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Micro Analysis of Amul Dairy and Gujarat Co-operative Milk Marketing Federation

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Chapter 1

Evolution of AMUL

Before the cooperative movement began, middlemen who supplied milk to the consumers
were exploiting the dairy industry in the Kaira District. It began as a response to this
exploitation and put an end to it. It grew because it responded to the farmers
financially as well as with services. It has thrived because farmers who have a stake in
its success, own it. And because it has been managed by capable professionals and
strengthened by dedicated scientists, technologists and workers, it has forged ahead.
Today in India, there are 75,000 dairy cooperative societies, spread all over the country
with a membership of 10 million. The farmer in the village is now assured of a better
future thanks to these cooperatives. Recently one of the European Embassies in Delhi
requested Amul for information on the five biggest "companies" in the dairy business.
The first three are in the cooperative sector - The Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing
Federation (GCMMF), The Kaira District Cooperative Milk Producers' Union Limited
and The Mehsana District Cooperative Milk Producers' Union. The Kaira District
Cooperative is the second best in the country. It helped to create GCMMF, the apex body
of all cooperatives in Gujarat.

The Root Cause

In the forties one firm - Polsons, dominated the dairy industry. Established by a rather
enterprising gentleman who discovered that Kaira District, of what was then Bombay
Presidency, produced a good deal of milk. He established a creamery and for a while the
name Polsons was synonymous with butter - much as Amul is today.

One of Polson's businesses was to supply milk to Bombay. As Kaira district was an
abundant source of the commodity, Polson was chosen to procure it from there. He in
turn, entered into an arrangement with a number of contractors who actually went to the

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villages and collected the milk. Everyone was happy. Bombay received reasonably good
quality milk and Polson made a handsome profit. The contractors too managed to earn
large margins by over quoting the farmers. It was only the poor farmers who were
unhappy for it. They invested in the animal feed and fodder and they put in their labor.
Yet, it was they who received the smallest share of the Bombay consumers' rupee. The
arrangement benefited everyone but them.

The First step: formation of Kaira union

Realizing that something needed to be done about the unequal balance of wealth, they
turned to Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel for advice. Sardar Patel knew that their only chance of
earning a decent income was when they themselves gained control over the resources
they created. He also knew that the cooperatives offered them the best chance of gaining
that control. So he advised them to stop selling milk to Polson and form a cooperative of
their own. In his opinion they were to own their own dairy unit. He said, "Throw out
Polson and his milk contractors". They followed his advice and the Kaira District
Cooperative Milk Producers' Union (AMUL) was born, in 1946. By good fortune, they
could get as Chairman - Shri Tribhuvandas Patel, an equally remarkable man. He
understood the concept of cooperation and he understood people. His integrity was
absolute. Because the farmers of Kaira district trusted and respected Tribhuvandas Patel,
the cooperative was able to pass through some very difficult times and eventually become
a model of cooperative dairying throughout the world.

The Kaira Union began with a clear goal, to ensure that its producer members received
the highest possible share of the consumers' rupee. This goal itself defined their direction.
The focus was on production by the masses, not mass production. By the early 'sixties,
the modest experiment in Kaira had not only become a success, people began to
recognize it as such. Farmers came from all parts of Gujarat to learn. They went back to
their own districts and started their own cooperatives. The result - Together, the district
milk producers unions of Gujarat own the Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing
Federation, which markets the milk and milk products manufactured by its owners. The
Federation's turnover was over Rs. 1700 crore making it the largest in the food industry.

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In 1964, the then Prime Minister Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri came to inaugurate cattle feed
factory owned by Amul near Anand. Impressed by the cooperative's success, he
expressed his wish to "transplant the spirit of Anand in many other places". He wanted
the Anand model of dairy development replicated in other parts of the country. With
institutions owned by rural producers, which were sensitive to their needs and responsive
to their demands, it was an ideal tool for progress. The National Dairy Development
Board was created in 1965 in response to this call.

Amul: The origin

The mighty Ganges at its origin is but a tiny stream in the Gangotri ranges of the
Himalayas. Similar is the story of Amul, which inspired 'Operation Flood' and heralded
the 'White Revolution' in India. It began with two village cooperatives and 250 liters of
milk per day, nothing but a trickle compared to the flood it has become today. Today
Amul collects processes and distributes over a million liters of milk and milk
products per day, during the peak, on behalf of more than a thousand village cooperatives
owned by half a million-farmer members. Further, as Ganga-ma carries the aspirations of
generations for moksha, Amul too has become a symbol of the aspirations of millions of
farmers, creating a pattern of liberation and self-reliance for every farmer to follow.

The start of a revolution

The revolution started as awareness among the farmers that grew and matured into a
protest movement and the determination to liberate them. Over four decades ago, the life
of a farmer in Kaira District was very much like that of his counterpart anywhere else in
India. His income was derived almost entirely from seasonal crops. The income from
milch buffaloes was undependable. Private traders and middlemen controlled the
marketing and distribution system for the milk. As milk is perishable, farmers were
compelled to sell it for whatever they were offered. Often, they had to sell cream and
ghee at throwaway prices. In this situation, the one who gained was the private trader.

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Gradually, the realization dawned on the farmers that the exploitation by the trader could
be checked only if marketed their milk themselves. In order to do that they needed to
form some sort of an organization. This realization is what led to the establishment of the
Kaira District Cooperative Milk Producers' Union Limited (popularly known as
Amul) that was formally registered on December 14, 1946.

The Kaira Union began pasteurizing milk for the Bombay Milk Scheme in June 1948. An
assured market proved a great incentive to the milk producers of the district. By the end
of 1948, more than 400 farmers joined in more village societies, and the quantity of milk
handled by one Union increased from 250 to 5,000 liters a day.

Obstacles: Springboards for success

Each failure, each obstacle, each stumbling block can be turned into a success story. In
the early years, Amul had to face a number of problems. With every problem came
opportunity. A chance to turn a negative into a positive. Milk by products and
supplementary yield, which suffered from the same lack of marketing and distribution
facilities, became encumbrance. Instead of being bogged down by their fate they were
used as stepping-stones for expansion. Backward integration of the process led the
cooperatives to advances in animal husbandry and veterinary practice.

Milk by products: An excuse to expand

The response to these provided stimulus for further growth. For example, as the
movement spread in the district, it was found that the Bombay Milk Scheme could not
absorb the extra milk collected by the Kaira Union in winter, when the production on an
average was 2.5 times more than in summer. Thus, even by 1953, the farmer-members
had no assured market for the extra milk produced in winter. They were again forced to
sell a large surplus at low rates to the middlemen. The remedy was to set up a plant to
process milk into products like butter and milk powder. A Rs 5 million plant to
manufacture milk powder and butter was completed in 1955. In 1958, the factory was
expanded to manufacture sweetened condensed milk. Two years later, a new wing was
added for the manufacture of 2500 tons of roller-dried baby food and 600 tons of cheese

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per year, the former based on a formula developed with the assistance of Central Food
Technological Research Institute (CFTRI), Mysore. It was the first time anywhere in the
world that cheese or baby food was made from buffalo milk on a large, commercial scale.
Another milestone was the completion of a project to manufacture balanced cattle feed.
The plant was donated by OXFAM under the Freedom from Hunger Campaign of the
FAO.

To meet the requirement of milk powder for the Defense, the Kaira Union was asked by
the Government of India in 1963 to setup additional milk drying capacity. A new dairy
capable of producing 40 tons of milk powder and 20 tons of butter a day was speedily
completed. It was declared open in 1965. The Mogar Complex where high protein
weaning food, chocolate and malted food are being made was another initiative by Amul
to ensure that while it fulfilled the social responsibility to meet the demand for liquid
milk, its members were not deprived of the benefits to be had from the sale of high value-
added products.

Cattle: From stumbling blocks to building blocks

Traditionally dairying was a subsidiary occupation of the farmers of Kaira. However, the
contribution to the farmer's income was not as prominent as his attachment to dairying as
a tradition handed down from one generation to the next. The milk yield from animals,
which were maintained mainly on the by products of the farm, was decidedly low. That
together with the lack of facilities to market even the little produced rendered the
scientific practice of animal husbandry irrational as well as unaffordable. The return on
the investment as well as the prospects of being able to market the product looked very
bleak. It was a vicious cycle reinforced by generations of beliefs.

The Kaira Union broke the cycle by not only taking upon themselves the responsibility of
collecting the marketable surplus of milk but also provided the members with every
provision needed to enhance production. Thus the Kaira Union has full-fledged
machinery geared to provide animal health care and breeding facilities. As early as late
fifties, the Union started making high quality buffalo semen. Through village society

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workers artificial insemination service was made available to the rural animal population.
The Union started its mobile veterinary services to render animal health care at the
farmers' doorstep. Probably for the first time in the country, veterinary first aid services,
by trained personnel, were made available in the villages. Fully qualified staff mans the
Union’s 16 mobile veterinary dispensaries. All the villages are visited bi-monthly, on a
predetermined day, to provide animal health care. A 24-hour Emergency Service is also
available at a fee (Rs. 35 for members and Rs. 100 for non-members). All the mobile
veterinary vans are equipped with Radio Telephones.

The Union runs a semen production center where it maintains high pedigreed Surti
buffalo bulls; Holstein Friesian bulls, Jersey bulls and 50 per cent crossbred bulls. The
semen obtained from these bulls is used for artificial breeding of buffaloes and cows
belonging to the farmer members of the district. The artificial insemination service has
become very popular because it regulates the frequency of calving in cows and buffaloes
thus reducing their dry period. Not only that, a balanced feed concentrate is manufactured
in the Union's Cattle Feed Plant and sold to the members through the societies at cost
price.

