# Mach Waves

ur. nlkos !. MourLos - AL 164 / ML 223 1
Þropagauon of ulsLurbances (beeper)
! Mach angle:
2 ur. nlkos !. MourLos - AL 164 / ML 223
µ = arcsin
1
M
Mach Wave
" . ls caused by an lnñnlLeslmally small dlsLurbance Lo a
ßow, e.g. Lurn ßow an lnñnlLeslmally small angle :
(expanslve or compresslve)
" ulsLurbance ls noL felL ahead of Mach llne orlglnaung [
apex A
3 ur. nlkos !. MourLos - AL 164 / ML 223
d!
Mach Wave
! Mach angle glves Lhe dlrecuon of w.r.L. Lhe wave
ur. nlkos !. MourLos - AL 164 / ML 223 4

!
V
µ = arctan
V
n
V
t
Mach Wave: ñnd v - change across
! Luler's eq. along Lhe wave:
ur. nlkos !. MourLos - AL 164 / ML 223 3
dp
t
= !"V
t
dV
t
#dp
t
= 0 #dV
t
= 0
V = V
n
2
+V
t
2
(1)
V
t
= const. !
dV =
1
2 V
n
2
+V
t
2
2V
n
dV
n
=
V
n
V
dV
n
(2)
Mach Wave: ñnd v - change across
! Change ln ßow dlrecuon across Lhe wave ls Lhe
dlñerenual of Lhe Mach angle:
ur. nlkos !. MourLos - AL 164 / ML 223 6
d! =
d
V
n
V
t
"
#
\$
%
&
'
1+
V
n
V
t
"
#
\$
%
&
'
2
=
V
t
V
2
dV
n
(4)
Mach Wave: ñnd v - change across
! ulvlde (2) by (4):
! use
! and
ur. nlkos !. MourLos - AL 164 / ML 223 7
dV
d!
= V
V
n
V
t
sin µ =
1
M
µ = arctan
V
n
V
t
dV
d!
=
V
M
2
"1
Mach Wave: ñnd p - change across
! Luler's eq.:
! Speed of sound:
! Comblne:

ur. nlkos !. MourLos - AL 164 / ML 223 8
dp = !"VdV #
dV
V
= !
d"
"V
2
a
2
= !
p
"
# " =
! p
a
2
dV
V
= !
1
" M
2
dp
p
Mach Wave Lquauons
! use:
! 1o geL:

ur. nlkos !. MourLos - AL 164 / ML 223 9
dp
d!
= "
# M
2
M
2
"1
p
dV
d!
=
V
M
2
"1
Mach Wave
! lor clockwlse Lurnlng of Lhe ßow (as shown ln
Lhe skeLch)
ßuld expands (expanslon wave)
! lor counLerclockwlse Lurnlng of Lhe ßow (ex.
ßow over a wedge)
ßuld compresses (compresslon wave)
! lor lnñnlLeslmally small ßow deßecuons, as
consldered ln Lhls analysls, boLh expanslon
and compresslon Lurnlng ls !"#\$%&'(!) !!
ur. nlkos !. MourLos - AL 164 / ML 223 10

!dp ! 0 !

!dp ! 0 !