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ael~cralEditors Elelgo Xiikesitz nlrd Charles T. Prouty
Published on. iho fvnd
givela to ths Yale Uniaersit!~Pres8 in 1917
by Ihe mcnzbero of the
(Scroll a ~ t i ZK e y Society of Yale College)
of t71e founding of the society
Edited by David Nornt.
N E W
UNIVI4;LBITY P R E B C
Copyright 1918, 1965 b y Talc ?7~zivcrsity Preor. Printed in the United Atates o f AincrITca
A11 rights ~ e s c r o e d ill the editorial co,tlribut i o ~ r st o t7iiu e c l i t b ~ which ~, ?)lay nof bo reprinted, in u h o l e or in part, except by written pern~ission of the publinhera, L i b r a r y of Coi1grc.u~ catnlog card nulnbst.: :&8703
Prgace o f the General Edtiors
S the late Professor Tucker Brooke has observed, practically all modern editions of Shakespeare are 18th-century ~ e r s i o n s of the plnys, based on the additions, alterations, and emcnclations of editors of t h a t period. It has been our purpose, as it was Professor Brooke's, t o give the modern reader Shakespeare's plays in the approximate form of their original appearance. About half the plnys appeared in quarto form before the public,ztion of the F i r s t Folio in 1623. Thus for a large number of plays the only available text is t h a t of the Folio. I n the case of quarto plays our policy has been t o use t h a t text as the basis of the edition, unless it is clear t h a t t h e text has been contaminated. Interesting f o r us today is the fact t h a t there are no a c t or scene divisions in the Quartos with the exception of Othello, which does mark Acts I, 1 1 , IVY and V but lacks indications of scenes. Even in the Folio, although a c t divisions are generally noted, only a part of .the scenes are divided. In no case, either in Quarto o r Folio, is there a n y indicatio~lof the place of action. T h e manifold sceiie divisions for the battle in such a play as Antony a-nd Cleopntm, together with such locations ns "Another part of the field," a r c the additions of the 1 8 t h century. W e have eliminated all indications of the place and time of action, because there is no auth0rit.y for them in the originals and because Shaltespeare gives such information, when i t is requisite foi* understanding the play, through the dialogue of the actors. W e have been sparing in our use of added scene and, in some cases, a c t divisions, because these frequently impede
P E E P A C E OF T H E G E N E l t A L EDIT.OE3
the flow of the action, which in Shakespeare's time mas curiously like t h a t of modern films. Spelling has been niodernized except when the original clearly indical;cs a pronunciation unlilsc our o m , e.g. desart (desert), dive1 (devil), banket (banquet), and often in such Elizabethan syncopations as ere (e'er), stolne (stol'n), and tane (ta'en). I n reproducing such farms we have followcd the inconsistcn t usage of the original. We have also prcservcd much more of t h e original capitalization t h a n is usual, for of ten this is a p a r t of the meaning. I n like nlanner we have tended t o a d o p t thc lineation of the original in many cases urose as verse o r verse as where modern editors nrint I A prose. We have, moreover, followed the original punctuation wherever it was prncticnblc. I n verse we p r i n t a final -ed t o indicate i t s full syllabic value, otherwise 'd. I n prose we have followed the inconsistet~cicsof the original in this respect. Our general practice 11n.s been t o include in footnotes all information n rcader needs f o r immediate understanding of the given page. I n somewhat empiric fashion we repeat glosses as we think the render needs t o be reminded of the meaning. Furtlier information is given in rlotcs (indicated by the letter N in the footnotes) t o be found at the back of each volun~c.Appendices dcal with the t e x t and sources of the play. Square brackets indicate material not found in the original text. Long emendations o r lines taken from another authoritative text of a play a r e indicated in the footnotes for the information of the reader, W e have silently corrected obvious typographical errors.
Preface of the General Editors
Text and Date
The scene: [ A ship at sea and tlzen] an uninhabited island
Names of the Actors
K [ i n g ] of A7aples his brother PROSPERO, the right Duke of .Milan ANTONIO, his brother, the uszirping Duke of ,Milan FERDINAND, son to tile King of Naples GOXZALO, an hotz,e~t old councilor ADRIAN an
ALONSO, FRANCISCO caLrnnN,
a salvage and deformed slave
STEPIIANO, a. drunken butler Master of a ship Boatsrcain filari?~ ers
MIRAXDA, ARIEL, IRIS
daughter to Prospero an airy spirit
[The Actors' Names] N. (N refers throughout to the correspondfng note given at t,hc end of the f@.x%..) aouncilor F wutacellor: see OED; N.
T H E TEIXPEST
A tempes fuou.s noise of thunder and 1igh.tning heard, Enter a Ship?n.aster nn,d a Bontsr~ain. Master. Boatswain ! Boa tswa.in.. Here, Master !W h a t cheer ? &la.ster. Good. Speak t o th' mariners. Fail to't., yarely, or we run ourselves aground-bestir, bestir l Exit.
Enter Jfa-riners. Boatswain. neigh, my hearts ! Cheedy, cheerly, my hearts! Yare, yare! Take in the topsail! Tend t o thy Master's whistle! Blow till thou burst thy wind, if room enough ! 8 Enter AZo,rzso, Sebnstian, BnIonio, Ferdinand, Gon,zalo, and others. Alonso. Good Boatswain, have care! Where's the 10 Master? Play the men ! Boatswain. I pray now, keep below.
Act I N. 2 What cheer what mood are you in (1.e. optimistfo or pessimistic)? 3 Good i.e. good cheer N. 4 yarely quickly. 7-8 Blow . . . enough N. 10 Play the men keep the men moving.
THE T E M P E S T , I.
Antonio. Where is the Master, Boson ?
Boabswra,in. D o you not hear him? You m a r our labor. Keep your cabins-you do assist the storm. 15 Gonxa,lo. Nay, good, be patient. Boatswain. When the sea is. Hence! W h a t cares these roarers f o r the name of king? T o cabin: silence! trouble us not ! Conaalo. Good, yet remember whom thou h a s t aboard. 20 Boatsranin. None t h a t I more love t h a n myself. You a r e n councilor. I f you can command these elemeilts t o silence and work the peace of thc present, we will not hand a rope more; use your authority. I f you cnnnot, give thanks you have lived so long and make yourself ready in your cabin for the misc11anc.e of the hour, if .; so hap. Chcerly, good hearts! O u t of oul. n-ay, I say. Exit. Co~zzalo. I have g r e a t comfort from this fellow : methinks hc hnth no drowning mark upon him ; his complexion is perfect gallows. S t a n d fast, g ~ o d fntc, t o liis hanging! Make the rope of his destiny our cable, f Ile be not born for our own doth little advantage! I Exeunt. t o be hanged, our case is miserable.
12 Boson boatswsin. 13 hear h i i.c. hear his whistle; see 1. 7 stl~ove.15 good good fcllow. 16 cares N. roarers witveH (to roar was to bluster and boast as well as to shout). 22 councilor F c0u.nscllor. 27 Cheerly . hearts spoken to the crew. 29-31 methinks . . . gallows 11.orn an old proverb, 'He that's born to be hanged need fear no drowning.' 33 do# advantage benefits us little.
THE TEMPEST, I. 1
Bontszoain. Down with the topmast! yare, lower, 36 lower! B r i n g her t o try with main-course.
A c r y wititin. A plague upon this howling! They a r e louder than
the weather o r our office.
Enter Seba.stBan, Antonio, and Gonzalo.
Yet again? W h a t d o you here? Shall we give ore and
40 d~eown? H a v e you a mind to sink? Sebnstian. A pox o' your throat, you bawling, blusphcmous, incharitable dog ! .Routswain. W o r k you, then. Antonio. H a n g , cur, hung, you whoreson, insolent noisemaker; wc a r e less afraid t o be drown'd t h a n thou a r t . 46 Go~i,-a.Zo. I'll w a r r a n t him for drowning, though the ship were 110 stronger t h a n a nutshell and a s leaky n u an unstanched wench. 49 Boatswai7z. L a y her ahold, ahold! Set her two courses off t o sca again ;lay her of7 !
Enter Mariners, met. ~llrcriners. All lost! T o prayers, t o prayers, all lost I [Exeunt llfariners.] Boatsrunin. W h a t , must our mouths be cold? Go~nzalo.T h e king and prince a t prayers! Let's
55 lrssist them, f o r our case is as theirs. Sebnstian. I am o u t of patience. Asztonio. We a r e illercIy cheated of our lives by 35 Down . . . topmast N. 36 main-course mainsail. 47 wxrant . . . drowning be his gunrantc*~ against drowning. 50 ahold so as to hold the wind N. 51 courses mils. 52-66 N. 53 must . . cold N. 67 merely utterly, without qualification (cf. Hamlet, 1.2.137; As You Lilce It, 11.7.140).
THE TEMPEST, I. r
drunkards. This wide-chopp'd rascal, would thou
Inight'st lie drowning the washing of ten tides. ti^ Gonzalo. He'll be hanged yet, though every drop of water swear against it and gape at wid'st t o glut him. [Exit Bontsmain. A confused noise within. [Voices.] 'Ilercy on us !' 'We split, m e split !' 'Farewell, my wife and children; farewell, brother !' 'We q l i t ! me split ! m e split !' 86 Antonio. Let's all sink with' king. Sebastian. Let's take leave of him. [Ezezmt t7eBastia.n and Antonio.) Gonzalo. Now would I give a thousand furlongs of sea for a n acre of barren ground: long heath, brown furze, anything. The wills above be done, but I would Exit. fain die a dry death.
Enter Prospero and d1ira.n.d~. M i r a d a . I f by your art, my dearest father, you
Put the wild waters in this roar, allay tlicin. The slip it seems would pour down stinking pitch, But t h a t the sea, mounting t o th' welkin's cheek, Dashes the fire out. O ! I hare s d e r e d With those t h a t I saw suffer: a brave vcssel-
58 wide-chopp'd big-mouthnd. 50 washing . . tides N. 61 glut gulp. (38-9 heath . furze ahrubs found growing on wasteland. 4 welkin's sky'e. 5 fire here disyllabic. G brave here, as elsewhore h the play, 'admirable.'
THE TEMPEST, I
W h o had n o doubt some noble creature in herDash'd all t o pieces. 0 thc cry did knock Against my very heart. Poor souls, they perish'd. H a d I bin a n y god of power, I would 1 6 H a v e sunk the sea within the earth, o r ere It should the good ship so have swallom'd, and The fraughting souls within hcr. Prospero. Be collected : N o more amazement. Tell your piteous h e a r t 14 There's no llarm done. BIiranda. 0 woe the d a y ! Prospero. N o harm. I have done nothing but in care of theeOf thee my dear one, thee my daughter-who A r t ignorant of what thou a r t , nought knowing Of whence I am, nor t h a t I am more better Than Prospero, master of a full poor cell, And t h y no g r e a t e r father. M iranda. More t o know Did never meddle with my thoughts. Prospero. 'Tis time I should inform .thee farther: Lend t h y hand And pluck my magic garment from me. So, Lie therc, my a r t . Wipe thou thine eyes; have comfort ; 25 The direful spectacle of the mrack which touch'd The very virtue of compassion in thee I have with such provision in mine art So safely order'd t h a t there is no soil,
11 or ere before. 13 fraughting souls souls who compo~edher freight. 14 amazement stonished terror. piteous full of pity. 19 more better N. 20 full very. 24 magic garment N. 27 virtue essence. 28 provision foresight. 29 soil N.
T H E TEMPEST. I. 9
30 No, not so much perdition as a n hair, Betid t o any creature in the vessel Which thou heard'st cry, nliicll thou saw'st sink. Sit d own, F o r thou must now know farther. ilfiranda. You have often Begun t o tell me what I am, b u t stopp'd 35 And left me t o a bootless inquisition, Concluding, 'Stay, not yet.' T h e llour's now come ; Prospero. T h e very minute bids thee ope thine ear. Obey and be attentive. Canst thou reme~nber A time before n-e came unto this cell? I do not think thou canst, for then thou wast not 40 Out three years old. Certainly, sir, I can. dlircln d a. Prospero. BVwhat? B y any other house, or person? Of anything the image tell me, t h a t H n t h kept with thy remembrance. ifiiranda. 'Tis f a r off, 45 And r a t h e r like n dream than a n assurance T h i ~ my t re~ncrnbrancewarrants. I-Iad I not F o u r 01- five n-ornen once t h a t tended me? Prospe7-o. T h o u hadst, and more, 3lira1lda ;but how is i t 'i.'hnt, this lives in thy mind? W h a t seest thou else 50 I n tile d a r k bnckwnrd and abysm ole time? 7f thou rememb'rest aught ere thou cam'st here, How thou caln'st here thou mayst. B u t t h a t I do not. Itlirn.ndn. Prospero. Twelve year since, Miranda, twelve year since,
30 perdition destruction. hair N. 35 bootless inquisition fruitless inquiry. 41 Out quite, fully. 50 backward past. 53 year year the fin& year may be dissyllabic.
TEIE T E M P E S T . I . 4
Thy father was the Duke of Milan and A prince of power. Mirnndn. Sir, a r e not you my father? 55 Prospero. T h y mother was a piece of virtue and She said thou !vast my daughter-and t h y father W a s Duke of Milan-and his only heir And princess, no worse issued. iMiranda. 0 the heavens, 59 W h a t foul plap had we t h a t we came from thence? Or blessed was't me did? Prospero. Both, both, my girl. B y foul play, as thou sayst, mere wc heav'd thence, Rut blessedly holp hither. nfirandn. 0 my hcart bleeds 64 T o t.hink o' th' t.een t h a t 1 have turn'd you to, Which is from my remembrance ;please you, further. Prospero. M y brother and thy uncle, call'd AntonioI p r a y thee mark me, t h a t a brother should Be so perfidious-he whom next thyself Of all the mol-ld I lov'd, and t o him p u t 70 The manage of my state, as at t h a t time Tllrough all the signories it was the first, And Prospero the prime duke, being so reputed I n dignity, and for the liberal arts Withou-t a parallel, those being all m7 study78 T h e goverxl~ncnt I cast upon my brother, And t o my s t a t e grew stranger, being transported And r a p t in secret studies; thy false uncle-Dost thou attend me?
54 Milan ~trcssed 1 - -. 56 piece masterpiece. 59 And princess N. 63 holp helped. 64 teen trouble. 65 from out of. 71 signories dukedoms. 72 being probably monoeyllabic, as in 11. 74, 76. 77 secret i.e. magical.
TIIE T E M P E S T , I . R
Miranda. Sir, most heedfully. Prospero. Being once perfected how t o grant suits, 80 How t o deny them, who t' advance, and who T o trash for overtopping, ncw created T h e creatures t h a t were mine, I say, or chang'd 'em, Or else new forrn'd 'em, having both the key Of officer and office, set all hearts i' th' state 85 T o \vhat tune plcns'd his ear, t h a t now he was T h e ivy which had hid my princely trunk, And suck'd my verdure out on't-thou attend'st not? &Iira?zda. 0 good sir, I do. I pray thee, inark me : Pros pero. I, thus neglecting worldly ends, all dedicated 90 T o closeness and the bettering of my nlind W i t h t h a t which but by being s o retired Orepriz'd all popular rate, in my false brother AxraL'd a n evil nature, and my trust, Like a good parent, did bcget of him 96 A falsehood, in its contrary as great As my t r u s t was, which had indccd no limit, A confidence sans bound. He, being thus, lorded, N o t only with what my revenue yielded, B u t what my power might else exact. Like one loo W h o having into t r u t h by telling of it Made such a sinner of his inemory T o credit his ow11 lie, hc did believe H e m a s indeed the duke, out o' th7 substitution, 104 And executing tb' outward face of royalty
79 perfected etresscd --8 1 trash for overtopping N. 83 key play on 'musical key' and 'key for lock' (cf. presentday 'keys of o f f i c e ' ) . 85 that so that. 87 on't of it. 90 closeness prirrncy. 91-2 W i t h . rate N. 97 lorded ruled like a lord, clornineered N. 98 revenue atressed 09-102 Like lie N.
THE T E M P E S T , I , a
With all prerogative-hence, his ambition growingDost thou hear? illirandn. P o u r tale, sir, would cure deafness. Prospero. T o have no screen between this p a r t he play 'd And him he play'd i t for, he needs will bc 109 Ahsolute Milan. Me, poor man, my library Was dukedom large enough; of temporal royalties He thinks me now incapable, confederatesSo dry he was for sway-mi' thy Ring of Xaples T o give hinl annual tribute, do him hoi-nage, 114 Subject his coronet t o his crown and bend The dukedom, yet unbow'd-alas, p o o ~ MilanT o most ignoble stooping. nfiranda.. 0 the heavens I Prospcro. Mark his condition and th' event, then tell me I f this might be a brother. Miru nda. I should sir1 119 T o tllink but nobly of my grandmother. Good woir~bs have borne bad sons. Prospero. Now the condition. This King of Naples being an enemy T o me inveterate hcarliens my brother's suit, Which was t h a t he in lieu o' th' pren~ises Of honlagc and I lmom not how ~lluch tribute 125 Should presently extirpate me and nlinc Out of the dukedom and confer fair hlilnn,
109 Absolute Milan Dulce of 3lilan. Me as for me. 110 temporal royalties nrorldly attributes of kingship. 111 confederates con~pircs. 112 dry t.hirsty. sway rule. wi' th' F with. 117 condition thc condition of his bargain with Naples (11. 123-6). 119 but otherwise than. 123 in lieu o' in consideration of. premises conditions. 125 presently at once. extirpate stremed -
T H E T E M P E S T , I.
With all the honors, on my brother ; whereon, A treacherous army levied, one midnight Fated t o th' purpose did Antonio open T h e gates of Milan, and i' th' dead of darkness 130 The ministers for th' p u r y ose hurried thence hfc and thy crying self. ~lfiranda. Alack, for p i t y ! I not rememb'ring how I cried out then Will c r y i t ore again-it is a hint T h a t wrings mine eyes to't. H e a r a little further, 135 Prospero. And then I'll bring thce t o the present business Whicll now's upon's, without the which this story Were most impertinent. ilfirrrndcl. JVherefore did they not T h a t hour destroy us? Prospero. Well demanded, wench. 130 A Z y tale provokes t h a t question. Dear, they durst not, So dear the love my people bore me, nor set A marl<so bloody on the business, but With colors fairer painted their foul ends. 144 I n few, they hurried us aboard n bark, Bo1.e us some leagues to sex, where they prepar'd A rotten carcass of n butt, not rigg'd, Nor tackle, sail, nor mast; the very rats Z~istinctirely have quit it. Thcrc they hoist us, T o c r y t o tll' sen t h a t roar'd to us, t o sigh 150 T o th' winds whose ~ i t y sighing , back again, Did us bui loving wrong,
131 ministers agents. 134 hint occasion. 138 impertinent not pertinont, out of place. 133 demanded asked. wench young woman. 144 In few in few words. 146 carcass of a butt derelict ship (with
butt-'a cask for wine'-cf. present-day derogatory 'tub'). 145 hoist originally the past tcnsc of 'hoise,' to raise with block and tnclclc. 151 loving wrong oxymoron.
THE TEMPEST, I. 9
ilfirandn. Was I then t o you!
Alack, what trouble
Prospero. 0, a cherubin T h o u wast t h a t did preserve me ; thou didst smile, Infused with a fortitude froin heaven, When I have deck'd the sea with drops full salt, 155 Under my burthen groan'd, which rais'd in me An undergoing stonlach, t o bear u p Against what should ensue. iklirnnda. I'Iow came we ashore? Prospero. By providence divine. 160 Some food we hntl, and some fresh water, t h a t A noble Neapolitan, Gonzalo, Out of his charity-vtio being then appointcii Master of this design--did give us, with 164 Rich garments, linens, stuffs, and necessnries Which since have steaded much: so of his gentleness, Knowing I loy'd my books, he furnish'd me F r o m mine own library with volumes t h a t I prize above my dulcedom. nlirandn. 'tVould I might But ever see t h a t man ! Prospero. Now I arise : 170 S i t still and hear the l a s t of our sea-sorrow. Here in this islcnd we arriv'd, and here Ha,ve I, t l ~ schoolmaster, ~ r made thcc inorc profit T h a n other princess can, t h a t have nlore time F o r vainer hours and tutors not so carcfui. ikfiranda. E e a v e n j thank you for't ! And now I p r a y I75 you, sir'157 undergoing stomach enduring courage. 165 steaded much cf. the moclern 'stood in good stead.' 169 Now 1 arise K. 172 made thee more profit made thee profit more, i.e. bctt.er educated. 173 princess N. 11
T H E TEMPEST, I .