Impressive though its growth, the unique feature of the Amul sagas did not lie in the
extensive use of modern technology, nor the range of its products, not even the rapid
inroads it made into the market for dairy products. The essence of the Amul story lies in
the breakthrough it achieved in modernizing the subsistence economy of a sector by
organizing the rural producers in the areas.

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Chapter 2
Production Function

Introduction

Explosion of the production technology and changes in technical field is going to bring
out revolution in the industry sector which eventually gives stand to study and favors the
come backing subject i.e. production and management.

Production and operation management is planning, organizing, staffing, directing and


controlling of all the production system those portion of organization that convert inputs
into products and services. In general production system takes raw material, personnel,
machines, buildings and other resources and produce products and services.

The core of production system is its conversion subsystem where in workers; raw
materials are used to convert inputs into products and services. This production
department is at heart of the firm, as it is able to produce low cost products and superior
quality in timely manners.

Thus, there arises enormous need of giving due importance to this department as a whole
and a strong concrete base being foundation pillars of a manufacturing organization, if
the intention is to succeed domestically and globally.

Co operative Milk Producing Societies in Gujarat

Following are the cooperatives that function under GCMMF.

• Ahmedabad Dist Coop Milk Producers’ Union Ltd, Ahmedabad. Soc: 433, Mems:
52,428. Av Milk Proc: 90,000 lpd.
• Banaskantha Dist Coop Milk Producers’ Union Ltd, Palanpur. Soc: 1,130, Mems: 97,251.
Av Milk Proc: 295,000 lpd.

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• Baroda Dist Coop Milk Producers’ Union Ltd, Baroda. Soc: 783, Mems: 156,691. Av
Milk Proc: 225,000 lpd.
• Bharuch Dist Coop Milk Producers’ Union Ltd, Bharuch. Soc: 289, Mems: 37,900. Av
Milk Proc: 38,000 lpd.
• Bhavnagar Dist Coop Milk Producers’ Union Ltd, Bhavnagar. Soc: 190, Mems: 25,532.
Av Milk Proc: 23,000 lpd.
• Gandhinagar Dist Coop Milk Producers’ Union Ltd, Gandhinagar. Soc: 56, Mems:
13,000. Av Milk Proc: 46,500 lpd.
• Junagadh Dist Coop Milk Producers’ Union Ltd, Junagadh. Soc: 400, Mems: 41,500. Av
Milk Proc: 73,000 lpd.
• Kaira Dist Coop Milk Producers’ Union Ltd, Amul Dairy, Anand. Soc: 943, Mems:
513,280. Av Milk Proc: 740,000 lpd.
• Kutch Dist Coop Milk Producers’ Union Ltd, Kutch Dairy, Madhapar. Av Milk Proc:
25,000 lpd.
• Mehsana Dist Coop Milk Producers’ Union Ltd, Dudhsagar Dairy, Mehsana. Soc: 1,020,
Mems: 292,800. Av Milk Proc: 704,402 lpd.
• Panchmahal Dist Coop Milk Producers’ Union Ltd, Godhra. Soc: 1,133, Mems: 126,510.
Av Milk Proc: 112,000 lpd.
• Rajkot Dist Coop Milk Producers’ Union Ltd, Rajkot. Soc: 193, Mems: 29,620. Av Milk
Proc: 50,000 lpd.
• Sabarkantha Dist Coop Milk Producers’ Union Ltd, Sabar Dairy, Himatnagar. Soc: 1,315,
Mems: 200,482. Av Milk Proc: 322,346 lpd.
• Surat Dist Coop Milk Producers’ Union Ltd, Sumul Dairy, Surat. Soc: 864, Mems:
160,000. Av Milk Proc: 300,000 lpd.
• Surendranagar Dist Coop Milk Producers’ Union Ltd, Surendranagar. Soc: 486, Mems:
31,000. Av Milk Proc: 30,000 lpd.
• Valsad Dist Coop Milk Producers’ Union Ltd, Vasudhara Dairy, Valsad. Soc: 348,
Mems: 35,900. Av Milk Proc: 74,400 lpd.

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Plant Layout
Plant layout is the overall arrangement of the machine tools, handling equipments,
storeroom and other various accessories required for facilitating production in a factory.
These arrangements are pre-planned with the results that the building has been
constructed to fit a layout of a given process.

AMUL plant is indigenously worked out with facilitation of various production processes
and production of multi products under one plant. The total plot is nearly about 2.27 kms.
Separate buildings are provided with required arrangements of machine tools handling
and computers connection through the control room to fit for varying product-
manufacturing departments.

The plant is engaged in producing milk, ice creams, milk powder and ghee. Entire
department is uniquely provided with facilities for the processing each product. There are
4 production departments and packaging departments pertaining to each product
respectively.

Thus, plant layout encompasses all production and service facilities and provides for the
most effective utilization of the men, materials and machines constituting the process. It
is the master blue print of coordinating all operations.

A good layout results in elimination or minimization of accidents and hazards and cost
while increases the output. Thus a good layout specifically is observed to be beneficial on
the following grounds:

• Efforts minimization
• Fewer material handling will be provided manufacturing units cost will be lover
• Bottlenecking of production will be eliminated
• Total item in process will be less
• Specialization of operations is facilitated
• Less inspection will be required

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• Production control will be easier to achieve


• Plant investment can be held to the necessary minimum
• Plant and equipment obsolescence may be less
• Wastage space will be eliminated

Thus, a true beneficiary is provided to the plant through good and sound planning for
plant layout.

Operating Analysis

Amul’s only source of raw material is Village Milk societies. Milk is brought from such
village milk societies every morning and evening. This milk is then sent to the dairy
plant. In the dairy plant the milk is processed i.e. it is made free from germs.

Milk Processing
The entire process of milk can be divided into following steps:

Steps:

Milk Processing Chart:

Collection of Raw-Milk
Electronic Milk Test

Methyline Blue Reduction Test


Purchasing And Standardizing Process

Separation Process

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Quality Check

Packaging Process

Cold Storage

Steps in Production Process

1. Collection of Raw Milk


Raw milk is collected from different co-operative societies of Gujarat. About 122000
liters of raw milk is collected per day. Before this milk is sent to the laboratory for testing
the ‘FAT & SNF’ proportion, the milk is separated from the raw milk. The milk is taken
from the chilling centers to Ahmedabad with the help of trucks.

After collecting the samples of milk, they are taken to the laboratory ,where two types of
tests are conducted.

• Electronic milk test


• Methyline blue reduction test

Electronic Milk Test


Before pasteurizing the milk the samples are taken to the laboratory. In the laboratory
with the help of machine called electronic milk tester, the proportion of SNF & FAT is
checked with phosphate solution. When the colour of the milk becomes yellow, it is sent
for pasteurisation.

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Methyline blue reduction test


Another test, which is taken in the laboratory, is called Methyline blue reduction test.
This test is conducted for checking for how long the milk will remain fresh. To check
this, 10 ml of milk is taken and 1 ml of methyline blue solution is added to it. It is then
kept under water at 57-degree C. After one hour, if the solution losses its colour than it is
called raw milk. If the solution remains the same even after 5 hours than it is considered
as fresh milk, which remains constant for a long period of time.

The dairy fixes the proportion of FAT & SAF.


MILK SNF FAT
Buffalo 9% 6%
Cow 8.5% 4.5%

After laboratory gives green signal and confirming the raw milk at the reception dock is
brought in to the house connected with the pump is sent to the milk processing plant. This
is than chilled below 4 degree C. and then stored in milk silos. After that milk is
processed which has two steps i.e. pasteurising and standardizing.

2. Pasteurising & standardizing


After collecting and checking and conducting laboratory tests, the pasteurising process is
conducted. To pasteurized the milk means to kill all the germs in the milk by a particular
method which was invented by a scientist called James Pasteur and so the name
pasteurisation.

In pasteurizing, the milk is first heated at 72 C to 76 C for 15 seconds and then it is


immediately cooled below 4 C. By this method they destroy the pathogenic bacteria
present in the raw milk. But if the right degree of temperature is not provided there are
chances that the milk might still contain germs. After this process some milk goes to
separator machine and remaining is proportionately sent for standardization.

Standardization process is known such as it bifurcates the milk in 3 categories varying


according to that FAT & SNF contents. The equipment named OSTA. Auto

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standardization adjusts the fat directly. The computer is just ordered whether gold or
standard milk is to be rationed and the same will be received with appropriate contents.
Ready Milk = Pasteurised + Standardized.

3. Separation process
Separator machine separates two kinds of products, skimmed milk & cream, through
channels. There are 100 disks fixed in separator machines, which revolve at 5000 rpm
(revolution per minute). It is taken to the tanks, which has the capacity of 20000 litres.
Whenever the milk is needed from the tank, it is tested in the laboratory and the deficit
proportion fat is added by mixing cream. This process continues for 24 hours.

4 Quality Check
Pasteurized milk is sent for a quality check in the Quality Assurance laboratory of the
dairy plant. Within 14 seconds FAT and SNF proportion is received regarding 30 lack
litres of milk. The total investment put into the lab by the Dairy plant is of Rs. 6 crores.

This laboratory only checks and analyses the powder, milk and ghee. There is a separate
ice-cream analysing laboratory.

