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Hindi Bahubhaashikataa New

Hindi Bahubhaashikataa New

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·iiºn ¬| (r·iil·i¬ni ¤( ·iil·i¬ ¤¬ni

¤i¤¬º -ri(|º ¬º· ¬ ·
Hkkjr esa u dsoy ’krkf/kd Hkk"kk,¡ (i¬| ¬in| r ¬l¤n ¬·¬ ·ii·ii ¤lº(iºi ¬| ·ii·ii¤¡ (i¬|
¬in| r+ :¬| ¬iººi ·iiºn ¬| (r ·iil·i¬ni ¬| l((¤·i ¬ ¤( ¬ ¬iº ¬ ·ii·ii ¤lº(iºi ¬i
laf{kIr ifjp; vkOk’;d gSA
=r=rz + ·rr”rr ¤tz«rz
¤=¤r= t+¤r ¬rar s t+ ==rz ¤ ao·ro =ra s¬rz ·rr”rrº +rat ¬rat s 1 º·r=raro +
¤==rz ==rz ¤ cs)z ·rr”rrº¡ +rat ¬rat s 1 = =rz ¤ +rat ¬r= «rat ·rr”rr¤r +t t=t’¤a
==¤r + +rz ¤ ¤r¤rtªr+ =¤ = +s=r =-·r« =st s1 s=+r ¤¸a +rzªr ¤s s t+ t+-st :r
·rr”rr¤r + +t¤ t=t’¤a t«·rr¬+ z=rr =st =rt¤t ¬r =+at1 :r ·rrt”r+ =¤ º+ st ·rr”rr +
t·r-= =¤ s ¤·r«r « t·r-= ·rr”rrº s - s= ¤z t«zr=r + +t¤ t««r: zsar s1 Dallas, TX:
SIL/ http://www.ethnologue.com / ( Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (Ed.): Ethnologue:
Languages of the world (15
th
ed., 2005)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Language_family )
s=¤ º=t ·rr”rrº ·rt s t¬=+ +ra= «rar +t ==¤r +«a =+sr ¤ s 1 ·rrza +t )ss)
+t ¬=oªr=r + ¤==rz ·rrza ¤ sc º=t ·rr”rrº +rat ¬rat s t¬=+ +ra= «rar +t
==¤r ·rrzat¤ =az ¤z )e s¬rz = ·rt +¤ s1 º·r=rar o + ¤==rz ==rz ¤ ze= ·rr”rr¤r
+ +ra= «rar +t = =¤r )e = ·rt +¤ s a·rr s=a ·rr”rr¤r + +ra= «rar +t = =¤r
)ee = +¤ s1 ¬r ·rr”rrº := ar=r = ¤t·r+ aror zrzr +rat ¬rat s s=+t = =¤r a=.
s 1 s= a=. ·rr”rr¤r ¤ .s ·rr”rr¤r + +ra= «rar +t ==¤r º+ +zrs = ¤t·r+ s 1
==rz ¤ := ·rr”rrº st º =t s t¬=+ +ra= «rar +t = =¤r +t = =¤r := +zrs =
¤t·r+ s - ) ¤t=t z ts-:t a ¤o ¬t = =¤ t=’r s +oar c ¤ a orat . ==t a
¤z+t s ¬r¤r=t )e ¬¤=t1 +sa = t«zr=r +r ¤a s t+ t+=t ·rr”rr + ¤=ztrªr + taº
s=+ +ra= «rar +t ==¤r º+ ar=r = ¤t·r+ sr=t ¤rtsº1 ·rr”rr «nrt=+r +r ¤=¤r= s
t+ s++t=«t ‘rar-:t + s:rzrz a+ ·rr”rr¤r +t ==¤r ¤ ¤¤·¤rt’ra =¤ = +¤t
¤rºot1(Harrison, K. David. (2007) When Languages Die: The Extinction
of the World‟s Languages and the Erosion of Human Knowledge. New
York and London: Oxford University Press.) ¤=¤r= s t+ « ·rr”rrº st te+
¤r¤ ot t¬=+r ·¤«srz ¤¤trr+a ·¤r¤+ tr> ¤ sr or a·rr ¬r ·rrt”r+ ¤ r¤rto+t +t : t”e =
sa=t t«+t=a sr ¬r¤ ot t¬== s-ez=e ¤z +r¤ +z= «ra ¤¤r+ar¤r + taº s=
·rr”rr¤r ¤ s=+ ¤¤r ¬= +t =r¤ot =a·r sr ot1
==rz +t ·rr”rr¤r +r t«zr=r = s=+ ºtasrt=+ =-+-·rr + ¤r·rrz ¤z ·rr”rr ¤tz«rzr /
·rr”rr +ar ¤ +rer s 1 ·rr”rr ¤tz«rz º =t =¤=a ·rr”rr¤r + =¤¸s +r +sa s ¬r t+=t º+
¤rt: ·rr”rr = t=+ar sr 1 :¸=z ‘r-:r ¤ ¤rt: ·rr”rr = ¤=¸ a ·rr”rr¤r + =¤¸s +r
·rr”rr-¤tz«rz +sa s 1 s= ¤+rz +t t«¤rz·rrzr +r ¤-a«= ).«t ‘rar-:t ¤ ¤¸zr¤ + +ta¤¤
t«zr=r + s= s:·rr ”r = s ¤r t+ = =+ a a te= º« o t+ ¤ ¤¤r-a ·rrt”r+ =¤r=arº¡
t«:¤¤r= s 1 ºtasrt=+ :t”e = º+ ·rr”rr ¤tz«rz +t ·rr”rr¤r ¤ =¤r=arº sr at s 1(1.
Voegelin, Carl F. & Voegelin, Florence M. (1977) Classification and index of the world‟s
languages. Amsterdam. 2. C. George Boeree.The Language Families of the World. Shippensburg
University 3. Merritt Ruhlen. A Guide to the World‟s Languages. Stanford University
Press,Stanford 1991 )
+ra º« : ’r + +rzªr ¤rt: ·rr”rr = ¤=¸ a ·rr”rrº¡ º =t :’rr¤r ¤ t«+t=a sr =+at s
t¬== s=¤ ·rrt”r+-=z¤=r +t =¤r=ar º« º+=¤ar +t t=·rta = zs ¬rº1 s=t ¤+rz
+ra º« :’r + +rzªr t·r-= ·rr”rr-¤tz«rzr +t ·rr”rr¤r ¤ ·rrt”r+-=z¤=r +t =¤r=ar º«
º+=¤ar +r t«+r= ·rt sr =+ar s1s:rszªrr·r =z¤=r·¤+ :t”e = ·rrza +t ¤r·rt=+
¤r¤ ·rr”rrº ·rrzr¤t¤ ¤tz«rz +t ¤¸ zr¤t¤ ‘rr=rr¤r +t ·rr”rr¤r +t ¤¤trr ·rrza + :t«s
¤tz«rz +t ¤r·rt=+ ·rrzat¤ ·rr”rr¤r + ¤t·r+ t=+e s 1
·rrorta+ ¤r·rrz ¤z ·rr”rr ¤tz«rzr +r ¤rz =rªsr ¤ t«·rrt¬a t+¤r ¬r =+ar s ·-
). ¤’rra ¤sr=roz º« ¤r=eta¤r ¤srzt¤
z. ¤¤tz+t ¤srzt¤
a. ¤¤t+t ¤srzt¤
=. ¤¸ zr¤ º« ºt’r¤r + ¤srzt¤
¤¸ zr¤ º« ºt’r¤r ¤srzt¤r + ·rr”rr-¤tz«rzr +t ·rr”rr¤r +r ¤¤trr+a +¤+z
º« «nrt=+ ¤·¤¤= t=”¤-= s ¤r s t+-a ¤-¤ at= =rªsr + ·rr”rr ¤tz«rzr +t ·rr”rr¤r
+r ¤·rt a+ =¤t¤a º« «nrt=+ ¤·¤¤= =-¤-= =st s ¤r s 1 s=t +rzªr s= tr>r +
·rr”rr ¤tz«rzr +t = =¤r º« =r¤r + =-+-·r ¤ ¤a t·r-=ar ¤t·r+ t¤aat s1

Ⅰ. ¤’rr-a ¤sr=roz º« ¤r=e ta¤r ¤srzt¤ + ·rr”rr-¤tz«rz ·-
s= =rªs + ·rr”rr ¤tz«rzr +t ·rr”rr¤r +r ¤=rz ts-: ¤sr=roz º« ¤ ’rr-a
¤sr=roz + zt¤r º« ¤r=e ta¤r ¤srzt¤ ¤ s 1 s= =rªs +t ·rr”rr¤r +r ¤r¤· s ·rr”rr
¤tz«rzr ¤ «ot+ a t+¤r ¬rar s ·
) ssr= t’r¤= ¤tz«rz - ¤¤=r ·rr”rrº · ¤a¤ +rz¤r== ¬r«=t¬ =-:r=t¬ ¤:z=
+rat=t¬ t+ta-¤rs= sr«r
z. ¤a=t’r¤= ¤tz«rz - ¤ ¤=r ·rr”rrº · +t¬t =rar¤r=t
a ¤rta=t’r¤= ¤tz«rz - ¤¤=r ·rr”rrº · =¤r¤r= ¤¤rzt s«rs¤= artst’r¤=
er ot
=. ¤r¤¤= ¤tz«rz - ¤=¤ =¤ = ¤r¤¤= -¤¸ to=t zt¤ =¤¸s +t ·rr”rrº · t«zr=r +r
¤=¤r= s t+ ¤r¤¤= -¤¸ to=t zt¤ =¤¸ s ¤ ao·ro aze ·rr”rrº +rat ¬rat s 1
(1.Languages of Papua New Guinea: Publications of the Summer Institute of Linguistics 2. Andrew
Pawley, Robert Attenborough, Robin Hide and Jack Golson, Eds, Papuan pasts: cultural, linguistic and
biological histories of Papuan-speaking peoples. )
s.¤r=e ta¤= ¤tz«rz - ¤r=eta¤= ¤tz«rz + ¤-ao a z. ·rr”rr ¤tz«rz ¤r= ¬ra s 1 s=
z. ·rr”rr ¤tz«rzr ¤ = º+ ·rr”rr ¤tz«rz ¤r¤ -¤¸ o=` + ¤-aoa t«zr=r = ).s ·rr”rr¤r +
=r¤ to=rº s 1 t«zr=r +r ¤=¤r= s t+ ¤r=eta¤= ¤tz«rz +t se ¤ta’ra ¤rt:«r=t
·rr”rrº t«a-a sr ¬r¤ ot1
¼). Dixon, R. M. W. (2002) Australian Languages: Their Nature and
Development 2. Cowden, Janet, compiler. (1996) Bibliography of the
Summer Institute of Linguistics, Australian Aborigines and Islanders
Branch: Up to December 1996. 3. Huttar, George L., Joyce Hudson, and
Eirlys Richards( 1975) Bibliography of the Summer Institute of
Linguistics, Australian Aborigines Branch. 4.Jagst, Else, compiler( 1981)
Bibliography of the Summer Institute of Linguistics, Australian
Aborigines Branch (up to August 1981) 5.Jagst, Else( 1985)
Bibliography of the Summer Institute of Linguistics, Australian
Aborigines Branch (up to December 1985) 6. Australian Aborigines and
Islanders Branch,¼ up to December 1991½7. Poole, Alison, compiler(
1988) Bibliography of the Summer Institute of Linguistics, Australian
Aborigines and Islanders Branch (up to December 1988).
8. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australian_Aborginal_languages )
Ⅱ.¤¤tz+t ¤srzt¤ + ·rr”rr-¤tz«rz ·-
¤¤tz+r ¤srzt¤ + ¤rt:¤ t=«rt=¤r + ·rr”rr ¤tz«rzr +t = =¤r t=t’¤a =st s1 +c
t«zr=r = +-:t¤ ¤¤tz+r º« ¤t+=+r + tr> ¤ za ·rr”rr ¤tz«rz ‘r ”r :ttrªrt ¤¤tz+r ¤
ao·ro ae ·rr”rr ¤tz«rz a·rr s·azt ¤¤tz+r ¤ ao·ro za = se ·rr”rr ¤tz«rzr + =r¤
to=rº s1)
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indigenous_languages_of_the_Americas
)
s¤ s= tr> + ·rr”rr ¤tz«rzr +r at= s¤=rsr ¤ t«·rrt¬a +z =+a s ·-
) s·azt ¤¤tz+r - ). ºt=+¤r z. ¤-or=t+¤= a. ¤·r+=+= =. szr+rs¤= =.
¤=+rt¬¤= s. t=s¤r= ¤rt: as ·rr”rr ¤tz«rz s 1
z. +:t¤ ¤¤tz+r º« ¤t+=+r- ). t¤¤r= z. =s ¤·a= a. ‘rr ’rrt=¤= =. ¤-e+ =.
¤¤r= ¤rt: ·rr”rr ¤tz«rz ¤t=z s 1
a. ‘r ”r :ttrªr ¤¤tz+r- ). ¤z+r+ º« +rtz+ z. a ¤t-or zr=t a. ¤zr +t=¤= º«
+¤ ¤r= =. a zrs a¤¤¸ or ¤rt: ·rr”rr ¤tz«rz ¤t=z s 1
¤¤tz+r ¤srzt¤ + ¤rt:¤ t=«rt=¤r +t ·rr”rr º« ==+ta +t ¤·¤¤= ¤z-¤zr +r =¸>¤ra
+z= «rar ¤ +r¤r= a·rr =¤tz + =r¤ =«rt·r+ ¤s·«¤¸ªr s 1( Boas, Franz. (1911).
Handbook of American Indian languages (Vol. 1). Bureau of American
Ethnology, Bulletin 40. / Boas, Franz. (1922). Handbook of American
Indian languages (Vol. 2 )/Boas, Franz. (1933). Handbook of American
Indian languages (Vol. 3)./Sapir, Edward. (1929). Central and North
American languages. In The Encyclopædia Britannica: A new survey of
universal knowledge (14 ed.) (Vol. 5, pp. 138-141). London.
¤z«at t«zr=r ¤ +-¤+ a ors= +r+¤= ¤rt: ·rr”rr «nrt=+r + =r¤ ¤t=:·r s 1
(Campbell, Lyle. (1997). American Indian languages: The historical
linguistics of Native America. New York: Oxford University Press. /
Campbell, Lyle; & Mithun, Marianne (Eds.). (1979). The languages of
native America: Historical and comparative assessment. Austin:
University of Texas Press./Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (Ed.). (2005).
Ethnologue: Languages of the world (15
th
ed.). Dallas, TX: SIL
International./ Kaufman, Terrence. (1990). Language history in South
America: What we know and how to know more. In D. L. Payne (Ed.),
Amazonian linguistics: Studies in lowland South American languages/
Kaufman, Terrence. (1994). The native languages of South America. In
C. Mosley & R. E. Asher (Eds.), Atlas of the world‟s languages. )

Ⅲ. ¤¤t+t ¤srzt¤ + ·rr”rr ¤tz«rz ·-
ºt’r¤r ¤srzt¤ + =r¤t ¤tz«rz +t ·rr”rrº s= ¤srzt¤ + s·azt ·rro ¤ ·rt +rat ¬rat s 1
¤srzt¤ + s=t ·rro ¤ s ¤te+ ¤tz«rz +t ·rr”rrº ·rt +rat ¬rat s 1 + c ·rr”rr «nrt=+ ·rr”rr
¤tz«rzr + ¤-ao a s= ·rr”rr ¤tz«rz +r =r¤t-sr¤t` (=¤te+-s ¤te+) ·rr”rr ¤tz«rz + =r¤
= ¤+rza s 1
=r¤t ¤tz«rz +t ¤z+t a·rr s¤te+ ¤tz«rz +t ·rr”rr¤r ¤ t¤= +t st¬t-’r¤= =srzr tr>
+t ++ta t’r-s ¬ =ror ¤rz a ¤rzo a·rr s·az-¤¸«t tr> +t =r¤rat ¤rs sr=r ¤t·r+
¤t=z s 1 =r¤t º« s¤te+ + ¤tatz+a ¤¤t+r + ‘r ”r ·r¸-·rro +t ·rr”rr¤r +r at= ·rr”rr
¤tz«rz-=¤¸sr ¤ «ot+ a t+¤r ¬rar s ·
). =¸sr= ·rr”rr ¤tz«rz-=¤¸ s ¤tz«rz
z. +rªe ·rr”rr ¤tz«rz- =¤¸ s ¤tz«rz
a. +’r¤= ·rr”rr ¤tz«rz- =¤¸s ¤tz«rz
(1. Alice Werner .The Language-Families of Africa. Adamant
MediaCorporation 2. Bernd Heine and Derek Nurse.(2000) African
Language., Cambridge University Press 3. Greenberg, Joseph H.
(1966). The Languages of Africa (2
nd
ed.). Bloomington: Indiana
University.)

=¸sr= ·rr”rr ¤tz«rz-=¤¸ s -
s= ·rr”rr ¤tz«rz-=¤¸s + ¤-aoa +s a = ·rr”rr-¤tz«rz ¤ra s1 s= ¤tz«rzr +t ·rr”rr¤r +r
t«’«=a º« ¤r¤rtªr+ «ot+zªr º« ¤·¤¤= ¤·rt a+ =-¤-= =st s¤r s 1 s-s ¤r¤· ¤rz
·rror ¤ t«·r+a t+¤r ¬rar s ·- ) = =oa z º« a ¤·¤«at = =tar·azt
¤¤=r ·rr”rrº - =r -¤rs ts-+r =¸ ºz t’r-a¸+ ¤+rat ¤=rs =¸+r «to¤t ¤r= +r= zt
a -= + ar¤ «a+ + ar=t +¤-a ar¤r ¤ªs ¤ta+ +-+rzr +r-at ·«t +rsa
º« +r= ¤r=+r s+r =¸¤ ¤r==t ¬r-: =or1
+rªe ·rr”rr ¤tz«rz-=¤¸s -
s= =¤¸s +t ·rr”rrº :ttrªr ¤¤t+r º« ¤¸«t ¤¤t+r + º+ ·rro ¤ +rat ¬rat s 1 s= =¤¸ s
+t ·rr”rr¤r + :ttrªr-¤t’¤¤ ¤ +’r¤= a·rr s·az ¤ =¸sr= ¤tz«rz-=¤¸s +t ·rr”rrº +rat
¬rat s 1 s= ¤tz«rz-=¤¸s + ¤-aoa ao·ro )se ·rr”rr¤ ¤rat s 1 s=+ «ot+zªr +
=-+-·r ¤ ·rt t«zr=r ¤ ¤a +¤ =st s1
¤¤ =r ·rr”rrº · =«rtsat +ror a¸+r -orar ‘rr=r -¤r-¬r orªsr t++¸¤ +-+r ¤ror
-¤r¤«=t =ªst z «rrªsr + -+r s-+¸-: t+-+¸ -: sz zr ¬ a¸ =r·rr1

+’r¤= ·rr”rr ¤tz«rz-=¤¸s -
:ttrªr ¤¤t+r + ¤rt: t=«rt=¤r +r + ’r¤= ¤¬rta + =r¤ = ¤+rzr ¬rar s 1 sre -at+
º« t¤= -«r¤s = +’r¤ = ·rr”rr ¤tz«rz-=¤¸s +t ·rr”rr¤r +r ¤·¤¤= t+¤r s 1 +’r¤= ·rr”rr
¤tz«rz-=¤¸s +t ·rr”rr- ¤tz«rzr + at= ¤¤ =r =¤¸ s s ·-
). =r¤r z. =rrzr a. sreªere
+’r¤= ·rr”rr ¤tz«rz-=¤¸s +t ·rr”rr¤r +r tat=ra =rts·¤ =st s 1 s= ·rr”rr¤r + +ra= «ra
¤ao-¤ao «or ¤ ¤rz ¬ =:t = =or¤t mta a+ t=«r= +za s 1

Ⅳ. ¤¸ zr¤ º« ºt’r¤r ¤srzt¤r + ·rr”rr-¤tz«rz ·-
-r’rr-a ¤sr=roz + ssrt=’r¤= ·rr”rr-¤tz«rz + ¤tatz+a ¤¸zr¤ º« ºt’r¤r ¤srzt¤r ¤ +r at
¬r= «rat ·rr”rr¤r +r t=-=tat=ra ·rr”rr ¤tz«rzr ¤ «ot+a t+¤r ¬r =+ar s ·-
). ·rrza-¤¸ zr¤t¤ ¤tz«rz / ·rrzr¤t¤ ¤tz«rz
z. :t«s ¤tz«rz
a. t==r-ta-+a ¤tz«rz ( ¤t=t - ta-+a ¤tz«rz )
=. ¤r·=¤/¤rt=e+/¤r=er-ºt’r¤rte+ ¤tz«rz
s. =r¤t/=¤te+ ¤tz«rz
c. ¤¸ zra-¤-ars ¤tz«rz
.. +r+’r= ¤tz«rz