F o r still 'tis beating in my mind-your reason F o r raising this sea storm? Know t.hus f a r forth : Prospero. By accident most strange, bountiful fortuneNow my dear lady-hath rnine enemies 180 Brought t o this shore ; and by my prescience I find my zenith dot11 depend upon A most nuspicious star, ~vllose influence I f now I court not but omit, my fortunes Will ever after d r o o p h e r e cease more questions. 1 s Thou a r t inclin'd t o sleep; 'tis a good dullness, And give i t may-I know thou canst not choose. Come away, servant, come! I am ready now. Approach, my Ariel. Coine !
Enter Ariel. Ariel. All hail, great master, grave sir, hail! I come 190 T o answer t h y best pleasure, be't t o fly, T o swim, t o dive into the fire, t o ride On the curl'd clouds: t o thy strong bidding task Ariel and all his quality. Prospero. H a s t thou, spirit, Perform'd t o point the tcmpest t h a t I bade thee? Ariel. T o every article. 1 % 1 boarded the king's ship; now on the benk, Now in the waist, the deck, in every cabin I: flam'd amazement ; sometime I'ld divide
179 Now my dear lady refers t o fortune. 181-2 N. 185 dullness drowsiness. 186 give it way do not fight it. canst not choose N. 187 Come away i.e. from urhero you arc t,o here. 192 task put t o the test. 19? all his quality 'all others of his profession,' i.e. the other spirit.^ 194 to point in every pnint, e.xactly. 198 k ' d amazement caused amazement by my flames,
THE T E M P E S T , I . a
198 And burn in many places ; on the topmast, The yards and boresprit would I flame distitlctlg, Then meet and join. Jove's liglltning, the precursors G' th' dreadful thunderclaps, Inore momentary And sight-outrunning were not ;the fire and cracks Of sulphurous roaring the most mighty Neptune Secm t o besiege, and make his bold waves tremble, Yea, his dread trident shake. Prospero. M y brave spirit ! 206 Who was so firm, so constant, that this coil Would not infect his reason? A riel. Not a soul But felt u, fever of the mad, and play'd 210 Some tricks of desperation; all but mariners Plung'd in the foaming brine and quit the vessel. Then all afire with me the king's son, Ferdinand, With hair up-staring-then like reeds, not hairWas the first man that leapt, cried 'Hell is empty, And all the divels are here !' Why, tllat9s my spirit ! Prospero. But was not this nigh shore? Close by, my master. A riel. 1'1-ospero. But are they, Ariel, safe? L4riel. Not a hair perish'd : 217 On their sustaining garments not a blemish, But fresher than before; and as thou bnd'st me, 220 I n troops I have dispers'd them 'bout the isle. The king's son have I landed by himself,
200 boresprit bowsprit; t.he reference is to St. Elmo's fire. distinctly separately. 205 Seem to seem'd to (with -d nrld 1- merged). 207 coil turmoil. 209 fever of the mad fit of irrationality. 213 u p staring standing on end. 218. sustaining 'buoyant,' prohahly through Ariel's magic.
TLlE T E N P E S T , I . e
Wllom I left cooling of the air with sighs, I n an odd angle of the isle, and sitting, 13s arms in this sad knot. Z'rospero. Of the king's ship, 225 T h e mariners, say how thou hast dispos'il, And nll the rest o' th' iieet. A riel. Safely in harbor Is thc king's ship, in the deep nook wherc once Thou call'dst me u p a t midnight t o fctch dew Fron~ the still-vexsd 13crmoothes ; there she's hid, 230 'I'hc mariners all under I~atches stom'cl, TVho ;vith n charm join'd t o their suff'red labor I have left asleep ; and for the rest o' tll' flcetWhich I dispers'd-they all have met again And a r e upon the Meditcrrancan flote 339 Bouncl sadly h o ~ a e for Naples, Supposing that they saw the king's ship wrack'd, And his great person perish. Prospero. Ariel, thy charge Exactly is perform'd ; but there's more work. \I7hnt is the timc o' thy day? P a s t the mid season. A riel. Prospero. A t least two glasses. T h e timc 'twixt six
and now 240 M u s t by us both be spent most preciously. Ariel. I s there more toil? Since thou dost givc me
pains, Let mc remember thee whtit thou hnst promis'd, Which is not yet perforrn'd me.
220 sea'll-vcx'd 3ermoothcs (thrre syllables) et-cr-stormy Beimudas N. 234 floto wave, billows, 240 glasses hourgla~ses. 242 pains trouble in accomplishitig tasks (cf. present-day 'painstaking'). 243 remember remind.
THE TEMPEST, I .
Pros pero. Mcw now? moody? W h a t is't thou canst demand? A riel. M y liberty. 215 Prospero. Before the time be o u t ? No more ! Arbel. I prithee Remember I have done thee worthy service, Told thee no lies, made thee no mistakings, serv'd IVithout o r grudge o r grumblings ;thou didst promise T o bate me a full year. Prospero. Dost thou forget 250 From what a torment I did free thee? A riel. No. Prospero. T h o u dost, and think'st i t much t o tread the ooze Of the salt deep, T o run upon the s h a r p wind of the North, 255 T o do me business in the veins o' th' earth iVhcn i t is bak'd with frost. A riel. I do not, sir. Prospero. Thou liest, malignant thing! Hasi. thou forgot T h e foul witch Sycorax, who with age and envv Was grown into a hoop? H a s t thou forgot her? 259 Ariel. No, sir. Prospero. Thou hrtst. Where mas she born? Speak ! Tell me ! ArieZ. Sir, in Argier. Oh, mas she so ! I must Prospero. Once in rt rnonth recount what thou hast bin, Which thou forget'st. This dsmn'd witch Sycorax, F o r mischiefs manifold and sorceries terrible
248 Told thee . . . made thee N. 249 or . . . or e ithcr . or. didst P did. 250 bate me reduce my service by. 756 bak'd hard-, encd. 261 Argier Algiers.
THE TEMPEST, I.
265 T o enter human hearing, from Argier Tllou know'st was banisll'cl; for one thing she did They would not take her life. I s not this true? A r i d . Ay, sir. Prospero. This blue-ey'd h a g was hither brought with child, d u d here nras left by th' sailors ;thou, my slave, 270 As thou report'st thysclf, mas then her servant, A i d for thou vast a spirit too delicate T o a c t her earthy and abhorr'd commands, Refusing her grand hests, she did confine thee By help of her more potent ministers, And in her most un~nitignblerage, Into a cloven pine, within which r i f t Irnprison'd thou didst painfully remain A dozctl years ; within which space she died And left thee there, where thou didst vent thy groans 280 As f a s t as mill wheels strilic. Then was this islandSave f o r the son t h a t she did litter hereA freckled whelp, hag-born-not honor'd with A human shape. ArieE. Yes, Caliban her son. Prospel-o. Dull thing, 1 say so : he, t h a t Caliban 2% Whom now I keep in service. Thou best know'st What torment I did find thee in ; t h y groans Did lnnlce wolves howl, and penetrate the breasts 3f ever-angry bears : it was u torment 290 Tc l a y upon the damn'd, which Sycorax Zould not again undo; it wits mine art, PITIICIII arriv'd and heard thee, t h a t made g a p e
266 for one thing perhaps 'because of one good thing ' 269 blue ey'd N. 272 for because. spirit one syllable (probably 'sprite') 273 earthy N. 274 hests commands. 281 mill wheels strike i.e the water. 282 she F he.
T H E TKMPES'I', I .
T h e pine and let thee out.
I thank thee, master. Prospero. I f thou more murmur'st, I will rend an onlr 295 And peg thee in his knotty entrails till Thou hast howl'd away twelve winters. A riel. Pardon, master ; I will be correspondent t o command And do my spriting, gently. Prospero. D o so, and after two days I will discharge thee. 300 Ariel. That's my noMe master! W h a t shall I do? Say what! W h a t shall I do? P r o s p e ~ o Go . make thyself like a nymph o' th' sea: de subject T o 110 sight but thine and mine, invisible T o every eyeball else. Go take this shape And hither come in't. Go ! Hence with diligence! 305 Exit Ariel] Awake, dear heart, awake; thou hast slept well; Awake. Ilfiranda. T h e strangeness of your story put Hea~riness in me. Shake i t off! Come on, Prospero. M7e'll visit Caliban, my slave, who never yields us kind answer. MirtrntJa. 'Tis a villain, sir, I do not love t o look on. Prospero. But as 'tis We callnot miss him ;he docs make our fire, Fetch in our w o ~ d and , serves in ofices That profit us. What ho! slave! Caliban! Thou earth, thou ! speak !
207 correspondent submissive. 312 miss spare.
Calibnn within. There's wood enough within. Prospero. Corne forth, I say, there's other business for thee ! Come, thou tortoise! When?
Enter Ariel like a water nymph. 31t Fine apparition ! My quaint Ariel, I I a r k in thine ear. 1.1&el. h%y lord, i t sllall be done. Exit. Prospero. Thou poisonous slave, g o t by the dive1 himself Upon t h y wiclccd dam, corrle forth.
Enter Calibnn. Calibnn. As wicked dew as ere my mother brush'd W i t h raven's feather from unwholesome fen D r o p on you both! A soutllwest blow on ye, 325 And blister you all ore ! Prospero. F o r this be sure tonight thou shalt hnvc cramps, Side stitches, t h a t shall pen t h y breath u p ; urchins Shall for t h a t vast of night t h a t they may work , 4 1 1 exercise on thee ! Thou shalt be pinch'd As thick ns honeycomb, each pinch nlore stinging 330 T h a n bees t h a t made 'em. I must eat my dinner. Cnlibnn. This island's mine by Sycorax my mother, Ttrhich thou tak'st from me! When thou camest first
318 quaint finely dressed. 320 got begot. 324 southwest a soutliwest wind nias considered infeclious. 327 urchins goblins in l h e shape of hedgehogs (cf. below, 11.2.10-12). 325 vast immense space. 239 pinch'd tormented (perhaps pricked with hetlgellog quills). 331 'em i.e. the (cells of) honeycomb. 333 camest F ca?n'st.
THE TEMPEST. I. 9
Thou strok'st me, and made much of me; wouldst give me 3 . 3 8 W a t e r with berries in't, and teach me how T o nainc the bigger light and how the less, T h a t burn by d a y and night; and then I lov'd thee And sho~v'd thee nll the qualities o' th' isle, The fresh springs, brine pits, barren place and fertilc Curs'd be I t h a t did so ! All the charms 33rl Of Spcorax-t oads, beetles, bats-light on you ! F o r I atn all the su.bjects t h a t yo11 have, Whic11 first was mine own king, and here you s t y rnc I n this hard rock, whiles you do keep from me The rest o' th' island. Prospero. Thou most lying slave, 345 FVhon~stripes may move, not kindness ! I have us'd theeFilth as thou art--with human care and lodg'd thee I n mine own cell, till thou didst seek t o violate The honor of m y child. 350 Cnliba?~. 0 ho ! 0 ho ! would't had been done! Thou didst prevent me : I had peopl'd else This isle with Calibans. hliiranda. Abhorred slave, Which a n y print of goodness wilt not take,
334 strok'st strok'dst; F siroakst N. 336 bigger . less me Gcn. 1:16: 'And God made two great lights; the greater light to rule thc day, a,nd the lesser light to rulc the night.' 339 springs fertile i.e. hc showed how to distinmish between uscful anJ useless natural resources (Arden ed.). p!ace N. 340 charms ~ v i l spirits charmed by Sycorai~.343 mine F ,win; if not a printer's error, the spelling ]nay indicate a pronunciation, with i as in 'tin.' sty pen me as in n pigsty. 359A3 N. 353 Which . tillre who will not take any print (imprca~ion).
THE TEMPEST, A
354 Being capable of all ill: I pitied thee, Took pains t c make thcc speak, taught thee each hour Or;e thing or ether; wllen thou didst not, savage, Tnow thine own meaning, but wouldst gabble like d thiag lnost brutish, I endom'd t h y purposes With trords t h a t made them known, but t h y vild
r a c e
Though thou didst learn-had t h a t in't which good natures 360 Could not abide t o be with; therefore w a s t thou Deservedly confin'd into this rock, Who hadst deserVycl. more than a prison. Caliban.You taught me language and my profit on't Is, T know how t o curse! The red plague rid you 365 F o r learning me your 1:rnguage ! Prospero. Hag-seed, hence ! Fetch us in fuel, and be quick thou'rt best T o answer other business ! Shrug'st thou, malice? If thou neglect'st or dose ml~villingly W h a t I command, I'll n c k thee with old cramps, 370 Fill all thy bones with aches, make thee r o a r T h a t beasts shall tremble a t tly din. Caliban. No, 'pray thee! I must obey ; his art is of such power It would control my clam's god Setebos, Ax3 make a vassal of him. PTO,~PPQ~. So, slave, hence ! 375 Exit Caliban.
359 vitd common spelling (&owing pronunciation) of 'vile.' 360 good natures those who are naturally good. 3G5 red plague bubonic plague (with red sorea). rid destroy. 367 be quick thou'rt best you had better be quick. thou'rt thou wert. 368 answer attend to. 371 aches pronounced 'aitches.'
T H E TISMPEST, I .
Enter Ferdinand; and A ~ i e l invisible, , pla.ying and singing.
Come unto fhese yellow sands, and then take hands: Curtsied when you have, and kiss'd, the wild waves whist, Foot i t featly here and there, And sweet sprites the burthen bear.
[Voices.] Ariel. 'Hark, hark!' 'bowgh wawgh!' 'The watch-dogs bark!' 'bowgh wawgh!' liar/<, hark! 1 hear The strain o f strufting chanticleer C r y cockadiddle-dow!
Fercli~~avd. Where should this music be? i' th' air, or th' e a r t h ? It sounds no more ! And sure it waits upon Some god o' th' island; sitting on a bank, Weeping again the king my father's wrack, This music crept by me upon the waters, Allaying both their f u r y and my passion W i t h its sweet air ;thence I have follom'd itOr it hath drawn me rather-but 'tis gone. No, i t begins again.
Song Ariel. Full fadom five thy father lies; Of his bones are coral mode;
376-86 I S . 379 whist hwhed. 380 featly gracefully. 381 the burthen bear F prints 'bear the burthen.' SD Burthen, d s persedly refrain, sung from several places on (or just off) the ~tage.(SD b used throughout to indicate stage dir~ct~ion.) 390 Weeping again whilc I was weeping again because of. 393, passion suffering. 306 fadom fathome.
Those are pearls that were his cyes: Nothing of him that doth fade, But doth suffer a sea change Into something rich and strange. Sea nymphs hourly ring his knell.
[Voices.] Ding dong! CAriel.3
Hark, now I hear them! Ding-dong, bell.
r"crclina?zd. The d i t t y does remember my drown'd
f atller. This is no mortal business, nor no sound T h a t the e a r t h owes ! I hear it now itbovc me.
Prospcro. T h e fringed curtains of thine eye advance, And s a y what thou seest yond. ~lilira~zda. W h a t is't? a spirit? 410 Lorcl, how i t looks about ! Believe me, sir, It carries a brave form. But 'tis a spirit. Prospero. No, wench, i t eats and slecps and hath such senses As we have, such. This gallant which thou seest Was in the wrack; and but he's something stain'd W i t h grief-that's beauty's canker-thou might'st call him 415 A goo2ly person. H e has lost his fe!lows And s t r a y s about t o find 'em. J%liranda. I might call him A t h i n g divine, f o r nothing n a t u r a l I evcr s a w SG noble.
405 remember recall. 407 owes possesses. 411 brave admirable. 414 and but except that. something somewhat. 415 that's . . . canker which is the blight that destroys beauty. 416 goodly hclsonie. 22
T H E TEMPES'I'. I , 0
Prosyero. It goes on, I see, 419 As my soul prompts i t ! Spirit, fine spirit, 1'11 free thee Within two tfays for this. Ferdinand. Most sure the goddess On whom these airs attend! Vouchsafe my prayer May know if you remain upon this island, And t h a t you will some good instruction give 425 How I may bear me here! M y prime request't\'hich 1 do last pronounce-is-0 you wonder !If j o u be maid o r no? Miranda. N o wonder, sir, B u t certainly a maid. Ferdinand. M y language? Heavens ! I a m the best of them t h a t speak this speech 't,'17ereI but where 'tis spoken. Prospero. H o w ? the best? 430 \$'hat wert thou if the King of Naples heard thee? Ferdiuand. A single thing, as I am now, t h a t wonders To hear thee speak of Naples ! H e docs hear me, And t h a t he does, I weep. hlyvsclf am Naples, Who with mine eyes-never since a t ebb-beheld T h e king m y father wrack'd. Jfirandn. Alack, for mercy! 430 Ferdinand. Yes, faith, and all his lords, the Duke of Milan And his brave so11 being twain. Prospero. [Aside.] T h e Duke of Milzn
420 Spirit . spirit both to be read 'sprite.' 423 remain dwell. 425 bear me conduct myself. 427 maid si~ggeststwo pairs o f opposites: goddesemortal, unmarried-married. 432 single solitary, alone, defenseless. 434 that bczause. 438 his brave son N. 23
THE TEhlPEST, I .
And his more braver daughter could control thee 440 If now 'twere fit t o do't. At the first sight Thcp have chang'd eyes ! llelicate Ariel, I'll set tilee free for this. -A word, good sir; I fcar you have clolle yourself some wrong! A word. ~?llirn.?~da. W h y speaks my father so ungently? This Is the third man t h a t erc I saw! T h e first 445 T h a t ere I sigll'd for ! Pity move my fatlier T o be inclin'd my may. Ferdinand. 0, if a virgin, And your affection not gone forth, I'll make you T h c Queen of Naples. Prospero. Soft, sir. One word more. [Aside.] They a r e both in either's powers! B u t this swift business 450 I must uneasy make, lest too light winning Malie tlie prize light. -One word more ! I charge thd: T h u t thou attend me! Thou dost here usurp T h e name thou ow'st n o t and hast p u t thyself 455 Upon this island ns n spy, t o win it From me, the lord on't. Ferdi7~a.7zd. No, ELSI am a man. Jfiranda. Therc's nothing ill can dwell in such a temple. I f the ill spirit have so fair a house, Good things will strive to dwell with't. Prospero. Follow me. 4w Spea.k not you for him ! He's a traitor! Come, I'll manacle thy neck and feet together! Sea water shalt thou drink ; thy food shall be The fresh brook musscls, wither'd roots, and husks
439 control thee check your statement, hence refute. 44.1 chang'd play on 'exchanged' and 'altered.' 443 done wrong euphemism for 'lied.' 451-2 light . light play on meanings 'way' and *ofsmall account.' 454 ow'st own'st. & !4
T H E T E M F E S T , I.
Wherein the acorn cradled. Follow.
Ferdinand. No, I will resist such cn tertainment till 465 Mine enemy has more power. He drams, and is cha.rmed from moving. ilfira.nda. 0 dear father, Blake not too rash a trial of him, for He's gentle and not fearful. Prospero. What, I say ! 3l-y foot my t u t o r ? P u t thy sword up, traitor, Who mak'st a show, but dar'st not strike, t h y conscience 47 u Is so possess'd with guilt! Come, from t h y ward, F o r I can here disarm thee with this stick, And makc t h y weapon drop. Mira.nda. Beseech you, F a t h e r ! Prospero. Hence ! H a n g not on my garments. Mil-nnda. Sir: have p i t y ! I'll be his surety. Prospero. Silence! One word more 475 Shall make me chide thee, if not hate thee ! W h a t , An udvocnte for an i~npostor ? I-fush ! Thou think'st there is no more such shapes as he, Having secn but him and Calibnn ! Foolish wench, 480 T o t.h' most of men this is a Caliban, And they t o him are angels. llfbran,da. My affections Are then most humble: I have no ambition T o see a goodlier man. Prospero. Come on, obey !
465 entertainment treatment. 468 gentle a gentleman. fearful afraid. 469 My . tutor N. 471 from thy ward lower thy guard. 480-1 To to compared to. 4p' affections feelings.
