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How earthing is done?

Systems of VIR cables is metal conduits or of lead- sheathed cables must have the conduit or sheathing in good mechanical and electrical contact, bonded and maintained at earth potential, by being connected to the water main, separate earth electrode or the earth terminal on the terminal board of the power supply. The earthing conductor must be as short and straight as possible in its run be of phosphor bronze or high conductivity lined copper. It should not be less than half the sectional area of the largest cable being protected provided that it need not be larger than 0.6 Sq. cm in sectional area. No joints are permitted in the earthing cable. Methods of Earthing: (A) Earthaing to Water Main: First the cold water pipe is thoroughly cleared of all grease and dirt. An adjustable clip is fixed at the cleaned spot. One end of the earthing cable is fixed to a lug which is attached to the clip by a fixing bolt and nut, tightening the nut draws the clip tight to grip the pipe firmly. The other end of the earthing cable is similarly connected to the conduit with a clamp and lug.