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Using Phrases Phrases can clarify- or the opposite…
Using Phrases
Phrases can clarify- or the opposite…
Function
Function

One key idea is that a phrase can function as a part of speech.

Phrases can function as adjectives, adverbs, or nouns.

Definitions
Definitions

A phrase is a group of related words that does not have a subject or

predicate.

A clause is a complete thought which includes both a subject & predicate.

Prepositional Phrases
Prepositional Phrases

A prepositional phrase can function either as an adjective or an adverb.

Prepositional phrases have a preposition, its object, and any

modifiers of the object.

Prepositions
Prepositions

Prepositions help us to understand the relationship between things.

About, above, across, after, against, along, among, around, as, at, before,

behind, below, beneath, beside,

between, beyond, but, by, down,

during, except, for, from, in, inside, into, like, near, of, off, out, outside, over,

past, since, through, throughout, to,

toward, under, underneath, until, unto, up, upon, with, within, without.

Prepositional Phrases
Prepositional Phrases

Prepositions always introduce a prepositional phrase. A prepositional

phrase always ends in a noun or

pronoun called the object of the preposition (remember that a

preposition indicates a relationship

between things so it needs a noun or

pronoun at the other end of the relationship). If the object has modifiers, they are also part of the prepositional phrase.

Prepositional Phrase as

Adjective Phrase
Adjective Phrase

An adjective phrase is a prepositional phrase that modifies a noun or pronoun. Usually they answer the question “which one?” or “what kind?”. Then comes a fit of shivers. Of shivers tells us what kind of fit.

Prepositional Phrase as

Adverb Phrase
Adverb Phrase

An adverb phrase is a prepositional phrase that modifies a verb, an

adjective, or an adverb. Usually they answer questions about when,

where, why, how, or to what extent.

Mac shivered in a frozen sleeping bag.

In a frozen sleeping bag modifies the verb shivered.

Appositive Phrases
Appositive Phrases

An appositive is a noun or pronoun that renames

or identifies another noun or pronoun in the

sentence.

Fossey was a primatologist, a scientist who studies such animals as gorillas and chimpanzees.

The appositive phrase renames primatologist. This is nonessential or nonrestrictive, because it is not necessary to make the sentence clear. Nonessential

appositives are set off by a comma or

commas.

Verbal Phrases
Verbal Phrases

A verbal is a verb form that acts as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. A verbal phrase

consists of a verbal and its

modifiers and complements.

Verbal Phrases
Verbal Phrases

There are three types of verbal phrases: participles, gerunds, and infinitives.

Verbal Phrases: Participles
Verbal Phrases: Participles

Participles are verb forms that function as adjectives.

A participial phrase consists of a participle plus any modifiers

and complements.

A participle may be past or present tense.

Verbal Phrases: Participles
Verbal Phrases: Participles

Participial phrase: adjective

Circling the moon, the astronauts broadcast their message.

Verbal Phrases: Participles
Verbal Phrases: Participles

Participial phrase: adjective

Televised live, this telecast amazed viewers.

Verbal Phrases: Participles
Verbal Phrases: Participles

Participial phrase: adjective

Do not confuse participles with verbs. Participles are verb forms, but they act as adjectives in the sentence.

Verbal Phrases: Participles

& Absolute Phrases
& Absolute Phrases

Beware of the dangling participle!

An absolute phrase consists of a participle and the noun or pronoun that it modifies. An absolute phrase

has no grammatical connection to

the rest of the sentence.

Apollo 8 having orbited the moon ten times, the astronauts headed

back to earth. How would we fix this?

Verbal Phrases: Gerund

Phrases
Phrases

A gerund is a verb form that ends in ing and acts as a noun.

A gerund phrase consists of a gerund and it modifiers and

complements.

Verbal Phrases: Gerund

Phrases
Phrases

A gerund is a verb form that ends in ing and acts as a noun.

Sightseeing is a real adventure.

Verbal Phrases: Gerund

Phrases
Phrases

Using gerunds can help make your writing more vivid and lively. It is also a way to avoid using passive construction (creating dull prose).

I like traveling. The gerund makes the actual experience more vivid.

I like to travel. The prepositional phrase is weaker.

Verbal Phrases: Infinitive

Phrases
Phrases

An infinitive is a verb form usually beginning with the word „to‟ that

can act as a noun, adjective, or adverb. An infinitive phrase consists

of an infinitive plus modifiers and

complements.

Douglas Adams and Mark Cowardine journeyed the world to glimpse exotic, endangered

creatures.

Infinitive as adverb.

Verbal Phrases: Infinitive

Phrases
Phrases

An infinitive is a verb form usually beginning with the word „to‟ that

can act as a noun, adjective, or adverb. An infinitive phrase consists

of an infinitive plus modifiers and

complements.

Besides planning their trips, Cowardine‟s job was to teach Adams about the animals. Infinitive as predicate nominative.

Verbal Phrases: Infinitive

Phrases
Phrases

An infinitive is a verb form usually beginning with the word „to‟ that

can act as a noun, adjective, or adverb. An infinitive phrase

consists of an infinitive plus

modifiers and complements.

Adams had the job of being the one to write down what they saw. Infinitive as adjective.

Verbal Phrases: Infinitive

Phrases
Phrases

An infinitive is a verb form usually beginning with the word „to‟ that can act

as a noun, adjective, or adverb. An infinitive phrase consists of an infinitive

plus modifiers and complements.

“To” + verb = infinitive phrase “To” + noun = prepositional phrase

Allen Iverson
Allen Iverson

How quickly can these tomatoes be shipped to

stores?

Allen Iverson
Allen Iverson

Voters elected Harry Truman, Roosevelt‟s

successor, to a full term as

president.

Nonessential Appositive Phrase

Allen Iverson
Allen Iverson

The servicemen assigned to duty on that vessel

remember the ship with

pride.