Thy nerves a r e in their infancy again, And have no vigor in them. Ferdinand. So they are. 485 &1y spirits, as in a drertrn, are all bound up: My father's loss, the weakness which I feel, T h e wrack of a11 my friends, nor this man's threa.ts, T o whom I am subdu'd, are but light t o me, 490 Might I but through nly prison once a. d a y Beholcl this maid! All corners else o' th' cnrth Let liberty make use of: space enough H a r e I in such ol prison. Prospero. [ T o Ariel.] It works ! [ T o Ferdinand.] Come on. [ T o Ar2'cZ.I T h o u hast done well, fine Ariel ! [ T o Perdinn?zd.] Follow me. [ T o Ariel.] H a r k what thou else shalt do me. Aii.ra.nda. Be of comfort. 486 Riy father's of a better nature, sir, Than he appears by speech: this is unwonted Which now came from him. Thou shalt be as free Prospel-o. As mountain winds ;but then exactly do ofs my commancl. All p ~ i n t ~ 11riel. T o th' syllable. 500 Prospero. [ T o Ferdinnnd.3 Come, follow ! [ T o MiExmn t . rnnda.] Speak not for him.
484 nerves sinews. 486 spirits vital powere.
Act 1 1
Enter Alonso, Sebnsfian, Antonio, Gonxalo, Adrian, Frn.n.cisco, a7z.d others. Gonactbo. Besccch you, sir, be m e r r y ; you have
causeSo hare n-c all-of jop, f o r our escape Is much beyond our loss ;our hint of woe I s common : every day some sailor's wife, Tile rnastws of some merchant, and the merchant Have just our tllclnc of xoe. But for t l ~ miraclee I mean OLIY preservation-few in nlillions Csn speak like us ! Then wisely, good sir, weigh Our sorrow with our coi~lfor~c. Alonso. Prithee, pence. Sebastinn. He receives comfort lilie cold porridge. 10 Antonio. Tlle visitor d not give him ore so. ~S'ebastia?~. Look, he's winding up i11e watch of his wit. By and by i t will strike.
Go72.znlo. SirScbastin?~. One ! Tell. 15 Gonzalo. When every grief is entertain'd that's off er'd, conles t o th' entertainerScbastian. A dollar.
3 ]lint occasion. 5 some merchant either a vessel or the owner (or purchaoer) of cargo. the merchant here, probably, in the lad ter sense. 10 porridge a stew, often with peae; cf. peace in 1. 9 (Arden ed.). 1 1visitor comforter of the sick (cf. below, 11. 199-200, and Mat. 25:36). 13 By and by in~mediately. 18 Tell count. 16-20 N.
T E M P E S T , 11. 1
Gonxarlo. Dolour comes t o him indeed. You have 20 spoken truer than you purpos'd. Sebnstian. You have tnltcn it wiselier t h a n I meant you s'tlould. Gonnalo. Therefore, my lordAntonio. Fie, what a spendthrift is he of his tongue. dlonso. I prithee spare. 25 Conzalo. JYell, I have done. B u t yetSebnstian. H e mill be talking. Anl-or~io. Which, of he o r Adrian, for a good wager, first begins t o crow? Sebnstian. T h e old cock. so Ar,tonio. T h e cock'rel, IYcbnstian. Done ! Thc wager? -dnionio. A laughter. Sebastian. A match. 38 -4drian. Though this island secm t o be desertSebastian. Ha h a h a ! Anionio. So! You're paid. Adrian. Unirlhabitablc and almost inaccessibleSeba-stian. YetAdrian. Yet40 Antonio. I-Ie could not miss't. Adrian. It must needs be of subtle, tender, and delicate temperance. 44 Antonio. Temperance mas a delicate vcnch. ,Yebastian. Ay, and a subtle, as 11e most learnedly deliver 'd. Adrian. T h e a i r breathes upon us herc most sweetly. &'ebc~stia.n. As if it llacl lungs, and rotten ones.
25 spare spare me any more talk. 33 A laugl~terN. 3 6 7 N . 41 miss't avoid the conventional phraseology (cl. I. 2 G above). 43 temperance temperature, climate. 44 Temperance comnlon 45 subtle here, 'crafty,' 'sly.' Puritan name for a
T H E T E M P E S T . 11. 1
4s Antonio. Or as 'twere perfum'd by a fen. Gonzalo. Here is everything advantageous t o life. Antonio. Truc, save means t o live. Sebcl.stinn. Of t h a t there's none, or little. Gonzn.10. I-low lush and lusty the grass looks ! How grccn ! 55 Antonio. T h e ground indeed is tawny. 8~basti.a.n~. W i t h an eye of green in't. Antonio. I-Ie misses not much. Scbcastia.n. No-he doth but mistake the t r u t h totally. 59. Gon.zn.lo. B u t the r a r i t y of i t is-which is indeed almost bevond creditSeba.stian. As many vouch'cl rarities areGonzolo. T h a t our-garments being-as they w e r e drcnch'd in the sea, hold, not.withstandin,q, their freshness and glosses, being rather new-dFd than 60. st.uin9dwith salt water. A.)itorz.io. If but one of his pockets could speak, would i t not say he lies? Scba.stian. AY-, o r very falsely poclcet u p his report,. Gonzado. Rlethinks our garmellts are now ns fresh as when wc p u t them on first in Afric, a t the marriage of the king's fair daughter Clnribel t o the King of Tunis. 73 Sebastinn. 'Twrts a sweet marriage, and we prosperwell in our return, Adri.an. Tunis was never grac'd before with such a paragon t o their queen. Gonzalo. N o t since widow Dido's time. Antonic. IVidnw? A pox o' t h a t ! Mow came that 80. widow in? Widow Dido !
53 lusty strong. 55 tawny brown. 57 misses not much doesn't
miss by much. 65 glosses N. 77 to for 80 Widow Dido N.
TI313 'L'Ehf P E S T , 11. I
Subasfian, W h a t if he had said 'wiclower Aeneas' too? Good lord, how you take i t ! Adrian. 'TVidow Dido' said you? You make me study of that. She was of Carthage, not of Tunis. 85 Go?aznlo. Tliis Tunis, sir, was Carthage. Adrian. Carthage? Gonzalo. I assure you, Carthage. Antorzio. His word is more than the miraculous harp. 89 Sebastiapz.. H e hath rais'd the wall, ancl houses too. Anto?zio. W h a t impossible matter will lie 1nal;e easy next ? Sebastia.n. I think he will carry this island home in 94 his pocket and give it his son for an apple. Awtonio. And sowing the kernels of i t in the sea, bring forth more islands. Gostaa70. [Having pondered.] Ay. Aqttonio. Why, in goor1 time. Gonzolo. Sir, we were talking that our garinents scan ilom as fresh as vhen we wzre a t Tunis at the marriage of your daughter, who is now queen. 101 Antonio. And the rarest t h a t ere came there. Scbastinn. Bntc, I bcseech you, wiclom Dido. 104 dntonio. Oh, ~viiiow Dido? Ay, ~victon~ Dido ! Gonzalo. I s not, sir, my doublet as fresh as the drst day I wore it.? I mcnn, in a sort. Antonio. T h a t sort was well fish'd for. Go?&xalo.JVhen I wore i t a t your daughter's marriage109 A~OTLS YOU O . cram these words into mine ears against
88-39 miraculous harp of Zeus' son, who \vitrh his playing raised the walls of Thebes. 90 houses too i.e. by clsimi~lg Carthage still exists EIF Tunis. 97 Ay in reaffirmation that Tunis was Carthuge (Kittrcdge) ; F spells it I. 103 Bate except for. 106 i n a sort after a fashion. 107 fish'd for N. 30
T H E T E M P E S T , 11.
T h e sto~nllcchof mp sense. IVould I had never 3Iarricd lily d a ~ g h t ~ there, er for coming thence 1x4' son is lost and-in my rate-she too, Who is so f a r from I t a l y remov'd I ne're again shall see her. 0 thou mine heir Of Naples and of Milan, what strange fish H a t h made his meal on thee? Fm?zcisco. Sir, he m a y live. I saw hiin beat the surges under him And ride upon their backs ;he trod the water, 120 Whose enmity hc flung aside, and breasted T h e surge most swolne t h a t m e t him. E T i s bold head 'Bove the contentious waves he kept, and oared Himself with his good arms in lusty sti*ol;e T o th' shore, t h a t ore his wave-worn basis bowed 125 As stooping t o relieve him. I n o t doubt H e came alive t o land. .AEonso. No, no, he's gone. S'ebastia~~ Sir, . you may thank yourself f o r this g r e a t loss Tllat mould not bless our Europe with pour daughter, B u t rather loose her t o a n African, Where she a t least is bnniah?d from your eye, 130 Who h a t h cause t.o wet the grief on't. Alo?zso. Prithee peace. Sebastian. You were kneel'd t o and importun'd otherwise By all of us, and the fair soul herself 134 Weigh'd, between loathness and obedience, a t
111 stomach inclination. sense feelings. 113 rate estimation. 124 basis trunk. 125 As as if. 120 loose mate. 131 Who . . . on't
which has reason to shed tears upon the grief revealed in it. Who hath prob:tbly pl-oilormced 'ICilio'lh.' 134 Weigh'd fa]-cedto choose.
T H E T E M P E S T , 11. 1
Which end o' th' beam should bow. W e have lost your son, I fear, for ever: Milan and Naples have 310 widows in thein of this business' making T h a n w e bring men t o colrlfort them. ' r h e fault's your own. Alonso. So is the dear'st o' th' loss. 1-10 Go~aznlo. My Lord Sebnstian, T h e t r u t h you speak doth lack some gentleness, And time t o speak i t in: you rub the sore When you should bring the plaster. Sebastian. Very d l . Antonio. And most cllirurgeonly. 145 Gonzcdo. It is foul weather in us all, good sir, When you a r e cloudy. Scbu,stian. Fowl weather ? Antonio. Very foul. Go~tzalo. H a d I plarltntion of this isle, my lordAntonio. He'd sow't with nettle seed. Sebastz'nn. Or docks, cr mallows. 148 Gon,~alo. And were the king on't, what would I d o ? Sebastia.12. 'Scape being drunk, for want of wine. Gonzalo. I' th' commonwealth I would by contraries Execute all things; for. no kind of traffic Would I admit ; no name of magistrate ;
137 M o more. 139 dear'st 'most dearly loved' and 'of highest worth' ('what touches oue most nearly'-A4rden ed.). 142 time fitting t-ime. 143 Very well very well fipoken (sarcasm). 144 chirurguonly like a surgeon. 140 Fowl N. foul i.e. 'a very foul pun'-to be balanced against 'Very well' of 1. 143, above. 147 plantation .colonization, purposely ~nisco~lstrued by Antonio in the nest line. 148 docks, or mallows wcede. 149 on't o f it. 151-73 N. 32
T H E T E M P E S T , 11. 1
Lcttcrs should not be known ; riches, poverty, 1% And use of service, none ; contract, succession, Eourn, bound of land, tilth, vineyard, none; N o use of metal, corn, o r wine, o r oil; N o occupation-all men idle, all ; And women too, b u t innocent and p u r e ; 180 N o sovereignty. Scbastiasn. Y e t h e would be king on't. d n f o n i o . T h e l a t t e r end of his comrnonmcnltl~forgets the beginning. Gon,zalo. All things in comxnon nature should produce, 165 Without sweat o r endeavor; treason, felony, Sword, pike, knife, gun, o r nerd of a n y engine Vl'ould I not h a r e ; b u t Nature should bring forth Of i t own kind all foison, all abundance, T o feed my innocent people. 170 Sebas t k n . N o marrying 'mong his subj ccts ? Antonio. None, man ; all idle : whores and knaves. Gonzalo. I would with such perfection govern, sir, T'cxcel the Golden Age. Scbastiun. 'Save his h4ajest-j ! Antonio. L o n g live Gonzalo ! Gonza.lo. And--do you mark me, sir ? Alonso. Prithee no more; thou dost talk nothing t o me. 175 Gonzalo. I do well believe your Highness, and did i t
155use of service custom o f employing servants. contract ~ltressed 156 Bourn boundary. tilth tilled land. 166 engine machine used in warfaze. 168 it its. foison plentiful harvest. 173 T'excel as to excel. 'Save God save N. 175 nothing nonsense.
- -L. succession inheritance.
TBIt T E b f P E S T , T I , 1
t o minister occasion t o these gentlemen, who a r e of such scnsible and nimble lungs t h a t they always use t o laugh at nothing. Antonio. 'Twns you we laugh'd at. 180 Gonzabo. W h o in this kind of inerry fooling am nothing t o you ;so you may continue and laugh a t nothing still. Anto?zio. W h a t a blow was there given ! Sebnstinn. Anct i t had not falne flat-long. 185 Gonzn.Eo. You arc gcntlenlen of brave metal; you would lift the moon out of her sphere, if she would continue in i t five weelis without changing.
Enter Ariel playing solenzn music. Sebastian. We would so, and then go a-brttfowling. An.tonio. Nay, good my lo~:d,be not angry. 190 G O ? E X UNO, ~ O . I warrant you; I mill not adren.t~zre my discretion so weakly. Will you laugh me asleep? for I nrn very heavy. 194 Antonz'o. Go sleep, nncl hear us. [All sleep but Alo~tso, Sebnstian., a?,d Antoanio.] AZO~LSO. W h a t , all so soon asleep? I wish mine eyes Woulcl, with tllemselves, shut up my thoughts. I find They a r e inclin'd t o do so. Sebastian. Please you, sir, D o not omit the heavy offer of it.
175 sensible sensitive. nimble active. 180 you i.c. 'nothing.' 182 to you compared with you. 185 And if. falne fallen. flat-long with the flat of the sword. 186 metal modern .mettle.' 187 sphere N. 157-8 if . . . changing if it would wait an impossible time (lol~gerthan the lunar month). 189 go a-baffowling N. 101-2 adventure my discretion hazard my reputation. 194 hear us
i.e. 'hear us laugh.' 198 omit neglect. offer invitation.
T H E T E M P E S T , 11. 1
It seldom visits sorrow; when i t doth It is a comforter. PCTetwo, mv lord, Ant o,n,io. Will guard your person while you take your rest, And watch your safety. Alonso. Thank you. Wondrous [Alonso sleeps. Exit Ariel.] heavy . Sebas8,ian. What a strange drowsiness possesses
the111! Antonio. It is the quality 09 thy climate. Sebastian. why 2Q9 Doth it not then our eyelids sink? I find not Myself dispos'd t o sleep. Nor I :my spirits arc nimble. Antonio. They fell together all as by consent; Tl~ey dropp'd n s by a thunders troke. W h a t might, Worthy Sebastinn? 0 what might-? No more! 2 10 And yet, ~netlinlcs I see i t in thy face, What thou shoulds t be ;tl1' occasion speaks thee, and M y strong imagination sees a crown Dropping upon t h y head. What ? A r t thou waking? 8eba.stia.n.. Antonio. Do you not hear me speak? 8ebastinn. 1 do, and surely 215 It is a sleepy language, and thou speak'st Out of thy sleep! What is i t thou didst s a y ? This is a st.range repose, t o be asleep With eyes wide open-s tandlng, speaking, moving, And yet so fast &leep. rl n.tonio. Noble Sebastian, 219 Thou let's t thy f artune sleep--die rather ;wink's t . .
199-202 N. 205 sink cauee t.0 close. 207 consent agreement. 211 speaks thee 'proclaims thee Iring,' or 'sapealre to thee.' 220 wink'st i-e. 'art oblivious to thy opportua;ty.'
T H E T E M P E S T , IT.
Whiles thou a r t waking, Sebastian. T h o u dost snore distinctly: There's meaning in t h y snores. Alttonio. I am more serious than my custom-you Must be so too, if heed me ;~vllich t o do Trebles thee ore. Sebastian. Well, I a m stnnding water. 225 Antonio. I'll teach you how t o flow. Do so : t o ebb Sebastian. Hereditary sloth instructs me. Antonio. 0, I f you b u t knew how you the purpose cherish Whiles thus you mock it, how in stripping i t You more invest i t ! ebbing men indeedMost o f t e n 4 0 so near the bottom r u n By their own fear o r sloth. Scbastian. Prithee s a y on ; The setting of thine eye a n d cheek proclaim m a t t e r from thee, and a birth, indeed, m7hich throes thee much t o yield. Antonio. Thus, sir: Although this lord of weak remembrance, this W h o shall be of a s little memory When he is enrth3d, liatll here almost persuuded2 39 F o r he's a spirit of persuasion, only
2 ! 2 l distinctly explained by .the next line. 225 Trebles thee ore triples thy vdue. standing water unmoving, between ebb and flood. 226 f l o w rise (like the tide). 229-30 stripping . . invest a clothing metaphor: to invest is to clothe with robes 01office.
233 setting rigid expression. 235 throes thee causes thee agony (as of childbirth). 236 this lord probably Gonzalo, who supported Francisco's account and arouscd Antonio's scorn. 238 earth'd buried. 2 3 For persuade for he's persuasion personified, whose only profession is to persuade.
T H E T E M P E S T , 11. 1
Professes t o persuade-the king his son's alive, 'Tis as ilnpossible t h a t he's undrown'd As he t h a t sleeps here swims. Sebastian. I h a r e no hope T h a t he's undrown'd. 0, out of t h a t 'no hope' Antonio. % \h a 't great hope have you! No hope t h a t way is 24s Another way so high a hope t h a t even Ambition cannot pierce a wink beyond B u t doubt discovery there. Will you g r a n t with me T h a t Ferdinand is drown'd? Sebastian. I-Ie's gone. Antonio. Then tell me, Who's the next heir of Naples? Sebustainn. Claribcl. 249 Antonio. She t h a t is Queen of Tunis ; she t h a t dwells Ten leagues beyond man's life; she t h a t from Naples Can have no note, unless the sun were postThe man i' th' moon's too slow-till new-born chins 254 Be rough and rnzorable; she t h a t from whom We all were sea-swallow'd, though some cast againAnd by t h a t destiny-to perform an a c t Whereof what's p a s t is prologue, what t o come I n pours and my discharge. Sebastian. W h a t stuff is this? HOW say you? 259 'Tis true my brother's daughter's Queen of Tunis ; So is she heir of Naples ; 'twixt which regions There is some space.
242 hope N. 247 But doubt discovery without putting out the light of discovery: t,o 'dout' (do out) mas to 'extin,&sh.' there a state greater than the kingship of Naples. 252 note information. post messenger. 265 cast play on the meanings 'disgorged' and 'as~igned to parts in a play'; cf. following lines. 257-8 whst , discharge N.
T H E T E M P E S T , 11. 1
Antonio. A space whose ev'ry cubit Seems t o cry out, 'Mow shall t h a t Claribel Measure us back t o Naples? Keep in Tunis 265 And let Sebastian ~vakc!' Say this were death T h a t now h a t h seiz'd tShem,why they were 110 worse T h a n now they a r e ; there be t h n t can rule Naples A s well a s he t h a t sleeps, lords t h a t can p r a t e As amply and unnecessarily 270 As this Gonzalo-I mysclf could make A chough of as deep c h a t - 4 t h a t you bore The mind t h n t I do! TVl~at a sleep were this F o r your advancerneilt ! D o you understand me? Sebas tia.1~. Methinks I do. And how does y o u r content d ntonio. Tender your own good fortune? Sebastian. I remember 275 You did supplant your brother Prospero. An.to?zio. True. And look how well my g a m e n t s sit upon me, Much feater t h a n before. illy brother's servants W e r e then my fellows ;now they a r e my men. 280 Sebnstian. B u t for your c o n s c i e n c e An8onio. AS, sir, wlierc lies t h a t ? I f 'twere a kibe 'Twould p u t me t o my slipper; b u t I feel not This deity in my boso~ll:tweilty consciences T h a t s t a n d 'twist me and &,film, callrlied be they And melt, ere they molest ! Here lies your brother, 256 N o better t h a n the eurtll lze lies upon, I f he were t h n t wkicl~ now he's like--that's deadWhom I with this obedie~lt s t e e l t h r e e inches of it264 Measure j o u ~ n e y acrotrs. 267 there be that there be those who. 270-1 I chat I could lnake of myself a jac1cd:tn~ capablu of Gomalo's prattle. 274 content liking. 275 Tender regard. 278 feater more fitly. 281 kibe cllilblain, or sore on heel. 284 c.mdied congealed. 255 molest worry me. 38
T H E T E M P E S T . 11. E
Can lay t o bed forever ;whiles you, doing thus, T o the perpetual midi for nyc might p u t
This ancient morsel, this Sir Prudence, who Should not upbraid our course. F o r all the rest, They'll take suggestion as a c a t laps milk; They'll tell the clock t o a n y business t h a t We say befits the hour. 8ebnstia.n. T h y case, dear friend, 295 Shall be m y precedent: as thou got'st Milan I'll come by Naples. Draw thy sword; one stroke Shall free thee from the tribute which thou payest, And I the king shall love thee. Antonio. D r a w together ; 300 And when I rear my hand do you the like, T o fall i t on Gonzalo. Sebastian. 0, b u t one word; [ T h e y converse aptirt.]