) ·rrzr¤t¤ ¤tz«rz ·-
·rrza-¤¸ zr¤t¤ ¤tz«rz +r ¤s·« ¬===¤r t r>-t«=arz =rts·¤ =·¤ar = =+ta
«nrt=+ ¤ota zr¬=tta º« ·rr”rr t«nr=- s= =·rt :t”e¤r = t=t««r: s 1
·rrza-¤¸ zr¤t¤ ¤tz«rz +r t«t·r-= =r¤r = ¤t·rtsa t+¤r o¤r s 1¤rz-·r ¤ ·rr”rr t«nr= +
tr> ¤ ¬¤ = t«zr=r = s-a =r=t¤ +r¤ t+¤r ¤rz s-sr = s= ¤tz«rz +r =r¤ ssr-¬¤t=+`
z=rr1 ¤¸ zr¤ + seat ¤r= =¤= ¤aora zr ¤rt=¤r == ¤r aªs ¤rt: ¤-¤ : ’rr ¤ ·rt
s=t ¤tz«rz +t ·rr”rrº¡ +rat ¬rat s ¤z « = ar ·rrzat¤ ‘rr=rr + ¤-ao a ¤rat s ¤rz =
¬¤t=+ ‘rr=rr +1¤¸ zr¤ + ¤-¤ :’rr + t«zr=r +r ¤s =r¤ s=t +rzªr =«t+a =st s ¤r1
s=+r º+ ¤r z +rzªr ·rr1 ¤·r¤ ¤sr¤z + +r: ¬¤=t + ¤ta ¤¸ zr¤ + : ’rr +t ¬r
z”r-·rr«=r ·rt s== ·rt s= =r¤ +r osªr +z= ¤ +r·rr ¤s ¤r¤t1 s= ·rr”rr-¤tz«rz + =r·r
¬¤=t +r =r¤ =¤+a +z=r ¤¸zr¤ + ¤-¤ : ’rr + t«zr=r +r =«t+r¤ =st s ¤r1 ¬¤=
t«zr= ¤r¬ ·rt s= ¤tz«rz +r ssr-¬¤t=+ st +sa s1
+c t«zr=r = s= ¤tz«rz +r ¤r¤ ¤tz«rz +sr a·rr +c t«zr=r = s= ¤tz«rz + taº
·rrza-ts:rt (ssr-ts:rrsa) =r¤ =mr¤r1 == )asa se ¤ ºt’r¤r ¤rs=z + +ror¬+rs =r¤+
=·rr= +t ¤zrart·«+ =r :rs + ¤=o ¤ +c +tartrz a =r t¤a t¬-s )s). ¤ ¤+ t«zr=
sr-=t = ¤e+z ¤ta¤rt:a t+¤r t+ ts:rt ·rrza-¤¸zr¤t¤ ¤tz«rz +t st ·rr”rr s1 ts:rt +
=-+-·r ¤ º+ ¤rz ¤r-¤ar ·rt =r¤= ¤r¤t t+ «s ¤rt: ·rrza-¤¸zr¤t¤ ·rr”rr = = =+ a
ot+ arta= +t azs s·¤-= =st ss +t-+ s=+ =¤r=r-az ¤¤ +a srat ·rt1 s= azs «s
¤rt: ·rrza-¤¸zr¤t¤ ·rr”rr +t ¤>t = sr+z +s= s s1 ¤a· s= ¤tz«rz +r =r¤ ·rrza-ts:rt
z=r= +r ¤=ar« s¤r1 :r=r =r¤ ¤a =st ¤rº1 t«zr=r +r ¤ =r¤ =«t+rz = sr =+1
·rrza-¤¸ zr¤t¤ (ssr-¤¸ zr¤t¤=) =r¤ +r ¤¤ro ¤sa-¤sa ¤r =tt=¤r = t+¤r1
·rrza-¤¸ zr¤t¤ =r¤ s= ¤tz«rz +t ·rr”rr¤r + ·rrorta+ t«=arz +r ¤t·r+ =¤”ear = ·¤+a
+zar s 1 ¤¤t¤ ¤s ·rt =«·rr t=:r ”r =st s1 s= «o +t ·rr”rrº = ar =¤=a ·rrza ¤ +rat
¬rat s ¤rz = =¤=a ¤¸ zr¤ ¤ 1 ·rrza º« ¤¸ zr ¤ ¤ ¤-¤ ·rr”rr ¤tz«rzr +t ·rr”rrº ·rt +rat
¬rat s 1 ¤s =r¤ ¤-¤ =r¤r +t ¤¤trr ¤t·r+ ¤r-¤ º« ¤¤taa sr o¤r s a·rr ·rrza =
a+z ¤¸ zr¤ a+ s= ¤tz«rz +t ·rr”rrº¡ ¤¤ =r =-r = +rat ¬rat s s-st +rzªrr = s= =r¤
+r =«t+rz t+¤r ¬r =+ar s 1
·rr”rr ¤tz«rz +r ¤s·« ·-
). t«’« +t ¤t·r+r ’r ¤s·«¤¸ªr ·rr”rrº s=t ¤tz«rz +t s 1 ¤ ·rr”rrº t«’« + t«t·r-=
:’rr +t zr¬·rr”rr/=s - zr¬·rr”rr s a·rr ¤+r:t¤+ a+=t+t º« ¤ ’rr=t=+ :t”e =
¤s·«¤¸ªr s 1 s:rszªrr·r · ¤o ¬t ts-:t-s:¸ =¤=t ¤-¤ ¬¤ = ==t +oar1
z. t«’« +t ¤r·rt = ¤t·r+ ¤r+r:t ·rrzr¤t¤ ¤tz«rz ¤ = t+=t º+ ·rr”rr +r ·¤«srz
+zat s 1 ¤s ·¤«srz ¤ra·rr”rr/¤¤r¬=¤¸a+ ·rr”rr + =¤ ¤ srar s 1
a. s¤ ¤¸« ¤ ¤s = +a +z ¤ + s t+ t«’« ¤ )e +zrs ()ee t¤ta¤=) = ¤t·r+
·¤t+a¤r zrzr +rat ¬r= «rat ¤ra·rr”rr¤r +t ==¤r )e s 1 s= )e ·rr”rr¤r ¤ = ¤t=t
¤z+t º« ¬r¤r=t + ¤tatz+a ‘r ”r . ·rr”rrº ·rrzr¤t¤ ¤tz«rz +t s ·- ). ts-:t z. ¤o ¬t
a. =¤=t =. +oar s. ¤ a orat c. ==t .. ¬¤ =
=. ·r¤ :’r= ==+ta º« t«nr= =-+-·rt t¤-a= t¬= ‘rr=>t¤ ·rr”rr¤r ¤ t¤aar s
s=¤ = ¤t·r+r ’r ·rr”rrº s=t ¤tz«rz +t s 1
¤·rr · ==+ a ¤rta ¤ r+a a te= ot+ ¤« =ar (¤zt’r¤=)
s ·rrzr¤t¤ ¤tz«rz +t ·rr”rrº ¤¤tz+r = a+z ·rrza a+ +sa +s ·r¸·rro ¤ +rat ¬rat s 1

¤rt: / ¤rn ·rrza-¤¸zr ¤t¤ ·rr”rr +t t«’r ”rarº¡ ·
()) ¤r¤t= ·rr”rr¤r + aa=r·¤+ ¤·¤¤= = ¤ar ¤aar s t+ ¤rt: ·rrza-¤¸ zr¤t¤ ·rr”rr
= ’a”rr·¤+ ·rt1
(z) s= ·rr”rr ¤ t«·rt+a-¤·¤¤r +t +s aar ·rt1«r+¤ ¤ ‘r-:r +r =st ¤t¤a ¤:r +r ¤¤ro
srar ·rr1
(a) ¤=¤a· ·rra¤r = ‘r-: t=”¤-= sr a ·r 1
(=) s¤=or +r =-·r«a· ¤·rr« ·rr1 s¤=or + +:a ¤¸ªr ‘r-:r +r ¤¤ro srar ·rr ¬r +r:
¤ t·r=a t·r=a ¤tz«ta a sr oº ¤rz =«a-> =¤ = ¤¤+a sr= +t tr¤ar =rr+z s¤=o
+sar= ao 1
(s) s= ·rr”rr ¤ =nr ¤:r ¤ at= tao - ¤tao =>ttao =¤=+tao a·rr at= «¤= -
º+«¤= tz««¤= +s«¤= ·r1
(c) at= ¤ =”r ·r- s·a¤ ¤·¤¤ ¤-¤ 1
(.) ¤re +rz+ ·r 1 +r: ¤ ot+ º« ate= ¤ +c +rz+r +t t«·rt+a¤r ce o¤t1
(a) t+¤r ¤ +a +r ·rr+ar +r= s s= ¤r·rrz ¤z ¤r·¤= ¤: ¤r z ¤z=¤¤: sra ·r 1 ¤t:
+a +r ·rr+ar =«¤ s ar ¤r·¤= ¤: +r ¤ ¤ro sr ar ·rr ¤rz ¤t: :¸=zr s ar ¤z=¤¤:
+r ¤¤ro srar ·rr1
(s) t+¤r + =¤r ¤ «a ¤r= +ra ·rr1 t+ ¤r +t t=”¤-=ar ¤¸ªr s s ¤·r«r =st - s=+r
a+z =r¤r-¤ ¤=-¤-= º« =-¤-= ·r: ·r1
()e) =¤r= s= ·rr”rr +t t«’r ”rar ·rt1
())) ·rr”rr ¤=ar=r·¤+ ·rt 1 ¤=ar= = ¤·r ¤ ¤-az sr ¬rar ·rr1 ·rr”rr =otar·¤+ ·rt
s=taº s:r·a ¤rt: =«zr + ¤¤ro = ¤·r +r·r ¤ =sr¤ar at ¬rat ·rt1 «t:+ ¤-> s=+
s:rszªr s t¬=+ s·¤rzªr ¤ s:r·a ¤=:r·a =«tza +r ¤¤ro ¤r«’¤+ ¤r=r ¬rar s 1
¤r¤t= ot+ ¤ ·rt =«zr +r s¤¤ro sr ar ·rr1 +r: ¤ ¤a+z ¤=ar= +r =·rr= +ar·rra =
a ta¤r1
·rrza -¤¸zr¤t¤ ¤tz«rz +t ‘rr=rrº¡ / s¤¤tz«rz
) +t-e+ - ¤·¤ ¤¸ zr¤ + +t-e+ ·rr”rt ao·ro :r s¬rz «”r ¤¸« t+e= + ·r¸-·rro ¤
=·rr=r-atza sº ·r1

¬¤ t=+ º ·ar = +== aror + ¤r= + +rzªr ¤ +t-e+ ·rr”rt «-=
¤r¤za s =+rea s ¤a oº1
z ¬¤ t=+ - ¤o ¬t s¤ ¤at¤’r ¬¤= st=’r =«tts’r =r« t¬¤=
a a te= / zr¤r= / sarat - +r =t=t sara«t zr¤rt=¤= ¤a orat =¤=t
= =art«+ - ==t ¤rta’r =rzt+¤= =ar«r+ +aortz¤=1
s +rt-a+· - ara«t
c s at=+ - ot+
. ¤a+r=t - satzt
a ¤ar ta¤= -
s ¤rt¤¤= - ¤rz¤t=t1
)e szr=t - ¤zt’r¤= ¤«=ar +rz=t + t: ’r -r’ar -a¸ ¤t
)) ·rrzat¤ ¤r¤ ·rr”rrº¡- s=+r t««zªr ¤ro ¤=a a t+¤r ¬rºor1
)z ar =rrzt- s= ·rr”rr + == )se= se ¤ ¤·¤ ºt’r¤r + a t+=ar= + a+r= ¤:’r ¤
+ c s=atat=ra ¤=a+ º« ¤> t¤a t¬-s ¤e+z ¤r+ =z =to +t ¤s ¤r-¤ar s t+ ¤s
·rr”rr ·rrza-¤¸zr¤t¤ ¤tz«rz + + a¤ «o +t ·rr”rr s1
)a ts:rt -s= ·rr”rr + == )asa se ¤ ºt’r¤r ¤rs=z + +ror¬+rs =r¤+ =·rr= +t
¤zrart·«+ =r:rs + ¤ =o ¤ +c +tartrz a =r t¤a t¬-s )s). ¤ ¤ + t«zr= sr-=t =
¤e+z ¤s =·rr¤=r +t t+ ts:rt ·rrza-¤¸zr¤t¤ ¤tz«rz +t st ·rr”rr s1

¤=+rat =r¤+ ·rr”rrt«nr=t = )a.e se ¤ s= ·rr”rr¤r +r :r «or ¤ +r¡er1 s= ·rr”rr¤r
+t ·«t=¤r +t aa=r + +r: «s s= t=”+”r ¤z ¤s¡ ¤r t+ ¤rt: ·rrza-¤¸zr¤t¤ ·rr”rr +t
+e¤ ·«t=¤r +c ‘rr=rr¤r ¤ +e¤ st zs o¤t ¤rz +c ¤ = ·r”rt (’r = ¬) sr o¤t1 s=
¤«t·a +t ¤tat=t·r ·rr”rr + =¤ ¤ s== arta= ¤rz ¤«=·rr +r ta¤r ¤rz =r + «r¤+
‘r-:r +t =sr¤ar = ¤¤= t=”+”r +r ¤¤rtªra t+¤r1 arta= ¤ =r +r +-a¤ +sa s ¤rz
¤«=ar ¤ =a¤ 1 s=ttaº s== +-a ¤ ¤r z =a¤ «or ¤ =¤=a ·rrza-¤¸ zr¤t¤ ·rr”rr¤r +r
t«·rrt¬a t+¤r1
=a¤ «o +-a ¤ «o
) ·rrzat¤ - ‘ra¤ ) arta= - +-a ¤
z s zr=t - =a¤ z ot+ - s+rar =
a +rt-a+ - t¬ -a= a ¬¤ t=+ - s -:
= =art«+ - =ar = +t-e+ - + a
s ar =rrzt - +-·r



·rrzr¤t¤ ¤tz«rz +t ·rr”rr¤r +t t«’r ”rarº¡·
()) ¤rz-·r ¤ s= ¤tz«rz +t ·rr”rrº¡ =’a”rr·¤+ ·rt t+-a ¤+ s=¤ +s t«’a”rªrr·¤+ sr
o¤t s 1 = =+ a ¤r z ts-:t + t=-=tat=ra =¤r +t a a=r = ¤s +ra =¤”e sr ¬rºot·
==+a ts-:t
:«¤ :« +r
:« = :« =
:«r¤ :« + taº
:«ra :« =
:«=¤ :« +r
:« :« ¤

(z) ‘r-:r +t z¤=r s¤=o ·rra ¤rz ¤·¤¤ + ¤ro = sr at s 1 ¤rz-·r ¤
s¤=o =«a > =r·r+ ‘r-: ·r t+-a ¤ro ¤a+z « =«¤ =«a > =¤ = ¤¤ +a sr= ¤
¤=¤·r sr oº1
(a) «r+¤-z¤=r ‘r-:r = =st ¤:r = srat s ¤·rra ‘r-:r ¤ t«·rt+a¤r¡
aor+z ¤:r +t =¤ t=t:·r +t ¬rat s ¤rz t«·rt+a¤r + zrzr st ¤:r +r ¤rz=¤tz+
¤-«¤ t=z srar s 1 ‘r-: ¤ t«·rt+a ao t+=r «r+¤ =st +=ar1
(=) ¤rt: / ¤rn ·rrza-¤¸zr¤t¤ ·rr”rr ¤ =¤r= +=r= +t ¬r ¤«t·a ·rt «s
·rrza - ¤¸ zr¤t¤ ·rr”rr¤r ¤ ·rt zst1
(s) ¤= ar= +t ¤¤r sr ¤+t s1
(c) ·rrza-¤¸ zr¤t¤ ¤tz«rz +t ·rr”rr¤r ¤ ¤·¤¤r +r ¤t·r+¤ s 1
¼ ·. P. Baldi (1983). An Introduction to the Indo-European
Languages 2. S. K. Chatterji (2d ed. 1960) Indo-Aryan and Hindi 3. A. M.
Ghatage (2d ed. 1960) Historical Linguistics and Indo-Aryan Languages 4. C. P.
Masica, The Indo-Aryan Languages (1989))
z :t«s ¤tz«rz ·-
s= ¤tz«rz +t ·rr”rrº ¤=¤ =-r = =¤:r º« or:r«zt =t:¤r + :ttrªrt ·rro = a+z
+-¤r+¤rzt a+ +rat ¬rat s 1 s= ¤tz«rz +t ·rr”rrº s·azt nta+r atrzt¤ ¤rt+=ar=
º« ¤+ort==ar= + =t¤r-a ·r¸·rro (¤ =¤a· t+art¤=ar=) a·rr ·rrza ¤ ¤·¤ ¤: ’r
c·at=oe t+srz mrz=rªs sst=r + +c ·rror ¤ ·rt +rat ¬rat s 1
:t«s ¤tz«rz + ·rrorta+ =«=¤ ¤z t«¤rz -
ete¤te ¤t=rtrt=-:z= = at¤a ·rr”rr +r stasr=` ¤=a+ ¤ :t«s ¤tz«rz +t ·rr”rr¤r +
·rrorta+ tr> + =-+-·r ¤ t=-= te-¤ªrt +t s ·-
¬sr a+ :t«s ·rr”rt tr > +r ¤ ’= s «s +rs s tr> +r crs+z aorarz s - :ttrªr ·rrza
¤rz nta+r +r s·azt ·rro1 at¤a ¤a¤ra¤ +-=s ¤r z a ao - ¤ =rtst·¤+ ·rr”rrº
=¤:ae«at ¤: ’rr ¤r z s=+ ¤r-atz+ ·rror ¤ +rat ¬rat s 1 ¤s º+ t«t¤> =¤r o s t+
º =t :t«s ·rr”rrº t¬=+r stasr= =st t¤aar ·rrorta+ :t”e = =¤ tr>r ¤ st +rat ¬rat
s - ¬= -a¸t¤=ar= + ¤erz ¤z s·az ·rrza ¤rz :+= + ¤·¤«at sar+ ¤ ¤rz :ttrªr ¤
cre-cre ¤srst ·rror ¤ 1 at¤a ·rr”rr +r tr> «a¤r= ¤:r= zr-¤ (at¤a=rs) s1 ¤ar¤ra¤
+za ¤ +rat ¬rat s a ao ¤r-·r ¤: ’r ¤ ¤rz +-=s ¤=¸ z ¤ 1 t+-a s= =·rt tr>r +
=¤t¤«at ¤: ’r tz·rr”rt s 1 ¤:r= + s·az ¤ aao +r tr> ¤sar s ¤r z ¤t’¤¤ ¤ +-=s
¤rz ¤a¤ra¤ +r1 a a ¤oarz + ¤r=¤r= +r at ¬rat s 1 +rso +o + t=«rt=¤r +t
¤ra·rr”rr s ¬r ¤+ ¤=¸ z zr-¤ +r ¤o s1 +s or +rer ¤rz ersr =tatotz + tr>r ¤ +rat
¬rat s 1 aa o-¤:’r + º+ ¤r z sts ¤r·rr”rt tr> ¤sar s ¤rz :¸=zt ¤rz ¤zret-·rr”rt tr>1
a ao + st ¤sr= ¤ or st +r tr> s 1 +s ¤r z +rªsr s= ¤erz ¤z +r at ¬rat s ¬r
¤sr=:t ·rre + :r=r ¤r z ¤sar s 1 +rar¤t ¤r z ¤z¬t ¤·¤¤: ’r ¤r z s:zr+r: ¤ +rat ¬rat
s 1 +-=s ¤:’r ¤zret +r+ªrt a ao ¤r z at¤a·rr”rt tr>r = t·rzr s ¤r s 1 or st +t
=t¤r¤r ¤z a ao +rar¤t ¤ªsr ¤rz ¤zret s 1 ¤s ¤=r=rr a·¤ s t+ =rts·¤ztsa :t«s
·rr”rr¤r +r +ra= «ra ¤srsr ¤z t¤aa s1 crer =ro¤z ¤ +rat ¬r= «rat o:+r +==r ¤r
¤rzr« ¤rz zr¬¤sa ¤ +rat ¬r= «rat ¤r-ar + ¤sr=-¤sr= ¤ ¤ªsr ·rr”rrº ·¤r-a s1
+rs s ¤t’¤¤t ¤rt+=ar= + ¤srst sar+r ¤ ·¤«sa srat s 1 ( :e - at¤a ·rr”rr +r
stasr= ¤e )c - ). ete¤te ¤t=rtrt=-:z= ¤=«r:+ · sre z¤ ’r¤-: ¤szr>r ¤·¤¤: ’r
o-·r ¤+r:¤t ·rr¤ra ¤·r¤ ==+zªr )sa=)
sr e ¤t=rtrt=-:z= = :t«s ¤tz«rz +t t=-= +t= ·rr”rr¤r +r s-a=r t+¤r s -
). a ao z. at¤a a. +-=s =. ¤a¤ra¤ s. a a c. + ==r .. +s+t« a. orst s. +sor
)e +rso )). o:+r )z. s=+ )a. +rar¤t )=. +z«r )s. ¤r-ar )c. ¤z¬t ).. +r ¤r )a.
+rªsr )s. =s++:t ¤rz =+t ¤r:t ze. +rer ¤rz ersr (:e «st ¤e )s)
:t«s ¤tz«rz +t nra ·rr”rr¤r ¤ ¤·r¤ ¤rz ·rr”rrº ¤·rr= s 1 s=¤ =rts·¤ s ¤rz ¤+ ar
s=+t ·rrorta+ =t¤r¤r +r zr-¤«rz t=·rr zªr ·rt sr o¤r s 1 ‘r”r )c ·rr”rrº =rts·¤ztsa s
¤rz º =t ·rr”rrº +ra= «ra ¤·rr= =¤ = ¤srsr º« ¬oar ¤ t=«r= +za s 1
sre ·r+a +”ªr¤¸ta = :t«s ¤tz«rz +t ·rr”rr¤r +r «ot+zªr ·rrorta+ º« ·rr”rr«nrt=+
¤r·rrz ¤z t+¤r s ÷
(+) :ttrªr +t :t«ªr ·rr”rrº¡ ·- at¤a ¤a¤ra¤ ersr +rer +-=s
+r so s=+ +rzor ¤rz aa 1 ( + =+r +=+r ¤rz +sr s= at= +rta¤r +t t=·rta
=¤”e =st s )
(=r) :ttrªr - +-:t¤ :t«s ·rr”rrº - aa o orst (+r¤r =¤ a) +rs
+s +t« ¤ or ¤ªsr ¤rz ¤t« (¤r stªs)
(o) +-:t¤ :t«s ·rr”rrº - +rar¤t =rst+ ¤z¬t ¤rz o:+r (¤rartz
¤rz +rªr+r z-s¤+rta¤r s 1)
(·r) s·az +t :t«s ·rr”rrº - +==r ¤r-ar ¤r z +rs s 1
+r”e+r ¤ :t os +r ta¤r +r crs : ar +a z= ·rr”rrº srat s ¤rz +r ”e+r +t
+r ta¤r +r ¬rs a ar ==¤r zs a+ ¤s ¤ ¬rat s1 (:e XI All India Conference of Dravidian
Linguists, P.25, Osmania University, Hyderabad, June 5-7, 1981)
sre +te zr¤+”ªr zsst = =rts·¤ az :t«s ·rr”rr¤r +r =« trªr ()scs-)sae
a+) t+¤r 1 a ao + st º+ ¤-¤ t«zr= sre ¤teº=e =+ sª¤¤ = ¤¤=t ¤=a+ :rt«s
·rr”ra` ()s.. se ¤ ¤+rt’ra) ¤ :t«s ·rr”rr¤r +r t«+r= +¤ ¤=a a t+¤r t¬=+r
=rzr ’r sre +ªrzr¬ ‘r ”rtotzzr« = :t«s ·rr”rr¤r +r «ot+zªr ¤=a a +za sº t:¤r s 1 (:e
- :t«s ·rr”rr¤r +r «ot+zªr sre +ªrzr¬ ‘r ”rtotzzr« =-¤a= ¤t>+r ¤e a=-ac ·rro
c. ==¤r )-z ¤r ”r -¤”e ‘r+ )sez-a ts-:t =rts·¤ =-¤a= ¤ ¤ro )
sre ¤teº=e =+ sª¤¤ +r «ot+zªr ¤rt: / ¤rn :t«s ·rr”rr +t
=+-¤=r ¤z ¤r·rrtza s ¤rz « s= ¤rt: / ¤rn :t«s ·rr”rr +r ·rt at= ·rror ¤
t«·rrt¬a +za s 1 ¤s t«·rr¬= ·rrorta+ ¤r·rrz ¤z s - ). :ttrªr «o +t ·rr”rrº¡ z. ¤·¤
:t«s «o +t ·rr”rrº¡ a. s·az :t«s «o +t ·rr”rrº¡ 1 s-sr = ¤·¤ + «o + taº ¤rt: /
¤rn :t«s ·rr”rr +r ¤r·rrz ¤r=r s ¤r z a:=-az ¤rt: / ¤rn :t«s +r at= ·rror (
:ttrªr ¤·¤ ¤rz s·az) ¤ t«·rrt¬a t+¤r s ·-
¤rt: / ¤rn :t«s ·rr”rr
). ¤rt: / ¤rn :ttrªr :t«s z. ¤rt: / ¤rn ¤·¤ : t«s a. ¤rt: / ¤rn s·az
:t«s

