others. 5)Self-Actualization Needs-Maslow characterized self-actualization as the person’s desire to become everything that he or she is capable of becoming. the person who has achieved this highest level presses toward the full use and exploitation of his or her talents, capacities and potentialities. In short, to self-actualise is to become the kind of person who we are capable of becoming –to reach the peak of our potential. Evaluation Criticism 1)Too many exceptions-Too many people seem to be highly productive and creative even though their basic needs do not seem to have been satisfied. Although Maslow noted such exception, he did little to account for them. 2)Unscientific Approach-Maslow has been accused of using uncontrolled and unreliable research techniques, basing his conclusions about self actualizing people on a small sample of people accepting a valid the conscious self-reports of his subjects. 3)Several unanswered questions-For example; who can become self-actualized? Most of Maslow’s subjects were highly intelligent and financially successful. 4)His methodology was not considered as a good science by many people and psychologists. Contribution 1)It vastly increased psychology’s domain by starting the study on healthy humans
2)Maslow’s theory has been highly influential in the areas of education, business, religion and child rearing.
Carl Roger’s Self Theory The most important idea proposed by Rogers is that of fully functioning person. People want to become such persons and move in this direction. Such persons are sensitive to the needs and rights of others ,but do not allow society’s standards to shape their feelings or actions to an excessive degree. Their actions become increasingly constructive. They always remain in touch with their own values and feelings and experience life more deeply. It is clear, however, that everybody does not get success. When life experiences are inconsistent with our ideas about us we experience anxiety .A gap between selfconcept and reality is the main cause of maladjustment .Rogers believed that one’s mental health is related to the degree of congruence or match between our self-concept and life experiences. If our self-concept is consistent with actual life-experiences, we ourselves will be congruent and we will be well adjusted. The opposite is true when there is little or no overlap between the two. Thus, we learn that significant others will approve of us only when we behave in certain ways and express certain feelings. This situation needs creation of an atmosphere of unconditional positive regard. Thus, a person is accepted irrespective of what they say or do. Such a condition is created in a clientcentered therapy. CONGRUENCE in a well-adjusted individual
INCONGRUENCE in a poorly adjusted individual
Evaluation Criticism 1)Overly simplistic and optimistic approach. Real people, say critics, experience hate as much as love and are often motivated by sexual desires. 2)Failure to credit those who have influenced his theory. Although Rogers did acknowledge the influence of Adler on his early thinking about the therapeutic process, he said essentially nothing about the influence of Horney or Allport 3)Important aspects of Personality ignored or denied. Rogers essentially dismissed the darker side of human nature. He also said very little about the development of personality. Contributions 1)Alternative, Positive view of humans, Rogers helped to illuminate a facet of human nature that was previously obscure. 2)It is a new form of therapy. The reasons for popularity of Rogers theory: a)It is effective b)The approach does not require long tedious training that psychoanalysis does c)It is positive and optimistic 3)Applied Value-Rogers person-centered psychology has been applied in such diverse areas as religion,nursing,dentistry etc.
ASSESSMENT OF PERSONALITY
A pervasive theme in the study of personality is individual differences in behavior and experience. Personolgists deal with two related concepts. First they are interested in describing the host of ways in which people are different. Second, personologists are interested in developing ways of measuring individual differences. This concern is evidenced by an equally imposing array of psychological tests that personlogists have used to determine the individual’s distinctive qualities,including thoughts,feelings and motivations. Testing and Measurement Concepts In particular assessment techniques must meet 4 essential criteria before they can be considered as scientific tools of measurement of people’s enduring qualities. These criteria are as follows:
1)Standardization-This concept refers to the uniform procedures that are followed in the administration and scoring of an assessment tool. It also involves information about the conditions under which the assessment test should or should not be given, who should or should not take the test(sample group),specific procedures for scoring the test and the interpretive significance of the scores. 2)Norms-The standardization of a personality assessment test includes information concerning whether a particular”raw score”ranks low,high, or average relative to other “raw scores” on the test.Such information, called test norms, provides standards with which the scores of various individuals who take the test later can be compared. 3)Reliability-It refers to the consistency or stability of an assessment technique, when given to the same group of people on two different occasions. This kind of reliability is termed test-retest reliability.To determine test-retest reliability, the scores from the first administration are correlated with those of the second by a simple correlation procedure.The magnitude of the resulting correlation coefficient gives us an estimate of the test’s consistency over time.A second kind of reliability is determined by splitting the test into 2 sets(e.g.,odd-numbered items versus even-numbered items),summing people’s scores for each set,and correlating the two sets summed scores with each other.The correlation between these sets is termed split-half reliability and reflects the test’s internal consistency.A 3rd type of reliability is based on the correlation of 2 versions of the same test administered to the same group of individuals.If the scores on these different forms are about the same,the test yields reliability of parallel forms.Finally,reliability also applies to the degree of agreement between two or more judges in scoring the same assessment test.This is called interscorer reliability and must be demonstrated whenever scoring involves subjective interpretations,such as those made by personologists examining projective data 4)Validity-Whether or not a test measures what it is intended to measure or predicts what it is supposed to predict. Psychologists frequently distinguish among 3 kinds of validity: a)Content Validity-To be considered valid,an assessment device must include items whose contents are representative of the entire domain or dimension it purports to measure b)Criterion –Related Validity-The extent to which a test accurately forecasts some agreed upon criterion measure is determined by correlating subjects scores on the test with their scores on the independently measured criterion.There are 2 subtypes of criterion related validity.The 1st is called predictive validity and involves determing the capacity of a test to predict some criterion in the future. The 2nd is called concurrent validity and involves determining the extent to which a test correlates significantly with another currently existing criterion measure. c)Construct Validity-The concept of construct validity addresses the question of how well a test measures something that, in reality is but an abstract intervention It is also of two types convergent validation and divergent validation
ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUES Observer Reports Observation of behavior is helpful in appraising personality of a person in a variety of settings Interview-Interviewing and observing are frequently used to know the personality of individuals.Interviews may be structured or unstructured.In the unstructured mode of interviewing interviewers get impressions and use their hunches or the person expand on the information that has the potential to unravel the personality of the interviewee.The structured interviews have specific questions and follow a set procedure.This is to obtain objective comparison of the persons being interviewed. Observation-Behavioral observation is also used to assess personality.A very detailed guideline is prepared to see examples of specific behaviors for identifying personality traits under consideration.But the biggest problem with presence of observer may vitiate the results since mere presence of a stranger may influence the observation process and the behavior of the person being observed. Ratings-Ratings are frequently used in educational and industrial settings.In order to use ratings effectively the traits should be found rather than using numbers or general descriptive adjectives that may convey different meanings to different raters a trait may be more clearly identified in terms of clearly stated behavioral anchors. Nomination-It is used with a group of persons who know each other very well through long term interaction.In using nomination each group member is asked to choose one or more group members with whom he or she would like to work,study,play or undertake any other significant activity. The nominations received by a person can be analyzed in many ways to understand personality and behavioral qualities of the person Situational Tests-A variety of situational test have been devised to provide assessment of personality.A commonly used test is the situational stress test.It provides sample of the behavior of a person under stressful situations.Role-playing may be used.The person is clearly and explicitly instructed to play a part,either reporting verbally or overtly what he or she is asked to do. The situation may be presented realistically or through videotape etc. Projective Tests The projective techniques were developed to assess unconscious motives and feelings.These techniques are based on the assumption that weakening the stimulus structure will allow the individual to project his/her feelings,desires and need which can be interpreted by experts. a)the stimulus material is relatively or fully unstructured and poorly defined
b)The person being assessed is usually not told the purpose and the method of scoring and interpretation. c)The person is informed that there are no right or wrong responses d)Each response is considered to reveal a true and significant aspect of personality e)The scoring and interpretation in projective assessment are lengthy and subjective. The Rorschach Inkblots-A Swiss psychiatrist named Hermann Rorshach developed this technique .The Rorschach Inkblots test consists of 10 symmetrical inkblots .There are two phases of administration: performance proper and inquiry.In the first the person instructed as follows”I am going to show you a number of inkblots,and wat you to tell me what you see in each of them”the person being tested gives the responses,which are recorded..Once the responding to all the 10 cards is over the inquiry phase begins.starting with the first card the person is reminded about the person and is required to tell where and how the response was seen by him or her. The Thematic Apperception Test(TAT)-this test was developed by Morgan and Murray in 1935.It consists of a series of 30 pictures and one blank card. The instructions for this test is as follows ”Tell what has led up to the event shown in the picture, describe what is happening at the moment, what the characters are feeling and thinking and then give the outcome”. The person is encouraged to imagine and say whatever comes to mind .It is expected that people will interpret an ambiguous stimulus according to their individual readiness to perceive in a certain way. The themes that recur in these imaginative productions are thought to have significance Rosenzweig Picture Frustration Study(The P-F Study)-This test was developed by Rosenzweig.Using frustration and aggression as the main focus it presents a series of cartoons in which one person frustrates another or calls attention to a frustrating condition.The analysis of responses is based on type and direction of aggression. They are obstacle dominance,ego defence and need persistence Sentence completion Test-In this test a number of stems consisting of a few words are presented .The task is to provide an ending .It is held that the type of ending used reflects the motivation.conflicts and attitudes of the person.examples include stems such as: a)My father__________________________ b)My greatest fear is________________________ The Draw-A-Person Test-It is a simple test in which the examinee is presented with a blank sheet of paper and a pencil and an eraser.He or she is asked to draw a person.when the drawing is complete the examinee is normally asked to draw the figure of another person of the opposite sex.Finally the examinee is required to make up a story about the person as if he or she were a character in a novel or a play. The analysis of personality with the help of of projective techniques is rooted in one or the other kind of psychodynamic theory.They are very interesting and provide a variety of materials.The interpretation of the responses or products is a skilled job for which
specialized training is required.In their use the interscorer reliability is considered more important.Their reliability and validity is traditionally low.