Enter Ariel with music and song. Ariel. M y master througli his a r t foresees the danger T h a t you, his friend, a r e in and sends me forthFor else his project dies-to keep thein living. Sin,gs in Gon.zulo's ear.
W h i l e you here do snoring lie, Open-ey'd Conspiracy His time doth take. If of life you keep a care, Shake off slumber and beware. Awake, awake!
Antonio. Then let us both be sudden.
. . . to say the t h e is ripe for.
Goncnlo. [Awukening.] Now, good angels, [Sha.kes Alonso.] Preserve the king ! Alonso. Why, how now, ho! amake? Why a r e you drawn? Wherefore this ghastly loolcing? Gonzalo. What's the m a t t e r ? Sebastian. Whiles me stood here securing your rePOS-
Even now-we heard a hollow burst of bellowing Like bulls, o r rather lions--did't not wake you? It s t r u c k mine ear most terribly. dlonso. I heard no.t;hing. Antonio. 0, 'tmns a din t o fright a monster's ear, 320 T o malie a n earthquake! Sure i t mas the r o a r Of a whole herd of lions. Alonso. H e a r d you this, Gonzalo? Gonzalo. Upon mine honor, sir, I heard a hummingAnd t h a t a strange one t o p w h i c h did awake me. I shak'd you, sir, and cried ; as riline eyes o p ~ n ' d I saw their weapons dram-there mas n noise, 325 That's verily! 'Tis best we stand upon our guard, Or t h a t me quit this place, Let's dram our weapons. Alonso. Lend off this ground and let's make further search F o r my poor son. I-Ieavens keep him from these Gonzalo. beasts, F o r he is sure i' th' island. Blonso. L e d away. 350 Ariel. Prospero, my lord, shall know what. I have done.
318 struck F strook.
T H E T E M P E S T , 11.
So, king, go safely on to seek t h y son.
Enter Caliban with a burthen of wood. A noise of thunder heard. Caliban. All the infections t h a t the sun sucks up P r o m bogs, fens, flats on Prosper fall, and make him
By inch~neala disease! His spirits hear me, And yet I needs must curse. B u t theyyll nor pinch, 6 Priglit me with urchin-shows, pitch me iyth' mire, N o r lead me like a firebrand in the dark Out of my way, unless he bid 'em; b u t P o r every trifle a r e they set u p o ~ me, i Sometime like apes t h a t mow a n d chatter a t me 10 And a f t e r bite me, then like hedgehogs which Ilie tunibling in m y barefoot urrty and mount Their p r i c k s a t m y footfall; sometime am I A11 wound with adders, who with cloven tongues 110 hiss me into madness.
Lo, now, lo ! i s H e r e comes a spirit of his, and t o torment me F o r bringing wood in slowly! I ' l l fall flat. Perchance he mill not mind me. TrincuJo. Here's neither bush nor shrub t o bear off a n y weather a t all, and another s t o r m brewing. I
3 By inchmeal little by little (cf. modern 'piecemeal'). 6 firebrad ' ignis fatuus (will-o'-the-wisp). 9 mow grimace. 18 bear ward.
hear it sing i' th' w i d . Pond same black cloud, yond huge one, looks like a foul bombard t h a t tvould shed f it should thunder, as i t did before, I his liquor. I know not where t o hide my head. P o n d saine cloud cannot cl~oosebut fall by pailfuls. [Sees Caliban.1 W h a t have we here, a man? or a f i s h dead or alive? A fish. H e sinells like EL fish-a very ancient and fishlike smell-a kind of, not of the newest, poor-johna strange fish! Were I in England now-as once I rras-and had but this fish painted, not a holiday fool there b u t would give a piece of silver; there would this monster make a man: a n y strange beast there makes a man ! \Then they will not give a doit t o rcliere a lame beggar, they will lay out ten t o see n dead Indian. Legg'd like a man, and his fins like arms ! \Varrn, o' my t r o t h ! I d o now let loose my opinion, hold it no longer: this is no fish hut an islander, t h a t h a t h lately suffered by a thunderbolt. [Thunder.] Alas, the storm is come again! My best way is t o creep under his gaberdine: there is no other shelter hereabout. Misery acquaints a man with strange bedfellows! I mill here shroud toillthe dregs of the s t o r i ~ be past. [Creeps under Calibnn's garment.] Enter Stephnno s.i.?2.gi.m~.
Stephano. I sholl no more to sea, t o sea; Here shall I die ashore.
21 bombard leather wine jug. 27 poor-john salt hake (a lcind of fish). 29 painted i.e. on n board to sdvertise the eshibit-ion (cf. Macbelh, V.i.54-5); Malone cites marly references to this practice. 31 make a man make a rniln's fortune (with a pun, explained in the Iollowi~lgclause). 32 doit almost morlhlesv Dutch coir~. 34 dead Indian such as mere displayed i n England, In the Elizabethan ecluivalent of a side show. 39 gaberdine cloak. 41 shroud take shelter.
TXlE T E N P I C S T , 1 1 . O
This is a very scurvy tune t o sing a t a man's funeral! Well, here's my comfort. Drinks [and tlie7t] sings.
The master, the swabber, the bootswain, and I, The gunner and his mate Lovld Moll, Meg, and Marian, and Margery, But none of us car'd for Kate. For she had a tcngue with a tong, Would cry t o a sailor, go hang! She lov'd not the savor of tar nor of pitch, Yet a tailor might scratch her wherere she did itch. Then t o sea, boys, and let her g o hang!
D rinks . Calibn?~. Do not tnornleritme! O ! Steplzti,n,o. JVl~at'sthe m a t t e r ? H a v e wc divels here? Do you p u t tricks upon's with salvages 2nd men of fnde? h a ? I have not 'scnp'd drowrliilg t o bc nfcnl-d now of your four legs ; f o r it hath bin said, 'as proper u marl us ever went on four legs cannot innlte him give ground,' and it shall be said so again, while S tepl~anobreathes at' nostrils. 65 Cabibnn. The spirit torments me ! 0 ! Stephano. This is some monster of the isle with four legs, who hat11 got-as I take it-an nguc. Where the dive1 should he learn our language? I ~villgive him somc relief if i t be b u t for t h a t ! I f I can recover Iiini and keep hirn tame, and g e t t o Naples with him, lie's a present f o r a n y emperor t h a t ever trod on
47 swabber one who kept the ship clean. 59 salvages savages. 69 recover restore. 72 neat's leather leather from cattle of the ox kind.
This is a scurvy tune, too: but here's my comfort.
T E E T E M P E S T , 11.
Calibar~. D o not torment me, prithee! I'll bring my wood home faster. 74 Stephano. He's in his fit now, and does not talk after the wisest. H e shall taste of my bottle! I f he have never drunk mine afore, i t will go near t o remove his fit. If I can recover liinz and keep him tame, I will not take too much for him ;he shall pay f o r him 80 t h a t h a t h him, and t h a t soundly. Cnliban. Thou dost me yet but little hurt. Thou wilt a n o n ; I know it by thy trembling. Now Prosper works upon thee. 83 Sfephano. Come on your ways-open your mouth -1wre is t h a t which will give language t o you, cat. Opcn your mouth! This will shnkc your shaking, I can tell you, and t h a t soundly. You cannot tell mho'c ,your friend. Open your chaps again. 88 TrincuJo. I should know t h a t voice! It should b e but lle is drown'd, and these arc divcls. 0 defend me ! Step?la.no.F o u r legs and two voices-a most delicate monster! EIis forward voice now is t o speak well of his friend; his backward voice is t o utter foul speeehcs and t o cletract. I f all the wine in my bottle mill recover him, I will help his ague. Come! Amen ! I will pour some in thy other mouth. 96 Trinculo. Stepliano ! Stepllano. Doth t h y otller mouth call me? Mercy, mercy! This is a dive1 and no monster! I will leave loo him : I have no long spoon. Trinculo. Stephano ! If thou beest Stephano, touch
70 I . . him no price will be too high for him. 82 thy trembling i.e. Tri~~culo's. 85 language . cat in reference to an old proverb, 'Liquor will mrtkc ti cat speak.' 100 long spoon i n reference t o the proverb, 'He that would eat wit.h tho devil needs a long
. T H E T E M P E S T , 11.
me and speak t o me, f o r 1 am Trinculo-be not afeard-thy good friend Trinculo. 103 Sf.ephan0. If t l ~ o ubeest Trinculo, come forth! I'll pull thee by the lesser legs. If a n y be Trinculo's legs, these a r c they . Thou art very Trinculo indeed! How cam'st thou t o be the siege of this mooncalf? Cali he vent Trinculos? 108 Trinculo. I took him t o be kill'd with a thunderstroke. B u t a r t thou n o t drown'd, Stcphano? I: hope now thou art; not drown'd! Is the storm over-blown? I hid me under the dead mooncalf's gaberdine, for fear of the storm. And a r t thou living, Stephano? 0 Stephano, two Neapolitans 'scsp'd? 114 Stephano. Prithee d o not turn me about-my stomacli is not constant. Calibalz. These he fine things and if they be nut sprites ! That's a brave gocl, and bears celestial liquor. I will kneel t o hini. 119 Stepka~zo. I'Iow didst thou 'scapc? How cam'st thou hither? Swear by this bottle how thou cam's-t hither! I escap7d upon a b u t t of sack which the sailors llcnvcd oreboard, bv this bottle! which I made of the b:trk of a tree with mine own hands since I was cast ashore. Calibnn. I'll swear upon t h a t bottle t o be thy true 126 subject, for the liquor is not earthly. Stephano. Herc! Swear then how thou escap'dst. Trincu.10. Swum ashore, man, like a duck ! I can : wirn like a duck, I'll be sworn. 129 Stephano. Herc, kiss the book. [Trinculo drin1:s.l
107 siege excrement. mooncalf a mooncaZj was a shapeless abortion, thought to bc caw-cd by the action of the moon. 117 and if if. 130 kiss the book joking rcicrcncc t o the custom of kissing the Bible after swearing on i t ace I. 125 above.
T H E T E M P E S T . 11.
Though thou canst swim like a duck, thou a r t made like a goose. T'i'inculo. 0 Stepllano, hast any more of this? Stephano. T h e whole butt, man! My cellar is in a rock-by th' seaside, where my wine i s hid. How now, 136 mooncnlf .? How does thine ague? CaEibanp. H a s t thou not dropp'd from heaven? Steph.a.no. O u t o' th' i11ool1, I do assure thee. I was 139 the man i' th' moon, when time was. Cnlibnn. I h a r e seen tilee in her-and I do adore thee! My nlistress show'd me thee, a n d thy dog, : ~ n d t h y bush. Stephano. Come, swear t o t h a t ! Kiss the book ! I will 144 furnish it anon with new contents ! Swear. [Cnl,iban.drinlcs.] Trinculo. B y this good light, this is s very shallow monster! I afeard of him? n very n7ea.k monster! T h e man i' th' moon? A most poo; credulous monster ! Well drawn, monster, in sooth. Cnl.iba.rt. I'll show thee every fertile inch 0' th' island --and I mill kiss t h y foot ! I prithee, be my god. 150 Trinculo. By this light, a most perfidious and drunken monster; when's god's asleep he'll rob hir: bottle. C(l7iban. 1'11 kiss t h y foot. I'll swear myself t h y subject. 155 Stcphn~zo, Come 011, then-down and swear. Tri?~c.ulo.I shall laugh myself t o death a t this puppy-headed monster! A most scurvy monster! I could find in my h e a r t t o beat him130 when time was once upon a time. 141-2 thy dog . bush in reference t o a n old tale that the man in t h e moon was banished there with his dog for gathering brush on Sunday. 148 drawn
Stephnno. Come, kiss.
Trinczclo. B u t t h a t the poor monster's in drink. An abominable monster ! Caliban. I'll show thee the best springs; I'll pluclc thec berries ; 1'11 fish for thec, and get thee wood enough. 165 A plague upon the t y r a n t t h a t I serve ! I'll bear hi111 no inore sticks, but follow thee, Thou wondrous man. Tri.ncztlo. A most ridiculous monster, t o inakc a wonder of a poor drunkard. Coliban. I prithee let me bring thee where crabs 170 grow ; And I with nlv long nails will dig thee pignuts, Slrow thee n jay's nest, and instruct thee how T o snare the nimble marmoset; I'll bring thee T o clust'ring filberts, and sometimce I'll get thee 171 Young s ~ l ~ ~ nfrom e l s the rock. JCTilt thou go with me? Stcphrrao. I prithee now, lead the wag without ally 11loi-e talking. Trinculo, the king and all our company else being drown'd, we will inherit here. Here, bear inp bottle ! Fellow Trinculo, we'll fill him by and by again. Caliban sings dr~~:nlcenly.
Coliban. Farewell, master; farewell, farewell!
Trinculo. A howling monster ! a drunken monster !
Coliban. [Singing.] N o more dams 1'11 make for fish, Nor fetch in firing At requiring, 184 Nor scrape trenchering, nor wash dish.
170 crabs crabapples. 175 scamels probably the bird called the sea me11 (mew). 179 by and by right awny. 185 trenchering trenchers.
T H E T E M P E S T , 11.
'Ban, 'Ban, Co-Caliban Has a new master-get a new man.
Freedom, high-dng ! high-day, freedom ! freedom, high-day , freedonl ! 189 Sfcphano. 0 brave monster ! lead the wa,y. Exeunt.
188 high-day heyday,
Enter Ferdinand, bearing a bog. Ferdinand. Thcre be some sports are painful, and
their labor Delight in thein sets off; some kinds of Eascness Arc nobly unclergonc, and most poor matters Point t o rich ends. T h i s my mean task J Would be as heavy t o me as odious, b u t T h e mistress which I serve quickens what's dead And makes my labors plertsurcs. 0 she is Ten times more gentle t h a n her father's crabbed, And he's compos'd of harshness. I nlust remove lo Some thousands of these logs and pile them up, Upori a sore injunction. My sweet inistress Weeps when she sees me work, and says such baseness Had never like executor. I forget; Hut these sweet thoughts d o even refresh my labors, Most busy lest, when I do it,
Enter Mirarcda and Prospero [be7bind her and unseen]. Miranda. Alas, now pray you W o r k n o t so h a r d ! I ~ o u l d the lightning h a d le B u r n t u p those logs t h a t you a r e enjoin'd t o pile :
1 be are. are which are. painful Iaborious. 2 Delight . off the pleasure they arouse compensates for their labor. sets F set. 11 Upon injuiiction on pain of severe punishment. 13 I forget i.e. my task. 15 Lest lea&. Most it N.
T H E T E M P E G T , 111. r
P r a y set i t down and rest you; when this burns 'Twil1 wcep for having wearied you. My fnLher 20 I s hard a t study ; p r a y now rest yourself: He's safe for these three hours. Ferc.i?zand. 0 most dear mistress, The sun will set before I shall discharge I'Vhr~t P must strive t o do. ,Jliru.ndn.. If you'll sit down I'll bear your logs the while-pray give Ine t h a t ; I'll c a r r y i t t o the pile. Fe?-dhzand. No, precious creature, es I had rather crack my sinews, break my back, T h a n you should such dishonor undergo IYhile I sit lazy by. fifi~a#ndn. It would become me As well as it docs you, and I should do it 30 W i t h much more ease, f o r my good ail1 is t o it And yours it is against. Prosy ero. Poor worm, thou a r t infected ; This visitation shows it. nfita,nda. You look wearily. Ferdinand. No, noble mistress, 'tis f r c s l ~morning with me When you a r e by a t night. I do beseech you, 35 Chiefly t h a t I might set i t in my prayers, W h a t is your name? lliranda. 0 my fa thcr, ~ll'ira?zda. I have broke your hest t o say so. Ferdina,n,d. Admir'd Miranda, Indeed the t o p of admiration, worth
19 'Twill weep the sap (or pitch) will look like tears. 33 visitatio~
N. 37 hest c o m ~ a n d .Admir'd Miranda a play on Rfirnnda's
TIIE T E M P E S T , 111. I
What's dearest t o the world: full many a lady 40 ninny a time Th' hnrrno~lyof their tongues hnth into bondage Brougllt iny too diligent e a r ; f o r several virtues Have I lik'd severnl women, never a n y \Tit11 so full soul, b u t some defect in her Did quarrel wit11 the noblest grncc she om'd And p u t it t o the foil. B u t you, 0 you, So perfect a n d so peerless, are created Of eyery creature's best. Jiiranda. I do not know One of iny sex, no woman's face remember 50 Savc from my glass mine own, nor h a r e I seen More t h a t I m a y call men than you, good friend, And my dear f a t h e r : how features are abroad I a m skilless o f ; b u t by my modestyT h c jewel in my dower-I would not wish Any cornpanion in the world b u t you ; Nor can imagination form a shape Besides yourself t o like of. B u t I p r a t t l e Something too wildly and 11ly father's precepts I therein do forget. Ferdinand. I am, in my condition, 60 A prince, Miranda-I do think n kingI would not s w a n d would no more endure This \voorlen slavery t h a n to suffer T h e flesh-fly blow my mouth. Hear my soul speak: T h e very instant t h a t I saw you did 09 My h e a r t fly t o y o u r service, there resides
I have ep'd with best regard, and
45 ow'd owned. 40 put foil 'challenged i t to a fencing match,' with a play on foil in the sense of 'defeat' (OED). 47 peerless F peef-lesse. 53 skilless ignorant. 59 condition rank. 5 9 4 3 N. 63 flesh-fly a fly which lays its eggs in dead flesh. blow sully. 6l
T o make me slave t o i t and for your sake Am I this patient log-man. Miranda. D o SOU love me? Ferdinand. 0 heaven, 0 earth, bear witness t o this sound, And crown what I profess with liind event 70 If I speak t r u e ;if hollowly, invert W h a t best is boded me t o mischief: I, Beyond all limit of what else i' th' world D o love, prize, honor you. Miranda. I a m a fool To weep a t what I urn glad of. Prospero. Fair encounter Of two most r a r e affections ! Heavens r a i n grace 75 On t h a t which breeds between 'em. Ferdinand. Wherefore weep you ? illiranda. A t mine unworthiness, t h a t dare not offer W h a t I desire t o give a - ~ 2much lcss take What I shall die t o want, But this is trifling 80 And all the n ~ o r e i t seeks t o hide itself T h e bigger bulk it shows. Hence, bashful cunning, And p r o m p t me, plain and holy innocence. I a1n your wife if you will m a r r y mc; If not I'll die your maid. T o be your fellow 85 You m a y deny me, but 1'11 be your servant Whether you will o r no. Ferdinand. My n~istress,dearest ! And I thus humble ever. Afirnmda. My husband, then?
60 event outcome. 70 hollowly falsely. 70-1 invert mischief turn into bad fortune all the good that is to befall me. 72 what mything. $4 maid play on 'maidservant' and 'unmarried woman'; cf. following line. fellow mate, equsl. 62
T n E T E M P E S T , 111. li
Ferdinand. Ay, with a heart as willing As bondage ere of freedom! Here's my hand. Miranda. And mine, with my heart in't; and now
Till half an h o u r hence. Ferdinand. A thousand thousand ! Exsunt. Prospero. S o glad of this as they I cannot be W h o a r c surpris'd wit11 all, but my rejoicing ' l l t o my book, A t nothing can be more! I
F o r yet ere supper time must I perform &Iuch business appertaining.