Ⅰ ¤rt: / ¤rn :ttrªr :t«s ·rr·rr¤r +r «ot+zªr ·

¤rt: / ¤rn :ttrªr :t«s


at¤a +-=s


at¤a =. a « /a a s. ¤r=+ +-=s c.¤-¤


at¤a ar sr


at¤a - a +rso /+¸zot
¤a¤ra¤



) at¤a z ¤a¤ra¤

Ⅱ. ¤rt: / ¤rn ¤·¤ :t«s «o +t ·rr”rr¤r +r «ot+zªr ·-


¤rt:a ao - +t« / or s ¤rt: +rar¤t - ¤¬t




.. aao ¤rt: or s - +t« )=. +rar¤t )s. =r¤+t )c ¤rzot ).. o:+r

a. or st s. +r s/=rr s
)e. ¤or )). ¤s )z. +t¤ )a +s
Ⅲ. ¤rt: / ¤rn s·az :t«s «o +t ·rr”rr¤r +r «ot+zªr ·-

¤rt: / ¤rn s·az :t«s


¤rt: / ¤rn + ==r ze. +rs s


)a. +==r / ¤r zr« )s. ¤r-ar


s+a t«·rr¬= t«+r= +¤ +t :t”e = s 1 ¤r·rt=+ ·rr”rr¤r + =:·r ¤
º++rta+ :t”e = :t«s ¤tz«rz +t ·rr”rr¤r +r «ot+zªr a =r+ = ¤ro ¤=aa t+¤r s1


a ¤r·=¤ (¤r=er-ºt’r¤rte+) ¤tz«rz ·-
s= ¤tz«rz +t ·rr”rrº¡ ·rrza = t«¤a=r¤ a+ + ·r¸·rro ¤ ¤> a> +r at ¬rat s 1 s=+t at=
‘rr=rrº¡ s ·- ) t«¤a-¤¤r¡o ‘rr=rr z ¤r=-=¤z ‘rr=rr a ¤ sr ‘rr=rr
( www.vietthu.net /www.khmerlanguage.com )
s= ¤tz«rz +t ·rr”rr¤r +r s= ¤+rz «ot+a t+¤r ¬r =+ar s ·-
¤r·=¤ (¤r=er-ºt’r¤rte+)


t«¤a-¤¤ro ¤r=-=¤ z ¤sr


) t«¤a=r¤t ) ¤r= ) =rr=t
z ¤¤ro z =¤ z z t=+r+rzt
a ¤rao a ¤-¤ ·rr”rrº¡ - =arat

= =r



= t==r - ta-+a ¤tz«rz ·-
s= ¤tz«rz +t ·rr”rrº¡ ¤t= ·rrsa ªs ta-+a -¤r¤rz º« ¤¸«r·az ·rrza + ·r¸·rro ¤ +rat
¬rat s 1 s= ¤tz«rz +t ·rr”rr¤r +t t«’r”rar ¤s s t+ ¤ º+rtrz ar= ·rr”rrº¡ s 1 ·rrzr¤t¤
¤tz«rz +t ·rr”rr¤r ¤ «r+¤ + ¤a ¤ ¤=ar= =az t¤aa s 1 ¤=ar= =az ·r: = =r¤r-¤
«r+¤ ¤’=«r+¤ ¤ +:a ¬rar s 1 s= ¤tz«rz +t ·rr”rr¤r ¤ ¤ ·¤+ ‘r-: º+ ¤trz zrzr st
t=t¤a sr a s a·rr ¤·¤ + ¤trz + ¤=+ ar= sra s t¬== s=+ ¤·r +:a ¬ra s 1 s=
¤tz«rz +t ·rr”rr¤r +t =r¤ot + ¤r·rrz ¤z ¤rt: / ¤rn t==r-ta-+a ·rr”rr +t ¤=z z¤=r
º« ·¤ ·¤t·a +r”r t=¤rªr +r +r¤ ¤a zsr s 1 ( http:// stedt.berkeley.edu ) (phuh
eankfju ds fy, osc lkbV& zhongwen.com/chat.htm / zhongwen.com /
frCcr&cehZ ds fy, osc lkbV&
thor.prohosting.com/~linguist/burmese.htm/www.dharma-
haven.org/tibetan/language.htm )


s= ¤tz«rz +t ·rr”rr¤r +r s= ¤+rz «ot+a t+¤r ¬r =+ar s ·-



t==r / ¤t=t -ta-+a

t==r
ta-+a-+¤t ·rrs :ttrªrt



ta-+at-ts¤ra¤t +¤t-¤r=r¤t

ta-+at ts¤ra¤t +r:r =ro +t+ +¤t t¤tz

) t==r «o - ) ¤:rtz= z «¸ a ¤¤r ¤ = o= s t¤= c s++r . t¬¤r³ a + er=t

z ta-+a - +¤t «o - ¼·rrzat¤ ·rr”rr¤r + =:·r ¤ s= «o +t ·rr”rr¤r + s:rszªr t:º ¬r¤o ½

a ·rrs «o - ) ·rrs z ar¤r a ¤¤r³ = a³ s = ³ c ‘rr= . +¤=s a ¬sr³ s at

= :ttrªrt «o - ) t¤¤r¤r z ¤r¤r a =


s =r¤t/=¤te+ ¤tz«rz ·-

+rst+a + ¤r=¤r= + ¤==rz s¬za =rs + -¤ ”e ¤> =¤`` ¤z+ ¤=ttz¤r º« =ttz¤r
+ t=«rt=¤r º« ¤s¸:t-¬rta + aror + ¤rt: ¤=”r s 1 s-st + +rzªr s= tr> +t ·rr”rr¤r
+r =r¤t/=¤te+ ·rr”rr ¤tz«rz + =r¤ = ¤ +rzr ¬rar s 1 s= ¤tz«rz +t ¤¸«t ‘rr=rr +t
¤r¤t= ·rr”rrº - ¤rt=zt¤ ¤r++:t= º« + t+ar=t¤ a·rr ¤t’¤¤t s¤’rr=rr +t ¤r¤t=
·rr”rrº-+=r=t¤ +r º=t’rt¤ º« ¤rzr¤t¤ s 1
s= ¤tz«rz +t ·rr”rr¤r + ¤-aoa ¤z+t º« ts+¸ ·rr”rrº ¤rat s 1 ¤z+t ·rr”rr + ¤r¤t=a¤
s¤a-·r a=r aza se + s 1 +rst+a +r ¤r -s e =er¤ªe ts+ ¸ ·rr”rr ¤ ta=rr o¤r s 1 s=ar¤
·r¤ +t +zr=` ¤z+t ·rr”rr ¤ s 1 s=ar¤ ·r¤ + ¤¤rz-¤=rz + +rzªr ¤z+t ·rr”rr +r
t«=arz ¤¸«t ºt’r¤r º« ¤¤t+r + ·r¸-·rro a+ s 1 +rz=t a +t º« ·rrzat¤ ·rr”rr¤r t«’r”r
=-r = s:¸ ¤rt: ¤z ¤z+t ·rr”rr +r +sa ¤·rr« ¤sr s 1 ¤¸zr¤ +t ·rr”rr¤r = ·rt ¤z+t =
‘r-:r +r ¤r:r= t+¤r s 1«a ¤r= ts+¸ a·rr ¤z+t ¬tt«a ·rr”rrº s 1 s·az ¤¤t+r ¤t’¤¤
ºt’r¤r º« =rrst + :’rr - ). ¤r z++r z. ¤-¬ttz¤r a. att+¤r =. =¸sr= s. t¤= c.
=ttz¤r .. ¬rs= a. szr+ s. =¤ +a ¤z+ ¤¤tzra )e. ¤¤= ¤rt: ¤ ¤z+t ·rr”rr + ¬r
·rrt”r+ =¤ +ra ¬ra s s-s +c t«zr= ¤z+t ·rr”rr` + s¤·rrt”r+ =¤ ¤r=a s a·rr +c
s-s t·r-=-t·r-= ·rr”rr¤r + =¤ ¤ =«t+rz +za s 1 (De Lacy O Leary : Comparative
grammar of the semitic languages / Karin C. Ryding : A Reference Grammar
of Modern Standard Arabic, Cambridge University Press)

s ¤¸zra-¤-ars ¤tz«rz ·-
+s a = ·rr‛rr «nrt=+ s= ¤tz«rz +t ·rr‛rr¤r +r :r t·r-= ·rr‛rr-¤tz«rzr ¤ «ot +a +za
s ·- ). ¤¸ zra ¤tz«rz z. ¤-ars ¤tz«rz 1 s= :r ¤tz«rzr +t ·rr‛rr¤r ¤ ·«t= º« ‘r-:r«at
+t t·r-=arº¡ ¤t·r+ s 1 s= ¤¤trr = t·r-= ·rr‛rr-¤tz«rz ¤r== +r ¤a a+ =oa ¤ata
srar s1 ¤oz ·¤r+zªr º« ·rrt‛r+ = z¤=r +t :t‛e = s= :r ¤tz«rzr +t ·rr‛rr¤r ¤
º+=¤ar s 1 s= ¤¤trr = s=+r º+ ·rr‛rr ¤tz«rz + =¤ ¤ =«t+rz t+¤r ¬r =+ar s 1
¤¸zra ¤«a = ¤¸zr¤ ¤srzt¤ + tr> ¤ ¤¸zra s¤ ¤tz«rz +t ·rr‛rrº a·rr ¤orta¤r +
¤r=¤r= t=·ra ¤-ars ¤«a = ¬r¤r= a+ + tr> ¤ ¤-ars s¤ ¤tz«rz +t ·rr‛rrº +rat
¬rat s ·-
¤¸ zra s¤ ¤tz«rz +t :r ‘rr=rr¤ s ·- ). +t=t-sot z. =¤r¤:t
¤-ars s¤ ¤tz«rz +t ¤r¡¤ ‘rr=rr¤ s ·- ).ararzt / a +t z. ¤orat a. a o¸¬t =. +rtz¤= s.
¬r¤r=t
s= ¤tz«rz +r t+=r-arartz+ =tt:¤= a¸zr=t t+=r-so t¤ =r¤r = ·rt ¤t·rtsa t+¤r ¬rar
s 1
¤¤=r ·rr”rrº ·- ). t+=t ¤r = ¤r¤t ¤r t+-=t¤ z. ¤·¤rz (sozt) a. a o¸¬t =. ¤or at s.
a +t c. tozto¬ .. s- +ot a. +¬r+t s. a + ¤=t )e. ararzt )). ¤orat )z. ¤r¤ )a.
+rtz¤= )= + ¬r¤r=t1
(Shirokogoroff, S. M. (1931). Ethnological and linguistical aspects of
the Ural-Altaic hypothesis. Peiping, China: The Commercial Press.) /
(en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ural-Altaic_languages )

. +r+’r= ¤tz«rz ·-
s= ¤tz«rz +t ·rr”rr¤r +r tr> +”ªr =roz = a+z +t=¤¤= =roz + +t¤ s1 ¤¸a tr>
+r+r’r= ¤«a¤rar s 1
¤¤=r ·rr”rrº¡ · so’r ++t:¤= ¤ ¤ = ¬rt¬ ¤=
(www.armazi.demon.co.uk/georgian/grammar.html /
members.tripod.com/ggdavid/georgia/language / ingush.narod.ru /
ingush.berkeley.edu:7012/ingush.html )


·rrza +t ·rr”rrº¡ : +s ·rrt”r+ar

·rrza ¤ ·rr”rr¤r ¤ ¬rta¤r ·r¤r =r=+ta+ ¤z-¤zr¤r º« ·rr orta+ t=·rta¤r +r
¤=r·rrzªr º« ¤tzat¤ «t«·¤ t«:¤¤r= s 1 t«’« + s= =ra« t«’rraa¤ :’r +r ¤« a a·rr
=¤: ‘r”r ºt’r¤r = ¤ao +za s t¬== s=+t ¤¤=t ¤ao ¤s¤r= s ¤t«za º« =¤z
=r=+ta+ t«zr=a s zr”e +t ¤=rtsa ¤r=t=+ar s 1 ¤=+ar ¤ º+ar` a·rr º+ar ¤
¤=+ar` +t t«t’r”ear + +rzªr ·rrza +r t«’« ¤ ¤tzat¤ =r =+ta+ ar+ ¤r=r ¬rar s1
·rrt”r+ :t”e = ·rrza +s ·rr”rt :’r s 1 ¤sr¡ ¤ra ·rr”rr¤r +t ==¤r )see = ¤t·r+ s (:e
¬=oªr=r )ss) zt¬=erz ¬=za ¤r+ stªs¤r) 1 s= ¤·¤r¤ ¤ s=t ¬=oªr=r + ¤r·rrz ¤z
·rr”rr¤r + +ra= «rar + ¤r¡+s ¤=aa t+º ¬r¤ o 1 s= ¬=oªr=r + ¤==rz )eeee =
¤t·r+ aror zrzr +r at ¬r= «rat ·rr”rr¤r +t = =¤r ))= s 1 (¬-¤¸ ¤rz +’¤tz +t
¬=oªr=r = sr ¤r= + +rzªr s= tz¤re ¤ a::r=rt +r =r¤ =st s 1 s=t ¤+rz s=
¬=oªr=r ¤ ¤t·rat +r ts-:t + ¤-ao a =·rr= t¤ar s 1 ¤+ ¤t·rat ·rrzat¤ =t«·rr= +t
¤re«t ¤==¸¤t +t º+ ¤tzotªra ·rr”rr s1) a::r=rt º« ¤t·rat +r =t-¤taa +z= ¤z
)eeee = ¤t·r+ aror zrzr +rat ¬r= «rat ·rr”rr¤r +t ==¤r ))c sr ¬rat s 1
¤¸ zr¤ º« ºt’r¤r ¤srzt¤ + ·rr”rr ¤tz«rzr ¤ = :ttrªr ºt’r¤r` ¤ ¤ =¤a· ¤rz ·rr”rr
¤tz«rzr +t ·rr”rr¤ +rat ¬rat s 1 ·rrza ¤ ·rt =r¤t ·rr”rr ¤tz«rz +t ¤z+t` + ¤¤«r: +
¤ar«r s-st ¤rz ·rr”rr ¤tz«rzr +t ·rr”rr¤ +rat ¬rat s 1 ¤ ¤rz ·rr”rr ¤tz«rz s ·
Ⅰ. ·rrzr¤t¤ ¤tz«rz (·rrza ¤ ·rrza-s zr=t s¤ ¤tz«rz +t ¤r¤ ·rr”rrº¡ a·rr :z:
‘rr=rr +t +’¤tzt +rat ¬rat s 1 +’¤tzt +r ¤+ ·rr”rr «nrt=+ ·rrzat¤ ¤r¤ ·rr”rr¤r +
¤-ao a st ¤r=a s 1 ¬¤t=+` s¤¤tz«rz +t ¤o¬t + +ra= «ra ·rt ·rrza ¤ t=«r= +za
s t¬=+t ==¤r ).assa s )
Ⅱ. :t«s ¤tz«rz
Ⅲ. ¤r·=¤ ¤tz«rz ( ¤rt=e+ ¤·r«r ¤r=er-ºt’r¤rte+)
Ⅳ. ¤t=t-ta-+at ¤tz«rz (s= ¤tz«rz +t =¤r¤t/·rrs/ars s¤¤tz«rz +t ¤=ªrr¤a
¤:’r ¤ +rat ¬r= «rat ¤¤=r ·rr”rr =r--et` +r crs+z ·rrza ¤ ta-+a-+¤t s¤¤tz«rz +t
·rr”rrº¡ +rat ¬rat s 1)

t¬= ))c ·rr”rr¤r +t ¤rz ¤¸« ¤ =+ a t+¤r o¤r s s=¤ = =ra (.) ·rr”rrº¡ º =t s t¬=+
+ra= «ra ·rrza + t«t·r-= zr-¤r /+-: ‘rrt=a ¤:’rr ¤ t=«r= +za s a·rr t¬=+r ·rrza ¤
¤¤=r ·rr”rr tr>` =st s 1 ==+ a ¤r¤t= ·rrzat¤ ¤r¤ ·rr”rr +ra +t ·rr”rr s 1 ¤oar +
‘rr==+ra + +rzªr ¤z+t a·rr ¤o ¬r + ‘rr== +ra + +rzªr ¤o ¬t + +ra= «ra ·rrza
+ t«t·r-= ·rror ¤ t=«r= +za s 1 t=-·rt º« as¡:r + ·rr”rr tr> ¤rt+=ar= ¤ s 1 )s=. +
t«·rr¬= + +r: ¤rt+=ar= = ¤r+z s= ·rr”rr¤r + +ra= «ra ·rrza + t«t·r-= ·rror ¤ +=
oº1 )ss) +t ¬=oªr=r + ¤==rz ·rrza ¤ as¡:r +ra= «rar +t = =¤r z.aac s1 s=
·rr”rr + +ra= «ra ¤r-·r ¤:’r stz¤rªrr ¤·¤ ¤:’r ¤srzr”e ¤¬r+ zr¬=·rr= se¤ e
t:-at ¤rt: ¤ zsa s a·rr ¤¤=t ¤s¤r= ¤-ar=t` + =¤ ¤ ¤t·r+ +za s 1 t=-·rt ·rr”rr +
+ra= «rar +t ==¤r z)zza=a s 1 s= ·rr”rr + +ra= «ra o¬zra ¤srzr”e ¤·¤ ¤:’r
zr¬=·rr= zr-¤r ¤ ¤¤trr+a ¤t·r+ ==¤r ¤ t=«r= +za s 1 ¤ ·rrza + ao·ro ae zr-¤r
/ +-:’rrt=a ¤:’rr ¤ + a sº s 1 as¡:r º« t=-·rt :r=r ·rr”rr¤r + +ra= «rar ¤ tz·rrt”rar
/ t>·rrt”rar / +s ·rrt”rar +r ¤=rz sr zsr s1 ¬r ¬sr +=r s «sr +t ·rr”rr = s=+ ·rr”rr
=¤ ¤ ¤tz«a = sr zsr s 1 s=t ¤+rz ta-+at aro ·rrza + zc zr-¤r ¤ zs zs s 1 s=+t
¤ra ·rr”rr ta-+at s t¬=+t ==¤r cs=)c s 1 +=re+ ts¤r¤a ¤:’r se¤e ¤=ªrr¤a
¤:’r ¤t’¤¤ +ora ¤ s=+t ==¤r ¤¤trr+ a ¤t·r+ s 1 s:¸ ¬-¤¸ º« +’¤tz +t zr¬·rr”rr
a·rr ¤r-·r ¤:’r se¤ e t+srz +=re+ ¤rt: zr-¤r +t :¸=zt ¤¤=r ·rr”rr s 1 ·rrt”r+ :t”e =
ts-:t º« s:¸ t·r-= ·rr”rrº¡ =st s a·rr s= =-+·r ¤ ¤ro t«¤rz t+¤r ¬rºor1 ·rrzat¤
=t«·rr= ¤ s:¸ +r ts-:t = t·r-= ¤tzotªra ·rr”rr ¤r=r o¤r s 1 s=+ +ra= «ra ·rrza +
¤r-·r ¤:’r t+srz +=r e+ ¤·¤ ¤:’r ¤srzr”e se¤e ¤t’¤¤ +ora t:-at a·rr at¤a=rs
¤ t=«r= +za s a·rr ·rrza ¤ s=+t = =¤r =a=ecsaz s 1
·rr”rr¤r +r t««zªr t=-= ¤r·rrzr ¤z ¤=a a t+¤r ¬rºor -
). ·rr”rr ¤tz«rz
z. ¤tzotªra / ¤¤tzotªra - ·rrza + =t«·rr= +t ¤re«t ¤==¸¤t ¤ ¤tzotªra ·rr”rr¤r
+t ==¤r ¤+ zz s 1 ¤r¤t= ·rrzat¤ ¤r¤ ·rr”rr +ra +t ==+a + ¤ar«r t=-=tat=ra
¤r·rt=+ ·rrzat¤ ·rr”rrº ¤tzotªra s ·-
) ¤=t¤¤r z. +oar a. +rsr =. srozt s o¬zrat c. ts-:t .. +’¤tzt a. +-=s s.
+r+ªrt )e. ¤t·rat )). ¤a¤ra¤ )z. ¤tªr¤ zt )a. ¤zret )=. =¤rat )s. sts¤r )c. ¤¬r+t
).. at¤a )a. a ao )s. =·rrat ze. t=-·rt z). s:¸

s= zz ¤tzotªra ·rr”rr¤r ¤ = ¤-:s ·rr”rrº¡ ·rrzat¤ ¤r¤ ·rr”rr s¤ ¤tz«rz +t ¤rz ·rr”rrº¡
:t«s ¤tz«rz +t º+ ·rr”rr (=·rrat) ¤r·=¤ ¤tz«rz +t a·rr :r ·rr”rrº ¡ (+rsr ¤tªr¤zt)
ta-+a-+¤t s¤ ¤tz«rz +t s 1 )ss) +t ¬=oªr=r + =¤¤ ¤tzotªra ·rr”rr¤r +t ==¤r )a
·rt1 s= ¬=oªr=r + ¤==rz ·rrza +t +a ¬===¤r aaasaasaa ¤ = sc.zs ¤ta’ra
aro ¤·rra ae.==)c)z aro s= )a ¤tzotªra ·rr”rr¤r ¤ = t+=t º+ ·rr”rr + +ra=
«ra ·r1
Ⅰ·rrzat¤ ¤r¤ ·rr·rrº