5 Packing Process
After this the milk is sent for packing to the milk packing station in the dairy plant. In the
milk packaging station there are huge pipelines and behind each of them there is polyfill
machine from which the material to pack milk comes out. There are 12 such polyfill
machines in the packaging station from which the materials to pack milk comes out.
From each of these 12 machines 100 pouches are packed in one single minute.

6. Storage
Then the milk is sent to the cold storage of the dairy where the milk is stored until it is
dispatched. Here the milk is stored at temperature ranging from 5 C to 10 C, it is
maintained with the help of exhaust fans having silicon chips. About 40000 litres of milk
is dispatched from the cold storage of the dairy plant everyday. The damaged pouches are
kept a side and the milk is once again put to the tank.

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Milk Powder
For converting milk powder first of all water content is evaporated in condensing plant.
By this process they get condensed milk, it is used as a raw material. There after the milk
is sent to the drying plant. The spray drying plant is huge in size with a height of 70 feet.
The plant is divided into many floors to enable easy use of the plant. First of all the raw
material i.e. condensed milk is put into the first floor of the plant along with air at 200° C.
By this process the remaining water, which the condensed milk might have retained is
also evaporated and milk comes as powder but this is not the last stage.

This powder is again put in to a machine called milk calendaria, where it is turned in to
real milk powder. Its capacity is 1000 litres per 15 minutes. Then again this milk powder
is put into a Dense Waise Vessel. Here the lumps are removed and uniform milk powder
is sent up.

After processing the powder is sent for quality checking at quality assurance laboratory.
After the quality confirms, this milk powder is differentiated, by adding different flavors
to them like elaichi, chocolate & sugar free milk powder. Thereafter they are packed in
tins and boxes. Afterwards it is stored at storage department.

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Chapter 3

GCMMF: An Overview

Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation (GCMMF) is the India’s largest food
product marketing organization. It is a state level apex body of milk cooperatives in
Gujarat, which aims to provide remunerative returns to the farmers and also serve the
interest of consumers by providing quality products that are good value for money.

Members 12 district cooperative milk producers' Union


No. of Producer Members 2.36 million
No. of Village Societies 11,333
Total Milk handling capacity 6.9 million litres per day
Milk collection (Total – 2003-04) 1.81 billion litres
Milk collection (Daily Average 2003-04) 4.97 million litres
Milk Drying Capacity 511 metric Tons per day
Cattle feed manufacturing Capacity 2340 MTs per day

Sales Turnover Rs (million) US $ (in million)


1996-97 15540 450
1997-98 18840 455
1998-99 22192 493
1999-00 22185 493
2000-01 22588 500
2001-02 23365 500
2002-03 27457 575
2003-04 28941 616

List of Products Marketed

Bread spreads

• Amul Butter

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• Amul Lite Low Fat Breadspread


• Amul Cooking Butter

Cheese Range

• Amul Pasteurized Processed Cheddar Cheese


• Amul Processed Cheese Spread
• Amul Pizza (Mozarella) Cheese
• Amul Shredded Pizza Cheese
• Amul Emmental Cheese
• Amul Gouda Cheese
• Amul Malai Paneer (cottage cheese), Frozen, Refrigerated and Tinned
• Utterly Delicious Pizza

Mithaee Range (Ethnic sweets)

• Amul Shrikhand (Mango, Saffron, Almond Pistachio, Cardamom)


• Amul Amrakhand
• Amul Mithaee Gulabjamuns
• Amul Mithaee Gulabjamun Mix
• Amul Mithaee Kulfi Mix
• Avsar Ladoos

UHT Milk Range

• Amul Shakti 3% fat Milk


• Amul Taaza 1.5% fat Milk
• Amul Gold 4.5% fat Milk
• Amul Lite Slim-n-Trim Milk 0% fat milk
• Amul Shakti Toned Milk
• Amul Fresh Cream
• Amul Snowcap Softy Mix

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Pure Ghee

• Amul Pure Ghee


• Sagar Pure Ghee
• Amul Cow Ghee

Infant Milk Range

• Amul Infant Milk Formula 1 (0-6 months)


• Amul Infant Milk Formula 2 (6 months above)
• Amulspray Infant Milk Food

Milk Powders

• Amul Full Cream Milk Powder


• Amulya Dairy Whitener
• Sagar Skimmed Milk Powder
• Sagar Tea and Coffee Whitener

Sweetened Condensed Milk

• Amul Mithaimate Sweetened Condensed Milk

Fresh Milk

• Amul Taaza Toned Milk 3% fat


• Amul Gold Full Cream Milk 6% fat
• Amul Shakti Standardized Milk 4.5% fat
• Amul Slim & Trim Double Toned Milk 1.5% fat
• Amul Saathi Skimmed Milk 0% fat
• Amul Cow Milk

Curd Products

• Yogi Sweetened Flavored Dahi (Dessert)

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• Amul Masti Dahi (fresh curd)


• Amul Butter Milk
• Amul Lassee

Amul Ice creams

• Royal Treat Range (Rajbhog, Cappuchino, Chocochips, Butterscotch, Tutti


Frutti)
• Nut-o-Mania Range (Kaju Drakshi, Kesar Pista, Roasted Almond, Kesar
Carnival, Badshahi Badam Kulfi, Shista Pista Kulfi)
• Utsav Range (Anjir, Roasted Almond)
• Simply Delicious Range (Vanilla, Strawberry, Pineapple, Rose, Chocolate)
• Nature's Treat (Alphanso Mango, Fresh Litchi, Anjir, Fresh Strawberry, Black
Currant)
• Sundae Range (Mango, Black Currant, Chocolate, Strawberry)
• Millennium Ice cream (Cheese with Almonds, Dates with Honey)
• Milk Bars (Chocobar, Mango Dolly, Raspberry Dolly, Shahi Badam Kulfi, Shahi
Pista Kulfi, Mawa Malai Kulfi, Green Pista Kulfi)
• Cool Candies (Orange, Mango)
• Cassatta
• Tricone Cones (Butterscotch, Chocolate)
• Megabite Almond Cone
• Frostik - 3 layer chocolate Bar
• Fundoo Range - exclusively for kids
• SlimScoop Fat Free Frozen Dessert (Vanilla, Banana, Mango, Pineapple)
• Health Isabcool

Chocolate & Confectionery

• Amul Milk Chocolate


• Amul Fruit & Nut Chocolate

Brown Beverage

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• Nutramul Malted Milk Food

Milk Drink

• Amul Kool Flavoured Milk

Health Beverage

• Amul Shakti White Milk Food

Ready to Serve Soups

• Masti Tomato Soup


• Masti Hot & Sour Soup

Recently launched

• Amul Ganthiya

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Organisation Structure

Organization Structure is divided into two parts:

• External Organization Structure


• Internal Organization Structure

• External Organization Structure


External Organization Structure is the organization structure that affects the organization
from the out side.

State Level Marketing Federation

District Milk Product Union Ltd.

Village Milk Product Union Ltd.

Villagers

As we know, GCMMF is unit of Gujarat Milk Marketing Federation, which is a co-


operative organization. The villagers of more than 10000 villages of Gujarat are the bases
of this structure. They all make village milk producers union, district level milk
producers union and then a state level marketing federation is established. The structure
is line relationship, which provides easy way to operation. It also provides better
communication between two stages.

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• Internal Organization Structure:

The following is internal organisation chart of Amul:

Organization Structure Chart

Chairman

Managing Director

General Manager

Ass. General Manager

Finance Production Marketing Sales & Purchase Personnel


Dept. Dept. Dept. Dept. Dept.

Senior Senior Senior Senior Senior


Manager Manager Manager Manager Manager

Finance Production Marketing Sales Personnel


Manager Manager Manager Manager Manager

Accountant Officer Marketing Officer P.R.F.


Executive

Officers Supervisor F.S.R. Salesmen Executive

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A systematic & well-defined organizational structure plays a vital role & provides
accurate information to the top-level management. An organisation structure defines a
clear-cut line of authorities & responsibilities among the employees of GCMMF. The
Organisation structure of Amul is well-arranged structure. At a glance a person can
completely come to know about the organization structure.

Amul is leaded by the director under him five branches viz. Factory, Marketing,
Accounts, Purchase, Human Resources Department.

Factory department has a separate general manager under him there are six braches viz.
Production, Stores, Distribution, Cold Storage, Quality, and Deep-freezing. This
department takes care of the factory work.

Marketing department has regional senior marketing manager and under him there is a
regional manager. This department takes care of the marketing aspects of Amul.

Accounts department takes care regarding accounts i.e. day-to-day work. Under the
accountant there is one clerk.

Purchase department takes care regarding the purchase of raw materials and many other
things.

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Chapter 4
Marketing Function

Gujarat Co-operative Milk Marketing Federation (GCMMF)

GCMMF was the first co-operative to be set up under operation flood. GCMMF’S dairy
plant commissioned in 1994 is one of the most modern and largest plants. It can handle
up to 1million litres of milk per day. The plant also has facilities for pasteurizing and
packing. It was funded by NDDB. GCMMF’s milk is sold under its flagship brand Amul.

GCMMF was formed in 1973. As an apex marketing federation of 12 district milk unions
of Gujarat to operate own marketing and distribution network in India and abroad.