Enter Caliban, Stepkano, and T r i n c d o . Stephano. Tell n o t me--when the b u t t is out n e will
dritlk water, not cz d r o p bcfore; therefore bear u p
and board 'em. Servant monster, drink t o mc. 3 Trinculo. Servant monster? T h e folly of this island! They say there's b u t five upon this isle; we are thrce cf thern. I f tll' other two be brslin'd lilre us, the s t a t e totters. Step71a)no. Drink, servant monster, when I bid tilee. B T h y eyes a r e almost set in thy head. Trincu.lo. Where should they be set else? EIe were a brave monster indeed if they were set in his tail.
89 bondage freedom one in bondage ever welcomeci free dom. 03 w i t h all i.c. all that hm happened (or perhaps tc+illtal, 'thereby,' is meant). 2-3 bear 'em obvious nauticzl phraseology. 9 set fixed in a stare. 10 were would be. 11 brave admirable.
Stephano. Ptly man-monster h a t h drown'd his tongue sack. F o r my p a r t , the sea cannot drown me. I s w a m ere I could recover the shore, five and t h i r t y lengncs off and on. By this light thou shalt be my lieutenant, monster, or m y standard. 16 Tl'i72cu10. Y o u r lieutenant, if you list-he's 1 1 0
Stephano. We'll not run, Monsieur Monster. Trbnculo. N o r g o neither; b u t you'll lie like dogs, 21 and yet s a y nothing, neither. Stephar~o.h90011calf, speak once in thy life, if thou
Caliba?~. How does t h v honor? L e t me lick t h y shoe.
25 I'll n o t serve him-lle is not valiant. Trinculo. Thou licst, most ignorant. monster ! I am in case t o justle a constable! Why, thou debosh'd tish, .I;Ilou, was there ever man a cownrtl. t h a t h a t h dru~lk so much sack as I today? Wilt tllou tell a rnonstroirs lie, being but half u fish and half ,z monster? Culibnn. Lo, how he mocks me! Wilt thou let him, lord? Trinculo. 'Lord,' quoth he? T h a t a monster should 34 be such a. n a t u r a l ! Caliban. Lo, lo again! Bite him t o death, I prithee! Step11,ano. Trinculo, keep a good tongue in your hcad! I f you prove a mutineer-the n e s t tree! The poor monster's my subject and he shall not suffer indignity. 39
17 list meaning both 'desire' and 'careen.' l S standard meaning both 'ensign' (standard bearer) and 'support' (for Stephano, who, like Caliban, is tipsy). 19 run double-entendre ('run fro~n an enemy' snd 'excrete'). 20 lie double-entendre ('prevaricate' and 'excrete'). 27 case condition. debosh'd debauched. 34 natural idiot.
THE TEMPEST, 111.2
Ca.liban. I thank my noble lord. Wilt t,hou be pleas'd t o hearken once again t o the suit 1 made t o thee? Stephano. M a r r y will I . Kneel and repeat it. I will stand and so shall T1-inculo. Enter d riel, i.rz.vl:sible. Caliban. As I told thee before, I am subject t o a tyrant, n sorcerer, t h a t by his cunning h a t h cheated lrle of tllc island. 46 Ariel. Thou liest. Caliban. [ T o Trinculo.] T h o u liest, thou jesting monkey, thou! I would my vitlialit master would cle50 stroy thee. I do not lie. Stephano. Trinculo, if you trouble him a n y more in's tale, by this ha~lclT will supplant some of your teeth. Trinculo. JVhy, I said nothing. Stephcr no. hlun~, then, ancl n o more ! Proceed. 55 Caliban. I say bv sorcery he g o t this isle F r o m me, he got it. I f t h y greatness will, Revenge i t on him-for I know thou dar'st But this thing clare not. Stephano. That's most certain. 60 Cnliban. Thou shalt 11e lord of it, and 1'11 serve thee. Sfcpha,~~ H oo . w now shall this be compass'd? Canst thou bring me t o the party? Caliba.n. Yea, yea, niy lord, 1'11 yield him thee asleep 6s Where thou mag'st kiloclr a nail into his head. Ariel. Thou liest. Thou canst not. Carliban. W h a t a pied ninny's this? T h o u scurvy patch ! I do beseech thy greatness, give hinl blows
69 thing Trinuulo. 67 pied ninny fool i n motley. 68 patch dolt. 66
T H E T E M P E S T , 111. 9
And take his bottle from him! When that's gone 69 He shall drink nought but brine, for 1'11 not show him Where the quick freshes arc. Stephano. Trinculo, run into no further danger! i n t e r r u p t the monster one word further and by this hand 1'11 t u r n my mercy out o' doors and malie a otockfish of thee. 75 Trinculo. l~T1ly what did I? I did nothing! I'll g o farther oft'. Stepha,n,o. Didst thou not say he lied? Arie2. Thou liest. 79 Stephano. D o I so? Take thou t h a t ! [Wits T r h ~ulo.] As you like this, give me the lie another time. T~inc.u,lo. I did not give the lie ! Out o' your wits, and hearing too? A pox o' your bottle. This can sack and drinking do ! A murrain on your monster and the 85 dive1 take your fingers ! Ca.liban.Ha h a h a ! Step7iano. Now forward with your tale ! [ T o Trinc d o . ] Prithee stand further off. Cnliban. Beat him enough! After a little time I'll beat him too. 90 Stephano. Stand farther ! [ T o Ca.libam.1 Come, proceed.
Caliban. IVhg, as I told thee, 'tis a custom with him 1 ' th' afternoon t o sleep ;there thou mays t brain him, 95 Having first seiz'd his books, or with a log B a t t e r his sKUii,o r paunch him with a stake, Or eui his wezand with thy knife. Remember First t o possess his books, for without them He's b u t a sot, as I am, nor h a t h not
71 quick freshes springs. 75 stockfish dried cod which had to be beaten soft before it could be cooked. 84 murrain cattle disease. 37 wezand wkdpipe. 99 sot fool.
,BE T E M P E S T , 111. L
100 One spirit t o command: they all do hate him As rootedly as I. Burn but his books. so he calls thcmH e has brave utensils-for Which when he has a house he'll deck withal. And t h a t most deeply t o co~lsider is 105 T h e beauty of his daughter: he himself Calls ller a nonpareil. I never saw a wonlan But on1y Sy cor a x my dam and she ; But. shc as far surpasseth Sycorax As great'st does least. Is i t so brave a lass? Stcp7t.nlrzo. Calibnn. Ay, lord, she will become t h y bed, I w a r rant, 110 And bring thee forth brave brood. Stephano. Monster, I mill kill this man! His daught e r and I will be king and queen, save our Graces! and Trinculo and thyself shall be viceroys ! Dost thou like the plot, Trinculo? 115 Trinculo. Excellent. Ste?hnlrto. Give me t h y hand ;I am sorry I beat thec ! But while thou liv'st keep a good tongue in t h y head. Calibnn. Within this half hour mill he be asleep. Wilt thor. destroy him then ? Stephano. Ay, on my llonor. 120 Ariel. This nrill I tell m y master. Calibnn. T h o u mak'st me merry: I a m full of pleusurc ; Eet us be jocund. JVill you troll the catch 124 You t a u g h t me but whilere? Stepllano. A t t h y request, rnonstcr, I will do reason, 102 utensils stressed " - ". 103 deck withal furnish it with.
104 that that which is. 123 troll the catch sing the song: a catch was 'a round in OIIC singer catches at the words of another, producing ludicrous effects' (OED). 124 whilere a while ago.
THIS T E M P E S T , 1 1 1
a n y reason. Come on, Trinculo, let us sing.
Flout ' e m and scout 'em-and
Thought is free.
scout 'em and flout 'em;
Calibnn. That's not the tune. Ariel pla,ys the Zu/rze on a tabor and pipe. 130 Stepha~zo.W h a t is this same? Trinculo. This is the tune of our catch, play'd by the picture of No-body. Stephano. If thou beest a man, show thyself in thy likei~ess : if thou becst n divel, take't as thou list. 135 T T ~ T ~0 Cforgive Z~O. me my sins. Stephano. I-Ie t h a t dies pays all debts. I defy thee; mercy upon us ! Caliban. A r t thou afeavd? Steph.ano. No, monster, not I. Caliban,. Be not afcard, thc isle is full of noises, 140 Souilds and sweet airs that give delight and h u r t not. Sometimes a thousand twangling instruments RTillhum about mine ears, and sometime voices T h a t if I then had walr'd a f t e r long sleep Will make me sleep again; and then in dreaming 146 The clouds methought vould open and show &hes Rencly t o d r o p upor1 me, t h a t when I mak'd I cried t o dreain again. Stepha.no. This will prove a brave kingdom t o me, 190 where I shall have my nlusic for nothing. Caliba,n. Illhen Prospero is destroy'd. Stephasno. T h a t shall be by and by : I remember the story.
127 scout F prints cout Ltle first time, scout the second. SD tabor mall drum. 132 picture of No-body N. 140 noises music. 68
T H E T E M P E S T , 111. 2
Trinculo. T h e sound is going away. Let's follow it 155 and a f t e r do our work. Stephano. Lead, monster, we'll follow. I would I could see this t a b o r e r ; he lays it on. Z'rinculo. W i l t come? I'll follow, Stephano. Exezunt.
Eoeter Alonso, Sebn.stia.n, Antonio, Gonxalo, Adrian, Francisco, etc. Gonxabo. By': Iakin, I can go no further, sir. My old bones aches ; here's a maze trod indeed Through forthrights and meanders; by your patience, I nceds must rest me. Old lord, I cannot blame thee Alonso. 5 \Vho am myself attach'd with weariness T o th' dulling of my spirits : sit d o ~ v n and rest. Even here I will p u t off my hope and keep it No longer f o r my flatterer: he is dro~11'4 Whom thus we s t r a y t o find and the sen moclis 10 Our f r u s t r a t e search on land. Well, let him go. Antonio. [ T o Sebastian,.] I am right glad t h a t he's so o u t of h o l ~ c . Do n o t f o r one forgo the purpose T h a t you resolv'd t' efl'ect.
1 lakin Ladykin (tho Virgin Mary). 2 aches old variant plural form of verb. 3 forthrights straight paths. meanders winding paths. 5 attach'd scizcd. 6 To t h ' to tho point of. spirits vitjaC strength. 10 frustrate vain. 69
T H E T E M P E S T , 111. Q
Will we t a k e throughly.
T h e next advantage
Antonio. L e t i t be tocighi, 15 F o r now they a r e opprcss'd with travel, they Will not nor cannot use such vigilance As when they a r e fresh. Sebastian. I s a y tonight: no more. SoLa7nn and strange szusic, and Prosper on the top, invisible. Alonso. W h a t harmony is this? My good friend,, hark! Gon.zalo. Rlarvelous sweet music.
Enter seceral strange shnpes bringin.g in a banlcet; and dance about i t w i t h gentle actions of saluta-tiolzj,
and inniting the king, etc. t o eat, tliey depart. Alonso. Give us kind keepers, heavens! W h a t were these ? Sebnstian. A living drollery ! Now I will believe T h a t there a r e unicorns ! t h a t in A d i a There is one tree, the phoenix' throne, one phoenix A t this hour reignil.,n~ there. Antonio. I'll believe 1-2t11! ,And what does else want credit, come t o me And I'll be sworn 'tis true! Travelers nere did iie, Though fools a t home condemn 'em. Gon.zalo. I f in Naples I sllould report this now, would they believe me? If I should s a y I saw such islandersr,o F o r certes these a r e people of the islandWho though they a r c of monstrous shape yet, note, 14 throughly thoroughly. SD Prosper on the top N. 20 keepers
guardian angels. 21 drollery puppet ahow. 23 phoenix N. 29 i s landers F islands. GO
THE TEMPEST, III.
Their manners are more gentle, kind, t h a n of Our hurnan generation you shall find Many, nay almost any. Prospero. [Aside.] Honest lord, 34 Thou hast said well: for some of you there present Are worse t h a n divels. I cannot too much muse Alonso. Such shapes, such gesture, and such sound expressingAlthougll they want the use of tongue-a kind Of excellent dunlb discourse. Prospero. [Aside.] Praise in depnrting. 39 Francisco. They vanish'd strangely. Sebastian.. N o mattcry since They have left their viands behind, for we have stomachs. Will't please you taste of urhat is here? Alonso. Not I . Gonzalo. Faith, sir, you need not fear! When we were boys Who uvould believe t h a t there were mountaineers Dcwlappyd lilrc bulls, whose throats had hanging a t 'em 45 T'kTnlletsof flesh? o r t h a t there were such men Vlhose heads stood in their breasts? which now we find Each p u t t e r out of five for one will bring us Good warrant of. I will stand t o and feed. Alonso. 50 Although my last, no matter, since I feel
36 muse marvel at. 37 gesture bearing. 39 Praise in departing proverbial: 'X7ait until the end of the entertainment before you pr:rise it.' 45 putter one N. 61
THE TEbIPEST. 111.
T h e best is p a s t : brother, m y lord the duke, S t a n d t o a n d do a s we.
Thunder and 2igTttn;Sng. Enter Ariel like a hcwpy, claps Itis wi:ngs upon the table, and with a q26&~&t device the bar~qzcetua.nishes. Ariel. You a r e three men of sin, w h o n ~ destinyT h a t hat11 t o instrument this lower world And what is in't-the never surfeited sea Hath caus'd t o belch u p you, and on this island \17here man cloth not inhabit, you 'mongst men Being most unfit t o live; I have made you mad, And even with sucll-like valor men h a n g and drown Their proper selves.
[Alon,so, etc., draw their sruords.] You fools ! I and my fellows 60 Are ministers of f a t e ; the elements Of whom y o u r svords are ternper'd may a s well TI7ound the loud winds, o r rsrlth bemock'd-at stabs 64 Rill t h e still closing waters as diminish One dowl that's in my plume ! M y fellow ministers you could hurt, Are like invulnerable-if Your swords a r e now too inass? for your strengths And will n o t be uplifteci. B u t rememberyou three F o r that's my business t o you-that 70 Froin Milan did supplant good Prospero, Expos'd unto the sea-dich h s t h rcyuit itEIim and his innocent child ; f o r wl~ichfoul deed T h c powers, delaping-not forgetting-liave Irrcens'd the seas and shores, yea all thc creatures
SD quaint ingenious. the banquet vanishes i.e. under the concealment of Ariel's wing8 (cf. Aeneid 111.22548). 54 hath to instrument uses for its own ends. 55 surfeited N. 60 proper own. 65 dour1 feather. ministers agents. 71 requit it retaliated (by wrecking
Alonso and his party). 62
T H E T E M P E S T , 111. 3
75 Against your peace: thee of thy son, Alonso, They have bereft and do pronounce by me: Ling'ring perdition-worse than any death Call be a t once-shall step by step attend You and your ways, ~vhoseFraths t o guard you from80 Which here in this most dcso1at.e isle else falls Upon your heads-is nothing but heart's sorrow And a clear life ensuing.
He ~ a ~ n i s l i in. e s thunder: thm, t o soft ' N I U , S ~ Center , the shaped again and dance, with mocks alzd nzows, and carrying o u t the fable. TJrospero.Bravely the figure of this h i ~ r p y hnst thou Perform'd, my Ariel; a grace i t had, devouring. 8s Of my instruction h n s t thou nothing bated I r l what thou hadst t o say. So wit11 good life And obscrvntion strange my xncaner ministers Their scvcrnl kincls have ilonc, lily Iiigh charnis work, And tllcsc, llline enemies, a r c all knit up I n their tlistractions ; they now are in my power, 9c And in thcsc fits I leave theni, while I visit Young Fer&nancl-whom they suppose is drown'dAl~d his and mine lov'd darling. [Exit.] Conznlo. I' th' name of something holy, sir, why starid you 111this strange stare? 0, it is monstrous ! nlonstrous ! -4 lonso. 93 Alethought the billom spoke and told me of it.; Tlle wintls did sing i t t o me, and the thunderT h a t deep and dreadful organ pipc-pronounc'd
82 clear blameless. SD mows grimaces. 53 bravely admirably. 84 devouring i.e. pretending to eat the food of the. banquet, 85 bated omitt,ed. 86 with good life like real life.
T I i E T E M P E S T , 111.
T h e name of Prosper! I t did bass m y trespass. 100 Therefore my son i' th' aoze is bedded, and I'll seek him deeper than ere plummet sounded, Em%. And with him there lie mudded. Sebnstia.~~. B u t one fiend a t a timeI'll fight their legions ore! Antonio. I'll be t h y second. Exeunt [Sebastian and Antonio]. Goqzxarlo. All three of tl~crn are desperate! Their g r e a t guilt, 105 Like poison given t o work a great time after, Now 'gins t o bite the spirits. I do beseech you, T h a t a r e of suppler joints, follow tliem swiftly And hilider them frorrl what this ecstasy May now provoke them to. Follow, I p r a y you. A rlrian. E;csunt onmes.
99 bass sang the bass harmony of nature's dirge. 106 bite the spirits impair the vital powers. 108 ecstasy madness.
Act I V
Enter Prospero, Ferdi?zand, an.d Miranda. Prospero. If I have too austerely punish'd you Your compensation makes amends, for I Have given you herc a third of mine own life, Or t h a t f o r which I live, w110 once again I tender t o t h y hand; all thy vexations 5 Were b u t my trials of t h y love, and thou H a s t strangely stood the tcst. Here, afore heaven, I ratify this my rich gift! 0 Ferdinand, D o not smile a t me t h a t I boast her off, 10 F o r thou shalt find she will outstrip all praise And make i t halt behind her. Ferdinand. I d o believe it Against :Ln oracle. Prospero. Then as my gift at~cl thine own acquisition Worthily purchas'd, take my daughter; but 1s I f thou dost break her virgin k n o t before All sanctimonious cel~cmonics InE. With full and holy rite be ~ninist'red, No sweet aspersion sllall the hcavens let fall T o make this contract grour, but barrcn hate, 20 Sour-ey'd disdain, and discord shall bestrew
3 third K. 7 strangely surprisingly well. 9 boast her o f f cf. t11e modern 'show her off';P of. 11 halt limp. 13 gift F gltcst. 16 sanctimonious haljr. 17 rite I" right. 18 aspersion sprinkling of the dew of l)lessing.
TIIE T E M P E S T , I V . 1
The union of your bed wit.11 weeds so louthly That you shall hate it both. Thcrrfore take heed As Hymen's lamps shall light you. Fcrdi;~~c?~tzd. As I hope For quiet days, fair issue, and long life 25 t5'itA such love as 'tis now, the mu~.kiestdcn, The most opportune place, the s trong'st suggestion Our worser genius can, shall never melt &line honor into lust, t o take away 29 The edge of t h a t day's celebration When I shall think or Phoebus' steeds a r e founder'd, Or Night kept chain'd below. Prnspero. Fairly spoke. S i t then axld talk with her; she is thine own. [ T h e y sit apart.] What, Ariel! my industrious servant, Ariel ! Enter Ariel. Ariel. What mould my potent master? Here I am. Prospero. T h o u and thy meaner fellows your last service 35 Ditl worthily perform, and I must use you I n such another trick. Go bring tlze rabbleOre whom I give thee power-here t o this place. Iacitc thein t o quick motion, f o r I must 40 Bestow upon the eyes of this young couple Sorlie vanity of miue a r t : it is my promise And they expect it from me, Aria!. Presently? Prospe9.0. Ay, with n twinck. 26 opportune stressed - "-. 27 worser genius N. 28 to so as to.
.29 edge keen enjoyment. 30 Phoebus' Apollo, god of the EUU. iounder'd gone lame. 30-1 or . below i.e. eternal day, time ~t,andizlg still. 37 trick ingenious piece of mechanism (Arden ed.). 41 vanity illusion. 42 Presently immediately.
T H E T E M P E S T , IV.
Ariel. Before you can say 'come' and 'go,' 45 And breathe twice, and cry 'so, so,' E a c h one tripping on his toe Will be here with mop and mow D o you love me, master? no? Prospcro. Dearly, my delicate Ariel! D o n o t approach 49 Till thou dost hear me call. Ahel. Well ! I conceive. &it. Prospero. [Back t o Ferdinand.] Look thou be true: d o not give dalliance T o o much the reign ; the strongest oaths are straw T o th' fire i' th' blood. Be more abstemious, Or else good night your vow. Ferdinn.n.d. I warrant you, sir, 59 T h e white cold virgin snow upon my heart Abates the ardor of my liver. Prospcro. Well. Now coine, my Ariel, bring a corollary Rutller t h a n want a spirit ; appear, and pertly. N o tongue--all eves-be silent. ..Soft nzusic. Enter Iris. 60 Iris. Ceres, most bounteous lady, t h y rich leas Of wheat., rye, barley, fetches, oats, and peas; T h y t u r f y lnount ains where live nibbling sheep, And flat meads tlietch'd with stover, theln t o lteep ;
47 mop and mow grimaces. 50 conceive understand. 56 liver popularly supposed t o be the origin of t.he love passions. 57 corollary extra spirit. 58 pertly promptly. 60 Iris nlessenger of the gods, uniting gods and man. Ceres goddess of agriculture and marriage. 61 fetches 'vetch,' a leguminous plant. 63 thetch'd thatched. stover fodder. keep provide with fodder.