Self-Report Measures These are structured measures in which the examinees is required to give verbal response on some kind of rating scale.They are called self-report because the examinee has to respond objectively to the items of the measure and his or her reports are accepted as they are.They are not treated as projections to be interpreted by the investigator.The scores on these measures are quantitative.They are interpreted on the basis of norms developed by the author of the test. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory(MMPI)-Hathaway and McKinley,as an aid in the process of psychiatric diagnosis,conceived this test in 1940.In subsequent research this test has been found very effective in psycho-pathology.It has been used in many diverse types of populations.The revised test known as MMPI-2 provides was published in 1989.It has 567 items in the form of affirmative statements to which the test taker gives the responses true or false.The MMPI-2 provides scores for 10 subscales:Hypochondriasis,Depression,Hysteria,Psychopathic deviate,Masculinityfeminity,Paranoia,Psychesthenia,Schizophrenia,Mania and Social Intervention. Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-This test was developed by Eysenck to assess two basic dimensions of personality namely introverted-extroverted and emotionally stableemotionally unstable. These dimensions subsume 32 personality traits.In subsequent work he also identified a third dimension named psychotism.It refers to psychopathology and represents a lack of feeling for others, a tough manner of interacting with people,and a tendency to defy the social conventions. Sixteen Factors Personality Inventory(16PF)-This test was developed by Cattell on the basis of a large set of empirical data about personality descriptions.He used the technique of Factor Analyses to identify the basic personality structure.The test has declarative statements and the examinee has to respond to a specific situation by choosing from among given alternatives.It is frequently used in career guidance,vocational exploration and occupational testing.
Personality and Psychopathology Personality is the characteristic manner in which one thinks, feels, and behaves and relates to others. Mental disorders are clinically significant impairments in one or more areas of psychological functioning, including one’s thinking, eating, feeling, sleeping and other important components of psychological functioning (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). Significant portions of the psychiatric literature have focused on the interaction between “psychiatric illness” and “personality” and on the possibility of a cause-effect between them. The importance of personality to psychopathology has been recognized since the beginnings of medicine. Hippocrates in the fourth century B.C. distinguished between four fundamental dispositions that are sanguine, melancholic, phlegmatic and choleric that were sought to provide a vulnerability to a variety of physical and psychological disorders Much has been learned since his time, including a healthy appreciation for how little is in fact known. The interplay of personality and psychopathology continues to be a clinically significant yet challenging focus of investigation. Personality and psychopathology influence the presentation or appearance of one another, they can share a common, underlying etiology and they often contribute to the development of etiology of one another. Each of these relationships has significant theoretical and clinical implications. The influence of personality and psychopathology on the presentation of one another is typically characterized as a pathoplastic relationship. This pathoplastic relationship is bidirectional, as psychopathology will vary in its appearance depending upon a person’s premorbid personality traits and the appearance or presentation of personality will likewise be affected by the presence of a comorbid mental disorder. Premorbid personality structure can have a profound effect on the manner in which a mental disorder is manifested or experienced. For example, depression is likely to be experienced differently depending upon a person’s vulnerabilities and sources of self-esteem. One’s characteristic way of thinking, feeling and behaving and relating to others can at times result in or contribute to the development of a mental disorder. And a severe or chronic mental disorder might in turn contribute to fundamental changes to one’s personality .Also another way in which personality traits can have a pathoplastic effect on psychopathology is the manner or degree to which the person responds to treatment. It is routine in clinical practice to conduct a personality assessment at the beginning of the treatment, because the personality can have a significant impact on treatment responsivity. Personality assessment may itself be
incorporated into a treatment, facilitating a patient’s development of an active participation and a realistic understanding of the disorder’s etiology and development.
REFERENCES Feist, J & Feist, G.J. (2006) “Theories of Personality”. Singapore: McGraw Hill. Freeman, F.S. (1965), Theory & practice of psychological testing. Third edition. Holt, Rinehart &Winston:NY Hall C.S., Lindzey G.R., Campbell, J.B. (1997). Theories of Personality . Fourth edition.John Wiley & Sons: NY Hjelle Larry A.,Ziegler Daniel J.(1992).Personality Theories-Basic Assumptions, Research and Applications .Third edition.McGraw-Hill,Inc:Singapore Misra Girishwar(2002).Introduction to Psychology-Part 1.NCERT:New Delhi Misra Girishwar(2003).Introduction to Psychology-Part 2.NCERT:New Delhi Wiggins(1976).Principles of Personality. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company: USA
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