·rrzat¤ ¤r¤ ·rr·rrº
+ra +t :t·e = ·rrzat¤ ¤r¤·rr·rr¤r +r at= «or ¤ t«·r+a t+¤r ¬rar s 1
(+) ¤r¤t= ·rrzat¤ ¤r¤ -·rr·rr (¤re·rre¤re·rre)- )see se ¤¸« = see se ¤¸« a+1
(=r) ¤·¤ ·rrzat¤ ¤r¤ -·rr·rr (¤e·rre¤re·rre)-see se ¤¸« = )eee se a+1
(o) ¤r·rt=+ ·rrzat¤ ¤r¤-·rr·rr (¤re·rre¤re·rre) -)eee se = «a ¤r= =¤¤ a+1
(+) ¤r¤t= ·rrzat¤ ¤r¤-·rr·rr
¤r¤t=a¤ =¤ =·«: ¤ :=r= +r t¤aar s1 =·«: +r =¤¤ ¤t=trt¤a s 1 =·«: + ¤>r
+r ¤e= = nra srar s t+ s=+t z¤=r = º+ =¤¤ ¤ ss s ¤rz = º+ =·rr= ¤ 1 «s +s
rrart-:¤r ¤r z +s =·rr=r +t z¤=r s ¬=r s=¤ t«¤¤r= ·rr·rr-·r:r = ¤ar ¤aar s 1 ¤
·rr·rr-·r: :rr ¤rz +ra + ·r: + +rzªr s 1 =·«: + := ¤sar ¤ = ¤·r¤ ¤rz :rr¤ ¤sa
¤¤trr+a +r: +t z¤=r ¤r= ¬ra s1
=·«t:+ =rts·¤ + ¤-ao a = tsar + r¬ªr ¤rzª¤+ ¤r z s¤t=·r: ¤ra s1 =tsar =
s¤t=·r: a+ +r t«+r= ·rr«-·rrzr +t :t·e = st =st ·rr·rr +t :t·e = ·rt ¤s·«¤¸¤ªr s1 ¤s
¤-az rrart-:¤r ¤ st =-·r« s ¤r 1 ·rrt‛r+ ¤·¤¤= +t :t‛e = +r¬ªr o-·rr +r ¤s·«
¤t·r+ s 1 s=+r +rzªr ¤s s t+ +r¬ªr-o-·r ¤=¤a· o¤ ¤ s1 s== «r+¤-z¤=r +t
¤ªrrat +r ¬r== ¤ =sr¤ar t¤aat s 1
t¬= ·rr·rr ¤ =·«: +t z¤=r s s s «s +ra¤ra +t ·rr·rr = sr+z s= =¤¤ +t
¤r=+ =rts·¤+ ·rr·rr ·rt1s=+ =¤r=r-az ar+-·rr·rrº¡ ·rt zst sr ot t+-a s=+ tat=ra
=rts·¤ + ¤·rr« + +rzªr s-s ¬r== +r +rs =r·r= ¤+ =st s 1 =·« : ¤ «tªra s t+ ¬=
=¸¤ = =·a¸ +r ‘r:·r t+¤r ¬rar s «= st +t:·r¤r= aro +t:·r+a = ¤tz‛+a ·rr‛rr +r
¤=a a +za s ( )e/ .) - z )1 s¤ ¤ r¤t= º« ¤·¤+rat= =rtst·¤+ ·rrt‛r+ =-r st s¤a-·r
s t«t·r-= tr>r º« zr-¤r ¤ =r¤r-¤ ¬= + zrzr +ra ¬r= «ra ·rrt‛r+ =-r s¤a-·r =st s 1
t+=t +ra ¤ =r¤r-¤ =-r = =rtst·¤+ ·rr‛rr +r ¤r·rrz s= +ra +t ¤r=+ / =-¤+ ·rr‛rr
srat s1 ·rr‛rr t«+r= + ¤z-¤zroa ¤·¤¤=r +r ¤<= + +r: ¤re+ +r ¤s ¤ atta sr at s
t+ ¤r¤t= º« ¤·¤+ra ¤ ·rr‛rrº ¡ +¤ = =¤r ¤ +rat ¬rat ·rt ¤oz ¤r·rt=+ +ra ¤ ·rr‛rr¤r
+t ==¤r ¤ ¤¤·¤rt’ra «t:·r sr os s 1 s= ¤+rz +t ·rrzªrr ¤« nrt=+ a·rr ¤art++ s 1
s=+r +rzªr ¤s s t+ ¤r·rt=+ +ra ¤ =r¤rt¬+ =-¤+ +s a +er s a·rr t=z-az +e zsr
s 1 ¤s =«¤r-¤ t=:·rr-a s t+ t+=t ·rr‛rr tr > ¤ =r¤rt¬+ =-¤+ t¬a=r ¤t·r+ sr ar s
·rr‛rr ·r: sa=r st +¤ srar s 1 «t:+ =rts·¤ +r ¤·¤¤= +z= ¤z sa=r ar ¤ar ¤a st
¬rar s t+ «:r +t cr-:= ·rr‛rr +r s:t·¤ ¤:’r + ¤zr tsa =+= ‘r :·r ¤r=a ·r a·rr s=
+ra ¤ ¤·¤:’rt º« ¤ r·¤ ¤rt: ¬= ·rr‛rrº ¡ ·rt +rat ¬rat ·rt1 sr - +r+¸zr¤ =+==r =
¤ta¤rt:a t+¤r s t+ =·«:=tsar + =¸t¤ ¤·¤¤= = ¤ra¸¤ srar s t+ s=+ =¸ +ar ¤
¬sr¡ asr¡ +rat ·r: s `1 ( ¤·¤:’r +r ·rr‛rr t«+r= =rozt ¤¤rtzªrt ¤t>+r «‛r se ¤+ )
- z =- zeez ( == )s=s ))
t«zr=r + º+ «o +t ¤r-¤ar s t+ «t:+ ·rr·rr = art++ ==+ a +r t«+r= s ¤r s 1
t«zr=r + :¸=z «o +r ¤a s t+ = =+ a +r t«+r= «t:+ + +:a a:¤ot= t+=t +rat =
s ¤r ¬r ¤=+ +rzªrr = ¤s·«¤¸ªr += o¤t1 « t:+ º« art++ ==+a + ·rrt‛r+ t«+r= +
os= ¤·¤¤= = :¸=zr ¤a ¤t·r+ a+ =oa ¤ata sr ar s 1 s=+r art++ ¤r·rrz ¤s ·rt s
t+ t+=t ar+ ·rr‛rr +r ==+rtza =-r st ==+a s 1 ==+ a +r ¤·r st s - ==+rtza
·rr‛rr1 s= «o +t ¤r-¤ar +r =¤m= + taº s¤ =rst+rat +r s:rszªr a =+a s 1
¤¤·r’r +ra ¤ ‘rr z==t +r =-¤+ ·rr‛rr + =-r ¤ ·¤«srz srar ·rr1 )s «t ‘rar-:t = a+z
)a «t ‘rar-:t a+ ‘rrz==t +t ¤z-¤zr +r t=«rs +¬ = ¤t·r+ t+¤r1 zr¬=tta+ ¤rt·r+
·¤r¤rtz+ ¤rt: +rzªrr = t:-at + ¤a t:+ +rat ¬r= «rat a·rr+t·ra =rst +rat ts-:t
·rr‛rr +t ¤-¤ s¤·rr‛rr¤r / +rta¤r +t aa=r ¤ ¤ro t=+a os ¤rz ¤-¤ s¤·rr‛rr¤r º«
¤¬r+t ¤rt: ·rr‛rr¤r + ·rrt‛r+ a·«r + =¤rsrz = =«r·rt=ar ¤r-:ra= + =¤¤ =-¤¸ªr
·rrza +t =«¤r-¤ zr·e ·rr·rr += o¤t 1 zr·e·rr·rr ¤r =rtst·¤+ ·rr·rr +== +r ¤s ¤·r =st
t+ s=+ +r: ts-:t ·rr‛rr tr> +t ¤-¤ s¤·rr‛rr¤r / +rta¤r +r ·¤«srz sr=r +-: sr o¤r 1
==+a ·rr‛rr ·rt =¤=r¤t¤+ ¤-¤ ar+·rr‛rr¤r/ ¬=·rr‛rr¤r +t a a=r ¤ ¤ro t=+a o¤t
¤rz ·rrza +t =r=+ta+ ·rr·rr += o¤t 1 ¤s ¤’= s¤t=·ra t+¤r ¬r =+ar s t+ s=+r
+¤r ¤¤rªr s =r=+a +ra ¤ ¤-¤ ¬= ·rr‛rrº¡ t«:¤¤r= ·rt 1 s=+r +rzªr ¤s s t+ «
·rrt‛r+ =-r s¤a-·r =st s 1 s= =-+-·r ¤ s-a =r=t¤ s t+ =rts·¤ ¤ st ¤> a> + c
s-a =r t¤aa s ¬r s= +ra +t ·rr‛rr - t·r-=ar¤r +t =¸ ¤=r : a s 1 s:rszªr + taº
«r-¤tt+ zr¤r¤ªr + t+t‛+-·rr +rs ¤ ‘r:·r ·rr‛rr =t=r= s a ·¤r+zªr +r ¤·¤¤= +z= a·rr
¤¤·rrt‛ra = +¤= + t=: ‛r ¤r-a s 1 s=t zr¤r¤ªr + s= ¤r= ¬+ zr¤ +r = :’r a+z a+r ¤
=tar + ¤r= ¤s¡ ¤a s ar s=+ ¤= + z-: +r z¤=r+rz = ¤t·r·¤+a t+¤r s 1 z-: +r
+rzªr s t+ =tar +r =:’r t+= ·rr‛rr ¤ t:¤r ¬rº - :«t ·rr‛rr ==+a ¤ ¤·r«r ¤r=‛rt
·rr‛rr ¤ ( «r-¤tt+ zr¤r¤ªr - s/ae/). - )s )1 +rta:r= + +¤rz =-·r« ¤ «tªra s t+
’r+z º« ¤r«at + t««rs + ¤«=z ¤z =z=«at ’r+z = t¬= ·rr‛rr ¤ +ra +zat s s==
t·r-= ·rr‛rr ¤ « ¤r«at = +ra +zat s 1 ·rza ¤t= = =r=r :’rr + ¤=o + ¤==rz ·rrt‛r+
¤¤ror +r t«·rr= t+¤r s 1( =re ¤’rr=> )a/zs - as )1 s= ¤+rz ¤s +sr ¬r =+ar s
t+ ==+a ·rr‛rr +ra ¤ ·rt =¤=r¤t¤+ ¤-¤ ar+·rr‛rr¤r / ¬=·rr‛rr¤r +r ·¤«srz srar ·rr
srart+ « ·rrt‛r+ =-r s¤ ¤+ s¤a-·r =st s 1 ¤ro «t:+ º« art++ ==+a ·rr‛rr¤r +t
=r¤r-¤ ¤«t·a¤r + +rz ¤ =¸> ‘r at ¤ =¸¤=r :t ¬r zst s 1

). «t:+ º« = =+a ·rr·rrº ¡ tra‛e ¤ror·¤+ s 1
z. «t:+ ·rr‛rr ¤ =¤-z¤=r ¤ ¤t·r+ t«t«·rar ¤rz ¬teaar s 1 s:rszªrr·r ¤·r¤ t«·rt+a +
+s «¤= ¤ :« rr-: + :«r· ¤rz :«r=· :r=r =¤ t¤aa s 1 s=t azs a at¤r + º+«¤= ¤
:«· ¤rz :«t·r· :r=r =¤ t¤aa s 1 ==+ a ¤ ¤r+z =-r ¤t·r+ ·¤«t=·ra sr oº ¤r z
¤¤«r:r a·rr ·r:r +t +¤t sr o¤t1 s:rszªrr·r ¤¸«r+a :r=r «+t-¤+ =¤ ce oº ¤rz
º+-º+ =¤ (:«r· a·rr :«·) zs oº1
a. «t:+ ·rr·rr ¤=ar=r·¤+ s t+-a ==+ a +artna s 11
=. ==+a + =¤r= «t:+ ¤ ·rt at= tao ¤rz at= «¤= sra s1
s. «t:+ ·rr·rr ¤ s¤=o +r ¤¤ro ¤¸a rr-: = se+z ·rt sr =+ar s t+-a ==+a ¤ =st 1
(=r) ¤·¤ ·rrzat¤ ¤r¤-·rr·rr

¤·¤ ·rrzat¤ ¤r¤ ·rr·rr-+ra +r ¤r+a +ra ·rt +sa s 1 s=+ at= =¤·e t«+r=-=r¤r=
¤r= ¬ra s 1
(+) ¤·r¤ ¤r+a (see se ¤¸ « = se == + ¤rz-·r a+)- ¤rta ¤rrr+ + ¤t·ra=r 1
(=r) tzat¤ ¤r+ a (se == + ¤rz-·r = see se a+)- =rtst·¤+ ¤r+a (¤srzr·et ¤rt:)
(o) aat¤ ¤r+a (see se = )eee se a+ )- ¤¤·rrr

(+) ¤·r¤ ¤r+a (see se ¤¸« = se == + ¤rz-·r a+)- ¤rta ¤rrr+ + ¤t·ra=r
¤rta-
¤rta ·rr·rr +t s·¤t·a +r a+z t«zr=r ¤ ¤a·r: s 1 +c t«zr= ==+a = ¤rta - ¤r+ a
+t s·¤t·a ¤r=a s 1( ¤+ta· ==+a¤1 a> ·r« aa ¤roa «r ¤r+a¤ -
t=:·rs ¤’r-:r=’rr== )/)) 1 ¤oz ¤sa +sr ¬r ¤ +r s t+ ¤t·r+ a+ =oa ¤s ¤r==r s
t+ ==+a + =¤r=r-az ¬r ¬=-·rr·rrº ·rt s-st + t«+t=a =-r ¤ r+a s 1 ¤rta rr-: +r
¤·r +¤r s ¤rz «s +sr ¡ +t ·rr·rr ·rt s= :r= r ¤r=r +r a+z ·rt t«zr=r ¤ ¤a·r: s 1
¤rta rr-: +t t==t+a +r a+z ¤=+ +-¤=rº ¡ +t os s 1
()) ¤t+a rr-: = t=-=tat=ra t«+r= +¤ ¤ ¤rta +t t=·¤t·a +ar¤t ¬rat s -
¤t+a  ¤ta  ¤t·a  ¤tee  ¤t-a  ¤rta 1
s= t«+r= +¤ ¤ ·«t=-t=¤¤ = ¤t·r+ ¤¤=t +ra ¤¤rtªra +z= +r ¤ros :t=rar s 1 :·¤
= ¤¸:·r -¤ a·rr t+z ¤¸: ·r-¤ = ¤rt’«+ + t«+r= +¤ +t ¤«t·a t:=rrs =st : at1
z. ¤t-a (or«) = ¤rta +r t=·¤-= +ar¤r ¬rar s 1 ¤t-a-·rr·rr ¤·rr a or« +t ·rr·rr 1 s=
·¤ ·¤t·a ¤ ·rt +te=rs¤r s 1 º+ ar ¤s t+ tz·« ·¤ ¬= ¤ º+ ·¤ ¬= -a +r ar¤ ¤rz ¤¸«
=«z +r :t·r ·« ¤·r¤ ¤r+a +ra +t ¤«t·a + ¤=+¸a =st s :¸=zt ¤s t+ =r¤r-¤a· s=
t=·rta ¤ s=« =«z +r :t·rt+zªr sr=r ¤rtsº ·rr1 ¤rta ¤ s=« =«z s 1
a. ¤r+a  ¤r+e  ¤r¤s  ¤r¤a  ¤ra  ¤rta
¤s =«= ¤tz«a= ·rt t«+r= +¤ +t ¤«t·a + ¤==-r =st s 1
=. º+ t«zr= = ¤reta¤> rr-: = ¤rta +r ·¤ ·¤-= +z= +r ¤¤r= t+¤r s 1 s=+r +·r= s
t+ ot+ ¤ ¤reta¤> +r ¤rta+r·r +sa s 1 t«:trr¤r zrzr t+=t ‘r-: + s·¤rzªr +r
·rrzat¤ ·rr‛rr +r ¤t·r·rr= ¤r==r =oa =st s 1
s. º+ t«zr= = ¤rta +r =-+-·r ¤¤r¤` rr-: = ¬rsr s -
¤¤r¤  ¤tz¤r¤  ¤ta¤r¤  ¤rta
¤r¤t= +rz =rts·¤ ¤ + z + s¤:rr + taº ¤¤r¤ rr-: +r ¤¤ro srar ·rr s=taº ¤¤r¤ =
¤rta +r t=·¤-= +ar¤r o¤r s 1 º+ ¤a ¤s ·rt s t+ ¤ra` ·rra = ¤rta rr-: +=r s
t¬=+r ¤·r ¤ra= +z=r ¤r ztrr +z=r s 1 t¬= ·rr·rr + zrzr +z + «¤=r +t ztrr s s
«s ¤rta s 1 «r=a« ¤ ¤rta +r =-+-·r +:·r «¤=r / +r:·r =rts·¤ = st s s= +rzªr
¤t-a¤ :r ¤a ¤¤trr+ a ¤t·r+ =oa s 1
¤rta t+= =·rr= +t ·rr‛rr ·rt - s= =-+·r ¤ ·rt ¤a t·r-=ar s1 nta+r + +r:·r t·rtr¤r
= s= ¤o·r tr> +t ·rr‛rr ¤r=r s t+-a ¤rta +r ¤ro·rt ¤r+a = ·rrt‛r+ =z¤=roa =-+-·r
=st s s= +rzªr ¤s ¤o·r tr> +t ·rr‛rr =st sr =+at1
==+a + ¤·rr‛r =·r‛rt ·¤ ¬= ( =‛¤ ) = ‘r ‚r ¤ = ¤ro·rt ¤ ‘r +r a·rr ¤z¤ro·rt
º« ‘rrz= =t ¤ = +r ¤¤ro srar s1 ¤rta ¤ +«a = +r st ¤¤r o srar s 1 s= +rzªr
¤rta +r ¤r·rrz ¤ro·rt ar sr st =st =+ar1 s=+r ¤¸a ¤r·rrz ¤z¤ro·rt º« / ¤·r«r
‘rrz= =t st sr =+ar s 1 s= =-+·r ¤ ¤ro t«¤rz t+¤r ¬rºor1 ¤sa ==+a = ¤rta +
·r:+ ¤-azr +r ¬r==r ¤r«’¤+ s 1 ¤ t=-= s -
) ==+a a+ º ` ¤r ` º ` ¤r ` =-·¤trz ·r ¤·rr a ¤ - s  º / ¤ -s  ¤r
/ ¤r - s  º / ¤r - s  ¤r1 ( =-·¤trz ¾ :r =«z t¤a+z ¬+ º+ ¤trz +r t=¤rªr
+z ) ( :- - sr- ¤sr«tz =z= ¬= · ¤tzt=t‛ea ts-:t +r ·«t=ort¤+ ¤·¤¤= -r - ).s -
)az )1 ¤rta ¤ º º« ¤r + =·rr= ¤z º º« ¤r +r ¤¤r o sr = aor1 ¤¤ ` º« ¤« ` +
=·rr= ¤z ·rt º º« ¤r +r ¤¤ro sr= aor1 ·¤ ¬= o·c + ¤¸« º º« ¤r +r s=« s·¤rzªr
sr= aor1 s= ¤+rz ¤rta ¤ º º« ¤r + s=« º« :t·r :r=r ¤+rz + s·¤rzªr t«+t=a sr
oº1
z ¤r¤t= ·rrzat¤ ¤r¤ ·rr‛rr¤r ¤ ¤ ¤ +a = º« a +r ar¤ sr o¤r1
a ·¤ ¬= o·c ¤ º+ ·¤ ¬= +r ar¤ a·rr ¤-¤ ·¤ ¬= +r =¤t+zªr ¤rta º« ¤r+ a ·rr‛rr¤r
+r ¤s·«¤¸ªr ·r:+ atrªr s 1 +st ¤¸« ·¤ ¬= +r ar¤ sr+z +r: + ·¤ ¬= +r =¤t+zªr a·rr
+st +r: + ·¤ ¬= +r ar¤ sr+z ¤¸« ·¤ ¬= +r =¤t+zªr1 :r =r ¤+rz + s:rszªr : =r -
=-a  =·a / ‘r-:  =:: / ++  +++ / =«  =--r / t=-=  t=-=
a·=  a·o / a+  a++ / ‘r+a  = ++ / ‘r+¤  =++ / ¤’«  ¤==
= rr-:-=¤r ¤ ·¤¬=r-a =¤r +r ¤·rr« sr o¤r 1 rr-: ==«z += oº1
s tz«¤= +r ar¤ sr o¤r1 ¤ro ·rt s= «¤= +r ¤¤ro sr =r +-: sr o¤r1
c ¤¸« ¤ ¤ta¤rt:a t+¤r ¬r ¤ +r s t+ «t:+ ·rr‛rr ¤ =¤-z¤=r ¤ ¤t·r+ t«t«·rar ¤rz
¬teaar s 1 s:rszªrr·r ¤·r¤ t«·rt+a + +s «¤= ¤ :« rr-: + :«r· ¤rz :«r=· :r=r =¤
t¤aa s 1 s=t azs aat¤r + º+«¤= ¤ :«· ¤rz :«t·r· :r=r =¤ t¤aa s1 ==+ a ¤
¤r+z =-r ¤t·r+ ·¤«t=·ra sr oº ¤rz ¤¤«r:r a·rr ·r:r +t +¤t sr o¤t1 s:rszªrr·r
¤¸«r+a :r=r «+t-¤+ =¤ ce oº ¤rz º+-º+ =¤ (:«r· a·rr :«·) zs oº1 ¤oz s¤ ¤ra
s t+ ¤rta ¤ «t:+ ·rr‛rr + =¤r +r ¤¤ro t¤aar s 1
.. ¤r·¤= ¤: a-a¤r¤ s 1
¤rta +r ¤s·« +rz¤a +t st=¤r= rrr=rr + =rts·¤ + ¤r·¤¤ + =¤ ¤ +s a ¤t·r+ s 1
¤rrr+ + ¤t·ra =rr +r ·rt º tasrt=+ ¤s·« t=t««r: s 1 ¤rrr+ + ¤t·ra=rr + ¤·¤¤= =
=¤·e nra srar s t+ ¤rta ¤ ·rt =·rr= ·r: = ·r: sr oº ·r1 ¤r¡ ¤ ¤+rz + ·r: t:=rrs
¤sa s -¤tr¤¤t s·az-¤tr¤¤t ¤·¤:rrt¤ ¤¸«t ¤rz :ttrªrt 1 ( :- sr- =+¤rz == ·
a a=r·¤+ ¤rta - ¤r+ a - ¤¤·r’r ·¤r+zªr ¤- )c - z) ar+ ·rrzat ¤+r’r= sarsr+r:
)scs )
t«zr=r º« ‘rr·r+r +r s= +ra +t ·rr‛rr + =«=¤ ·rr‛rr +r =r¤+zªr º« ·rr‛rr + +ra
¤rt: + =-+-·r ¤ =º e o = t«¤rz +z=r ¤rtsº1 s=+ =-+-·r ¤ ¤=t«¤rz ¤r«’¤+ s 1 ¤s
º tasrt=+ a·¤ s t+ cee s=«t ¤¸« = a+z see s=«t ¤¸« +t +ra ¤«t·r ¤ ¬= ·r¤ +
¤r+t=« at·r +z ¤sr«tz º« +r:·r ·r¤ + ==·rr¤+ +:·r = ¤o·r t«:s «·=:’r +ªrra
¤o:’r +r’rt ¤r¤ra +r’ra ‘r¸z= = :’rrªr ¤rt: zr-¤r º« ¬=¤:r ¤ ¤at:+ ·r¸¤ ·¸ r¤+z
s¤:’r / ¤«¤= t:º1 s¤¤+a «tªra zr-¤ º« ¬=¤:r +t ·rrorta+ t=·rta «a ¤r= ¤ =¤ra
:’r +r ·r¸·rro a·rr ·rrza + t+srz mrz=rs s·az¤:’r t:-at stz¤rªrr ¤·¤¤:’r º«
c·at=oe ¤rt: zr-¤r +r ·r¸·rro s 1 zr¬=ta+ :t‛e = s= +ra ¤ :r ¤+rz +t ‘rr==
·¤«=·rr¤ ·rt1 ¤o·r ¤ zr¬a >r·¤+ ‘rr== ·¤«=·rr ·rt1 -r-a tat·c«t +r’rt +r’ra ¤rt:
)a oªrzr-¤r = t¤a+z ¤sr= ·r +=r¤r ·rr ¬r ¤¤trr+a ¤t·r+ ‘rt+a’rrat ·rr a·rr s=
¤sr=·r +r ¤ =¤ra¤ «’rrat ` ¤ t=·ra ·rr1 s= ¤sr=·r +t =-¤+ ·rr‛rr +r ¤-azr-¤
·¤«srz + taº ¤¤ro srar sror a·rr ·rrza + +s ·r¸·rro + t=«rt=¤r + =rotz+ s=
=¤ma sr o 1 s= +rzªr t«zr=r º« ‘rr·r+r +r s= +ra +t ·rr‛rr +r +ra see s- ¤¸- =
= ¤r=+z cee s- ¤¸- = ¤r==r ¤rtsº1 ·rr‛rr +r ¤t·r·rr= ¤rta ` +t ¤¤ trr ¤sr«tz º«
+:·r + s¤:’rr +t ·rr‛rr ` +z=r ¤rtsº1 :r =r = º+ st +ra ¤ a·rr º+ = ·r¸·rror ¤
s¤:’r/ ¤«¤= t:º ·r º+ ·rr‛rr +r ·¤«srz t+¤r ·rr1 (s:rszªrr·r :- - ·ro«r= ¤sr«tz
+t «rªrt- ¤-¤r +·ar t«+·ar ¤ `1 ora¤ + :·r +t «rªrt - ¤·ar st ¤·a=r =r·rr ` )1
¤·rt a+ s= +ra +t ·rr‛rr +r ¤·¤¤= +«a +:·r «¤=r + ¤r·rrz ¤z s ¤r s ¤rta `
+ ¤r·rrz ¤z s¤r s1 t«zr=r +r :r=r + s¤:’rr +t ·rr‛rr + os= ¤·¤¤= +za s º
a:=-az ¤’rr+ + t’rara=rr ( zce s- ¤¸ - = zaz s- ¤¸- ) ¤ ¤r-a ·rrt‛r+ t·r-=ar¤r +r
os= ¤·¤¤= =-¤-= +z=r ¤rtsº a·rr ¤s ·rt =t=t’¤a +z=r ¤rtsº t+ ¤r-a ·rrt‛r+
t·r-=arº¡ ts-:t + oar ¤zret ¤rt: t·r-= t·r-= ·rr‛rr¤r +t ·rr¡ta s ¤·r«r ts-:t +a+ta¤r/
+ra+rta¤r ts-:t +-+s¤r/ ¤ +s¤r ts-:t +t ·rr¡ta s 1