T H E T E M P E S T , IV. I
T h y banks with pioncd and twilled brims 6s Which spongy April a t thy hcst betrims T o make cold nymphs chaste crowns ; and t h y broom groves Whose shadow the dismissed bachelor loves, Bciilg lass-lorn : thy poll-clipp'd vineyard ; 89 And t h y sea-nllnrge stirrilc and rocky-hard, Where thou thyself dost air-the queen o' th' sky, \ihose wat'ry arch and messenger a m I, Bids thee leave these and wit,h her sovereign grace June [begins t o ] descend. Here 011 this grass plot in this w r y place T o co~rlc and sport. I-Icr peacocks fly anlain. Approach, rich Ceres, her t o entertain.
Ceres. Hail, many-color'd messenger, t h a t nere Dost disobey the wife of Jupiter ; Who v i t h t h y saffron wings upon my flowers Diffusest honey drops, refreshing showers, 80 And wi-tl-,each end of thy blue bow dost crown My bosky acres and my unshrubb'd down, Rich scarf t o my proud e:~rIli-why hat11 .thy queen Sunlnlon'd me hithcr t o this short-grass'tl green T Iris. A contract of true love t o celebrate 85 Atld sonle donation freely t o estate On the blcss'd lovers.
64 pionecl and twilled N. 65 hest command, 66 broom a flowering shrub. 68 poll-clipp'd F pob-clipl. vineyard herc trisyllabic. 60 stirrile fibrile. 71 wat'ry arch rainbow. messenger Iris nraa the particular messengor of Jtino us ell as personification o f the r:iinhow. 73 grace majesty. SD Juno . descend N. 74 amain iu full force. 80 bow rainbow. 81 bosky bushy. unshrubb'd do&= volling, troelcss hills. 85 estate bcstow.
r H E T E M P E S T , IV. I
Ceres. Tell me, heavenly bow, I f Venus o r her son, as thou dost linow, D o nonr attend the queen? Sir~cc they did plot Thc means t h a t dusky Dis n ~ y daughter got, BO H e r and her blind boy's srandal'd cornpany I have forsworn. Iris. Of her society Be not afraid ; I met her deity Cutting the clouds towards Paphos, and her son Do-.re-dram with her. Here thought they t o have done Somc wanton charm upon this 1na.n and inaid 95 JYhose vows a r e t h a t no bedrite shall be paid '.rill Hymen's torch be lighted : b ~ in t rain: Mars's h o t rniniorl is return'd again; 99 H e r waspish-headed son has broke his arrows, Swears hc mill shoot no more but play with sparrows And be a boy right out. Ceres. I-Iighcst quecn of state, Great J u n o comes ;1 know her by her gait.
[Enter Ju,,no.] Juno. H o w does my bouilteous sister? Go with me T o bless this twain, t h a t they may prosperous be 104 And honor'd in their issue. They sing.
Juno. Honor, riches, marriage, blessing, Long continuance and increasing,
89 that by which. Dis Fluto, who stole Proserpine, Ceres' daughter. 90 blind boy's Cupid's. scandal'd scandalous. 93 Paphos oue of the seats of worship of Venus. 96 bedrite F bed-right. 1 1 8 Mars's hot minion Venus was the mistress of Mars; li' ,'farses. 98 waspish-headed spiteful. 100. sparrows associated with worhip of Venus. 102 gait royal walk. 104 prosperous a pun on
'Proapero's' is possible.
THE TEMPEST, I V . 1
Hourly joys, be still upon you, Juno sings her blessings on you. Ceres. Earth's increase, foison plenty, Barns and garners never empty, Vines with clust'ring bunches growing, Plants with goodly burthen bowing: Spring come t o you a t the farthest I n the very end of harvest! Scarcity and want shall shun you; Ceres' blessing so is on you.
Ferdinand. This is a most majestic vision and Harinonious charmingly ;rntty I bc bold T o think these spirits ? Spirits which by mine art Pros yero. I have from their confines call'd t o enact R$y present fancies. Lct me live here ever ! Ferdi?zn.n.d. So rare a mond'rcd f s t l ~ c r and a wise Makes this place paradise. Juno and Ceres whisper, and se~zdIris onl e.mplroy~t72ent. Prospero. Sweet now, silence.
125 J u n o a n d Ceres whisper seriously. Thcrc's sonletl~ing else t o &hush and be mute Or elsc our spell is marr'd. Iris. You nymphs, crrll'd naiads, of the xindring brooks,
108 still alwaytr. 110 Ceres speech ascription omitted in F.Earth's here disyllabic (read 'earthed). foison abundance of harvest. 114 Spring farthest i.c. eliminating winter. 119 charmingly magically. 123 wond'red possc~sing wonder; cf. 'bearded,' 'blue. employment F placcs t h i ~ eyed,' etc. (Kittredge). SD Juno after 1. 127. 124 Sweet . silence to Miranda, who is about t o speak. 128 windring perhaps rt combination of 'winding' and '~randering.'
TIIE T E M P E S T , I V . 1
Wit11 your sedg'd crowns and ever-harmless looks, Leave y o u r crisp channels and on this green land A~lswcryour surnnlons : J u n o does command. Come, temperate nymphs, and llelp t o celebrate A contract of t r u e love: be 1i0t too late.
Enter certa.in 7z.ymph.s.
sunburn'd sicklemen of August weary, Come hither frorn the furrow and be merry; Llnke holiday, your rye-straw hats p u t on, And these fresh nymphs encounter every one In cou~ltry footing.
Enter certajn reapers, properly habited. T h e y join z:~iththe nynzphs i . na graceful dance, towards tke end zchereof P ~ o s p e r ostarts surldenly nnd speaks, after u~hich,t o a strange hollow and confused noise, t7tey heavil;y vanish.
Prosgero. [Aside.] I h a d forgot t h a t foul conspiracy
140 Of the beast Cnliban and his confederates Against my life. T h e rilinute of their plot I s almost come. [ T o spirits.] JVell done, avoid! no
FerdRn.and. This is strange ! Y o u r father's in same
passion T h a t works him strongly.
iI1irunda. Never till this d a y S a w I him touch'd with anger so distcmper'd. Prospero. You do look, my son, in a mov'cl sort, cheerful, sir. As if you were dismay'd-be
130 crisp rippling. land N . 132 temperate chaste. 138 footing h c i n g . 142 avoid be gone. 145 distemper'd unbalanced, ciia turbcd. 146 sort manner. 71
Our revels now a r e enclcd: these our actorsAs I foretold you-were all spirits and Are n~elted in to air, into thin a i r ; Ancl like the baseless fabric of this vision T h e cloud-capp'd towers, the gorgeous palaces, The solemn temples, the great globe itself, Yea, all which it inherit, shall dissolve And like this insubstantial pageant faded Leave riot n rack behind: we a r e such stuff As dreams are made on, and our little life I s rounded with a sleep. Sir, I a m vex'd; Bear with my weakness, my old brain is troubled ! Be not disturb'd with my infirmity. 100 If you be pleas'd, retire into my cell Anrl there repose; a turn o r two I'll walk T o still my beating mind. Ferdinand. Jlirnnda. W e wish your peace. E x e z ~t~ .t Prnspero. Comc with a thought ! I thank thee, Ariel : Comc !
Enter Ariel. ArieE. T h y thoughts I cleave to. What's thy pleasure? Prospero. Spirit, 165 \'CTe must prepare t o meet with Caliban. Ariel. Ay, m v commander. When I presented Ceres I thought t o have told thee of it, but I fear'd Lest I might anger thee.
154 it inherit posses it. 156 rack moving cloud, with n possible double meaning ('wrack'). 157 on of. 158 rounded with 'rounded off by,' or perhaps 'surrounded by.' 1G3 beating over\~rougilt. 164 Come . thought be summoned by mental telepathy. thank thee spolten to Ariel before he appears. 167 presented e ~ ~ n c t c 168 d . to have rcad 't'luve.'
T H E T E M P E S T , I\'.
Prospero. Say again, where didst thou leave these varlets ? 170 Ariel. I told you, sir, they were red hot with drinking, S o full of valor t h a t they smote the air F o r breathing in their faces, beat the ground F o r kissing of their feet, yet always bcnding 175 Townrds their project. Then I beat m y tabor, At which like unbncli'd colts they prick'd their ears Advsnc9d their eyelids, lifted up their noses As they smelt music; so I chrzrm'd their ears Tliat calflike they my lowing follow'd, through Tooth'd briers, s h a r p furzcs, pricking goss, and thorns, 180 Which ent'red their frail shins. At last I left them I' th' filthy-man tled pool beyolld your cell, There dancing u p t o th' chins, t h a t the foul lake Orestunk their feet. This was well done, my bird. Prospero. 185 T h r shape invisible retain thou still. The trumpery in my house, go bring it hither F o r stale t o catch these thleves. A riel. I go, I go. Exit. Prospero. A devil, n born devil, on whose nature . Nurture can never stick, on wllom my pains, 190 I4rinlancly taken, all, all lost, quite lost, And, as with age, his body uglier grows, So his mind caiikcrs. 1 mill plague them all, Even t o roaring !
176 unback'd unbroken. 180 goss gorse. 182 filthy-mantled m faced with dhiy scum. 186 trumpery trash, rubbish. 187 stale decoy. 193 hang . . on F hang o n fhent.; in I? this speech p r e cedes SD. line N.
nn . i
TEE T E M P E S T , IV.
Enter Ariel, loaden zerith glistering apparel, etc. Come, hang them on this line. Enter Caliban.,Steplian,~, and Trincz~lo, all wet. Caliban. P r a y you, tread softly, t h a t the b:ir,d mole may not hear a footfall : we are now near his cell. 195 Steyhn~zo.Monster, your fairy, which you say is a harmless fairy, has done little better than play'd the Jack n-ith us. T ~ i v w u l oMonster, . I clo smcll all horse piss, a t which 200 my nose is in g r e a t indignation. Step72ano. So is mine. Do you hear, monster: I f I should t a k e EL displeasure against you-look you. Trinculo. Thou wert but a lost monster. Caliban. Good my lord, give me t h y favor still. 205 Be patient, f o r the prize I'll bring thee t o Shall hoodwink this mischance, Therefore speak ~0ftly All's husll'd as midnight yet. Tri~zculo. Ay, but t o lose our bottles in the pool ! Steph.nno. There is not only disgrace and dishorlor 210 in that, monster, but an infinite loss. T~i.tac~rlo. That's m o w t o me t h a n my wetting! Y e k this is your harmless fairy, monste~.. Stephano. I will fetch ofT my bottle, though I be ore ears for my labor. 3 1 . 1 Culiban. Prithee, my Icing, be quiet. Seest thou here, This is the moutli o' th' cell! no noise and enter. D o t h a t good mischief which may make t l ~ i s islaild Thine own for evcr and I thy Caliban 2 19 F o r aye thy foot-licker.
198 Jack knave. 206 hoodwink mischance 'blind you to this misfortune'; the reference is to falconry; F hudwinke.
T H E T E M P E S T , IV.
Stephano. Give me thy hnnd. I do begin t o have bloody thoughts. Trincz~lo.0 R i n g Stephano, 0 peer! 0 worthy Stepllano ! Look what n ~vnrdrobc here is for thee ! CaZibun. L e t i t alone, thou fool, it is but trash. 224 Trincztlo. Oho, monster ! TVe know what belongs t o a frippery. 0 R i n g S t e p h r ~ ~ l o ! Stephano. Put off t h a t gown, Trinculo. By this hnnd, I'll have t h a t gown ! Tri~zculo. T h y grace sIlt~,ll have it. Ca,Ziban. T h e dropsy d r o m this fool ! W h a t d o you
~ C U I I
T o dote thus on such luggage? Let's alone And do the murther first: if he awake, From toe t o crown he'll fill our skins with pinches. Makc us strange stuff. 954 S f e p J ~ a n oBe . you quiet, monster! Mistress line, is not this my jerkin ? Now is the jerkin under the line ! Kow, jerkin, you a r e like t o lose your hair and prove a bald jerkin. Tri?zculo. Do, d o ; we steal by line and level, and't like your grace. 340 Stephrrno. I thank thee for t h a t jest; here's a g n r ment for't: wit shall not g o unrewarded while I an1 king of this country! 'Steal by line and level' is an escellertt pass of pate ! There's allother garment for't.
222 0 peer N. 226 frippery old clothes shop. 231 luggage encumbrance. Let's alone let us leave it alone (or perhaps let's ia a misprint for 'let't', or alone a misprint for dong'). 234 strange stuff different cloth (metaphoricrtlly, continuing the idea of frippery ill 1. 226). 235-8 Mistress . bald jerkin N. 239 we level N. and't like if it please. 244 pass of pate rapier thrust of wit, sally.
TTIE T E M P E S T , I V . 1
Trinculo. Monster, come p u t some lime upon your 246 fingers, a n d away with the rest. Caliban. I will have none on't-we sllnll lose our time And all be turn'd t o barnacles o r t o apes With foreheads villainous low. 249 Stephano. Monster, lay-to your fingers! Help to bear this away where my hogshead of wine is, or I'll turn you out of my kingdom! Go to, carry tllis. Trinculo. And this. Stephano. Ay, a n d this.
A noise of hunters heard. Enter divers spirits in shape of dogs an.d 71 oz6nds, Itzcnting them about, Prospero and Ariel setting them oqt. 255 Prospero. Hey, Mounkain, hey ! ArieE. Silver ! There i t goes, Silver ! Prospero. F u r y , Fury ! Thcre, T y m n t , there ! Hark, [Exeunt all but Prospero and Ariel.] liark! Go charge my goblins t h a t they grind their joints With dry convulsions, shortell u p their sinews Wit11 aged cramps, and more pinch-spotted make 260 them T h a n p a r d o r cat-0'-mountain. IXark, they r o a r ! A riel, Prospero. L e t them be h~lnted soundly ! A t this hour Lies n t my mercy all mine enemies ! Shortly shall all my labors end, and thou 265 Shalt have the air at frcedom! F o r a little Exeu.n. t. Follow, and d o me service.
245 lime N. 248 barnacles probably the barnacle goose, thought t o hatch from a sea shell. 261 pard leopard. cat-0'-mo~~ntain
Entcr P ~ o s p e r oin his magic robes, and Aricl. Prospero. Now does my project gather t o a head ; My charms crack not, rr~yspirits obey, and Time Goes u p r i g h t with his carriage. How's the day? Ariel. On the sixt hour, fitwhich timc, my lord,
You said our work should cease.
Prospero. I did say so When first I rais'd the tempest. Sny, my spirit,
Z-Iovi- fares the king and's followers ?
Confin'd together I n the same fashion as you gave in charge, d u s t as you left them ;all prisoners, sir, 10 I n the line grove which weather-fends your cell; Thcy cannot budge till your release. T h e king, H i s brother, and pours, abide all three distracted, And the remainder mourning over them 14 Brimful of sorrow and dismay, but chiefly H i m t h a t you term'd, sir, the good old lord, Gonzalo. H i s tears runs down his beard like winter's drops F r o m eaves of reeds. P o u r charm so strongly works 'em
3 Goes . carriage walks with erect carriage, instead of bowi n g under his burden. How's the day what time is it? 10 weatherfends protects from the weather. 11your release released by you. 17 reads a thatched roof.
T h a t if you now beheld the~n, your affections 'CVould become tendor. Dost thou think so, spirit Prospero. Briel. Mine mould, sir, were I hurnnn. Prospero. And mine s21all. 20 H a s t thou-which a r t but air-a touch, a feeling Of their afiictions, and shall not myself, One of their kind, t h a t relish all as sharply, Passion as they, he kindlier ~nov'dthan thou a r t ? Though with their high wrongs I am struck t o th' quick, 25 Yet wi h h my nobler reason 'gainst my fury Do I take p a r t : t . 1 rarer ~ action is I n virtue t h a n in vengeance ;they being penitent, The sole drift of my purpose dot11 extend 30 Y o t R frown further. Go, release them, Ariel. My ellarms I ' l l break, their senses I'll restore, .IEC? they shall be themselves. I ' l l fetch them, sir. A riel.
Prospero. Ye elves of hills, brooks, standing lakes, and groves, .lnLlye t h a t on the sands with printless foot 35 Do ctirtse the ebbing Neptune and do fiy him T h e n he comes back; you dernipuppets t h a t By moonshine do the green sour ring1ei.s make, ivhereof the ewe not bites; and you whose pastime
18 affections feelings. 2 1 4 N. 23 all fully. 27 rarer finer. 33-41 Ye elves . Prospero clra~vsa circle on the ground as he calls upon t h e spirits; see SD below. 36 dernipuppets half t.he size of puppe ta. 37 green sour ringlets 'the underground part (mycelium) of a toadstool, which affects the grass roota' (Arden ed.).
THE T E M P E S T , V- 1
Is t o make midnight mushrumps, t h a t re,joice T o hear the solemn curfew, by whose aid, 'C'lJeak masters though ye be, I have bedimm'd The noontide sun, call'd forth the mutinous winds, And 'twist t h e green sea and t h e azur'd vault Set roaring m a r ; t o the dread, rattling thunder H a r e I given fire, and rifted Jove's stout oak With his ow11 bolt: the strong-bas'd promontory X-Iave I made shake and by the spurs pluck'd u p T h e pine and cedar. Graves a t my command Have wak'd their sleepers, op'd and let 'em forth By my so potent a r t . B u t this rough magic I here abjure, nad when I have rcquir'd Some heavenly music-which even now I doTo ~ o r k mine end upon their senses, t h a t This airy charm is for, I'll break my staff, Bury it certain fadoms in the earth, And deeper than did ever plummet sound I'll drown m y book.
Solemn .mudsic.Here erlters driel before, then Alonso, ri..itha frantic gesture, attended b y Gonznlo; Seba,stinn a.nd dn.tonio in li7ie manner tzttendcd by Adrian nr~d F~czncisco.T h e y all enter the circle rchich Prospero had made ancl there stand charna'd; ruhich Pros yero observing, speaks. , 4 solenlii a i r and the best colnforter T o an unsettled fancy, cure thy brains, 60 Now useless, boil'd within thy slcull ; there stand,
39 mushrumps mushrooms. 53-4 their . for the senses of those this airy chsrm is lor. 54 airy charm play on two meanings of airy ('of the air' and 'of music') and t w o of charm ('magic' and 'song'). 58 air melody. 59 thy Prospero addresses Alonso. 60 boil'd overwrought; F boik, probably- a miepiint of e for d.
TEIE T E M P E S T , V ,
F o r you a r e spell-stopp'd. Holy Gonzalo, honorable man, hlir~e eyes, ev'n sociable t o the show of thine, Fall fellowly drops. The charm dissolves apace, 65 And as the morning steals upon the night, Rlclting the darkness, so their rising senses Begin t o chase the ignornnt fumes t h a t mantle Their clearer reason. 0 good Gonznlo, My t r u e preserver and 8 loyal sir T o him thou follow'st ! I will pay t h y graces Honle both in word and deed. Most cruelly Didst thou, Alonso, use me and my daughter. Thy brother was a furtherer in the act. Tllou a r t pinch'd for't now, Sebastian. Flesh and blood, 7s you, brother mine, t h a t entcrtain'd ambition, Espcll'd remorse and nnturc, who, with SebnstirulVihosc inmard pinches, tl~crrfore,are most stronglTToulcl here have kill'd your king: I do forgive thee, Unnatural though thou a r t . Their understanding Begins t o swell, and the approaching tide 80 T'CTilishortly fill the rcnsonable shores T h x t now lie foul and muddy. Not one of them Tllnt yet looks on me or would know me. Ariel, Fctcll me the h a t and rapier in my cell. 85 I will discasc me, and myself present As I IVRS sometinle Milan-quickly, spirit! T h o u shalt ere long bc free.