GCMMF sales turnover grew by 21% Rs. 15.5 billion to Rs. 18.8 billion including
consignment sales of Rs. 3.7 billion sale of Amul milk in Gujarat and Maharastra
increased by 11% and 16% respectively. Dairy product turnover registered a 19% growth.
Amul butter registered 18% growth. The sale of Amul & Sagar Ghee increased by 47%.
Amul Cheese registered 60% value growth.

GCMMF’s sales to the defense services were Rs.233 million during the year, were
mainly to Burma, Uganda and West Africa. The company plans to expand its export
markets in Saudi Arabia and other Middle East countries.

During 1999, launching it in 8 states and 2 union territories extended the Amul ice-cream
brand franchise. Amul ice creams have become India’s 2nd largest brand. Recently it has
commissioned a dairy at Kolkata.

New products launched during the early 2000 were Amul Pizza, Cheese and Amul slice
cheese, Amul paneer and Amul Mithaee range. Safal mango drink has been launched by
Strategic alliance with Safal (A union of NDDB). The product range to be launched
under the Safal brand will include fruit drinks, squashes, pickles, jams, and ketchup and
mango pulp.

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Amul ice-cream brand franchise was extended with launch in 8 states & 2 union
territories. Amul ice cream has become the 2nd largest brand in the country & has
garnered major share in its existing markets in a short time span of 3 years. Amul’s main
ice-cream manufacturing facility is located at Gandhinagar which is Asia’s largest and
most modern integrated ice-cream manufacturing plant and uses world renewed
refrigeration units and an efficient cold chain. GCMMF has become very popular because
of its excellent marketing strategy. GCMMF marketing strategy is to understand the
consumer needs, develop products that provide superior value at fewer prices. GCMMF
has shown a tremendous commitment to the floodwater situations. GCMMF has never
stopped the supply of milk and other milk products. And unlike other competitors, it has
never taken wrong benefits in these kinds of situations. It has developed an excellent
distribution channel to provide its products to the consumers. It has made its products
available in each part of Gujarat & India.

Market Segmentation
Market segment is a very important function for the market department of the GCMMF,
because the market consists of buyers different in many ways. They are different in their
wants resources, locating buying practices. Because buyers have unique needs and wants,
each buyer is potentially separate market.

Geographic segmentation

Under these variables, GCMMF has divided market into different geographic units such
as region, states, cities etc. GCMMF sells its products by geographic segment action like
in the north where production of milk is very high the sale of Amul’s product is not
much. But in the western region it is high. GCMMF identifies this kind of variables and
deals with it.

Demographic Segmentation

Under this variable GCMMF has divided market into several segments such as age,
gender, family, size, income, occupation etc. For each group GCMMF marketing strategy

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is different. In milk Amul targets all the class where as in the other products like butter,
ghee, ice-cream etc. it targets to the middle and higher middle class.

Distribution Network
Most producers work with marketing intermediaries to bring their products to market.
The marketing intermediaries make up a marketing channel also called distribution
cannel. Distribution channels are sets of interdependent organizations involved in the
process of making a product or service available for use or consumption.

The Head Office of GCMMF is located at Anand. The entire market is divided in 5
zones. The zonal offices are located at Ahmedabad, Mumbai, New Delhi, Kolkata and
Chennai. Moreover there are 49 Depots located across the country and GCMMF caters to
13 Export markets.

A zero level of channel also called a direct marketing channel consists of a manufacturer
selling directly to the final customers. A one level channel; contains one selling
intermediary such as retailer to the final customers. A two level channel two
intermediaries are typically wholesaler and retailer. A three level channel are typically
wholesaler, retailer and jobber in between.

GCMMF has an excellent distribution. It is its distribution channel, which has made it so
popular. GCMMF’s products like milk and milk products are perishable. It becomes that
much important for them to have a good distribution.

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Distribution Chart

Products

Agents

Wholesaler

Retailer

Consumer

We can see from above figure that GCMMF distribution channel is simple and clear. The
products change hands for three times before it reaches to the final consumer. First of all
the products are stored at the Agents end who are mere facilitators in the network. Then
the products are sold to wholesale dealers who then sell to retailers and then the product
finally reaches the consumers.

Amul Parlors
Amul has come out with a unique concept of Amul Parlours. They have classified them
under four types namely:

• Center for excellence


• On the Move
• Amul Parlours
• Amul Preferred Outlets

Center for Excellence: These Amul Parlours are specifically at a place, which has a
class of excellence of its own. We can find such parlors at the Infosys, IIMA, NID
Ahmedabad etc.

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On the Move: These parlors are at the railway stations and at different state bus depots
across different cities.

Amul Parlours: These parlors can be seen at different gardens across different cities.
These are fully owned by Amul.

Amul Preferred Outlets: These are the private shops that keep the entire of product
range of Amul. They also agree not to keep any competitor brands in the outlets. They
can keep other brands that are in the non-competitor category.

Amul has more than 200 such outlets right now. It wants to have 1,00,000 parlors by the
end of the year 2010.

Managing Competition
The Indian market is dominated by a large number of small local and regional players.
There are an estimated 150 manufacturers in the organized segment, which accounts for
30-35% of sales and about 1000 units in the unorganized segments of the market. In the
organized segment the significant brands are Kwality Walls , Vadilal, Amul, Havmor,
Mother dairy and Baskins & Robbins. GCMMF is facing very tough competition from
both in and outside India.

Amul combats competition from its competitors by providing quality products at a price
which its customers value. Along with good quality products and reasonable price the
packaging is also very good. Most of its products are available in many flavors. Excellent
advertising backs its products and helps GCMMF (AMUL) to leave its competitors a
tough time. Also Amul has come out with Amul Parlours to cater to various segments of
customers. Amul has a very strong Brand Image in the Domestic market. Many products
are exported by GCMMF.

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Exports

GCMMF is India's largest exporter of Dairy Products. It has been accorded a "Trading
House" status. GCMMF has received the APEDA Award from Government of India for
Excellence in Dairy Product Exports for the last 9 years.

The major export products are:

Consumer Packs

• Amul Pure Ghee


• Amul Butter
• Amul Shrikhand
• Amul Mithaee Gulabjamun
• Nutramul Brown Beverage
• Amulspray Infant Milk Food
• Amul Cheese
• Amul Malai Paneer
• Amul UHT Milk (Long Life)
• Amul Fresh Cream

Bulk Packs

• Amul Skimmed Milk Powder


• Amul Full Cream Milk Powder

The products are exported to 18 countries namely, USA, Kuwait, Qatar, UAE, Yemen,
Bahrain, Muscat, Saudi Arabia, Tanzania, Madagascar, Sri Lanka, Singapore, Nepal,
Bangladesh, Nepal Thailand and Australia.

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Advertising by Amul
Amul has two agencies that look after its entire range of products namely FCB Ulka and
Da Cunha.

FCB Ulka looks after a broad range of products namely, Amul Lite Breadspread, Amul
Shrikhand, Amul Chocolates, Amul Paneer, Amul SnowCap Softy Mix Ice cream,
Amul/Sagar Ghee, Amul Infant Milk Formula 1 & 2, Sagar Tea and Coffee whitener,
Amul Spray Infant Milk Food, Amul Mithaee, Amul Gulab Jamun, Amulya Dairy
Whitener, Mithaimate Sweetened Condensed Milk, Amul Ice cream, Sagar Skimmed
Milk Powder and Amul Whole milk Powder.

Da Cunha looks after the Amul butter. Da Cunha also prepares the very popular Amul
butter billboard campaigns, which we see at various locations. Over and above the Amul
butter, Da Cunha also looks after the Amul Cheese, Cheese spread, Gouda Cheese,
Emmental Cheese, Masti Dahi and Buttermilk, Amul Slim-n-Trim, Amul Taaza and
Amul Gold (all different brands of milk), Amul Fresh Cream, Amul Chocolate Milk,
Amul Fresh Milk and Nutramul.

FCB Ulka also looks after the corporate campaign.

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Chapter 5

Finance Function

Introduction
Financial management is that managerial activity which is concerned with the planning
and controlling of the firm’s financial resources. Finance is nothing to other but the
money. Money is necessary input for economic activities. In the other wards “Finance is
the common denominator for carrying out vast range of corporate objectives.” This is a
co-operative unit, so the finance is raised from members by a way of share capital. In this
share capital is limited. This unit has invested so many rupees in the structure of
organization. Amul has a long-term finance project.

Financial Details

Name of bankers

• The Kaira District Central Co-op. Bank Ltd.

• State Bank of India

• State Bank of Saurashtra

• UTI Bank Ltd

• Corporation Bank

Name of the Auditor: A.B. Gadhvi


Special Auditor (Milk)
Milk Audit Office
Anand

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Financial Analysis

Analysis of Relevant Ratios

• Debt – Equity v/s Long Term Debt – Equity

The debt – equity ratio shows the percentage of debt and net worth. Long-term debt to
equity ratio shows the percentage of long-term debt to net worth.

Debt-Equity v/s Long term Debt-Equity Ratio

1 0.85 0.87
0.78 0.75
0.8
0.53 0.55
0.6 0.45
Ratio

0.34
0.4
0.2
0
2001 2002 2003 2004

Debt-Equity Ratio 0.85 0.87 0.53 0.55


Long term Debt-Equity 0.78 0.75 0.34 0.45
Ratio

Year

It seems that GCMMF has used more of long – term debt as compared to Short – term
debt. As a result it has ended up paying more of interest. But as far as the percentage of
debt to equity is concerned the use of debt has been declining over years. Of the total
capital employed debt is more as compared to equity. Thus, it can be concluded that the
stake of creditors and bankers is more in the total capital employed.