(=r) tzat¤ ¤r+a (se == + ¤rz-·r = see se a+)- =rtst·¤+ ¤r+a -


¤r+a t«t·r-= ar+-·rr‛rrº¡ ·rt «rt¤+ ·rr·rrº¡ ·rt 1 ¤r¬ s-s ¬r== +r ¤r·rrz s=+r
=rtst·¤+ =¤ st s1 ¤ r+ar +t ==¤r +r a +z ¤¤r-a ¤a·r: s 1 ¤z-¤zroa :t‛e = s=+
t=-=tat=ra ·r: ¤r= ¬ra s· ¤srzr·et (t«:·r ¤srzr·e) / rrrz==t (=¸ z==- ¤·rzr +
¤r=-¤r=) / ¤ro·rt (¤o·r) /¤z¤ro·rt (+rrra) /¤rrr¤t (t=-·r)1
«=aa· ¤r+ar +t ==¤r t=·rrtza +z=r +te= s +¤rt+ « t«t·r-= ¬=¤:r +t ar+ ·rr·rrº¡
·rt 1 s=taº t¬a=t ar+-·rr·rrº¡ zst sr ot sa=t st ¤r+ a ·rt ¤r==r ¤rtsº 1 t+-a s=
ar+ ¤r+ar +r ¬r== +r +rs =r·r= =st s 1 ¤r ¤r·rrzt ¤r«-at orst e++t rrr+zt
¤rªsrat ¤rt: ¤=+ =r¤ ¤>-a> ¤r¤ ¬ra s 1¤r+ a ·rr·rr¤r +r nr= ¤=¤a· ==+a
=re+r ¤rz ¬= =rts·¤ ¤z ¤r·rrtza s 1 t«t·r-= t«zr=r = s= ¤r+ar +r ¤·¤¤= t+¤r s 1
¼:=r - R. Pischel's Grammatik der Prakritsprachen : Strasburg, 1900/ R. Pischel's Grammar of
the Prakrit Languages: New York, Motilal Books, 1999/ H. Jacobi's Ausgewahlte Erzahlungen in
Mdhardshtri zur Einfiihrung in das Studium des Prakrit, Grammatik, Text, Worterbuch : Leipzig,
1886/ E. B. Cowell's of Vararuci's Prakrta-prakasa : London, 1868/ E. Hultzsch's of S
irhharaja's Prakrtarupavatara : London, 1909/ Rajacekhara's Karpuramanjari, edited by S.
Konow, translated by C. R. Lanman : Cambridge, Mass., 1901 / Banerjee, Satya Ranjan. The
Eastern School of of Prakrit Grammarians - a linguistic study :Calcutta, Vidyasagar Pustak
Mandir, 1977/ Woolner, Alfred C. Introduction to Prakrit:Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass, India,
1999½
s=+r =rz t=-= s ·
¤srzr·et-
+r·¤r +t ·rr·rr ¤srzr·et s 1 +c t«zr= ¤srzr·et +r rrr z==t +r st t«+t=a =¤ ¤r=a
s 1 ( Dr. Man Mohan Ghosh : “ Maharāşţrī : A late phase of Shaurasenī ” Journal of
the Department of Letters of Calcutta University, Vol.ⅩⅩⅩⅡ, 1933 ½.
t«rr·rarº¡ --
). ¤srzr·et ¤r+a +t s-a =r=t¤ t«rr·rar s- =«z +s aar1 =«z +rs -¤ sr= + +rzªr +r·¤ ¤
=otar·¤+ar +r oªr ¤r ¬rar s 1
z. :r =«zr + ¤·¤«at ¤-¤¤rªr =¤’r ·¤ ¬= +r ar¤ sr ¬rar s 1 ar+r  ar¤r/ tz¤  tz=
a. =«z ¤·¤ ¤sr¤rªr ·¤ ¬=r +r ar¤ sr+z +«a s ` zs ¬rar s1 ¤ ·r  ¤sr/ rrr=rr  rrrsr
=. =«z ¤·¤ =·¤ ·¤ ¬=r -rr ·r = - +r s ` sr ¬rar s1 :rr  :s / ¤r‛rrªr  ¤rsrªr 1
s ¤¤r:r= º+«¤= ¤ - ¤rs t«·rt+a ¤ ·¤¤ +r ¤¤ro ¤t·r+ srar s 1
c ¤t·r+zªr º+«¤= + =¤r +t t=t:·r - º / - t-¤ = sr at s 1 s:rszªrr·r ==+ a +
ar+t=¤= + =-r - ar º / ar¤t-¤ t¤aa s1

rrrz==t-
rrrz==t ¤·¤:rr +t ·rr·rr ·rt ¤rz s=+r +-: ¤·rzr + ¤r= ¤r= ·rr1¤srzr·et +r ¤¤ro
¤t: ¤¤ ¤ s ¤r s ar rrrz==t +r o¤ ¤ 1 s=+r ¤¤ro = =+a =re+r ¤ =>t ¤r>r º«
t«:¸‛r+ + =-·rr·rªrr ¤ s ¤r s 1
t«rr·rarº¡-
) rrrz==t ¤ :r =«zr + ¤·¤ ==+a + ¤·rr‛r -a º« - ·r =·rr‛r sr ¬ra s ¤·rr a a  :
¤rz :  ·r sr ¬ra s 1 ·r«ta  srt: 1
z . tr  +=r 1 ¤tr  ¤+=r / str  s+=r/ +ttr  +t+=r 1
a ¤` ¤ ·¤¤ +r s ¤` sr ¬rar s 1 ¤·rr = =+a o-¤a ` +r =-r o¤t¤t:` sr ¬rar s1
-rro·rt -
¬=r =r¤ = =¤·e s ¤ro·rt ¤o·r +t ·rr·rr ·rt1 =re+r ¤ s=+r ¤¤ro t=-= nªrt + ¤r>r +
=-·rr‛rªrr + taº t+¤r o¤r s 1 ¤srzr·et ¤rz rrrz==t +t a a=r ¤ ¤ro·rt +r ¤¤ro +s a
+¤ s ¤r s1
t«rr·rarº¡-
) ¤ro·rt ¤ -z` +r ¤·rr« s 1 z ` +r a` sr ¬rar s1 ¤ =·r·  ¤tarr /=¤z 
‘r¤a
z = ` ‚r` + =·rr= ¤z ‘r ` +r ¤ ¤ro s=+t ¤·rr= t«‛r’rar s1 =-a  ‘r·a
a ¬ ` + =·rr= ¤z ¤` +r ¤ ¤ro srar s 1 ¬r=rta  ¤rªrrt: / ¬r=¤:  ¤ªr¤:1
= :¤ z¬ z¤ + =·rr= ¤z ¤¤` +r ¤ ¤ro sr ar s1 ¤¤  ¤¤ ¤/ ¤¬ =  ¤¤ ¤ªr
/ ¤r¤  ¤¤ ¤ / +r¤  +¤¤
s +ar +rz+ º+«¤= ¤ ¤r¤· ¤· ` + +:a º ` ¤r¤r ¬rar s 1 =·  ‘r
¤z¤ro·rt-
¤z¤ro·rt +t t=·rta ¤ro·rt ¤rz rrrz= =t ¤r+ar + +t¤ ¤r=t os s 1 s=taº s=¤
+c-+c :r=r +t t«rr·rarº ¤r¤t ¬rat s 1( :- ¤r+ªs¤ - ¤r+a =«=«¤- )z -aa)
¤z¤ro·rt +r ¤s·« ¬= =rts·¤ + +rzªr ¤t·r+ s1
t«rr·rarº¡-
). z ` º« a` :r=r +r ¤¤r o sr ar s1
z :-·¤ +r ¤¸·r-¤ sr ¬r=r 1 t=·ra  te¤
a ‘r ‚r = ¤ +«a = +r ¤¤ro srar s 1
= ¤=+ =·rr=r ¤z =¤rr ·¤ ¬=r +r ar¤ sr= ¤z ¤` nta +r ¤ro¤ sr ¬rar s 1 =roz
 =r¤z / + a  +¤ 1 o` ·¤ ¬= +r =r¤r-¤a· ar¤ =st srar1
s +ar +rz+ º+ «¤= + =¤r +t t=t: ·r ¤ro·rt + =¤r= º+rzr-a a·rr ‘rrz==t +
=r¤r= ¤r+rzr-a :r=r ¤ +rz = sr at s 1
¤rrr¤t-
¤rrr¤t ·rrza + s·az ¤tr¤¤ ¤ +rat ¬rat ·rt 1 oªrre¤ = ¤rrr¤t ¤ ¤¤=t ¤t=z ¤=a+
«s·+·rr`( +ss+sr ) ta=rt ·rt t¬=+t s·az«at +t«¤r = ¤ +a+e = ¤rr=r +t s 1 ¤+
s=+r ¤rrr¤t ¤re s¤a-·r =st s 1 ¤r+a + «¤r+zªrr = ¤’rr¤t +t ¤¤=r t«‛r’rarº¡ t=-=
+aars s ·
). =·rr·r ·¤ ¬= +r ¤·rr·rt+zªr1 oo=  o+= / zr¬r  zr¤r / ¤:=  ¤a= 1
z =«z ¤·¤ + o ¤ ¤rt: =¤’r ·¤¬=r +r ar¤ = sr=r1
a. z º« a ·¤ ¬=r +r t«¤¤r= sr=r1¤·rr a z + =·rr= ¤z a ¤r z a + =·rr= ¤z z
sr=r1 +¤rz  +¤ra / =t·rz  at·rz 1
=. ·r + =·rr= ¤z +st rr a·rr +st = +r sr =r1 ta·eta  t¤rat: / t«·r¤  t«=¤ 1
s n  »»r 1 ¤ nr  ¤»»rr 1
- r=r+ = ¤-¤> t«=arz = =¤‛e t+¤r s t+ ¤r+a +ra` ¤ ·rr‛rr ·r: ¤r¬ +t ¤¤ trr +s a
¤t·r+ zs sr o ¤oz s¤a-·r t¬= ¤r+ar +r t·r-= :’r ·rr‛rr¤r = ¤t·rtsa t+¤r ¬rar s «
¤ao ¤ao ·rr‛rrº¡ = sr+z º+ st ¤r+ a ·rr‛rr + a·+rat= :’r ·rr‛rr¤r = zt¬a =-r s 1¼
:- Dr. Mahavir Saran Jain : “The Influences of the `Prakrit` and `Apabhransha`
Languages on the Modern Indo-Aryan Languages” In Jaina : Philosophy, Art and
Science in Indian Culture (Set in 2.Volumes) edited by D.C. Jain and R.K. Sharma.
- www. sundeepbooks.com/servlet/sugetbiblio?bno=000302½

(o) aat¤ ¤r+a (see se = )eee se a+ )- ¤¤·rrr-
¤¤·rrr rr-: +r ¤¤ro =«¤·r¤ ¤sr·rr·¤ ¤ t¤aar s 1 s=+ +r: ·rr¤s :ªst ¤rt: = +r·¤
·rr·rr¤r +t ¤¤r + ¤=o ¤ ¤¤·rrr +r s-a =r t+¤r s 1 ¤r+ªs ¤ = =roz +r¤s ¤rz
s¤=roz- at= ¤¤·rrrr +t ¤¤r +t s 1 s=¤ =roz +t o ¬zra ¤ + r¤s +t t=-·r ¤ ¤rz
s¤=roz +t :r=r + +t¤ ¤ t=·rta +ar¤t o¤t s 1 =¤·e s t+ ¤r+ªs ¤ = +«a ¤tr¤¤ +
=tt¤a ·r¸-·rro + ¤¤·r rrr +t st ¤¤r +t s 1 s=+ =¤r=r-az ·rrza + ¤-¤ ·rror ¤ ·rt
t+=t = t+=t ¤¤·rrr +r ·¤«srz srar sror s=¤ =-: s =st 1 s= +ra ¤ ·rt s¤ :r=r
t=·rta¤r¡ t¤aat s 1 º+ az+ =-¤+ ·rr‛rr + =-r ¤ ‘rrz= =t ¤¤·r’r +r ·¤«srz srar ·rr ar
:¸=zt az+ t·r-= t·r-= :’r ¤¤·r’rr +r ¤a= ·rr1 ‘rrz= =t +t ¤-azr ¬t¤ ·¤«srz +t t=·rta
+ +rz ¤ sr- +r+¸ zr¤ =+= =r + t«¤rz s · ¤st ( ‘rr z==t ¤¤·r’r ) ·rrza«‛r ·rz ¤ -
+¤r ¤·¤:’r +¤r ¤o·r ¤rz t¤t·rar ¤rz +¤r o¬zra ¤rz ¤srzr‛e =+ +st - =rts·¤ +r
¤r·¤¤ +=r s ¤r ·rr ¤r z ¬=ar + ¤z=¤z ¤ a· ¤r-at¤ ·¤«srz +r =r·r= ·rr ` ( ¤·¤:’r +r
·rr‛rr t«+r= ¤- zs - =rozt ¤¤rtzªrt ¤t>+r «‛r se ¤+ ) - z =- zeez ( == )s=s
))1 ¤¤·r ’r + ·r:r +t :t‛e = ¤r+ªs¤ = ¤r+a =«=«` ¤ =¸t¤ ·r: ·¤«t=·ra ¤+zªr +
¤-ao a ¤¤·r’r + t¬= z. ·r:r +r =r¤r-a =r t+¤r s s== ¤¤·r’r + ·r:r + =-+-·r ¤
=+a t¤aar s 1 ( ) + r¤s z are a «:·r = s¤=roz s =roz c ««z . ¤r«-·¤ a
¤¤ra s e+ )e ¤ra« )) ++¤ )z ors )a ¤rs )= s« )s ¤r’¤r··r )c ¤rªs¤ ).
+-aa )a = sat )s +tao ze ¤r·¤ z) +=re zz +r·¤ za :t«s z= or¬z zs 
‘r¤a ¤r·rtz zc ¤·¤: ’rt¤ z. «ara )
s= z. =r¤r +r s-a =r +z= + +r: ·rt ¤r+ªs¤ +r =ar‛r =st s ¤r1 s-sr = ¤ro +sr t+
t«·rr‛rr + ·r:r +t :t‛e = ar ¤¤·r’r + s-rrzr ·r: t+º ¬r =+a s1
s= t«t·r-= ¤¤·rrrr = st ¤r·rt=+ ·rrzat¤ ¤r¤ ·rr·rr¤r +r s:·r« s ¤r s 1 s= ¤+rz
= ¤¤·rrr ¤r+ ar ¤r z ¤r·rt=+ ·rrzat¤ ·rr·rr¤r + +t¤ +t =¤r¬+ +st s1
¤¤·rrr +t t«rr·rarº¡-
). ¤¤·rrr a+ ¤s ¡¤a ¤s ¡ ¤a ==+a +t ¤r or·¤+ar + t=¤¤r + e¸e= + t=’rr= t:=rrs :=
aoa s 1 sr- stzrara ¬= = ==+a +t ¤ror·¤+ar = ts-:t +t ¤¤ror·¤+ar +t t«+r=
¤r>r +r º+ s:rszªr zrzr s= ¤+rz =¤‛e t+¤r s · s= ¤+rz zr¤· oa· «= ` ( ==+a
) = zr¤r o¤r «ªr` ( ¤r+a ) +=+z ¤¤·r ’r ¤ zr¤ o¤s «ªr` ¤rz ts-:t ¤ zr¤ o¤r
«=` o¤r1 ( sr- stzrara ¬= · z¤=r ¤rz ¤ =z¤=r ¤- =e - =) sr- ·rt¤zr« ¤-+:+z
t«’«t«:¤ra¤ ¤rozr =«-+z zeez )
z. ¤r+a +t ·«t=¤r ¤¤·r rr ¤ ·rt = zttra s1
a. tz·« ·¤ ¬=r ¤ = º+ +r ar¤ ¤rz ¤¸««at ¤trz ¤ trta¤¸ z+ :t·rt+zªr sr ¬rar s 1 =e
a=¤ ¤re a==  ¤e ar=
= ¤¤·r’r ¤ +«a at= +rz+ - =¤¸s zs oº - ( ) ) +ar - +¤ - =-+r·r= (z ) +zªr -
¤t·r+zªr ( a ) =-¤:r= º« =-+·r ¤ ¤sa º+=¤ar ¤rs 1 +r: ¤ ¤¤r:r= +r ·rt s=¤
=¤r«’r sr o¤r1 s= ¤ +rz t+¤r + +ra-=¤r ¤ ¬r t«t«·rar ·rt «s +sa +¤ sr o¤t1
s +rz+t¤ ¤·r +r =¤‛e +z= + taº t«·rt+a¤ +a ¤: + +r: ¤z=o ¬ = ‘r-:r +r ¤ ¤r o sr=
aor1 =-+·r +rz+ + taº - +z +z¤ +zt atªrs ¤t·r+zªr +rz+ + taº - ¤rm
¤t-m s-¤tz =-¤:r= +rz+ + taº - +ts aªr a·rr ¤¤r:r= +rz+ + taº - sr-as +r
¤t·r+ ¤¤ro s¤r s 1
c t+¤r +t z¤=r +:-a =¤r = ·rt sr = aot1 +ra z¤=r +t ¬teaar +¤ sr o¤t 1
. =«=r¤r + =¤r ¤ ¤tz«a = sr o¤r1 s:rszªr + taº s·a¤ ¤- º- «-+ar +r- + taº
- ss +r ¤¤r o ¤t·r+ s ¤r s 1
a ¤¤·r’r ¤ :’rt ·rra ¤r º« ‘r-:r= +zªr ¤¸a+ ·rra¤r +r ¤¤ro ·rt t¤aar s1
s ¤¤·r’r ¤ :’rt ‘r-:r«at + =r·r =r·r ¤r·rt=+ ·rrzat¤ ¤r¤ ·rr‛rr¤r + s:o¤ =¸¤+
‘r-:r º« ¤ sr«zr +r ·rt ¤¤r o t¤aar s1
)e «a ¤r= +rta+ +:-ar + s:rszªrr ¤ ¤t-a o - s-m a t=¤ a +z a a·rr =>ttao -
s·arzta :‛e·¤ s 1
)) ·r¸a+rta+ z¤=r +:-ar = st ¤t·r+ sr at s 1 s:rszªr - ¤t+=r¤ ¤«ars¤ +ts¤
orta¤ ·rt+=r¤1
)z t+¤r¤r ¤ ¤r·¤=¤: ¤z=¤¤: º« ·«rt: ¤rt: +r +rs ·r: =st zsr1 tz«¤= +r ar ¤rta
¤ st ar¤ sr o¤r ·rr1 tz«¤= +r +r ·r +zr= + taº «` t«` ‘r-:r +r ¤¤ro t¤aar s 1