63 sociable sympathetic. show sight. 64 Fall let fall, shed. 67 ignorant furoes fumes t,hat make them ignorant (oblivious). 70-1 pay . Rome reptLy your kindness. 72 Didst I? Did. 75 entertain'd mas host to; P cntertaine. 76 who F whom.81 shores i.e. of reason ;F shore. S5 discase remove my magic robe. 86 sometime formerly. Milan Duke of Milan.
THE TENPEST, V. 1
ArieZ [after fetching the clothes] sings and helps t o attire him.
Ariel. Where t h e bee sucks there suck I; l n a cowslip's bell 1 lie; There I couch when owls do cry; On the bat's back I do f l y After summer merrily. Merrily, merrily shall 1 live now Under the blossom that hangs on the bough.
Prospero. \\Thy that's m y dainty Ariel! I shall miss thee, 95 B u t yet thou shalt have freedom-so, so, so. T o the king's ship, invisible as thou a r t ! There shalt thou find the mnl-iners nsle-ep Under the hatches. T h e master and the boatswain loo Being awake, enforce them t o this place, And presently, I prithee. Ariel. I drink the a i r before me and return Exit . Or ere your pulse twice beat. Gonxalo. All torment, trouble, wonder, and amaxement 105 Inhabits hzre ! Some heavenly power guide us Out of this fearful country! Prospero. Behold, Sir King, T h e wronged Duke of Milan, Prospero ! F o r more assurance that a living prince Does now speak t o thee, I embrace thy body, 110 And t o thee and thy company I bid A hearty welcome.
92 after following after. 101 presently immediately. 103 Or ere before. 108 For more assurance t o give you more proof. 81
T H E TEMPEST, V . l
Where thou beest he o r no, Alonso. O r some enchanted trifle t o abuse meAs late I have been-I not know. T h y pulse Beats a s of flesh and blood, and since I saw thee 11s T 1 1 ' afliction of my mind amends, with which I fear a madness held me! This must craveAnd if this be a t all-a most strange story. T h y dukedom I resign and do entreat T h o u pardon me my wrongs. B u t how should Prospero Bc living and be here? Prospero. First, noble friend, 120 L e t me embrace thine age, whose honor cannot l3c measur'd o r confin'd. Gonznl o. Whether this be Or be n o t I'll n o t swear. Prospero. You do yet taste Some subtleties o' th' isle, t h a t will not let you Believe things certain. Wclcolne, m y friends all, 125 [.4side t o Sebastian nntd A~12tonio.l B u t you, my brace of 101-ds; were I so minded I here could pluck his Highness' frowri upon you And justify you traitors ! A t this time I will tell no tales. T h e dive1 spealis in him ! Seba.stia.n. Prospero. No ! 130 F o r you, most wicked sir, whom t o call brother Would even infect my mouth, I do forgive Thy rankest fault-all of them-and require My dukedom of thee, which perforce 1 know T h o u 11lust restore.
11 1 Where whether. 112 enchanted trifle unsubstantisl spirit. abuse deceive. 116 crave necessitate. 117 And if if. 121 age aged body. 124 subtleties illusions, especially disguised confcctions. 125 certain ren.1. 128 justify prove.
Alonso. If thou beest Prospero 135 Give us particulars of t h y preservation, How thou h a s t met us here who three hours since T % T mrack'd ~r~ upon this shore, where I have lostHow s h a r p the point of this relnembrance isMy dear son Ferdinand. I am woe for't, sir. Prospero. 140 Alonso. Irreparable is the loss, and patience Saps i t is p a s t her cure. Prospero. I rather think You have not sought her help, of whose soft grace F o r the like loss I have her sovereign aid, And rest myself content. Alonso. You the like loss? 144 Prospero. As g r e a t t o me a s late, and supportable T o makc the dear loss have I mcnns much wcnlccr Th:~nyou may call t o comfort you, for I IInve lost my daughter. Alonso. A daughter ? 0 hcavcns t h a t thcy were living both in Naples, 149 T h e king and queen there; t h a t they Ferc I wish AIyself were mudded in t h a t oozy bed Where my son lies ! When did you lose pour dauglltcr? Prospero. I n this last tempest. I p e r c e i ~ e thcsc lords At this encounter do so nluch admire 155 T h a t they devour their reason and scarce think Tllcir eycs do offices of t r u t h ; their words Arc n a t u r a l b r e a t h ; b u t 'tlon.soe'cr you have Been justled from your sences, know for certain 159 T h a t I am Prospero and t h a t very clukc 136 who F ~chons.139 am woe for't grieve because of it. 140 patience fortitude. 143 grace mercy. 145 late recent. stlpportable stressed '- " -. 1 4 6 dear great. 150 that provitled that. 154 admire marvel. 155 devour their reason their reason is stu 91lowcd up by arnazcmc~t.
T H E T E M P E S T , V. 1
Which was t h r u s t f o r t h of Milan, who most strangely Upon this shore, where you were wrack'd, was landed T o be the lord on't. N o more yet of this, F o r 'tis a chronicle of day by day, Not n relation f o r a bre:tlrfnst, nor 1-85 Befitting this first meeting. Welcome, sir. This cell's I U court ~ ;here hnvc I few attendants, And subjects none abroad; pray you look in. My dukedom since you have given me again I will requite you with as good a thing, 170 At least bring forth a wonder t o content ye As much as me my duldorn. ~e Here Prospero discovers Ferdinand and Rfirandar, pla.yin.g a t chess. Hiranda. Sweet lord, you play rtle false. Ferdinand. No, my dcares t love, I n~ould not f o r the world. Miranda. Yes, f o r a score of lcingdoms you should wrangle, And I would call it f a i r play. Alo~zso. If this prove 1 % A vision of the island, one dear son Shall I twice lose. Sebnstian. A most high nlirscle. Ferdhz and. [Seeing Alo+?z~so. ] Thougl~ the seas threaten, they a r e merciful. I have curs'd them without cause. Alor~so. Now all t h e blessings Of a glad father compass about ! 1130 Arise and s a y horn thou cam'st here. SD Prospero pulls aside tho curiain to the inner stage. 174-5 Yes
. . . play N.
' T H E T E M P E S T , V. 1
&Iiralzda. 0 wonder ! Horn many goodly creatures a r e there here! How beauteous mankind is ! 0 brave new world T h a t has such people in't. 'Tis new t o thee. Pros pero. Alonso. W h a t is this maid, with whom thou wnst a t play? 185 Your eld'st acquaintance cannot be three hours ! Is she the goddess t h a t llath sever'd us And brought us tllus together? Ferdinand. Sir, she is mortal, B u t b y immortal Provide~lce she's nGne. 190 I chose her when I could not ask my father F o r 1Gs advice-nor thought I had one. She Is daughter t o this famous Duke of Milan, Of wllom so often I have heard renown R u t never saw before, of ~vhomI have Receiv'd a second life; and second father This lady makes him t o me. Alonso. I am hers. B u t 0, how oddly will it sonnd t h a t I Must ask my child forgiveness? P~ospero. There, sir, stop. Let us not burthen our rernentbrtlnce with A heaviness that's gone. Go72.znlo. I have inly wept, ZOO Or should have spalre ere this. Look down, you gods, And on this couple drop n blessed crown, For it is you t h a t 1lslr.e chalk'd forth the way Which brought us hither. Alonso. I say amen, Gonzalo.
186 eld'st longest. 193 renown excellent report. 196 am hers accept her as my daughter. 199 remembrance F remenzbrances; aee 1.2.173 K.
Gonxalo. JY as Milan t h r u s t from Milan, t h a t his
205 issue Should become kings of Naples? 0 rejoice Beyond n common joy, and set i t down W i t h gold on lasting pillars : in one voyage Did Claribel her husband find a t Tunis, 210 And Ferdinand her brother found a wife Where he himself was l o s t ; Prospero his dukedom I n a poor isle: a n d all of us ourselves, When no man mas his own. Alovso. Give me your hands. Let grief and sorrow still embrace his heart T h a t d o t h n o t wish you joy. Go~nxnlo. Be it so, nmcn. 215
En.ter A riel, with the Itla.ster and Boatswain arnnxedly following. 0 look, sir, look, sir, here is more of us ! I prophesied i f a gallows were on land This fellow could not drown ! Now, blasphemy,
T h a t swcar'st grace oreboard, not an oath on shore? H n s t thou no mouth b y land? W h a t is the news? 230 Boatszuain. The best news is t h a t nre have safely found Our king and company; the next, our ship Which but three glasses since we gave o u t split Is tight and yare, and bravely rigg'd a s when W c first p u t o u t t o sea. Ariel. Sir, all this service 225 Have I done since I went. Prospero. My tricksy spirit!
213 his own master of himself. 214 still always. SD amazedly as in R maze. 223 but three glasses since only three hours ago. 224 yare rcady. 226 tricksy brisk.
1 ' R E T E M P E S T . V. 1
These are not natural events, they strengthen From stlqrtnge t o stranger! Say, how came you hither? Boats.i~lain. If I did think, sir, I were well awake, 230 I'd strive t o tell you! W e were dead of sleep And-how we know not-all clapp'd under hatches, Where, but even now, with strange and several noises Of roaring, shrieking, howling, jingling chains, And mo diversity of sounds, all horrible, 235 W e were rrwak'd-straightway at liberty, Where we, in all our trim, freshly beheld Our royal, good, and gallant ship, our master Cap'ring t o eye her. On a trice, so please you, 239 Even in n dream, were we divided from them And were brought moping hither. A riel. Was't well done? Prospcro. Bravely, my diligence; thou shalt be free. Alo7tso. This is as strange u maze as ere men trod, And there is in this business Inore than nature Was ever conduct of ! Some oracle Must rectify our knowledge. Prospero. Sir, nly liege, 245 D o not infest your mind with beating on T h e strangeness of this business; a t pick'd leisure, Which shall be shortly, single I'll resolve youIVhich t,o you shall seen1 probable-of every These happen'd accidents ; till when bc cheerful 250 And think of each thing well. Come hither, spirit.
230 of sleep asleep. 232 several distinct. 234 mo more. 236 our trim N. 238 On in. 240 moping bewildered. 241 diligence industrious one. 244 conduct conductor. 246 infest annoy. 247 at pick'd leisure at a free moment we will choose. 248 single privately. 249 every every onc of.
THE TEMPEST, V . l
Set Cnliban and his companions free: Untie the spell. [Exit ArieZ.] How fares my gracious s i r ? There a r e yet missing of your company 255 Somc fcw odd lads t h a t you remember not*.
E n t e r driel, drivin.g in. Ca.liban, Stephano, and Trinculo in t7hei.r stoln.e up parel. Stepknlzo. Every man shift for all the rest, and let no man take care for himself, for all is but fortune -co~*agio, bully-monstcr, coragio! Trinculo. I f these be true spies which I wear in niy 260 hcnd, here's a goodly sight. Cnliban. 0 Sctebos, thcse bc brave spirits indeed! How fine my master is! I an1 afraid H e will chastise me. Sebnst inn. EIa ha ! \%'hat things a r e these, my Lord Antonio? Will money buy 'em? Anto9zi.o. Very like ! One of them 865 I s n plain fish and no doubt marketable. Prospero. Mark but the badges of these men, mp lords, Tlleil s a p if they be true. This lnisshapen knave 269 His mother was a witch and one so strong T h a t could control the moon, nlake flows and ebbs, And deal in her command without, her po~v'r. These three have robb'd me, and this demi-divel,
255 few odd several. 258 coragio courage. bully-monster good
fellow of a monster. 267 badges N. 268-9 knave His mother knave's mother. 270 flows tides. 271 dehl . . power do all the moon could do without assistance from thc moon. 272 demidive1 half a devil (offspring of a witch and the devil Setebos).
T H E T E M P E S T , V. 1
For he's a bastard one, had plotted with them T o take my life. Two of these fellows you 275 Must know and own, this thing of darkness I Acknowledge mine. 1 shall be pinch'd t o death. Ca.liban. Alonso. I s not this Stephano, my drunken butler:". Sebn.stian. H e is drunk now ; where had he wine? Alonso. And Trinculo is reeling ripe ! Where should they 280 Find this grarid liquor that hath gilded 'em? How cam'st thou in this pickle? T ~ i n c u l o .I have bin in such a pickle since I saxv you last t h a t I fear me will never out of my bones : I Zlhnll not fear fly-blowing. 285 SebastBan. Whyy how now Stephano? Stephano. 0 touch me not! I am not Stephano but a cramp. Prospero. You'd be king o' the isle, sirrah? Stephano. I should have been a sore one then. 289 Alonso. This is a strange thing as ere I look'd on. Prospero. H e is as disproportion'd in his manners As in his shape ! Go, sirrah, t o my cell ; Take with you your companions-as you look 294 T o have nly pardon, trim it handsomely. CaZib,an. Ay, that I will! and I'll be wise hereafter And seek for grace ! What a thrice-double ass
279 reeling ripe ripe (ready) for reeling. 280 gilded common term with 'grand liquor' probfor 'made drunk'-but in ~ombinat~ion ably also a play on the alchemical elix3.r which was supposed t o turn base metals to gold. 381 pickle diunken state. 282 pickle brine, in reference to the dousing i u the horse pond. 283 that as. 2834 I fly-blowing i.e, because he was so pickled, flies would not touch him. 289 sore rt pun: 'causing pain' and 'feeling pain.'
E ! 9
T H E T E M P E S T , V, I
W a s I t o take this drunkard for a god And wcrship this dull fool! Pros yaro. Go to, away! Alonso. Hence, and bestow your luggage where you found it. 300 Sehustian. O r stole it, rather. [Exeunt Caliban, Stephano, and Trinculo.] Prnspero. Sir, I invite your Highness and your train T o my pcor cell, where you shall talce your rest F o r this one night, which, p a r t of it, I'll waste With such discourse as I not doubt shall make it 305 Go quiclt away: the story of my life And the particular accidents gone by Sincl: I came t o this isle ; and in the morn I'll bring you t o your ship, and so t o Naples, FVllcre I have hope t o scc the nuptial 310 Of these our dear belov'd solemnized, And thence retire me t o my Milan, where Every third thought shall be my grave. A1071~0. I long T o hear the story of your life, which must Talcc the ear st.rangely. Prospero. I'll deliver all, 315 And promise you calm seas, auspicicus gales, Acc? mil SO expeditious t h a t shall catch YPIIY iqoyal fleet f a r off. My Ariel, chick, TLat is t h y charge--then t o the elements Be free, and fare thou well! Please you, draw near. Exeunt omncs.
306 accidents incidenta. 310 solemnized stressed 314 deliver relate.
N07c m.y charms are nU o'erthromn, And w7tu.t strength I haze's mine own, PTThich is most faint. Xom, 'tk true, I mzrst be here confin'd by you Or sent t o hTaplcs. Let 7ne n o t , Since I have ~ n y dzckedorn got And pardon'd t72e deceiver, dzccll In this bare island by your spell, Bzr,t relcnse vze from my bands W i t h the help of your good hands! Ge?r.flcb w a t h of yoztrs my sails Mtcst fill o r else my project fails, TPhich was t o plcnse. N c s I =ant Spirits t o crzforce, a r t t o enchant, IS And ~ i ~ x c~tding y is despair Un7ess 1 bc reliev'd bg prayer M71/ich plerres so that it u~ssoults Jfcrcy itself a?ztl frees all faults. A s gou from crimes mould pnrdon'd be, 19 Exit. Lct your indz~2gcnce set me tree.
Act I , Scene I
[The Actors' Names] Based upon the list of characters a p pended to the Folio text of the play. councilor The Folio (citcld throughout as F) prints counceRor: the modcrr~ 'councilor,' a member of n, council, was earlier spelled 'counselor.' Act I P divides this play illto acts and scenes tbougl~out. 3 Good Answering the Boatsvain's question, the Blaster tell^ him to take heart (be of 'good cheer'). Cf. cheerly in 1. 5 and 'Checrljr, good hearts' in 1. 27. 3"s punctuation (colons after Good and n~ari?tcrs) suggests that the meaning is not 'good fellow,' as in 1. 15 below, where F has no punctuation after good. 7-5 Blow enough A bravado taunt t o the wind: 'Blow until you burst your belly, so long as uTehave sea room enough!' Cf. Pericles, III.1.44. 16 cares Variant plural form of verb. In~tancesof seeming13 singular verb and plural subject, as as many other constructions now considered to be grammat~icallapses, are common in Shakespeare and illwtratc the fluidity of Elizabethan grammar. That they are not compositor's errors is evidenced by their frequent occurrence in m,znuscripts. 35 Down topmast For a discussion of this a n c l other nautical espreasions consult the Furneas Vmiorunl Edition. Shake speare uses these terms accurately and precisely. 50 ahold This may be a variant of a-h.ztU, 'h01.e-to' (or a printer'a error for a-hoU). Scc discussion by 13. 13. Allen, MLN, 52 (1937), 96-100, cited in Artlcn ecl. (1954), p. 7. 52-66 These lines are often arra.ngec1by editors as blank verse. 53 must cold A euphemism for 'must we die?' Some e c ! itors insist that here the Boatsvain drinks from a bottle, but there is no textual evidenco that Antonio's charge jn 1. 58 is just. 59 washing tides Pirates were hanged a t low-water level in the Thames and left until three tides had washed over their bodies,
N O T E S , I. e
Act I , Scene f2
19 more better Double comparative for emphasis, common in Shakespeare and other Elizabethan miters. 24 magic garment The cloak which invests Prospero with power over the elements and humans. 29 soil F soule, but cf. 11. 29-31 with 11. 217-18 below, and in 11.1.63-106. The alternative is to keep soule, follow i t with a dash, and assume an anacoluthon. 30 hair A possible pun on hair-heir. Cf. the talk of Alonso's loss of a daughter and son in 11.1.71-115, especially 11. 113-15. Fathers and heirs are much on Prospero's mincl; see above, 11. 19-21; below, 1 1 . 54 ff., especially 1. 55. 59 And princess So F. Most editors emend t o 'A princess,' but the F text is synta,ctically satisfactory. $1 trash for overtopping To tra.ash was to check a hound with a long weight. To overtop was t o run ahead of t4hepack. rate 1.e. k i t h that which, save that i t kept 91-2 With me in retirement from the world and my duties, surpassed in value everything the world rates highly.' 9'7 lorded By construing this as an intransitive verb (with OED authority) wc may retain Ihe F full stop after exact in I. 99. The alternative ia to change the preceding or following full stop t o a comma and construe lorded as a past participle (so OED on this passage) : 'he being thus nlsde a lord.' lie 1.e. 'lilic one who, having to make his 99-102 Like lie credible by frequently rcpcuting it, has come t o believe it himself and so made a sinner of his memory.' 169 Now I arise Prospero may have suited the action t o the word, though in that case the clause is unnecessary. More probably he refers to the change in his fortune; cf. below, 11.173-9, 181. 173 princess 1.e. 'than any other princess can have made for her.' The word may have been 'princesses' (nouns ending in s mere often identical in singular and plural). A third possibility io 'princes.' See Hclge Kolieritz, Shakespeare's Pronunciation (New Haven, 1953), p. 318. 181-2 A reference t:, the astrological belief that the position of the stars a t the time of an action may determine its outcome. 93
liIIE T E M P E S T , I . a
186 canst not choose Having resumed hi^ magic mantle, Prospero haa 'charmed' his daughter. 229 still-vex'd Bermoothes The only time in thc play that the Bel-~nudas are mentioned, in spite of the fact that accounts of a wreck in 1609 off the coast of 'thcac traditionally stormy isles appear t o be among the sources of the play. See Appendix 13. made thee Inclusion of tho second thee dis248 Told thee torts the rhythm of the line to such an cxtent that we may safely aasume i t to be a copyist's or compositor's error caused by the two preceding phrases 'done thec' and 'Told thec.' 269 blue-ey'd Dlue veins in the eyclicls xvcre thought to be a symptom of pregnancy. Cf. Yhe Duchess of MalJi, 11.1.67. 273 e a i y Ariel, a spirit of the air, could not perform decds partaking m-holly of the nature of cnrth. Each of t.he four elements --enrth, air, fire, and water-was tl~ought to havc? its own spirib. 334 strok'st For the loss of the past tense ending in such consonant clusters see I<okcritz, Sinkespcare's Pronunciation,p. 303. 339 place. This m y be plural. See note on 1. 173 above. 352-63 Most editors ~ s s i g t this ~ speech to P~.ospcro, who is a likely candidrttc, but cf. 11.2.141-2. The kindness and the pity me as characteristic of Mirandn as of Prospero. 370-86 The song may have been sung to a dance of sea nymphs, hence thc reference to sands and waves. The culatsey and kis9 merc thc salutations a t the beginning of the dmcc. E' is not clear concerning the lineation of the burden, which has been hcrc slightly altered. 438 his brave son This character clocs not appear in the play. Sincc I? has a c o i l m after son, his could refcr tqothe king of Naples were it not for the inescapable fact that Ferdioantl could not cnll himself brave. 469 My tutor I n Shakcspcure's day thc conception was strong that for ti harmonious society cverytrhing must find and retain its appointed function. For examples of this homily of tho head and foot see Arden ed., p. 40.