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• Interest Coverage Ratio

Interest coverage ratio is used to test the firm’s debt servicing capacity. It shows the
number of times interest charges are covered by funds that are ordinarily available for
payment.

Interest coverage Ratio

10 8.28
Ratio

5
2.36 2.63
1.84

0
2001 2002 2003 2004

Interest coverage 1.84 2.36 2.63 8.28


Ratio

Year

Interpretation
Interest coverage ratio of the firm was 1.84 times in 2001, which has increased to 8.28
times in 2004. This indicates that firm is easily able to pay the interest charges out of its
present earnings.

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Dupont Analysis

Com ponents of ROCE

40
33
26
Ratio
23 23.91 23
20 17.85
15.57 15.25

0 1.45 1.69 1.36 1.26


2001 2002 2003 2004

PBDIT/Sales 1.45 1.69 1.36 1.26


Sales/CE 15.57 15.25 23.91 17.85
ROCE 23 26 33 23
Year

Interpretation

The company’s profit before depreciation, interest and tax has remained constant over the
years. In 2003, though the sales/CE has increased the PBDIT/Sales ratio has declined.
This can be attributed increasing level of expenditure of the company. But the ROCE has
increased due to decreasing capital employed in the year 2003. Overall ROCE has
remained around 26%.

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• Components of ROE

Components of ROE

40
33 31.75
30
Ratio 26
23 21.2 23
20 20.9
17.63
13.7
10 10.4 8.92
7.36
0 1.85 1.9 1.21 1.89
2001 2002 2003 2004

PBDIT/CE 23 26 33 23
PAT/PBDIT 17.63 20.9 21.2 31.75
CE/Net Worth 1.85 1.9 1.21 1.89
ROE 7.36 10.4 8.92 13.7

Year

Interpretation
The trend in CE/Net Worth has remained steady over the years except during 2003 where
the CE/Net Worth ratio has declined. This can be attributed to an increase in Net Worth
and a decrease in the Capital Employed. PAT/PBDIT showing an increasing trend, this
can be attributed to the declining taxes over the years. PBDIT/CE ratio has increased in
2003 because of decrease in capital employed and decreased in 2004 due to increase in
capital employed. ROE has increased due to an increase in PAT.

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• ROCE v/s ROE

ROCE v/s ROE

40
33
30
26
Ratio 20
23 23
13.7
10 10.4 8.92
7.36
0
2001 2002 2003 2004

ROCE 23 26 33 23
ROE 7.36 10.4 8.92 13.7

Year

Interpretation

ROCE and ROE have shown an increasing trend up to year 2002, but after that in the
year 2003 it is showing an opposite trend. This is due to an increase in Net worth and
decrease in capital employed. Again, in 2004 there is an opposite trend in both ROCE
and ROE because of increase in capital employed.

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Common Size Statement of P & L Statement of


GCMMF

2001 2002 2003 2004

Total Income 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

EXPENDITURE:
Raw Materials 92.09 90.92 91.08 74.77
Power & Fuel Cost 0.57 0.66 0.71 0.50
Employee Cost 0.84 0.96 0.95 0.86
Other Manufacturing Expenses 1.03 1.31 1.58 17.91
Selling and Administration Expenses 3.89 4.07 4.22 0.81
Miscellaneous Expenses 0.16 0.41 0.11 3.85
Less: Pre-operative Expenses Capitalised 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Total Expenditure 98.59 98.33 98.65 98.71

Operating Profit 1.41 1.67 1.35 1.29


Interest 0.37 0.36 0.24 0.08
Gross Profit 1.04 1.31 1.11 1.21
Depreciation 0.73 0.83 0.72 0.61
Profit Before Tax 0.31 0.49 0.39 0.59
Tax 0.06 0.14 0.11 0.18
Deferred Tax 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Reported Net Profit 0.25 0.35 0.29 0.41
Extraordinary Items 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Adjusted Net Profit 0.25 0.35 0.29 0.41

Adjst. below Net Profit 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00


P & L Balance brought forward 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Statutory Appropriations 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Appropriations 0.25 0.35 0.29 0.41
P & L Balance carried down 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Dividend 0.18 0.17 0.19 0.14

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Preference Dividend 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00


Equity Dividend % 0.59 0.58 0.51 0.36

Interpretation

Up to 2003 raw material cost has remained steady, but in 2004 it has declined by 18%.
Selling and Administrative expenses have also shown a declining trend such that in 2004
it is showing only a nominal part of total expenditure. Even though there is a decline in
the above-mentioned expenditures, the total expenditure has almost remained constant.
This is due to a drastic increase of 1033% in other manufacturing expenses. Operating
profit is showing a declining trend since 2002.

Common Size Statement of Balance sheet of GCMMF

2001 2002 2003 2004


SOURCES OF FUNDS:
Share Capital 23.63 22.31 40.62 25.20
Reserves Total 30.55 30.32 42.32 27.60
Total Shareholders Funds 54.18 52.64 82.94 52.80
Secured Loans 45.82 47.36 17.06 4.65
Unsecured Loans 0.00 0.00 0.00 42.55
Total Debt 45.82 47.36 17.06 47.20

Total Liabilities 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

APPLICATION OF FUNDS:
Gross Block 154.14 167.74 248.28 171.55
Less : Accumulated Depreciation 83.73 92.89 145.19 101.20
Net Block 70.41 74.85 103.10 70.35
Lease Adjustment 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Capital Work in Progress 11.76 3.60 2.15 0.00
Investments 0.26 0.25 0.34 0.21
Current Assets, Loans & Advances
Inventories 123.18 139.46 203.27 79.91
Sundry Debtors 19.40 21.84 32.71 12.28
Cash and Bank 62.36 62.54 74.11 42.34
Loans and Advances 6.87 10.13 17.64 40.26
Total Current Assets 211.81 233.97 327.72 174.80
Less : Current Liabilities and Provisions
Current Liabilities 193.31 207.72 325.27 124.08

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Provisions 4.67 4.95 8.03 18.67


Total Current Liabilities 197.98 212.67 333.31 142.74
Net Current Assets 13.82 21.30 -5.58 32.05
Miscellaneous Expenses not written off 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Deferred Tax Assets 3.75 0.00 0.00 1.20
Deferred Tax Liability 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.80
Net Deferred Tax 3.75 0.00 0.00 -2.61

Total Assets 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

Contingent Liabilities 302.18 263.26 204.48 10.89

Interpretation

The proportion of debt in total liabilities has increased from 17.06% in 2003 to 47.20% in
2004. Total Shareholders funds have decreased from 82.94% in 2003 to 52.80% in 2004.

Assets have reduced by around 30% in the year 2004; this may be due the sale of assets.
Current assets have reduced as compared to 2003. Working capital was negative in 2003
and in 2004 there has been a considerable improvement of around 670%. Also,
contingent liabilities have reduced to a great extent, which is a positive sign.

Cash Flow Analysis of GCMMF

Rs. In crore
2004 2003
Cash Flow Summary
Cash and Cash Equivalents at Beginning of the year 84.08 79.18
Net Cash from Operating Activities 50.41 29.5
Net Cash Used in Investing Activities -13.95 -17.39
Net Cash Used in Financing Activities -47.56 -7.21
Net Inc/(Dec) in Cash and Cash Equivalent -11.1 4.9
Cash and Cash Equivalents at End of the year 72.98 84.08

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Interpretation
Gains from operating activities have increased 70.44% in 2004. Uses of cash in
investment activities have decreased 19% in 2004. There has been whopping increase in
financing activities that is at 559% in 2004.

Thus there has been a decrease 13% in cash in 2004 from 2003.

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Chapter 6

Human Resource Function

Introduction
The success to any industrial unit depends upon their effective personnel department.
Personnel department is basically commercial with human resource of an enterprise and it
also continues procurement, development, non-monetary comparison, integration and
maintenance of the personnel purpose of contribution towards the accomplishment of the
organization’s major goal and objectives. Personnel management in opinion of many
authors is true management. So sometimes it is told that management means to manage
human behaviour. Personnel management is that phase of management, which deals with
the effective control of use of manpower as distinguished from other source of power.

The management includes all aspects of works such as recruitment, selection, medical
checkups, various types of training, transfer, welfare activities, union activities, etc.

Recruitment

Recruitment forms the first stage in the process which continues with selection and cased
with the placement of the candidate recruitment makes it possible to acquire the number
and types of people necessary to ensure to continues operation of the organization
requirement has, been regarded as the most important function of personnel
administration.

Amul’s recruitment and selection process is very systematic and comprehensive. All
division head in inform about their manpower requirements. According to the
requirement of the personnel division they get require employees by resources like postal
services employment exchange education institution and advertisement.

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Amul Dairy receives lots of applications in response to their advertisement. These forms
contain general information about the candidates. Then forms are to be checked by
authorized person and after scrutinizing eliminates the unqualified applications. Short
listed Applicants are called for personal interview. Interview committee conducts this
interview. When applicants are too many, then they conduct a written test. Those who
pass this test are called for interview and are selected on the basis of smart selection
process.

Sources of Recruitment

• By giving advertisement in news papers


• Labour Union
• Voluntary Organisation
• Leasing Contract
• Private Employment Agency
• Government Employment Exchange
• School, Colleges, Universities and Professional Institutes
• Recommendation of present Employee
• Recruitment as Temporary Workers

Selection

Selection process is concerned with screening relevant information about an applicant.