(o) ¤r·rt=+ ·rrzat¤ ¤r¤ -·rr·rr
¤r·rt=+ ·rrzat¤ ¤r¤ -·rr·rr¤r +r t«+r= ¤¤·rrr = s ¤r s 1 s= =-+-·r ¤ a =r+ =
¤¤·r ’r = ts-:t` a·rr ¤r+a º« ¤¤·r’r +r ¤r·rt=+ ·rrzat¤ ¤r¤ ·rr‛rr¤r ¤z ¤·rr«`
‘rt‛r+ ¤ra=rr ¤ t«=arz = t«¤rz t+¤r s1
¤r·rt=+ ·rrzat¤ ¤r¤ ·rr·rr¤r +t =r¤r-¤ t«rr·rarº¡-
). ¤r·rt=+ ·rrzat¤ ¤r¤-·rr·rrº¡ ao·ro ¤¸ªra· ¤¤r·rr·¤+ sr os s 1
z. ·«t=¤r ¤ ¤=+ ¤tz«a= sr o¤ s t+z ·rt tat¤ ¤ ¤z-¤zr +r ¤ra= t+¤r ¬r zsr s1
s:rszªrr·r ·r +r ==+ a + =¤r= ¤¸ z-¤ =·rr= = s·¤rzªr =st sr ar t+-a ta=r= ¤ ¤¤ro
srar s 1 ¤ + =r o ¬ + ¤=+ t«:rrt ·«t=¤r +r ·rt ·rr‛rr¤r ¤ ¤«’r sr o¤r s1
s=+r ¤¤ro trrttra «o t«’r‛r + zrzr srar s 1 s=+r ¤r·rt=+ ·rr‛rr¤r ¤ =«t=t¤+ ¤s·« +
¤:: ¤z t«zr=r ¤ ¤a·r : s1
a. ¤¤·rrr + =¤r= tz·« ·¤ ¬= + =·rr= ¤z º+ +r ar¤ ¤rz ¤¸««at ¤trz +t :t·r ar
¤sr ·rt ¤r¤t ¬rat s 1 s:rszªrr·r · +¤  +-¤  +r¤ /t=:r  tªr::r  =t:/ =-a =·a 
=ra / ¤¤  ¤-¬  ¤r¬
=. ¤¤·rrr +t ¤¤trr ·rre¤re·rre ¤ t«·rt+a =¤r +t ==¤r ¤ +¤t ¤r os s 1 +rz+t¤ ¤·r +
taº = nr t«·rt+a=-rr + +r: ¤z=ot¤ ‘r-:/ ‘r-:r’rr +r ¤¤ro srar s 1 = nr t«·rt+a rr-:r
+ ¤r¤ :r =¤ ¤r¤ ¬ra s - ¤t«+rzt º« t«+rzt 1
s. +«a ¤zret ¤r z o¬zrat ¤ at= tao s 1 rr·r ·rr·rr¤r ¤ :r st tao s 1
c. ¤r·rt=+ ·rrzat¤ ¤r¤ ·rr·rr +ra +t º+ ¤s·«¤¸ªr t«rr·rar ¤s s t+ ¤o¬t ¤z+t ¤rz
+rz=t + +sa =rz rr-: ·rrzat¤ ·rr·rr¤r ¤ ¤t«·e sr o¤ s 1 ¤¤·rrr-+ra a+ rr-: ·rªsrz
:rrt ·rr1
¤¤·rrr = ¤r·rt=+ ·rrzat¤ ¤r¤ ·rr·rr¤r +r t«+r= ¤z-¤zr = t=-=tat=ra =¤ ¤ ¤r=r
¬rar s -
¤ro·rt  t+srzt ts-:t ( ¤t·rat ¤ro·rt ·rr-r¤zt ) / +oar sts ¤r ¤=t¤¤r
¤z¤ro·rt  ¤¸«t ts-:t (¤«·rt +·rat c·at=oet )
rrrz==t  ¤tr¤¤t ts-:t (+¬·rr·rr =rst +rat +ro= +--rr¬t +:at) / zr¬=·rr=t ts-:t
(¤«rat ¤rz«rst ¤ra«t ¬¤¤zt) / o¬zrat
-rsrzr‛et  ¤zret +r +ªrt
‘rrz==t ¤·rrt«a er++t  ¤¸«t ¤¬r+t
«r¤s  t=-·rt
¤’rr¤t  +r’¤tzt
s¤¤+a t««zªr ¤¸ªr º« «nrt=+ =st s 1 ¬r t««zªr ¤=a a s « ¤¤·r’r +ra + tat=ra
=rtst·¤+ ·rr‛rr =-r = ¤r·rt=+ +ra + +ra ¬r= «ra t«t·r-= ·rrt‛r+ =¤r + t«+r= +
¤art++ ¤¤r= s 1 =tr¤ ¤ s¤ ¤s :rszr=r ¤rs o t+ ·rrzat¤ ¤r¤ ·rr‛rr¤r + tr> ` ¤
¤¤·r’r +ra ¤ ·rt t«t«·r +ra¤ra + =-rr +r ·¤«srz sr ar sr or1¤¤·r’r +ra + s-st
t«t«·r +ra¤ra + =¤r = ¤r·rt=+ ·rrzat¤ ·rr‛rr¤r + t«t«·r +ra¤ra + =¤r +r s:·r«
s ¤r ¤oz ¤¤·r’r +ra + t«t«·r +ra¤ra + =¤r = =-+t-·ra =r¤o t s¤ ¤r¬ s¤a-·r =st
s 1·rr‛rrt«nr= +r ¤·¤+ t«:¤r·rt ¬r=ar s t+ ¤·¤+ ·rr‛rr tr>` ¤ ¤=+ tr>oa t·r-=arº¡
srat s t¬-s s= ·rr‛rr +t tr>t¤ +rta¤r / tr>t¤ s¤·rr‛rr¤r + =r¤ = ¬r=r ¬rar s 1
sa=r nr= ar =r¤r-¤ ·¤t+a +r ·rt srar s t+ ¤rz +r= ¤z +:a ¤r=t ¤re +r= ¤z
+r=t`1 ·rr‛rrt«nr= +r ¤·¤+ t«:¤r·rt ¤s ·rt ¬r=ar s t+ ¤·¤ + ·rr‛rr tr>` ¤ º+ ¤r=+
·rr‛rr =-r ·rt srar s t¬=+r s= ·rr‛rr tr> + =·rt t’rttra ·¤t+a ¤r¤¤rtz+ ¤«=zr ¤z
¤¤ro +za s a·rr ¤st ¤r=+ ·rr‛rr =-r tat=ra ·rr‛rr +r ¤r·rrz srar s a·rr ¤st ¤r=+
=-r s= ·rr‛rr +t =rtst·¤+ ·rr‛rr` +r ·rt ¤r·rrz srar s 1¼ : =r - ¤r+ =z ¤sr«tz =z=
¬= : ·rr‛rr º« ·rr‛rrt«nr= ¤‛e s= - .e ar+ ·rrzat ¤ +r’r= sarsr+r: )sas ½

¤r·rt=+ ·rrzat¤ ¤r¤ ·rr·rr¤r +r «ot+zªr
sre =z ¬r¬ to¤== = ¤r·rt=+ ·rrzat¤ ¤r¤·rr·rr¤r +r «ot+zªr sre
sr=a + t=zr-a +r =¤·r= +za s º ¼ :=r -¤r+=z ¤sr«tz =z= ¬= +r ¤ra=r:
t«:’rt t«zr=r zrzr ts-:t +r ¤·¤¤= http://rachanakar.blogspot.com ½ t=-= ¤+rz =
t+¤r s -
(+) +rszt s¤rrr=rr
(¤) s·azt-¤tr¤¤t =¤:r¤
()) as¡:r ¤·r«r ¤tr¤¤t ¤¬r+t
(z) t=-·rt
(¤r) :ttrªrt-=¤:r¤
(a) ¤zret
(s) ¤¸«t =¤:r¤
(=) sts¤r
(s) t+srzt
(c) +oar
(.) ¤=t¤¤r
(=r) ¤·¤ s¤rrr=rr
(s) +t¤ +r =¤:r¤
(a) ¤¸«t-ts-:t
(o) ·rtazt s¤rrr=rr
(s) +-:t¤ ¤·r«r ·rtazt =¤:r¤
(s) ¤tr¤¤t ts-:t
()e) ¤¬r+t
())) o¬zrat
()z) ·rtat
()a) =rr=:rrt
()=) zr¬=·rr=t
(=) ¤srst =¤:r¤
()s) ¤¸«t ¤srst ¤·r«r =¤rat
()c) ¤·¤ ¤r +-:t¤ ¤srst
().) ¤tr¤¤t-¤srst

sre to¤== +r ¤s t«·rr¬= ¤+ ¤r-¤ =st s1 ¤t=z ·rr·rrrrr=>t sre ==tta+¤rz
¤re-¤r = sre to ¤== + s= ¤a +t ¤rar ¤=r ¤¤=t ¤=a+ ¤rtzt¬= ºªs s«a¤¤ªe
¤r+ + orat a ·«¬` + ¤tztrr·e º` + ¤·e )se = )sc ¤ +t s 1 s-sr = ·«t=-t«¤rz º«
¤:-t«¤rz :r=r st :t·e¤r = s= «ot+zªr = ¤=s¤ta ¤oe +t s 1 ¤sr :r=r t«zr=r +
¤ar ¤rz sre ==tta+ ¤rz ¤re-¤r zrzr sre to¤== + t«·rr¬= +t ¤rar¤=r¤r +r :=r
¤¤r=to+ s 1 =t¤ sre ¤re-¤r +r «ot+zªr t:¤r ¬r zsr s 1 º tasrt=+ t«+r= +¤ +t
:t·e = ¤s «ot+zªr ¤¤ trr+a ¤t·r+ ¤r-¤ s1
sre ==tta+ ¤rz ¤re-¤r +r «ot+zªr·
(+) s:t·¤ (s·azt)
()) t=-·rt
(z) as¡:r
(a) ¤¸«t-¤¬r+t

(=r) ¤at·¤ (¤tr¤¤t)
(=) o¬zrat
(s) zr¬=·rr=t

(o) ¤·¤:rrt¤
(c) ¤tr¤¤t ts-:t

(·r) ¤r·¤ (¤¸«t)
(.) (¤) +r=at ¤r ¤¸«t ts-:t
(¤r) ¤ro·rt ¤=¸ a
(a) t+srzt
(s) sts¤r
()e) +oar
())) ¤=¤t

(³) :ttrªrr·¤
()z) ¤zret

sre ==tta +¤rz ¤e¬t +r «ot+zªr sre to¤== + «ot+zªr +t ¤¤trr = oa s 1
·rrzat¤ ¤r¤ ·rr·rr¤r + ¤r·rt=+ =«=¤ + ¤tz¤t¤ ¤ º++rta+ :t·e = s=
«ot+zªr ¤ ·rt =rrr·r= ¤¤ttra s 1 sre ==tta +¤rz ¤e¬t + «ot +zªr ¤ ts-:t ·rr·rr +r
·rrorta+ t«=arz =-¤+ =¤ ¤ =st t:=rr¤r o¤r s 1 ¤·¤ :rrt¤ + ¤-ao a +«a ¤tr¤¤t
ts-:t +r z=rr o¤r s 1 ts-:t ·rr·rr - tr> + t«=arz +t =«t+ta º« ¤r-¤ar +r ·¤r= ¤
z=ra s º sre ·rtz-: «¤r = ¤r·rt=+ ·rrzat¤ ¤r¤ ·rr·rr¤r +r «ot+zªr s= ¤+rz ¤=aa
t+¤r s ·

(+)- s:t·¤ (s·azt)
)- t=·rt
z- as¡:r
a- ¤¬r+t
(=r)- ¤at·¤ (¤tr¤¤t)
=- o¬zrat
(o)- ¤·¤:rrt¤ (+t¤ +r)
s- zr¬=·rr=t
c- ¤tr¤¤t ts :t
.- ¤¸«t ts :t
a- t+srzt
s- ¤srst
(·r)- ¤r·¤ (¤¸«t)
)e- sts¤r
))- +orat
)z- ¤=¤t
(s) :ttrªrr·¤ (:ttrªrt)
)a- ¤zret

¤srst ·rr·rr¤r +r ¤¸ar·rrz ¤ e¬t ¤sr:¤ ¤rrr¤t :z: ¤r =r= +r ¤r=a s 1 +r: +r
¤·¤+ra ¤ ¤ zr¬=·rr= +t ¤r+a a·rr ¤¤·r rr ·rr·rr¤r = +sa ¤t·r+ ¤·rrt«a sr os ·rt (
sre ·rtz-: «¤r · ts-:t ·rr·rr +r stasr= ¤·e sa)1 s¤¤ +a ·rr·rr¤r + ¤tatz+a +s ¤-¤
·rr·rrº¡ ·rt ¤r·rt=+ ¤r¤ ·rr·rr¤r + ¤-ao a ¤tzotªra s 1 ·rrza + +rsz nta+r +t t=sat
º« ¤razt¤ +t t:«st a·rr ·rrza +t )ss) +t ¬=oªr=r + =:·r +r ·¤r= ¤ z=ra s º sre
·rtz-: «¤r zrzr ¤=aa «ot+zªr ¤ t+t¤a =rrr·r=/¤tz«z= +za s º ¤r·rt=+ ·rrzat¤ ¤r¤
·rr·rr¤r +r «ot+zªr t=-= ¤+rz ¤=a a t+¤r ¬r =+ar s·


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·rrzat¤ ¤r¤ ·rr”rr¤r ¤ ==+ a ¤r¤t= ·rrzat¤ ¤r¤ ·rr”rr +ra +t ·rr”rr s 1 ¤r¬ ·rt
==+a +r ·rrt¤+ º« =r=+ta+ +·¤r ¤ ¤ ¤ro srar s 1 t«’« +t =«r-=a º« n”ea¤
·rr”rr¤r ¤ ¤oªrt =·rr= ¤r= «rat ==+a ·rr”rr +r t«t’r”e ¤s·« s 1 s=t +rzªr s=+r
¤tzotªra ·rr”rr¤r ¤ =·rr= t:¤r o¤r s 1 ==+ a + ¤ar«r )= ¤r·rt=+ ·rrzat¤ ¤r¤ ·rr”rrº¡
¤tzotªra =¸¤t + ¤-aoa ¤rat s 1 ¤r·rt=+ ·rrzat¤ ¤r¤ ·rr”rr¤r ¤ ze ·rr”rr¤ ¤¤ =r s 1
¤r·rt=+ ·rrzat¤ ¤r¤ ·rr”rr¤r + +ra= «rar +r ¤ta’ra ·rrza +t ¬===¤r ¤ .s.ae%
s 1
s¤¤+a arta+r ¤ ts-:t º« s:¸ +r +r”e+ ¤ s= +rzªr z=rr o¤r s +¤r t+ ·rrt”r+ :t”e
= :r=r ¤ ·r: =st s1 ¼ :=r - ¤r+=z ¤sr«tz =z= ¬= · ts-:t - s:¸ +r ¤z a ==+ta ¼
¤:·r «rt”r+ ¤t>+r ½ ¤”e z) - ae ==+ta ¤>ra¤ ·rrza =z+rz =s t:-at zee. ½1
s=t ¤+rz arta+r ¤ ¤t·rat` +r s= +rzªr =st t:=rr¤r o¤r s +¤r t+ a =r+ = ¤-¤>
=¤”e t+¤r s t+ =rst +rat + ¤r·rrz ¤z ¤r=+ ts-:t +r t«+r= ¤«’¤ s ¤r s t+-a =rst
+rat st ts-:t =st s 1 ts-:t ·rr”rr tr>` + ¤-aoa t¬a= ·rrt”r+ =-r +ra ¬ra s s= =++t
=¤t”e +r =r¤ ts-:t s 1 ¼ :=r - ¤r+=z ¤sr«tz =z= ¬= · =¤ +a zr”e = ·r +t
¤rt·r+rtz+ ·rr”rrº¡ º« ts-:t oo=r¤a ¤”e =a - =c «”r za ¤+ = ·rrzat¤
=r=+ta+ =-+-·r ¤tz”r: =s t:-at ¤+e¸ +z - t:=-+z zees ½

¤r·rt=+ ·rrzat¤ ¤r¤ ·rr”rr¤r +r t««zªr ·


(+) ¤tzotªra -
+e
=e
·rr”rr +r =r¤ ·rr”rr + +ra=
«rar +t = =¤r
zr-¤ / zr-¤r + =r¤
). ¤=t¤¤r )ae.scsc ¤=¤
z. +oar cssss.aa ¤t’¤¤ +ora t>¤zr
a srozt eeeasca) ¬-¤¸-+’¤tz
= o¬zrat =ec.aa)= o¬zra
s ts-:t aa.z.z))= stz¤rªrr s·az ¤:’r s·azr=rªs
zr¬=·rr= ts¤r¤a ¤ :’r ¤·¤
¤:’r c·at=oe t+srz
mrz=rªs t:-at ¤ stoe
c +’¤tzt t««zªr ¤=¤a-·r ¬-¤¸-+’¤tz
. +r+ªrt e).cece. or«r
a ¤t·rat e..ccss. t+srz
s ¤zret cz=a)ca) ¤srzr”e or«r
)e =¤rat eze.cc=s t=t++¤ ¤=ªrr¤a ¤: ’r
)) sts¤r zaec)a)a sst=r
)z ¤¬r+t zaa.a.== ¤¬r+
)a t=-·rt ez)zza=a -
)= s:¸ =a=ecsaz -
)s ==+a eee=s.ac -
(=r) ¤¤tzotªra
)c ·rtat ss.zaea zr¬=·rr= ¤·¤ ¤:’r
). t«”ªrt¤¤r eesszaa ¤=¤
)a sa+t esa=a)a ¤·¤¤:’r
)s =rr=:’rt es.a.es ¤srzr”e o¬zra
ze as¡:r eez.aac -
z) ¤o ¬t(·rrzr¤t¤ ¤tz«rz
+t ¬¤ t=+ s¤ ¤tz«rz
+t ·rr”rr)


e).assa -

Ⅱ :t«s ¤tz«rz -
:t«s ‘r-: +t =r·r+ar a·rr s= ¤r-¤ar t+ ¤r¤ ¤tz«rz +t ·rr”rrº¡ s·az ·rrza ¤ º«
:t«s ¤tz«rz +t ·rr”rrº¡ :ttrªr ·rrza ¤ +rat ¬rat s - + =-+-·r ¤ ¤=z -t«¤rz ¤r«’¤+
s 1 ¤r:zt zr+e º. +r-s+a = s= ¤tz«rz +t =·rt ·rr”rr¤r +r :t«s` =r¤ = ¤+rzr ¤rz
¤s =r¤ ¤¤taa sr o¤r1 :t«s` ‘r-: ¤¸aa· tr> +r «r¤+ s ·rr”rr¤r +r «r¤+ =st s 1
s= ¤tz«rz +t +rs s ¤r-ar +==r/¤r zr« :ttrªr ·rrza ¤ =st +rat ¬rat1 +rs s ar
¤rt+=ar=-¤+ort==ar= + =t¤r-a tr> ¤ +rat ¬rat s 1 s=t ¤ +rz nta+r +t t=sat
·rr”rr ¤r¤ ¤tz«rz +t ·rr”rr s1 s=t +rzªr ar+ ¤¤taa ·rrzªrr º« ¤r-¤ar =oa =st s 1
:t«s ·rr”rr¤r + +ra= «rar +r ¤ta’ra ·rrza +t ¬== =¤r +r zz.sa % s 1 :t«s
¤tz«rz +t ¤ra·rr”rr¤r ¤ ). ·rr”rrº ¤¤=r s 1 s=¤ at¤a a a o ¤a¤ra¤ º« +-=s
¤tzotªra ·rr”rrº¡ s ‘r”r )a ·rr”rrº¡ ¤¤tzotªra s 1 :t«s ¤tz«rz +t ·rr”rr¤r +r s= ¤+rz
«ot+a t+¤r ¬r =+ar s 1

:t«s ¤tz«rz +t ·rr”rrº¡
1 2 3 4
:ttrªrt :ttrªr-¤·¤ ¤·¤ s·az º« ¤¸«
). ¤a¤ra¤
z. at¤a
a. +-=s
). a ao
z. ¬ra¤
a. +rar¤t
). orst
z. =rrs / +r ·r
a. t+==
). +==r/
z. ¤rzr«
a. ¤r-ar
=. +¸zot/+rso
s. a a
=. +rsr
s. +r¤r
=. +s
s. ¤rz¬t

(+) ¤tzotªra -
+e
=e
·rr”rr +r =r¤ ·rr”rr + +ra=
«rar +t = =¤r
zr-¤ / zr-¤r + =r¤
zz +-=s az.sac.c +=re+
za ¤a¤ra¤ aea..).c +za
z= at¤a saeecaca at¤a=rs
zs a ao cce).c)s ¤r-·r ¤:’r
(=r) ¤¤tzotªra
zc +¸zot/+rso¸ s.e)) +=re+
z. orst z)z=asz ¤·¤ ¤:’r
za ¬ra¤ zs.ae ¤r-·r ¤:’r
zs =rrs / +r ·r zze.aa sst=r ¤r-·r ¤:’r
ae t+== )czeaa sst=r
a) +rar¤t saza) ¤srzr”e ¤r-·r ¤:’r
az +rsr ).ac= ¤r-·r ¤:’r
aa +r¤r z.ess= ¤r-·r ¤:’r
a= +s c=)ccz sst=r
as +==r/¤r zr« )=zcc)a mrz=rªs sst=r c·at=oe
¤t’¤¤ +ora
ac ¤r-ar )ea)=a mrz=rªs
a. ¤rz¬t ==ee) c·at=oe sst=r
aa a a )sszzss +=re+