Act II, Scene 1
16-20 The obvious pun dollar--dolour relies on two meaning
N O T E S , 11. 1
of 'entertainJ: to occupy the attention of, and to provide with food and drink. 33 A laughter 'The whole number of eggs laid by a fowl before she is ready to sitJ (OED), with an obvious quibble on the common mcaning of laughter. 36-7 Editors usually reassign 1 . 36 to Antonio and 1. 37 to Sebastirtn. Tho problem may also be resolved by assumirlg that jyo~r'reis a mistake for you've, the loser having to laugh (to cackle like a fowl who has just laid an egg?); or that S~bast~ian, unsblc to contain himself, laughed iirsi, and Antonio sarcastically reproved him by pretending he had won. 65 glosses Probably not rt mistake for tho singular, as inany eclitors believe, but plural because of the plural ga~ments-as one might say, 'Gentlemen, put on your hats,' rather than 'hat.' 80 Widow Dido Dido is a character in Virgil's Aeneicl. Gomalo may have pronounced Dido to rhyme with Tl'idow and thus aroused Antonio's scorn, increased by CTonzaloJsassertion of the s another continuity of Carthage and the modern Tunis. Tunis i city, near the site of ancient Carthage. 107 fisll'd for The word sort mas groped for and well chosen, since (Antonio implies) the doublct is not so fresh as Gomalo be1ieves;fish'd suggests the brine from which Gonzalo has reccntly pulled hin~self.A sort was a group of t.hings, a gattlering, heuce po~sibly a catch of fish. 146 Fowl Pun on jowl-foul, and possibly t o be associated with 'fool'; see Kokeritz, Shakespeare's Pronunciation, pp. 75, 109, 149. The jest of fowl-foul lies in the fact that Gonzalo has been called an 'old cock' (1. 30, abovc; cf. note t o 1. 33.) 151-73 From Florio's translation of Montaigne, bk. I, ch. 30. See Appcndi. B, below. Gonzalo is not so serious as tho ill-natured Sebastian and Antonio pretend-he is attempting both to divert Aloneo from the subject of his grief and to bait Sebastian and Antonio; see 11. 176-9, below. 173 'Save In 1606 an act wm passed prohibiting the jesting use of the name of God on the etage. The omission of 'God' in this line may have been due to this prohibition. 187 sphere According to the Ptolemaic conception of the uni~
T H E TEMPESTS- I I . 1
verse there mere seven planeto revolving about the eart.h, esch in its own sphere. The moon's sphere nraa closest to the earth. 180 go a-batfowling Hunt birds at night with long clubs (bats), The birds wore rowed from their sleep in low trees and knocked down as they flew about bewilderedly. Gonzalo is the bird they are knocking down; cf. above, 11. 30, 146, and note to I. 33. 199-202 The lineation has been lightly altered from F. 242 hope Sebltstian uses Ghe word to mean 'expcctat,ion'; Antonio adds the'meaning 'desire' (Kittredge). 257-5 what discharge Khnt happena in the future will depend on how we discharge our duty to make you kicg.
Act III, Scene 1
15 Most it Elliptical construction: 'when I am moat busy I seem least busy, bccause I think these sweet thoughts of hliranda.' It is a ~umnmizirig conclusion to the whole speech. 32 visitation Play on the obvious meaning of the word and its ether meaning of bubonic plague, which was thought to be a viaitation of the wrath of God on sinful man. 59-63 The Arden ed. (p. 75) mggcsta a very satisfying rearrangement of them lines which eliminatca the metrical irregularities.
Act 111,Scene 9
132 picttrre of No-body A printer named John Trundle used a picture of a man without a body as the sign of his shop. In 16% he sold rt play called Arebody and,Some-Myl the title page of which bears a picture of thii sign (Var. Ed.).
Act 111,Scene 3
17SD Prosper on the top Proapero appears on the upper stage or acting space, looking down upon the action. In F 11.18-19 a m placed after the SD Enter depart. Banht was a common spelling of 'banquet' (a light supper) and indicates the pronunciation.
N O T E S , 111. 3
23 phoenix Mythical bird thought to be unique and endowed m-ith the ability to i~nrnolat~e itself and rise from its own ashes. 45 putter . one In the days when travel to n foreign coun.. try was an exceedingly hazardous undertaking, it was the custom of travelers to lay wagers against their safe return, the odds being five to one in favor of t,he traveler. 55 surfeited Shorlld probably be rcad su?jefeit, an a1t;ernative pmt participle. Note also other probable contractions in this speech: bei,ng (monosyllable), I Imce ('I'veJ), and even ('e'en').
Act IV, Scen.e 1
3 third A good share. Iiittredgels conjecture cannot be bettered: Since life consish of past, present, ,and future, and since Prospero lives for his daughter 0. 4), in a sense she is his future, i.e. one-third of his life. In 1. 4 Or has the effect of 'Or in other words.' 27 worser genius It was thought that two spirits, a good and a bad, fought for control of each man. 6 . 1 pioned and twilled Prol)a,blg 'trenched' (cf. 'pioner' axit1 'pioneer,' a digger of trenches) and 'grained' (like tqrill cloth, e.g.) from the winter weather. A contrast is drawn bet\$-ecn the banla of a rivcr in early spring and the ssme banks covered mit.h April verdure. T2SD Juno descend This SD from F ie often olnitt.ed, on the ground t h t Juno does not cnter until 1. 102, but there secms no good reason to doubt the :iuthority of F. From the hints of lowered 11. 37, 74, nnd 03 it seema likely that a, stage rnacli~?.c her eufficicnt.ly to providc the spectacle of ,z flying ch:irict ruoving across the stage. She could have been deposited at the proper time to take her entrance cue. 130 :and This m:ty be 'launtl,' a glade, A later form of which is the modern 'lawn.' Cf. 3 I l c ? ~ r yPI, 111.1.2. 193 line Probably a, lime or linden tree (cf. 'line grove' below, V.l.lO: and there is good authority elsewhere). The alternative is z clothea line. 222 0 . . . peer 'In Oth., II.iii.99, . ~ r c t,wo stanzas of a bu11~u-l
T H E T E M P E S T , IV. I
printed in Percy's Reliques, entitled "Take thy old cloak about thee"; one of %'lest?is as follows: "King Stephen was a worthy peere,/His breeche-l c o ~ him t but a croume,/ Ho held them sixpence dl too deem;/ Therefore he called the tuylor Lowne." Uencc Trinculo's remark, "What a wardrobe" ' (Arden ed., p. 107). 235-8 Mistress bald jerkin The meaning of this passage business, which was very likely is largely dependent on the ~ t a g c on tho vulgar side. It is necessary to remember that 'under the line,' meaning 'below thc equator' (a Etting nautical term in Stephano's mouth) meant also 'under the lime tree' (see note abovo cn I. 193). Although the jerkin could have been a hair or fur jerkin, the point of the jest of 11. 237-8 remains obscure unless we remember that 'loin' and 'line' were homonyms (I<okeritz, Shalccspeare's Pronunciation, p. 125). The drunken Stephano lifts the jerkin off the line (tree) and passes it between his legs (under the line-loin) with an indecent motion (jerkin'). Losing the hair was one of the supposed effects of sypllilis (cf. Afeusure for ~lleasure, 1.2.34-5), hence the bald (with doubleentendre) jerkin afterward. 239 we level Trinculo adds to the puns on line: 'by line and level' means by mason's plumb line and level, lienee 'by rule,' ' ~Iil l f~l l y.' B ut in view of the preceding business and the proximity of tSlc lime tree, n pun on steal-stale is alnlost inevitable. To stale was to urinate (said of horses, do@, etc.). The word is ironic in the light of stale in 1. 187 above. 245 lime Still another play on line-linden-lime tree. ' f i e reference ie to the catchjrlg of I~irds by placing ~ t i c k y lime on trccs.
Act V , Scene I
21-4 If you, who are co~nposed of nothing but air, have been able to feel somc colnpassion for their troubled s.latse,shall not I, human like themselves nnd able t o experience emotion fully as sharply, be moved nlorc than you to behrivc s~ A hunlan rtnd take pity on them? 174-5 Yes play I a b ~ c e that you would not che%t, nlld even if you disputed ovL:r twenty kingdoms (instead of this in-
~ignificantgame of chess), I would still insist you would not cheat. 236 our trim An important aspect of the clotlles imagery in this play is the fact that no one's clothes sustained as much aa a blcmisl~, with thc cxccption of Stephano's and Trincula's. Here the Boatswain is using a nautical term to express the idea. 267 badges Eithrx the insignia of Prospero attached to the shouldrrs of the coats, as was customary on the clothing of retaincn, or, figuratively, the stolen coats themselves = badges of their guilt.
Text and Date
The earliest published test of The Tempest is in the First Folio, volume and one of the most pnins1623. It is the first play in Iht~t, takingly printed: only a handful of indisputable typographical errors can be found, the versr: lineation is on tho whole well preserved, the stage directions arc remarkably full, and the punctuation is admirably consistent. In spite of the obvious care taken viith punctuation by the first editors, it lius been fell necessary to m i s t the modern reader by converting the pint<ingent,irely to present-day usage. For example, colons in the Folio text appear in t$hepresent edition as colons, ~emicolons,exclamation points, dashes, or periods, though usually the colon in the original has the force of the modern exclamation point, which indeed in almost every instance would have been the mark sul~stitutedif othcr considerntions had not dictated variety. Few liberties have been taltcn mith the text. These few have been recorded in the glosses and nots-, mith the exception of a slight shift in position of s stage direction here and there, as in 1.1.3s-9: in t8hc Folio this direction follows line 36. Whenever anything has been added to the text, it has been placed within E ~ U ~ N bmcliets. ! Throughout the play, though most frequently in Act I , are defective lines (for instancc 1.2.150, 195, 235, 253, 260; 11.1.259, 312; IV.1.12; V.1.61). ??lese lines-short by one, two, or three metrical feet-havc ~;ometimcs hcen used as evidonce for a theory that Act I a~ it nonr stands is a cut version, the cuts having been mndc a t the places wherc Idle fnulty lines occur. In the absence of bibliographical corroborntion, however, there seems no need to believe that the cst,allt vcrqion is not as Shakcspenrc wrote it, particdrtrlg since irrrg~dar lines can be found in other Shakespearcan plays, and in The Tempest the short lines occur a t places where a slight pause assists both the sense and the rhythm. I t should also be l~citedthat tt few verse lines have been re100
arranged slightly to make the length of each more regular; see 1.2.30'2-5, 362-3; 11.1.196-7, 195-202. A few lines here printed as verse arc probably prose (for example 11.1.2054); a few other lines set as verse i11 the Folio 11otv appear as prose (for exnmplo 11.1.16-17); and Cnliban's spcech in 11.2.170-5 has been set a q verse but appears a 9 . prose in the Folio. i t is From the very slight bibliogsphicnl evidence avail~~ble not possible to do more than gucsa at the form of tho copy sup plied the printer of the Folio. It could well hsve bcen a prompt copy that had been carefully edited by one or another mernber of the acting company. Its division into acts ant1 sccnes and tho inclusion of a list of actors, as well as thc full stage directions and consistent punctuation mentioned above, may indicate merely that the editors wanted the first play in their volume to make a good impression. Almost the only mark of carelessness that ono can note, in fact, is the circumstance that some obvious proso lines arc set aa verse and some verse as proso. Here it is inlpor. tant to observe, however, that for the actor a fcw lines or even passages of verse set rt,s prose, or vice vcrss, would sul.cly h ~ v o made no difference in his reading d those lines, thc important thing in delivery being the sense of rhythm of the completo speech and scene. This must hnve been doubly true on the Shakespearean stage, where, from all we can learn, the actor's delivery was rapid. If anything, such miutalrcs in lineation argue that the play nrus set from plaj~house prompt copy. In any event Shaltespeare wrote it a t least twelve years before it mas printed, for the accouots of the Office of Revels contain u. note t11:lt it a r ~ 9 presented on Rnllownla~night (November 1j, 1611. There is sonle negative evi-idenco that i t was not being played during the summer of 1611, and one of the sources Shakespeare made use of could not have been seen by him before late 1610. Tllus the best inference that can bo drawn concerning thc date of composition is sometimc between October 1610 and October 1611. Apart from collaboration in Hennj V I I I and T m Nobk Kinsmen, i t was probably Shakespeare's last effort.
Tho true source of The Tempesl is Shakespeare's expwience h coming to terms with life. The ~ymbols which permeate it lie so deep and so near to tho hcarl of humanity that even if a clmely parallel play or narrative were to be unearthed-and this Bypothcsis is dubious in thc e x t r c m e i t could only in a very lirnited Ecnsc be called a source. T11e I)illowing themes of Sha1;espcare's tragedies, the nunnces of tlie comedies, the moral philosophy that threads its way through tho histories-all are here and thoroughly Shakespearean and so worked into the matrix of the play that one (:an believe it the full 2nd natural expression of what was most*meaningful to Shakcspcare in life. This is not to call The Tel?t,pcst 3 conscious farewell to s career. , 1 1 1 3one speech in tllc play that rcally I t is highly ironical lhnt 1 sounds 8s though Shalccspeare were tdcing leavc of the stage is one of the fe-iv which derive from cnrlier works: Prospcro's conjuring of the spirits in V.1.33-57 comes from Obid'a IlietatnorpI~osesVII.192-219-partly from the original Latin, partly from Arthur Gelding's English translation (mmy editions dter 156'7). This is typical of t,hc YO-called sources of toheplay-a line here or there, a t the most a Sow b ~ i c passages f garnered from wdlh~ow-n works. Two of the most popular K-orksa t the time the play was being mitten-and together with a manuscript lctter in circnfation among the playwright's fricndn perhrcps the origin of his initial inspiration-rcre conccrncd nvith n highly ronlnntic and for t.he religious a nearly mirsculouv wreck off the 13crmnclas in July 1609. For several years before, public intcrsst in the new Virginia colony in America had been running high. When a Ccct of nine ships under the command of Sir George Somers (or Sumners) put to sea on June 2, 1609, considerable fanfare and putting of pen to paper accompanied the gilcat sctting forth. Nothing was heard in England about the results of the voyage (exccpt that one of the ships was ~llppoaedlost) until the gov103
ernor of Virginia, who had aged with the fleet, returned in 1610. I t then became known that off the c o a t of the 'still-vex'd Bcrmoothea' (Shakespeare uses the common spelling-equivdent of the Spaniah Bermudez) the flagship had run into a hurlicane and having been forced to enter a sheltered cove was there run aground. No lives had been lo&, and the implications of this as they concerned the intrepid colonizers of a esvage land were not missed by the morally minded Elizabethans. Among the pamphlcte which appeared in 1610 verc two contrtining accounts of the wreck and subsequent Burviva1 of the voyagers, both s a ciently close to Shakespeare's play to make it seem almost certain he h e w of them: Sylvester Jourdnin's D ~ . $ W ~ of~the TY Bamudas (facsimile by J. Q. Adams, New Yorlr, 19-40) and the Council of Virginia's True Declaration of the Slak of the Colonit in Virginia (ed. Peter Force as vol. 3 of Tracts and Other Papers, Washington, 1844). Even more than to these 'Bermuda pamphlets' is Shakespeare indebted to a letter written by one MTilliarnStrachey and brought to England shortly after July 15, 1610. Although this letter waq not published (so far as is Imown) until 1625, when it appeared i s Pilgrim ns 'A True Reportory of the 137racke' in Purchns H (vol. 19 of the Glasgow cd., 1906), Leslie I-lotson hns demonstrated that i t wm being circulated among friends of Shakespeare vho could very essiiy have shown it to him (I, TTrillia?r~ Shukespeare, London, 1937). The wholc of the first scene of The Tempest Ecerns to derive from Strachey's account, as do 1.2.195-205, much of 11.1, the appearance of the banquet in 111, and s few more .scat.tered passages. The other works to vhich Shakespeare might have given acknowledgment may be quickly disposed of. Gonzalo's references in 111.3.44-7 to the dewlapped mountaineers and men with hcsds in their bre'zsts are straight from the most widely read adventure book of the period: the Trcvels of S i r John AfaruleuiUe, 111.3. Gonzdo's disquisition on the ideal commoriwealth in 11.1.I4949 is derived from hlontaigne's 'Of Cannibals,' translated by John Florio, 1603. The name 'Setebos' probably stems from Robert FAen's Ilistory of Tmvailc, 1577, in which i t ia claimed that the l'atugo~lians have a 'meat dovil' called this. The origin of 103
'Caliban' cannot be pinned down. It may be simply an anagram of 'can[~l]ibal' or it may be d a t e d to cauliban, a gypsy word for blackness, though Virgil and Pliny both mention savages n:~med 'Chalybeates.' The name 'Prospeso' occura in William Thomas' The I-lisbm'e of Italie, 1549, All other of the 'sources' which st one time or a n o ~ h e r have been put forth as the primary source sre little more than analogues. Thus certain scefzari of the Italian colnmedin dell' arte havc points of rescnlblnllcc with the plot of The Tempest; the lmt word on these may not yet have been said. A play by the German Jakob Ayrer (died 1605) called, in translation, Tho Beautiful Sidea, was fornleriy hnilerl by the Germans as the archetype, but anyone who takes tlrc trouble to rend it will come to the conclusion that only two salient details lend any point whatever to the supposed connection: (1) a prince is held in thrall by the beautiful Sides and madc to c:rrry logs for her, and (2) his sword is charmed, so that he cannot use it. Although these coincidences are interesting, they do not lnean that either play necessarily descends from the other. At the stmnle time the possibility of a lost &tiurn quid cannot be dismissed. I n sum, so far as research cttn discover, Shakespeare borrowed remarkably little. Research mill go on, for i t is in the nature of source hunters to believe that by turning pages they will eveatually upset d l vested notions. Solnctimcs they ,we remarkably successful; yet for The Tempest, it soems safe to prophesy, the results mill hardly be worth the effort,. The true sources are the three dozen plays of Shakespeare which prccedcd it, together with the feelings, deeper than ever plummet sounded, of n man who considered life gravely and wrote it down incomparably.
ITsc of the Voyagers in Th6 Tempest,' PbfLA, 41 (1926), 688-726. E. K. CHAMBERS, 'The Integrity of The Te~np~ql,' RES, 1 (1925), 129-50. BON,'LMY DOBREE, 'T?IcTempest,' Essays and Studies, 6 (1962), 13-25. A. H. G~LBERT, 'The Tempest Parallelism in Characters and Sit~at~iona,' JEGP, 14 (1915), 63-74. J. a. HAXICINS, 'Caliban the Bestial Man,' PMLA, 62 (1947), 793-80 1. =AXE; KEI~UODE, ed., The Tempest, Arden ed., London, 1934. nELGE KOKERITZ, Shakespearcls Pronunciation, New Haven, 1953. HELGE HOKERITZ and CHARLES T. PROUTY, ecls., ~ l f r WiUiam . Shnkespeara Comedies, H i s t o r i e s ,&: Tragedies, Facsimile d First Folio, New Haven, 1954. DONALD A. STBUFFER, Shakespeare's IVortd o f images, New York, 1949. DEnns A. TRAVERSI, 'The Tempest,' 8crmtiny, 16' (1949), 127-57. J. DOVER nrrtso;r, cd., The Tempest, New Shakespeare ed., Cambridge, 1921.
ROBERT R. C A ~ E Y ,'Shakspere's
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