The objective of selection process is to determine whether an applicant meets the
qualification for a specific job and to choose the applicant who is most likely to perform
well in that job.

Training & Development

Training and management development are the two separate things. Training is required
for persons working at operation level and it is required for increasing the knowledge and

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skills of employees so that they can perform their tasks in the best manner while
management development refers to the activities that take place in order to improve the
performance of the managerial level personnel. Training and management development
contribute a lot in increasing the productivity. To facilitate newly selected person at
operation level, he is placed at the work under supervision of a senior worker who gives
guidance and instructions about the particular work. For the managerial level personnel,
they select only those people who are having an experience of at least three years in
similar fields. Then a newly selected person’s performance is observed for three months.

Promotion & Transfer Policy

Promotion
Two main policies followed by the organisation are:
• Automatic promotion
• Merit cum seniority
During the period of 1972, promotion was given automatically to a person who had
completed his 6 yrs and 2nd promotion was given after 7 yrs. At that time they had a
policy of rewarding merit on the basis of seniority. But now it is solely based on merit.
Managing Director signs the promotion order after the recommendation by the personnel
& Administration department.

Transfer
Transfer is the pre-relative right of the management. Transfer is done if it is necessary for
the organization. Transfer is generally affected to build up a more satisfactory work team
& to achieve a specific purpose. In this organisation transfer takes place in flash season.
Transfers are also to adjust the work forces of one plant with another.

Wage & Salary Administration


Attendance is considered to be one of the major & important factors responsible for the
Wage & Salary Administration.

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At present catalogue record is received from the time keeping office and is maintained in
the register, which is known as master roll. Timekeeper sends this master roll to the
accounts department. Attendance of each & every employee is analyzed & entered into
the computer. The record is scrutinized and a statutory and non-statutory deduction is
made and then after salary is calculated for each employee.

The wages are paid in cash & also credited in corporate salary a/c. Employee wages are
deducted according to grades of workers. It consists of A, B, C, D, E, and F grade of
workers.

Job Description
Job Description is an important document, which is basically descriptive in nature and
contains a statement of job analysis. It defines the scope of job activities i.e. major
responsibilities & positioning of job in organization. It provides the worker and
supervisor with a clear idea of what kind of work they need to do to meet the demands of
the job. Here those who are at senior Level make job description regarding managerial
position.

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Chapter 7

SWOT Analysis

Strengths

• Demand profile: Absolutely optimistic. Milk being a necessity product, the demand will
stay and the sales at GCMMF are bound to increase over a period of time.
• Margins: Quite reasonable, even on packed liquid milk. The margins are enough to limit
the entry of potential entrants.
• Flexibility of product mix: Tremendous. With balancing equipment, GCMMF has kept
adding a wide array of products to its product line.
• Availability of raw material: Abundant. Presently, more than 80 per cent of milk
produced is flowing into the unorganized sector, which requires proper channelization.
Amul & GCMMF have leveraged this and has got itself a strong base of suppliers who
provide them milk throughout the year. Large number of dairy plants in public and
cooperative sectors besides several others coming up in the private sector would result in
competition. Because of this the end consumer would benefit and a good product mix
would emerge.
• Technical manpower: Professionally trained, technical human resource pool, built over
last 30 years is the strength that GCMMF has. The employees of GCCMF are highly
recognized in the industry and have earned name for themselves as well as the federation.
• Enhanced Milk Production: Increase in the milk production with consequently
increased availability of milk processing has led to increase in consumption and faster
access to the consumers through effective distribution. The technology is brought from
Denmark and the production of milk has benefited from that.
• Transportation: The transportation facilities and the easy availability of the special
trucks have provided a boost. Cold refrigerated trucks are there in place and the
warehouses also have the cold storage facilities that facilitate the transportation.

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• Vast resources: Country has vast natural resources which offer immense potential
growth and development for dairying. Moreover the financial resources available with the
federation are immense and the reputation is such that in case of any further
requirements, it can approach any institution and raise any form of capital.
• Increasing purchase power and changing tastes of the consumers: The purchasing
power of the residents is increasing. As a result a lot of products are being consumed.
Moreover, the consuming habits are changing. As a result, the demand for products such
as butter and cheese is increasing at a very rapid rate.

Weaknesses
• Perishability: Pasteurization has overcome this weakness partially. UHT gives milk
long life. Still perishability is there at the milk vendors end. This does result in loss of
some production. But Amul Dairy is taking steps to store milk at the vendors end.
Surely, many new processes will follow to improve milk quality and extend its shelf life.
• Lack of control over yield: Theoretically, there is little control over milk yield. A lot
depends upon the monsoon in the country. This is because of the quality of cattle feed
that would be available will not have the required nutritional content. Steps are taken to
provide awareness regarding these and the penetration of quality feed is being increased.
Moreover, increased awareness of developments like embryo transplant, artificial
insemination and properly managed animal husbandry practices, coupled with higher
income to rural milk producers should automatically lead to improvement in milk yields.
• Logistics of procurement: Woes of bad roads and inadequate transportation facility
make milk procurement problematic. All these factors lead to perishability of the
procured milk. But with the overall economic improvement in India, these problems
would also get solved.
• Erratic power supply: The erratic power supply would cause harm in the processing of
milk.
• Underdeveloped systems: There still exist underdeveloped raw milk collection systems
in some parts of the country. However steps are being taken such as setting up of cold
storage points at key collection centers to combat the situation.

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• Lack of proper implementation: Dairy development programmes have not been fully
implemented as per the needs of the region in different agro-climatic zones.
• Infrastructure: The infrastructure that is available is not up to the current world
standards. Also lack of infrastructure for offering dairy business management
programmes to the trained personnel is creating a hindrance.

Opportunities

"Failure is never final, and success never ending”. Dr Kurien bears out this statement
perfectly. He entered the industry when there were only threats. He met failure head-on,
and now he clearly is an example of ‘never ending success’! If dairy entrepreneurs are
looking for opportunities in India, the following areas must be tapped:

• Competition: With so many newcomers entering this industry, competition is becoming


tougher day by day. But then competition has to be faced as a ground reality. The market
is large enough for many to carve out their niche. Moreover due to competition, there is a
chance to better serve the market with innovative products.

• Value addition: There is a phenomenal scope for innovations in product development,


packaging and presentation. Given below are potential areas of value addition:
o Steps should be taken to introduce value-added products like shrikhand, ice
creams, paneer, khoa, flavored milk, dairy sweets, etc. This will lead to a greater
presence and flexibility in the market place along with opportunities in the field of
brand building.
o Addition of cultured products like yoghurt and cheese lend further strength - both
in terms of utilization of resources and presence in the market place.
o Yet another aspect can be the addition of infant foods, geriatric foods and
nutritional.
• Export potential: Efforts to exploit export potential are already on. Amul is exporting to
Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nigeria, and the Middle East. Following the new GATT treaty,
opportunities will increase tremendously for the export of agri-products in general and

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dairy products in particular. There is a strong basis of cost efficiency, which GCMMF
can leverage in the world market.
• Markets: The market for the traditional as wells as processed dairy products is
expanding both at the domestic and international front.
• IT support: Software is now available for project formulation for dairy enterprise. It has
also computerized its production processes. Mother Dairy was the first fully
computerized dairy in India. In its Anand plant all products are processed computerized,
which does not have any hand touch during any stage of process.

Threats

• Milk vendors, the un-organized sector: Today milk vendors are occupying the pride of
place in the industry. Organized dissemination of information about the harm that they
are doing to producers and consumers should see a steady decline in their importance.
• Infestation: There are increasing incidents of chemical contaminants as well as residual
antibiotics in milk.
• Quality: The quality of the milk is found to be poor as compared to the international
standards. One of the reasons for these according to the EU and America is the method of
milching the milk. In these nations the milk is hands by the farmers owning the cattle do
milched with the help of machines, while in India.
• Exploitation: The liberalization of the Dairy Industry is likely to be exploited by the
multinationals. They will be interested manufacturing the milk products, which yield high
profits. It will create milk shortage in the country adversely affecting the consumers.
• Subsidy by Western Nations: There have been incidences wherein the Western nations
subsidizing the dairy products by a few means like transportation. Because of such
reasons the final price of the product goes below the prices prevailing in the Indian
Market. Hence it proves a threat to GCMMF’s and other Indian dairy products.
• Creation of Non Tariff Barriers by Developed Nations: The Developed Nations have
created Non Tariff Barriers related to Quality of the milk specifically. They want that the
milk be processed with potable Air and Water. They also want that the milching of cattle
be done with the help of machines. However this type if system is yet to evolve in India.

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Because of these reasons they are reducing the market potential of Indian made products,
where GCMMF holds a lions share.

The study of this SWOT analysis shows that the ‘strengths’ and ‘opportunities’ far
outweigh ‘weaknesses’ and ‘threats’. Strengths and opportunities are fundamental and
weaknesses and threats are transitory. Any investment idea can do well only when you
have three essential ingredients: entrepreneurship (the ability to take risks), innovative
approach (in product lines and marketing) and values (of quality/ethics).

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Chapter 8
Michael Porter’s Five-Force Analysis

• According to Porter (1980) a firm must be analyzed in relation to its industry. Factors
outside the industry tend to influence all the industry’s firms in the same way and are thus
not as important to study.