Ⅲ ¤r·=¤ ¤tz«rz (¤r=er-ºt’r¤rte+)
·rrza ¤ s= ¤tz«rz +t at= ‘rr=rr¤r +t ·rr”rrº¡ +rat ¬rat s 1 =rr=t ‘rr=rr +t ¤¤=r ·rr”rr
=rr=t` ¤·rra¤ ¤ =rr=t ¬=¬rta a·rr ¬¤t-a¤r ¤«at¤ tr> ¤ zs= «ra ar or + zrzr
+rat ¬rat s 1 t=+r+rzt ‘rr=rr +t ¤ra·rr”rrº¡ (·rr”rr +r =r¤- t=+r+rzt) t=+r+rz zt¤ =¤¸s
+ ¬=¬rta + aror + zrzr +rat ¬rat s 1 s= ¤tz«rz +t at=zt ‘rr=rr +t ·rr”rrº¡ ¤t’¤¤
+ora mrz=rªs sst=r c·at=oe s·azr=rªs º« at¤a=rs + ¬=¬rta + aror + zrzr
+rat ¬rat s 1 s= ‘rr=rr +t =·rrat ¤tzotªra =¸¤t +t ·rr”rr s 1 s= ¤tz«rz +t =·rt
·rr”rr¤r + +ra= «rar +t = =¤r +r ¤ta’ra ·rrza +t ¬== =¤r ¤ º+ ¤ta’ra = +c
¤t·r+ ().)a%) s1

(+) ¤tzotªra -
+e
=e
·rr”rr +r =r¤ ·rr”rr + +ra=
«rar +t = =¤r
zr-¤ / zr-¤r + =r¤
as =·rrat az)cazs mrz=rªs t+srz sst=r ¤t’¤¤
+ora
(=r) ¤¤tzotªra
=e ·r¸t¤¬ =saez sst=r
=) o:+r za)sa sst=r ¤r-·r ¤:’r
=z sr s=sz)c t+srz mrz=rªs sst=r
=a ¬¤rs. )casa sst=r
== =rts¤r zzsssc mrz=rªs
=s =rr=t s)zzaa ¤·rra¤
=c +rsr/ +rzr zazee ¤t’¤¤ +ora
=. +rz+ / ++¸ =cce.a ¤·¤ ¤:’r ¤srzr”e
=a +rz«r z.=as c·at=oe
=s ¤sr =)aas= sst=r ¤=¤ ¤t’¤¤ + ora
se ¤srzt ac)a.a t+srz mrz=rªs sst=r
s) t=+r+rzt zczc) ¤ªs¤r= º« t=+r +rz zt¤ =¤¸s
sz =«z z.a)ca sst=r

Ⅳ ta-+a +¤t -
s= ¤tz«rz +t ¤ra·rr”rr¤r +t ==¤r zzc s1 ·rr”rr¤r +t ==¤r =a s 1 ·rrza ¤ ta-+a
+¤t s¤¤tz«rz +t :r ¤ ¤=r ‘rr=rr¤ s - ). ta-+at - ts¤ra¤t z. +¤t - ¤=t¤¤r1 s=
¤tz«rz +t =·rt ·rr”rr¤r + +r a= «rar +t ==¤r +r ¤ta’ra ·rrza +t ¬== =¤r ¤ º+
¤ta’ra = ·rt +¤ s (e.s.%) 1 s= ¤tz«rz +t ·rr”rr¤r + ¤-az - =-+-·rr +t
«r=at«+ar +r =¤m=r +s a +te= s 1 s= ¤tz«rz +t ·rr”rrº ¤« at¤ tr>r ¤ +rat ¬rat s 1
s= ¤« at¤ tr>r ¤ ¤z=¤z ¤r«ro¤= º« =r¤rt¬+ =-¤+ ¤ +r·rr srat s 1 ·rr”rr¤r +t t«¤a
==¤r +r ¤s ¤·rr= +rzªr s1 s= ¤tz«rz +t ¤¤=r ·rr”rr¤r +r s= ¤ +rz «ot + a t+¤r ¬r
=+ar s ·

+. ta-+at-ts¤ra¤t

¤. ta-+at - ). ta-+at z. a::r=rt a. :r ¬r o+r =. ·rret/ ·rte¤r s. ¤r =¤r
¤r. ts¤ra¤t - ). ta-+ z. arsat a. +=rzt =. a-¤r / zro

=r. +¤t - ¤=t¤¤r
¤. +r:r «o -
). +rc z. orzr a. t>¤zt / ta¤zt =. t:¤r=r s. :szt c. +rsr .. t¤t+z / +r+t a. zr·rr
s. aras.
¤r =ro «o -
). ¤or¤t z. ¤r¤r a. +r+s =. zs.¤r s. +r-¤+
c. t=r¤¤s.= c. ¤r¡o .. ¤=r=rs. a. ¬ta¤ro s. ar o=r a )e. ars.=r / as.¤rs. )).
=r+a )z. +r¤ )a. ¤r¤r )=. t¤¤¤s.z )s. ar·rr )c. «rs.¤r ).. =rs.a¤ )a. =¤r
s. ++t-t¤= «o -
). ++t z. ·rrsr a. ¤rsa =. ¤tªr¤zt s. t¤¬r/a’rrs c. a=r z/·rzr .. «rs+ a. s ¤rz s
¤t« )e sa¤ )) º=ra
s. +¤t «o -
). ¤r ·r
s t¤tz/t¤t’rs. «o -
). ¤rt: z. t=’rt / :+ ar a. t¤zt / t¤t’rs.

(+) ¤tzotªra -
+e
=e
·rr”rr +r =r¤ ·rr”rr + +ra=
«rar +t = =¤r
zr-¤ / zr-¤r + =r¤
sa +rsr )zz)aa) ¤=¤ ¤t’¤¤ + ora
s= ¤tªr¤zt )z.ez)c ¤tªr¤z
(=r) ¤¤tzotªra
ss ¤rt: )sa=es ¤=ªrr¤a ¤:’r
sc º=ra )z)sc ¤tªr¤z
s. ¤or¤t s.ca) =rora s
sa ¤r¤r ).z==s ¤=ra )z)sc ¤tªr¤z
ss ·rte¤r / ·rret ss=aa t=t++¤ ts¤r¤a ¤:’r
ce ¤=r=rs. aesas =rora s
c) c+= /cr+zt =aze. =rora s
cz ¤r¡o az=.a =rora s
ca :szt ).se) ¤=¤
c= t:¤r=r aas=a ¤=¤
cs ors..a )acss ¤tªr¤z
cc orzr c.sc=z ¤·rra¤ ¤=¤
c. sa¤ zsazz t>¤zr
ca s ¤rz csze= ¤tªr¤z ¤=¤
cs +r+s/ zrs.¤¤ caszs ¤tªr¤z
.e +r+t / t¤t+z acczzs ¤=¤
.) =r- rr )aee= =rora s ¤tªr¤z
.z t=r¤¤s.= zas== =roras
.a t+-=rzt c).s= ts¤r¤a ¤:’r
.= +rc zc).s ¤·rra¤ ¤=¤
.s +r¤ )as=a ¤tªr¤z
.c +r-¤+ )a..zz =rora s
.. ++t sazca ¤tªr¤z ¤=¤ =rora s
.a arsat zzez. ts¤r¤a ¤:’r
.s a=r z / ·rzr zzs=. t¤¬rz¤
ae -r::r=rt ¤¸ªr t««zªr
¤=¤a-·r
¬-¤¸ ¤rz +’¤tz
a) aras. aa.=c ¤=¤
az a-¤r asa=z

t=t++¤ ¤t’¤¤ +ora
aa ta¤r¡o¤rs z.=.a ¤tªr¤z
a= ta-+ za).= t=t++¤
as ar·rr asaez =rora s
ac a’rrs / t¤¬r saaa=z t¤¬rz¤
a. ¤r¤r ..a)e ¤tªr¤z
aa ¤zr¤ )e)== ¤tªr¤z
as ¤tzs. )szca ¤tªr¤z
se t¤zt / t¤t’rs. asesaa ¤=¤
s) t¤=¤t zseee ¤=ªrr¤a ¤:’r
sz ¤r·r za)as t>¤zr
sa ¤r=¤r =azzc ¤=ªrr¤a ¤:’r
s= t=’rt / :+ar ).a.s) ¤=ªrr¤a ¤:’r
ss =r+a ae==) ¤=ªrr¤a ¤:’r
sc ¤rsa =sza. ¤tªr¤z
s. ¤t« )sa=c t¤¬rz¤
sa +r¤ csase =rora s
ss ¤r¤zt ))za) =rora s
)ee zr·rr )asacs ¤=¤
)e) zs.¤r a.sz) =rora s
)ez =rs.a¤ =.=c) =rora s
)ea =¤r )cc)s. =rora s
)e= ‘rz¤r )c)es t=t++¤
)es ar o =ra )e)a=) ¤tªr¤z
)ec ar s.=r za)z) ¤=ªrr¤a ¤:’r
)e. ·rrsr )e.ssz ¤tªr¤z
)ea ta-+at cs=)c
)es t>¤zt cs=s=e t>¤zr
))e «rs+ zc)as ¤tªr¤z
))) «rs.¤r ascee ¤=ªrr¤a ¤:’r
))z t¤¤¤s.z =.zz. =rora s
))a ¬ta¤rs. ase.s =rora s
))= ¬t¤ zzca= ¤=¤ ¤tªr¤z =rora s
))s ¬rs )sscc ¤tªr¤z

Ⅴ. =r¤t ¤tz«rz

))c ¤z+t z)s.s

·rrza +t ·rr”rr¤r +t =¤r=ar º« º+ar + =-+-·r ¤ ¤ro t«¤rz t+¤r ¬r zsr s 1


·rrza +t ·rr”rr¤r +t =¤r=ar º« º+ar ·

·rrza ¤ º+ ¤¤trr = ¤:·ra =r¤rt¬+ =r=+ ta+ t«t«·rar¤ s :¸=zt ¤¤trr = t«t«·rar¤r
+ +t¤ º+ar +t ¤=¤¤ =r¤·¤ º« rrt+a s 1 ·rrzat¤ = =+ta + taº ¤=+ar ¤ º+ar`
¬=r t«rr·rªr ¤+rzªr =st s 1 s=t +rzªr ·rrzat¤ = =+ta + =-+-·r ¤ te-¤ªr s t+
·rrzat¤ ==+ta ¤sr=¤ : + =¤r= s t¬=¤ ¤=+ =t:¤r ¤r-¤r+z t«at= srat zst s 1
s=t +rzªr t:=+z = ta=rr t+ ¤s t«r«¬=t=ar t«t·r-= ¬rta¤r +r º+ ¤sr¬rta +
=r¤ ¤ era= +r ¤s ¤:·ra ¤¤r= ¤rz ¤=+ «r:r t«¤rzr ¤r z ·r¤r + +t¤ º+ar ar=
+r ¤s t=zrar eo =·rt ¤ or ¤ ·rrzat¤ =¤r¬ +t t«rr·rar zsr s1Þ (zr¤·rrzt t=s t:=+z`
· ==+ta + ¤rz ¤·¤r¤ ¤e sa aat¤ = =+zªr ()scz))
·rrzat¤ ==+ta s= :rr ¤ ¤r+z +== «rat ¤=+ ¬rta¤r +t ==+ ta¤r + ¤ a = a ¤rz
s s s ¤rz ¤+ ¤s ¤ar aor=r +sa ¤tr+a s t+ s=+ ·rtaz t+= ¬rta +t ==+ta +r
t+a=r ¤rr s 1
·rrt·r+ :t·e = ·rt ·rrza ¤ º+ ¤rz ¤:·ra t«t«·rar¤ s «st :¸=zt ¤rz º tasrt=+ :t·e =
t·r-= ·rr·rr- ¤tz«rzr +t ·rr·rr¤r + +ra= «rar + +t¤ a·rr º+ ·rr‛rr ¤tz«rz + t«t·r-=
·rrt‛r¤r + +t¤ ·rrt·r+ =¤r=ar º« º+ar +r t«+r= s ¤r s 1 ·rrt‛r+ º+ar t«+t=a sr = +
¤=+ +rzªr s 1 +rzªrr +r ¤¸a ¤r·rrz s=+r º+ st ·r¸·rro ¤ rrart-:¤r = =r·r-=r·r zs=
+ +rzªr t«+t=a =r¤rt¬+ =-¤+ º« a:¤zr-a ¤-at«a =r=+ta+ º+ar s 1
·rrza +t =r¤rt¬+ =z¤=r º« +s ·rrt·r+ar +r ·¤r= ¤ z=r+z t«zr=r = ·rrza +r
=¤r¬-·rr·rr «nrt=+ t«rrra ¤=r·rrzªr º« + sa ·rt¤+r¤ (¬rs¤-e) +t =nr ¤:r= +t s1
Ferguson, C.A. : National Socio Linguistic Profile Formulas: In Bright W. ( Ed.)
Socio-Linguistics, Mounton,1966)
s=+t t««¤=r +t ¬r ¤ +t s t+ ·rrza º+ º =r ·rrt·r+ tr> s ¬sr t«t·r-= ·rr·rr-¤tz«rzr
+t ·rr·rrº +rat ¬rat s a·rr s¤ ·rrzat¤ ¤r¤ ·rr‛rr¤r + t«+r= +t t««¤=r +za =¤¤
t«t·r-= +rar ¤ ·rrzat¤ ¤r¤ ·rr‛rr tr> ` ¤ t«:¤¤r= +s·rrt‛r+ar + +rz ¤ ·rt = + a
+z ¤ + s 1 =-¤ta s¤ ¤s +s=r ¤rsa s t+ ·rrza ¤ t·r-= ·rr‛rr ¤tz«rzr +t +rat ¬r=
«rat ·rr‛rrº ¤r¤= ¤ ¤t·r+ t=+e º« =¤r= s +t==¤a s= ·rr‛rr ¤tz«rzr +t s= ·rr‛rr¤r
+ ¬r ·rrzat¤ ¤srzt¤ = +rsz + :’rr ¤ +r at ¬rat s 1 s:rszªr + taº ¤r·rt=+ ·rrzat¤
¤r¤ ·rr‛rrº ¤r·rt=+ ·rrzat¤ :t«s ·rr‛rr¤r + t¬a= t=+e s sa= t=+e « ·rrzr¤t¤
¤tz«rz + ¤-¤ s¤¤tz«rz +t ·rr‛rr¤r + =st s 1 ·rrza +t ·rrt·r+ º+ar +r ·¤r= ¤ z=r+z
t«zr=r = ·rrza +r º+ ·rrt·r+-s+rs ¤r=r s1 (Emeneau, M.B. : India - a linguistic area : In Dell
Hymnes (Ed.) Language in Culture and Society, P. 650, Harpper International Etition, 1966 )
= =+a ·rr‛rr +r ·¤«srz º« ¤=rz :
s·az - «t:+ +ra ¤ ==+a ·rrza +t =·rt t:’rr¤r ¤ ¤rzr ¤rz + aat os1 ==+ a +r
¤s ¤=rz +«a ·rr orta+ t:rrr¤r ¤ st =st sr zsr ·rr =r¤rt¬+ =az ¤z ¤r=+ ==+ a =
t·r-= ¤=+ ¤r¤ º« ¤=r¤ ·rr·rr¤r + +ra= «ra =¤ :r¤r ¤ ·rt sr zsr ·rr1 (Burrow,. :
T. : The Sanskrit Language, P. 63, Faber & Faber, London).
==+a ·rr·rr + ·rrza + t«t·r-= ·rror º« t«t·r-= =r¤rt¬+ =¤:r¤r ¤ ·¤«srz º« ¤=rz +
+rzªr :r +ra ·rtea s s -
). ==+a = ¤¤= ¤=rz + +rzªr ·rrza + ¤·¤ + tr> +t ·rr·rr +r ¤ ·rrt«a t+¤r1
z. ==+ a ·rr·rr =«¤ ·rt ·rrza +t ¤-¤ ·rr·rr¤r = ¤·rrt«a s s1
==+ a +r ¤·rr«
==+a + ¤·rr« = s¤ =·rt =¤tzt¤a s 1 s= t:rrr ¤ ¤¤ z +r¤ =-¤-= sº s 1 rr-:r«at +
=az ¤z a·=¤ rr-:r«at = =·rt ·rrzat¤ ·rr·rrº ¤·rrt«a s 1 ¤·¤+rat= =rtst·¤+ at¤a +t
¤tªr¤«ra¤ rrat` = ·rrzat¤ ·rr·rr¤r ¤z ==+ a + ·¤r¤+ ¤·rr« +t +ra t=:·r srat s 1
a+=t+t rr-:r«at ¤r¤r o + a·«r«·rr= ¤ ¤t=ra ·rrzat¤ rr-:r«at` + t=¤rªr +r t¬=
t«zr=r +r ¤=·r« s « ¬r=a s t+ rr-: t=¤rªr + taº t+= ¤+rz = =+a +t rrzªr ¤
¬r=r ¤sar s1
==+ a +t rr-:r«at +r ¤·rr« t¤-a= ·r¤ :rr = ==+ta + tr>r ¤ =«rt·r+ s1s:rszªrr·r :
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==+ a ¤z ¤·rr«
= =+a ¤ ¤r¤ ·rr‛rr tr >` +t ==+aaz ¬= ·rr‛rr¤r º« ¤r¤ az ·rr·rr¤r = rr-:r +r osªr
+z s-s ==+ a +t ¤+ ta + ¤==¤ era= +t ¤«t:r +r t«+r= s¤r1 s=+ +rzªr º+
¤rz ¬sr ==+ a +r rr-: ·rsrz ¤·¤a t«rrra sr o¤r «st ¤roa rr-: = =+a +t ¤+ta +
¤==¤ eaa ¤a oº1·rrzat¤ = =+ta +r os= ¤·¤¤= +z= «ra t«zr=r +r ¤a s t+
==+a «rs¤¤ +t ¤t·r·¤t+a ¤ :ttrªrr·¤ +t«¤r t¤-a+r :rrrt=+r º« +ar+rzr +r
¤·¤ a ¤s·«¤¸ªr ¤r o:r= s (zr¤·rrzt t=s t:=+z` · ==+ta + ¤rz ¤·¤r¤ ¤e ==-=.)1
==+a ·rr·rr ¤ ¤t·r+rrr rr-:r + t¬a= ¤¤r¤ =¤ t¤aa s sa= ==rz +t t+=t ¤-¤
·rr·rr ¤ t¤a=r t«za s 1 sar¤·r +rrr` ¤ =«o + )z :« + z) + ¬r + ze trr« + =s
t«·ªr + sc ¤¤r ¤ t¤aa s 1 s=+r ¤¸a +rzªr ¤s s t+ ==+a ·rr·rr +r t¬= tr>r ¤
¤¤rz-¤=rz º« ¤¤ro - ·¤«srz s ¤r s= tr>r +t ·rr·rr¤r + rr-: = =+a ¤ ¤ra ¤a
oº1 ¤r:zt +r-s«a = ==+a ¤ ¤roa º= rr-:r +t =¸ ¤t ¤=aa +t s ¬r ¤¸ aa· :t«s
¤tz«rz +t ·rr·rr¤r + s 1 s:rszªrr·r -
¤++r (¤rar + ¤·r ¤ ) / ¤·ar (+st +s= + ¤·r ¤ ) / ¤e«t (¬oa)/ ¤tªr (¤tsº +t
·rzt) / ¤-+r (¤rar) / ¤ta (=t=r) / +e+ ↔ +e (+s«t =t¤) / +ar (·¤r«srtz+
+rrra) / +r«zt (=:t +r =r¤) +et (mr¤st) / +tªr (¤¤o /t¬=+ sr·r ¤ =rre sr)/+a
(arar+)/ +re (t+ar)/=re«r (=rre) / =r=r (t«t«·r)/ =tz (¬a)/ ¤eeªr (=oz)/ ¤-=r ↔
¤-=r (=r=r) /¤-at (=oz ¤r or¤)/ ·rro/(ts==r)/¤t= (¤cat)/«atr (r« a =+ :)/«ar
(t·rzr«)/«a¤ (t·rz zs=r orar+rz) / «-o (=-:z)/«-o + (¤:= +t a+st)/rr« (¤ a)/ rrr«
(rr« = =-+t-·ra)/ =¸t+a (c-ar + sa)/ =r¤ (=r¤+ra rrr¤)/``
(Rt. REV. ROBERT CALDWELL : A Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian or South
Indian Family of Languages, pp. 567-575 (1961)).
s= =¸ ¤t + ¤tatz+a ¤r:zt +r-s«a = º+ ¤rz =¸ ¤t sr oªse +t =¸¤t + ¤r·rrz ¤z
¤=a a +t s t¬-s +r-s«a :t«s ·rr·rr¤r + ¤ +rªs t«zr= ¤r=a ·r1 =¸¤t s= ¤+rz s -
s=ªsr (ora - º+ zrtr= +r =r¤) ∕ ºsr ↔ ºs+r (·rs)/+z+ra > +z«ra
(aa«rz)/+=re+ (+z -+rar =re-:rr ˃ ·rtaz +r :rr ¬r ¤¤= ¤ ·r=r ¤rz +rar s -+rat
t¤eet +r :rr½ ∕ +ªs (z-·r-t««z)/+++ z (+:rr)/+rt+ar (+r¤a)/·rre (·rrsr)/¤-¤+ (+¸ a
+r =r¤)/=rzo (=azr-+a +r =r¤)/t¤e- t¤e+ (º+ +sr er+zr sta¤r)1 ¤> (as+r
=ar=)/¤-=ro (=r=r)/¤ er (er+zr)/ ¤a¤ ¼+a½ /¤=:r (¤r mr ¤t·r¤rz+)/ ¤+e (+-:z)/¤+ar
(¤rat)/ +ta ( ·rta ·r=·r ¤ar= «ra)/t«za (=ra s º)/s-+ (·r=)/ rr o«z (¤:z=r)1``(Ibid,
pp. 577-578)
+r-s«a = nt t+eea + ¤o=a )a.z ¤ ¤+rtrra sts¤= º-et+« zt + ¤+ ¤ " The
Dravidian Element in Sanskrit Dictionaries" rrt·r+ a =r ¤ ¤=aa ¤` º« ¤r` «ªrr =
¤rz-·r sr = «ra t=-=tat=ra rr-:r +r s:·r a t+¤r s ·
¤eer (=¤z +t ¤erzt)/ ¤eer (s+a s º ¤r«a =rr¤) / ¤eer-seer (+r¬rz sre) / ¤r¤
(sr)/ ¤z +er (¤taa t¤n·rra) / ¤re - ¤rs (=ra +t ¤«t·a t+=t = =ra=r `)/ ¤rta
(=rrs =rat) 1 +c ¤r z rr-: - ¤ra=r (¤ra¸ +r ¤·r :¸·r s== +=r =¤) / «-at (+ a ¬r
«at¤a sr at s) / ¤+z - ¤+a (+ta+r +at) / +e (t¤eet +r ¤r>) / +erz (+-srst)
+st (:t«s =¤)1`` (Ibid, pp. 578-579).
t¬= ¤+rz ==+a º« :t«s ¤tz«rz +t ·rr·rr¤r + +t¤ ¤r:r=-¤:r= s ¤r s=t ¤+rz +t
¤t+¤r ==+a º« ta-+a-¤t=t ¤tz«rz a·rr ¤r·=¤ / ¤rt=e+ / ¤ sr ¤tz«rz +t ·rrzat¤
·rr·rr¤r ¤ t=·¤-= s s1 ==+a «rs.¤¤ ¤ ¤r·= ¤ ¤·r«r ¤rt=e+ ¤tz«rz +t ·rr·rr¤r +
+ra= «rar +r t=·rr: (¤z«at +ra ¤ +ra º« ¤ sr) a·rr ta-+a-¤t=t ¤tz«rz +t ·rr·rr¤r
+ +ra= «rar +r t+zra +sr o¤r s1 t«zr=r +r ¤=¤r= s t+ ¤r·= ¤ ·rr·rr¤r + ¤=+
rr-:r +r ==+ a ¤ ¤ro¤= s ¤r s1 «==¤ta º« «= ¬-a =-+-·rt ==+ a + ¤=+ rr-:r +t
·¤ ·¤t·a ¤rt=e+ ¤tz«rz +t ·rr·rr¤r = ¤r=t ¬rat s 1 ¬r ¤t¤a=+t = =·«: ¤ ¤¤ +a º =
¤=+ rr-:r +t =¸¤t :t s ¬r ¤ sr s¤¤tz«rz +t ·rr·rr¤r + s1 s:rszªrr·r- ars .oa (sa /
sa +t rr+a +r rrsatz) / «rz (·rrs + o:= +t ·rrzt (Pre-Aryan and Pre-Dravidian,
pp. 9-1½
sre stz¤rs= t¤n = ·rt º+ a =r ¤ s= t«‛r¤ ¤z ¤+r’r srar s1 =·«: +r rrr-¤ta (=¤a
+r «tr )e/as/ze) ¤r z trr-+a (=¤a +r +¸ a a/sa/zz) ¤ sr ·rr·rr + rr-: ¤r= ¬ra s 1 ...
....... ¤st sra ¤¤¸ z (=+e )/)s)/)=) +r s1` (sre stz¤rs= t¤n · =·«:t¤ ·rrza +t
·rr·rr-t=·rta ¤tz·r: ¤t>+r «·r a ¤+ a-= ¤e sz)
¤r·= ¤ ¤tz«rz +t ·rr·rr¤r +r =«rt·r+ ¤·rr« ta-+a-¤t=t ¤tz«rz +t ·rrzat¤ ·rr·rr¤r ¤z
¤sr s1 +teº¤e srs== +t ¤r-¤ar s t+ ·rrza ¤rz ta-+a + =t¤r«at ts¤ra¤ ¤ +rat
¬r=«rat ta-+at-ts¤ra¤t ·rr·rr¤r + ·¤r+zªr «r+¤ z¤=r ¤r z rr-:r«at ¤z ¤ sr ·rr·rr¤r
+r oszr ¤·rr« ¤sr s 1
ta-+a-¤t=t ¤tz«rz +t ·rrzat¤ ·rr·rr¤r + +r a= «ra t+zrar +r s-a=r ¤¬«: ¤r z
¤·r««: ¤ t¤aar s 1 ta-+a-+¤t s¤¤tz«rz +t ·rrzat¤ ·rr·rr¤r + + ar (ts¤ra¤t ta-+at
+r:r =or +t+t¤= +¤t) +t ¤r·rt=+ ·rrzat¤ ·rr·rr¤r + ¤·¤¤= = s= t:rrr ¤ t«¤rz
t+¤r ¬r =+ar s t+ t+zra ·rr·rr¤r + t+=-t+= rr-:r +r = =+ a = ¤r·¤=ra t+¤r1
(s:rszªrr·r t¤¬r + ¤«` ta-+ + ¤r¤r` t>¤zt + ¤r¤ ` º« ¤r¤` tz¤r o º« =r +a
+ ¤r¤` ¤rt: rr-:r +t ¤=z z¤=r zrzr t=t¤ a rr-: +t aa=r ==+ a +t ¤¤` ·rra = +t
¬r =+at s1( =rr=-¤t= + ¤·r ¤ ¤¤ ·rra (·«re ¤z- ¤¤ta ¤r-a) ). ¤t=r ¤r¤¤=
+z=r ¤er ¬r=r z. =rr=r ¤r- (¤r-¤r¤ta) ). ¤r¤¤= +z=r º+ =r= ¤ ¤t ¬r=r
¤re=r)1
=t¤ +c º = ·rra =¤ ¤=a a s t¬=+r ¤¤ro ==+a «rs .¤¤ ¤ s ¤r s t+-a t¬=+r
s-a =r ¤rtªr=t +t ¤·er·¤r¤t ¤ =st s ¤r s 1 ¤=¤r= s t+ ¤ ·rra =¤ ¤r¤ az ·rr·rr¤r =
==+a ¤ ¤roa sº1 s= =-+-·r ¤ t«zr=r = os= ¤·¤¤= +z= +t ¤¤trr s1 ( a=r+ +r
s¤zr+a ¤·¤¤= t:’rr ¬+a¤z ¤ == )scs ¤ sr stzr ara ¬= = ¤r-a ss /:=r -
¤r+ =z ¤sr«tz =z= ¬ = · ¬+a¤z ¤ sr stzrara ¬=` ¤r·¤ t«:¤r¤r¤ sr stzrara
¬= ¬-¤ ‘rar-:t =¤rtz+r ¤‛e se - s) ¬+a¤z)sss )
·rra ¤·r =-r
¤·rs o·¤rtr¤ ¤s·ra ¤st·r‛e ¤r=s ¤ 1
¤¬ªr ¤ta¤·= ¤r¬¤ta ¤rt¬¤a ¤¬¤r ¤+rz
¤es ota ¤ªea ¤rtªe‛e ¤r’r’rr=
¤rs’rr=¸t+ s·cr ¤r’rr=a ¤r’rrt=‛e ¤r’r’rr=