• To a large extent, industry structure governs the strategies open to the firms. The
profitability and attractiveness of an industry is dependent of the level of competition.
Competition in an industry originates from industry structure and goes well beyond the
behavior of individual competitors.

• According to Porter, each industry has a potential profitability and the profitability for the
firms is dependent on the competitive forces in the industry. Porter identifies five
competitive forces that derive from the ambition to obtain as large share of the
profitability as possible. The five forces are the foundation of the five-force model.

Porter’s Five-Force Model

• The major competitors of the Amul dairy include:

Milk Gayatri

Royal

Sardar

Uttam
Shreshtha

Ice Crean Vadilal

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Havmor

Kwality Walls Max

Local & Regional players

Ghee Gayatri

Nestle

Milk Powder Nestle

Chocolate Nestle

Cadbury

The success of the national and local competitor’s brands includes effective distribution
system, advertising, good pricing policy etc. The factors ascribed by porter are:

• Threats of new entrants


• Bargaining power of suppliers
• Bargaining power of buyers
• Rivalry among competitors
• Threats from substitutes

These factors can be explained in context to GCMMF as below:

Threats of New Entrants

 Economies of Scale: GCMMF enjoys economies of scale, which is difficult


to match by any other competitor. It is because of this reason that no regional
competitor has grown to a national level.
 Cost and Resource advantages: Amul dairy is co-operative society. That
means “cooperation among competitive” is the fundamental principle. Amul dairy

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is managed under the norms of GCMMF and market the products under the brand
name ‘Amul’, which has a very good reputation at domestic and international
level. Here, the raw material procurement is very difficult for the new entrants.
Consequently Capital requirement is also high. Still new entrants are emerging
such as domestic and international players. So the threats of new entrants are
moderate.
 Brand Preferences and Consumer Loyalty: There is an immense level of
Brand Preference of Amul in the minds of the people. The level of preference
specifically in the liquid milk sector is that they would go to other retailer if the
retailer does not have milk.
 Access to Distribution Channels: The distribution channel of GCMMF is a
very planned and perfect one. For any new entrant to enter it would be a very
difficult task. For GCMMF the result is years of hard work and its investment in
its employees as well as at different levels in the distribution network.
 Inability to match the technology and specialized know-how of firms
already in the industry: The technology used by Amul is imported from
Denmark. It is a state of art technology. To get this technology in India, a firm
would require a huge amount of resources.
 Capital Requirements: The total investment required in the industry is huge
and is a decision worth considering even for MNC’s. The investment decisions
cover the processing costs as well as the marketing costs. To compete with the
brand Amul in India is difficult as Amul is synonymous to Quality.

Bargaining power of supplier

 The objective of Amul dairy is not profiting. As it is a part of co-operative


society, it runs for the benefit of farmers those are the suppliers of milk and users
of milk products. According the concept of the cooperative society supplier has
bargaining power to have a good return on his or her supply. However, supplier
has limited rights to bargain with the cooperative society because it is made and

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run for the sake of mass and not for individual benefit. But it is made sure that the
supplier gets his fair share of return.
 There is appropriate bargaining power of the supplier. In olden days there
were not any kind of cooperative societies as the farmer was exploited. But,
nowadays the farmer’s rights are protected under the cooperative rules and
regulations, which ultimately results in moderate power of bargaining from the
supplier.

Bargaining power of buyers

 Cost of switching to competitor brands: The switching of brands is seen


very much in products such as ice cream, curd, milk powders, milk additives etc.
but it can be seen comparatively less in liquid milk category. Even if the buyers
shift to the other brands of milk, the value that they get is less than they would get
from consuming Amul.
 Large no. of buyers: Milk is a necessity product and hence is a mass product.
It has a considerable share of the rupee spent by any Indian. Moreover the buyers
are spread evenly over the country and do not have any bargaining power.

Rivalry among competitors

 Demand for the product: The demand of the products of GCMMF is


increasing at a very healthy rate. To stand against the rivalry GCMMF is coming
with a wide range of products.

 Nature of Competitors: In different business category GCMMF faces


competition from different players. In the Milk powder category it faces
competition from Cadbury & Nestle, in the chocolate category also I faces
competition from Cadbury & Nestle. While in the ice cream market it faces
competition from Kwality Walls Max and Havmor. In butter and chesses it faces
competition from Britannia. Moreover in almost all categories there is presence of

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local retailers and processors and milk vendors. Rivalry intensifies as each of the
competitors has different lines and this would in turn depend on the importance
the line holds for the competitor.

 Mergers and Acquisitions: As such in the industry there are no mergers or


acquisitions. However if any MNC wishes to enter through this route then the
competition might be severe.

Threats Of Substitute

 Availability of attractive priced substitutes: Different substitutes are


available for different category of products. There is ample availability of low
priced substitutes from local vendors and retailers. This is a front where GCMMF
is still finding hard to combat.

 Satisfaction level of substitutes: Customers do consider these products as


equal on quality if not better then the products of GCMMF. Hence the rate of
customers switching to the substitutes is very high. Moreover the buyers also can
switch to the customers easily without any hurdles.

 Not immediate substitutes: Distant substitutes are present in many of the


categories of business of GCMMF. For example in the Masti Buttermilk category
it faces competition from cold drinks and ice cream.

These 5 forces interact among themselves at different degrees over a period of time.
Moreover it will get intense or loosen up depending upon the moves of its competitors,
buyers, suppliers, etc. However GCMMF has been able to outperform on almost all fronts
excluding a few lines of business.

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Chapter 9
Future Plans

• To achieve and maintain competitive advantage, innovation in product design and


delivery are increasingly essential.
• To innovate at each stage in value chain – production, procurement, processing,
marketing and branding.
• To devise more effective ways of attracting and retaining skilled human resources.
• To provide them an adequately self-motivating work environment that draws the best
out of them on a sustained basis.
• The ‘Dairy Demonstration Project’ is a collective effort of the Union and Bank. The
project envisages encouraging the farmers to use high yielding animals and modern aids
to increase production. The union will provide necessary guidance to the milk producers
on various techniques and required financial support will be forthcoming with the co-
participation of Bank. To illustrate and bring about better understanding of the project, a
“model farm” is being set up at Mogar and Khatraj to impart training to the participants.
• “Suvarna Jayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana” helps its beneficiaries to avail loan from
the bank with the Government approval. Under this scheme a marginal producer
intending to avail the benefits, is allocated an amount adequate for purchase of 2 milch
animals along with required other implements on a soft loan basis. This scheme not only
help enhance the productivity and living standards of subscribing producers, the union in
turn will also be benefited by the way of enlarged membership and increased milk
procurement.

Future Challenges

The organization may face the following challenges in the future:

• Global demands and changes.


• Foreign affiliations.
• Competition.

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• Liberalisation.
• Changing values.
• Urban shifting.
• Changing interests.
• Adoption of latest technology.
• Production according to international standards with foremost quality.
• Increase need for R&D.
• To keep the prices steady and reduce production and maintenance expenses.
• To enhance milk production by adopting better animal husbandry practices and
improving calf rearing practices in order to assure a stand in international market in the
foreseeable future.
• Expansion and upgrading of plant and equipment to meet increasing demanded for
quality and quantity with the help of better-qualified personnel.
• Rapid increase in productivity while respecting the basic man and animal dynamic i.e.,
to control dairy and agriculture development in India.
• Development of new markets and expansion of old ones replacing additional system
with quality packaged milk products and vegetable.
• Creating a national information network to ensure that accurate timely information is
available to all who need it.
These are some of the challenges, which the organisation foresees and requires coping up
with.

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Chapter 10
Conclusion

Amul means different things to different people.

To a milk producer – A life enriching experience


To a consumer – Assurance of having wholesome milk
To a mother – A reliable source of nourishment for her child
To the country – Rural development and self reliance

Amul has given a new dimension to marketing. It showed that a democratically owned
and managed farmer organisation can successfully develop national market, but by doing
this Amul provided virtually guaranteed marketing service to the milk producer at his
door step. Amul has displayed dynamic initiative at a time when its multinational
competitors were merely content to use depreciated machinery.

Following factors have given us the insight to conclude, why Amul is thriving with
success today:
• Emphasis on Quality: All the products of Amul are of highest grade. Consumers were
very quick to perceive this and the sales success that followed reflected the public’s
stamp of approval.
• Modern marketing: A good product alone cannot succeed unless backed by innovative
marketing, including packaging, price and promotion. Amul’s advertising campaigns
created a splash in the market that eventually led to a tidal wave that rocked the
competition.
• Management: The judicious handling of people, recognition of performance and
encouragement for a good try has gone a long way to build a sound foundation of people.
All the basic components of management that is production, marketing, finance and
organisation behavior are nicely arrayed at Amul.

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• The co-operative concept: The fundamental thesis underlying the Anand model is that the
rural producer must own and enjoy the assets they have helped to create. The model has
inspired the creation of hundreds of other Anand.

The system has succeeded mainly because of involvement of people on such a large
scale, providing assured market at remunerated prices for milk producers, enables the
consumers access to high quality milk and milk products, ploughing back the profit to the
members, part of the profit is used by the society for common good and community
development.

Amul is doing everything in the best possible manner. Just look at its product quality,
packaging, advertising and nation wide marketing network. This has given Amul an edge
over its competitors.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

• Johnson Gerry, Scholes Kevan; “Exploring Corporate Strategy-Text and Cases”, Sixth
Edition, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd. 2004, pp 100-102,134,183.
• Thompson Arthur A. Jr., Strickland J. A. III; “Strategic Management-Concepts and
Cases”, Thirteenth Edition, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. Ltd. 2003, pp 117, 123 –
127.
• Patel, Rameshbhai P., “Amul, The Kaira District Cooperative Milk Producers’ Union
Ltd. Anand, 50 Years of Milk & Health.”
• Dr. Kurien., “Amul, The Kaira District Cooperative Milk Producers’ Union Ltd. Anand,
50 Years of Milk & Health.”
• Carter, Thomas R., “Amul, The Kaira District Cooperative Milk Producers’ Union Ltd.
Anand, 50 Years of Milk & Health.”
• Patel, T. K., “Amul, The Kaira District Cooperative Milk Producers’ Union Ltd. Anand,
50 Years of Milk & Health.”
• Gowda, Shri Deve, “Amul, The Kaira District Cooperative Milk Producers’ Union Ltd.
Anand, 50 Years of Milk & Health.”
• Halse, Michael, “Amul, The Kaira District Cooperative Milk Producers’ Union Ltd.
Anand, 50 Years of Milk & Health.”
• Baxi, J. J. “Amul, The Kaira District Cooperative Milk Producers’ Union Ltd. Anand, 50
Years of Milk & Health.”
• Singh, Katar, Mittal, S. P., Singh Virendra, “Amul, The Kaira District Cooperative Milk
Producers’ Union Ltd. Anand, 50 Years of Milk & Health.”
• Dr. Oza, D. R., “Amul, The Kaira District Cooperative Milk Producers’ Union Ltd.
Anand, 50 Years of Milk & Health.”
• Thodarson, Bruce, “Amul, The Kaira District Cooperative Milk Producers’ Union Ltd.
Anand, 50 Years of Milk & Health.”
• Singh, Katar, “Amul, The Kaira District Cooperative Milk Producers’ Union Ltd.
Anand, 50 Years of Milk & Health.”
• GCMMF, 30th Annual Report 2003 –2004.

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• The Kaira District Cooperative Milk Producers’ Union Ltd. Anand, 58 th Annual Report
2003 –2004.

Website Visited
• www.amul.coop
• www.indiadairy.com
• www.indianmilkproducts.com

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Annexure
Annexure I - Profit & loss account of GCMMF ltd.

Particulars Mar 1999 Mar 2000 Mar 2001 Mar 2002 Mar 2003 Mar 2004
Rs. Crore (Non-Annualised) 12 mths 12 mths 12 mths 12 mths 12 mths 12 mths
-
Income
Operating income 1818.59 1909.15 1983.28 2057.5 2362.46 2833.78
Other income 2.46 2.54 3.8 4.69 3.98 4.3
Change in stocks -20.7 26.91 44.84 29.03 13.44 -72.19
Non-recurring income 1.86 1.34 1.3 0.48 1 0.88
-
Expenditure
Operating expenses 240.69 295.46 345.98 395.01 472.61 489.78
Purchase of finished goods 1453.3 1518.71 1544.21 1521.02 1715.58 2068.72
Energy (power & fuel) 0 9.36 11.61 12.72 15.63 13.96
Salaries & wages 11.32 13.36 17.15 20.18 22.64 23.85
VRS expenses 0 0 0 0 0 0
Indirect taxes 0.71 9.94 8.62 18.04 22.34 22.34
Other expenses 60.93 64.59 76.64 89.92 99.72 111.68
Less: expenses capitalized 0 0 0 0 0 0
Non-recurring expenses 0.07 0 0.3 0.09 0.29 0.72
-
Profits / losses
PBDIT 35.19 28.52 28.71 34.72 32.07 35.72
Financial charges 6.8 7.01 7.53 7.44 5.7 2.26
PBDT 28.39 21.51 21.18 27.28 26.37 33.46
Depreciation 13.88 14.42 14.86 17.18 17.07 17.01
PBT 14.51 7.09 6.32 10.1 9.3 16.45
Tax provision 1.5 1.3 1.25 2.85 2.5 5.11
PAT 13.01 5.79 5.07 7.25 6.8 11.34
-
Appropriation of profits
Dividends 3 3.6 3.6 3.6 4.5 4
Retained earnings 10.01 2.19 1.47 3.65 2.3 7.34

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Annexure II - Assets of Gujarat Co-Op. Milk Mktg.

Particulars Mar 1999 Mar 2000 Mar 2001 Mar 2002 Mar 2003 Mar 2004
Rs. Crore (Non-Annualised) 12 mths 12 mths 12 mths 12 mths 12 mths 12 mths
-
Gross fixed assets 160.98 183.59 210.64 230.37 246.63 272.32
Land & building 22.77 23.61 28.2 34.16 35.65 37.24
Plant & machinery 124.52 135.53 151.94 174.3 190.03 207.82
Other fixed assets 13.37 14.45 15.57 17.07 18.83 20.58
Capital WIP 0.32 10 14.93 4.84 2.12 6.68
Less: cumulative depreciation 73.39 89.81 106.31 124.89 142.97 160.65
Net fixed assets 87.59 93.78 104.33 105.48 103.66 111.67

Investments 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33


In group / associate cos. 0 0 0 0.09 0.09 0.09
In mutual funds 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other investments 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.24 0.24 0.24
-
Marketable investment 0.09 0 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09
In group / associate cos. 0 0 0 0.09 0.09 0.09
Quoted investment 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09
Market value of quoted investment 0 0 2.18 0 3.42 7.47
-
Deferred tax assets 0 0 0 0 0 1.9
-
Inventories 83.7 111.49 156.4 187.52 200.16 126.85
Raw materials and stores 4.82 5.85 5.92 8.01 7.21 6.09
Finished and semi-finished goods 78.88 105.64 150.48 179.51 192.95 120.76
Stock of traded / finished
goods 78.18 104.79 148.91 178.51 191.82 119.97
-
Receivables 27.05 40.85 49.83 57.56 66.66 83.41
Sundry debtors 8.28 18.04 24.63 29.36 32.21 19.5
Debtors exceeding six months 0.25 0.05 0.46 2.21 1.51 0.65
Accrued income 0 0.21 0.41 1.37 2.51 0.09
Advances / loans to corporate
bodies 0 0 0 0 0 0
Group / associate cos. 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other cos. 0 0 0 0 0 0
Deposits with govt. / agencies 0.21 4.91 5.64 0.68 0.62 0.59
Advance payment of tax 11.41 12.71 14.81 16.42 21.25 23.55
Other receivables 7.15 4.98 4.34 9.73 10.07 39.68
-
Cash & bank balance 57.11 82.84 79.18 84.08 72.98 67.21
Cash in hand 21.33 44.51 34.8 37.47 36.28 26.84
Bank balance 35.78 38.33 44.38 46.61 36.7 40.37
Total assets 255.78 329.29 390.07 434.97 443.79 391.37
Federation Ltd.

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Annexure III – Liabilities of Gujarat Co-Op. Milk Mktg. Federation


Ltd.

Particulars Mar 1999 Mar 2000 Mar 2001 Mar 2002 Mar 2003 Mar 2004
Rs. Crore (Non-Annualised) 12 mths 12 mths 12 mths 12 mths 12 mths 12 mths
-
Net worth 69.36 69.23 68.78 70.77 81.68 83.81
Authorised capital 50 50 50 50 50 50
Issued equity capital 20 30 30 30 40 40
Paid-up equity capital 20 30 30 30 40 40
Bonus equity capital 0 10 10 0 10 10
-
Reserves & surplus 49.36 39.23 38.78 40.77 41.68 43.81
Free reserves 34.07 26.23 27.67 15.22 15.8 17.27
Other free reserves 34.07 26.23 27.67 15.22 15.8 17.27
Specific reserves 15.29 13 11.11 25.55 25.88 26.54
-
Borrowings 60.75 63.62 58.18 63.68 153.7 74.93
Bank borrowings 5.24 8.27 4.43 12.16 153.7 74.93
Short term bank borrowings 5.24 8.27 4.43 12.16 153.7 74.93
Govt. / sales tax deferral
borrowings 55.51 55.35 53.75 51.52 0 0
-
Secured borrowings 60.75 63.62 58.18 63.68 16.8 7.38
Unsecured borrowings 0 0 0 0 136.9 67.55
-
Deferred tax liabilities 0 0 0 0 0 6.04
-
Current liabilities & provisions 125.67 196.44 263.11 300.52 208.41 226.59
Current liabilities 113.46 182.34 245.64 279.29 183.42 196.96
Sundry creditors 68.11 148.43 206.06 244.75 138.95 136.49
Interest accrued / due 0 0 0 0 0 0
Creditors for capital goods 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other current liabilities 45.35 33.91 39.58 34.54 44.47 60.47
Share application money 0 0 0 0 0 0
Advance against wip 0 0 0 0 0 0
Provisions 12.21 14.1 17.47 21.23 24.99 29.63
Tax provision 9.18 10.48 11.73 14.58 17.08 22.08
Dividend provision 3 3.6 3.6 3.6 4.5 4
Dividend tax provision 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other provisions 0.03 0.02 2.14 3.05 3.41 3.55
Total liabilities 255.78 329.29 390.07 434.97 443.79 391.37
Contingent liabilities
Disputed taxes 1.84 1.98 5.14 4.63 6.73 3.16
Total guarantees 291.57 340.83 377.59 348.4 193.6 14.12
Liabilities on capital account 2.67 25.38 11.43 7.99 4.02 2.31

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