s ota ¤¤ta ¤¤ a ¤¤a ¤r¤a º ‛rta s¤r¤ s¤ra ºar º‛¤ta
º ‛¤a
s¬s ota º t¬‛e s ¬r ¤+ s ¬r¤r= s ¬r-+·r¸«
so ota ssor ¤+rz ssor¤r= ssor-+·r¸«
s‛r :rs ¤r‛rta ¤r‛ra ¤r‛ra ¤r‛ra 1
st: ¤r= ¤rz
+tsr
=:a ¤rt:‛e =:r ¤+
¤r« ‘rr‛rªr ¤r«¤ra ¤r«¤r=ar¤ ¤r«¤r=· 1
+¬ ·¤·r= +¬ta ++¬ +-¤ra +t¬ ar +t¬‛¤ta ¤+t¬‛¤a
t+t+‛ªr ts=r t+‛+¤a ¤t¤t+‛+a t+‛+¤r ¤+
+t·=ªr ¤«tr¤ +·=¤a ¤¤+·=a + ·=¤r ¤+
+¸tªrªr =+r¤= +¸ªr¤a ¤¤¸+ªra +ªr¤r ¤+
+=r =r¬ =a¤ =rr¬ta +r¬ta =rr¬a +r¬a =rr¬a +r¬a ¤=rr¬a
¤+r¬a ¤=rr¬ta ¤+r¬ta =r=rr¬ ++r ¬ =r-¤ra
+ ts=r +ªrrta +ªrt¤ra +ªrra ¤+ªrra ¤+rzta ¤+rz +¤r a 1
+«s =«= +«a ¤+t«‛e t¤+« 1
«=·r ts=r «=·rta ¤«=r·rta ¤«=·rta ¤«=r·r
os =«= osta ¤orsta ¤osta
o··r
------
·r a
s==
---------
-rzt‛rr·=o
o··rta o··r a o··ra ¤o··ra ¤o··rta oo··r
------------------------------------
·r«ta o« a o«a ¤o«a ¤o‛rta ¬or« o¸¤ra


-r‛rs ota - r‛ra ¤¬t‛r‛e t¬t¬‛r
es t=¤-¬= esta ¤esta eers
st¤ tst¤ =·rra s-¤¤a ts-¤¤a ¤ss-¤a ¤st ts-¤a s-¤¤r ¤+ ts-¤¤r ¤+
s+ ts+ªr tr¤ s-+¤ta ts-+¤ta ¤ss-+«a ¤ts ts-+a s-+¤r ¤+rz 1
a«ªr ¤:= a -+¤ta ¤aa-+a a-+¤r ¤+rz
·=z c:¤ota ·=zta ¤·=rzta a·=rz
==r ota ==rta ==r a ==ra ¤==ra ¤==rta ==r=r ==¤ra
=« ota =«ta ¤=«t a ==«
t=« =r¤= t=-«ta ¤t-r-«ta t=t-r-«
t=‛r¸ =«= -r‛rta ¤=‛rta t==‛r
t¤··rªr +ee= t¤·¤¤ta ¤t¤t¤··ra t¤·¤¤r ¤+rz
-at’r «zªr t-a=rta ¤-a‛rta t+-ar¤
-a‛+ªr :’r= -a‛+¤ta ¤t«’a‛+ªr -a‛+¤r¤r=
·rsa =·rra ·rsta ¤·rsta + ·rts¤
t¤·ro ¤·rr ¤rz
ts=r
¤·rta ¤¤·rta t¤¤·r ¤·ra ¤¤t·r‛e t¤¤·r1
¤·ro =o¤ ¤·rta ¤¤·rta t¤¤·r ¤·ra ¤¤t·r‛e t¤¤·r1
«+ ota «+ ta ¤«+t a ««+
+r·rs zre= +r·ra ¤+rt·r‛e ++r·r
ss «‛e= s sta ¤ssta t¬ss


¤rta ¤r+ a º« ¤¤·r ’r a·rr ¤r¤ ·az ·rr‛rrº¡ º« ¤r·rt= + ·rrzat¤ ¤r¤ ·rr‛rrº¡
¤r+a º« ¤¤·r’r ·rr‛rr¤r +r ¤·rr« ¤r·rt=+ ·rrzat¤ ¤r¤ ·rr‛rr¤r ¤z ¤sr s a·rr s=
=-+-·r ¤ a =r+ = ¤ao = t«=arz = t««¤=r +t s ¼ :=r - ¤r+=z ¤sr«tz =z= ¬ = ·
¤r+a º« ¤¤·r’r +r ¤r·rt=+ ·rrzat¤ ¤r¤ ·rr‛rr¤r ¤z ¤·rr« The Vikram: Journal of
Vikram University, Ujjain, Vol. ⅩⅩⅠ, No.2 & 4,pp.73 – 88 ( May & Nov.,1977/
The Influences of the „ Prakrit‟ and „Apabhransha‟ Languages on the modern Indo-
Aryan Languages :=t‛r+-¤ sr stzrara ¬= =¤ta o -·r ¤‛e )ze - )as sr
stzrara ¬= -r-¤ ‘rar-:t =¤rzrs =t¤ta ¬+a¤z zee) ½ 1
=-¤ta ¤s +s=r ¤·rt‛e s t+ ¤rta ¤r+ a º« ¤¤·r’r ·rr‛rr¤r + os= ¤·¤¤= = s=
t:’rr ¤ = + a ¤r-a sra s t+ ¬sr¡ s= ·rr‛rr¤r = ¤r¤ ·az ·rr‛rr¤r +r ¤·rrt«a t+¤r s «st
s= ·rr‛rr¤r ¤z :t«s ¤r·=¤ (¤r==¤z º« ¤ sr) º« ta-+a-+¤t (t+zra) ¤tz«rz/ s¤¤tz«rz
+t ·rr‛rr¤r +r ¤·rr« ¤sr s 1 ¤s ¤·rr« ‘r-:r«at º« ·«t= ·¤«=·rr + =azr ¤z ar s st
t+¤r º« t+¤r -t«’r‛rªr +t =z¤=r + =az ¤z ·rt s 1 :t«s ¤tz«rz +t ·rr‛rr¤r + ¤r¤
¤tz«rz +t ·rr‛rr¤r +t t+¤r «r+¤r’rr +t = z¤=r ¤z ¤s ¤·rr« +t ¤rz t«zr=r +r ·¤r=
¤r+‛e s ¤r s 1 ¤z=¤z ¤·rr« +r ¤¸a +rzªr ¤rta ·rr‛rr +r a·rr +r: ¤ ‘rrz= =t ¤r+ a ∕
‘rrz==t ¤¤·r’r +r ¤t=ra ·rrzat¤ =az ¤z ¤ tat‛ea sr =r / =-¤+ ·rr‛rr +==r ·rr1 ·rrza
+ t«t·r-= ·rror º« t«t·r-= =r¤rt¬+ =¤:r¤r ¤ ·¤«srz º« ¤=rz + +rzªr t¬= ¤+rz
==+a ·rr·rr = º+ ¤rz ·rrza + ¤·¤ + tr> +t ·rr·rr +r ¤·rrt«a t+¤r a·rr :¸=zt ¤r z
=«¤ ·rt ·rrza +t ¤-¤ ·rr·rr¤r = ¤·rrt«a ss s=t ¤+rz ¤rta a·rr +r: ¤ ‘rr z==t ¤r+a
∕ ‘rrz==t ¤¤·r’r = ·rt º+ ¤r z ·rrza + ¤·¤ + tr> +t ·rr·rr +r ¤·rrt«a t+¤r «st «
=«¤ ·rt ·rrza +t ¤-¤ ·rr·rr¤r = ¤·rrt«a ss 1
¤rta a·rr ¤’rr+ +rat= ¤z«at t’rara=rr + ·rrt‛r+ =¤r = ¤ar ¤aar s t+ s=r ¤¸«
¤sat ‘rat + ¤-a a+ ‘rr== + +r¤r a·rr =rts·¤ + ¤r·¤¤ + =-r ¤ ·rr‛rr +r º+
¤t=ra ·rrzat¤ =-r ¤tat‛ea sr ¤ +r ·rr1 ( sr e =+¤rz = = · aa=r·¤+ ¤rta -
¤r+a-¤¤·r’r ·¤r+zªr ¤=«r:+- ¤sr«tz ¤=r: a=rsr ar+ ·rrzat ¤+r’r= sarsr+r:
)scs)
¬= ·r¤ +t ¤z-¤zroa ¤r-¤ar + ¤==rz ¤-: o-a ¤r ¤ + ‘rr== +ra ¤ ¤r¤r¤ ·r:+rs n a
+«at = ¤¤= t=t¤·a nr= = ¤s ¬r=+z t+ t=+e ·rt«‛¤ ¤ ¤+ra ¤s= «rar s ¤¤=
=·r=·r z= s¬rz =r·r¤r ¤ = )z s¬rz =r·r¤r + =r·r :ttrªr + taº ¤=·rr= t+¤r a·rr
¤=¸z zr-¤ (+=re+) ¤ n«ªr+a ora + ¤r= t¤+++ee o+r ¤ zs+z ¤rªr ·¤ro t+¤r 1
s= )z s¬rz =r·r¤r = ‘rrz==t ¤r+a ¤ s¤:’r t:¤r a·rr o-·rr +t z¤=r +t 1 s= =¤¤
:ttrªr + t=«r=t =¸ z= = ¤:’r (¤·rzr =ozt) ¤ ¤r«ro¤= + +rzªr ‘rr z==t ¤r+a = ¤-¤
¤tzt¤a ·r1 s·az ·rrza = oº s= )z s¬rz =r·r¤r + :ttrªr ¤ t«¤zªr +z= s¤:’r := º«
=·=o + +rzªr :ttrªr :’r«r=t ‘rrz==t ¤r+a = ·rat ·rrta ¤tzt¤a sr oº1 ¤st +rzªr s
t+ :ttrªr ¤ ¬-¤ t:o-+z ¬= ¤r¤r¤r = ·rt ‘rr z==t ¤r+a ¤ st ¤¤= o-·rr +t z¤=r +t 1
s= o-·rr ¤ :ttrªrt ·rr‛rr¤r +r ¤·rr« =¤‛e ¤tzattra s 1
¤¤·r’r + ¤z«at ¤ o +t ¤«see` ¤ ¤=+ º = = nr ¤: t+¤r t«’r‛rªr t«’r‛rªr a·rr
t+¤r¤: t¤aa s t¬=+r =ra ¤r¤ ·az s 1 ¤·rr «z/ «s (¤¸=r) / t¤t=r--r (+t¤s ·rzr) /
+-+ (o¸or) / +ss (+sr) / =rr-¬ (=rr¬=r) / «s (s¸+=r)1
·rrzat¤ ·rr‛rr¤r ¤ ¤roa a+t ¤z+t º« +rz=t ‘r-:
s=ar¤ + +rzªr a +t -¤z+t-+rz=t = ¤roa ‘r-:r = ·rrza +t =·rt ·rr‛rr¤r +r ¤·rrt«a
t+¤r s1 ¤s +ra ¤ao s t+ +’¤tzt t=-·rt ¤¬r+t a·rr s:¸ ¤z ¤s ¤·rr« ¤¤trr+a
¤t·r+ s1 s= =:·r ¤ s¤ ¤s ·rt =¤‛e +z=r ¤rs o t+ ts-:=ar= ¤ º+ st :rr º+ st
¬+r= a·rr º+ st ¬rta + ¤=a¤r= =st ¤rº1 =+= ¤sa ¤sr ¤z+ aro ¤rº1 ¤z+
=r:roz + +tz :z«rr =ra«t rrar-:t = ¤sr¡ ¤r= ¤rz-·r sr oº ·r a·rr ¤re«t rrar-:t
(.))-.)a s. ) ¤ ¤z+ aror = t=-·r º« ¤aar= ¤z +-¬r +z ta¤r ·rr1 s=+ +r: a +t
+ a+ a·rr ¤+ort==ar= + ¤er= aror = ¤r+¤ªr t+¤r a·rr ¤sr rrr== t+¤r1
’rsr+::t= or zt ()).s-)zec) + ¤r+¤ªr = a+z oar¤«rr ()zec-)zse) t=ra¬t«rr
()zse-)aze) a oa+ «rr ()aze-)=)z) = ¤: «rr ()=)=-)=s)) a·rr ar:t«rr
()=s)-)szc) + rrr==+ra a+ ts-:=ar= ¤ a + º« ¤er= ¬rta + aro ¤rº a·rr a +t
º« ¤rar ·rr·rr¤r a·rr a +-+-¤z a·rr ¤rar -+-¤z +r ¤·rr« ¤sr1
¤oa «rr +t =t « sra= «ra +r+z +r =+ ·r ¤¤t¤ ¤ora ¬rta = +sr ¬rar s ¤r z
+r+z = ¤¤= +r ¤or a +r:rrrs ¤o¬ =rr ` +r «rr¬ +sr s ¤rz ¤or a +r st =¤ ¤oa`
sr o¤r ¤oz +r+z +r ¬-¤ ¤·¤ ºtrr¤r tr> + ¤ ao a +zor=r ¤ s ¤r ·rr1 ¤ora º«
a +t :r=r ¬rta¤r +r «rr¬ +r+z «st +t º+ cret =t tz¤r=a +r ¤rta+ ·rr1 s- ++
aror + zrzr =r:s ¬r= + +r: +r+z = ¤+ ort==ar= ¤z +-¬r t+¤r a·rr +r: ¤ )szc s .
¤ ·rrza ¤z ¤r+¤ªr t+¤r1 +r+z +t ==r ¤ ¤·¤ ºtrr¤r + s-+ + º« art¬+ ¬rta¤r +
aro ·r a·rr ¤+ ort==ar= + ¤er= aro ·r 1
+r+z +r s·azrt·r+rzt s ¤r¤¸ ¬+ ¤+or= = ar rrz=rr (+r:rrrs rr zrrrs) = ¤ z ¤
¤zrt¬a sr o¤r ar s== )s=e s . ¤ s zr=` ¤ ¬r+z rrzªr at1 )s «·rr + +r: )sss s.
¤ s ¤r¤¸ = ·rrza ¤z ¤=· ¤r+¤ªr +z ¤¤=r =rr¤r s¤r zr-¤ ¤r-a t+¤r1 )s «·rr a+
szr= ¤ zs= + +rzªr s=+ =r·r s zr=t :z+rzt =r¤-a º« t=¤s=rarz ·rrza ¤rº1 s ¤r¤¸
¤++z ¬srotz rrrs¬sr ¤rzo¬+ ¤rt: ¤oa +r:rrrs ¤¤t¤ szr=t ¬rta + =st ·r
¤oa` ·r (a·«a· ¤or a º« a +t ¬rta¤r + z+a t¤nªr + «’r·rz) t+z ·rt s= =++
:z+rz +t ·rr·rr +rz=t ·rt a·rr s=+ rrr==+ra ¤ ¤trr¤= +-¤z +r ts-:=ar= +t +-¤z
¤z ¤t·r+ ¤·rr« ¤sr1 s= ¤+rz t¬= =r¤r-¤ ·¤t+a º« +s a = t«zr= aro ·rrza +t
=r=+ta ¤z s=ar¤ = =+ta +r ¤·rr« +sa s ¤r =¤ma s «s s=ar¤ ·r¤ +r ¤r== «rat
t«t·r-= ¬rta¤r +t = =+ta¤r + ¤·rr« + taº ¤o ¬r zrzr t:¤r s º º+ =r¤ s a+¬ s 1
¤z+t a +t s-+ +t art¬+t ¤+or=t ¤r ¤er=t ¤trr¤= ¤r szr=t ¤=+ ¬rta¤r +t
·rr·rr¤r º« = =+ta¤r +r s¤rzt ·rr·rr¤r ¤z a·rr ts-:=ar= +t +-¤z ¤z ¤·rr« ¤sr s1
¬t«= + t¬= tr > ¤ s¤= ==+ta + t¬= a·« +r o sªr t+¤r ar s=+ «r¤+ rr-:
+r ·rt ¤¤=r ta¤r1 a+t = +rat= (+rat=) ¤rz oat¤r (orat¤·) ¤z+t = +=t a·rr
+ rz=t = ¤¬ a=a (a=a) a·rr a=rar rr-: ¤rº1 + rz=t = ¬r¤ a·rr ¤z+t = = zrst
a·rr =r+t (=r+t) rr-:r +r ¤r:r= s ¤r1 +o¸ zr (+rz=t-+ o¸z·) o +: + ¬t (¤z+t-+¬)
a·rr ¤t=rz ¤rt: rr-:r +r ¤a= s¤rzt =·rr¤·¤+ar ¤z ¤z+t-+rz=t +-¤z + ¤·rr« +r
+arar s 1 +·«rat (+ rz=t-+·«rat) o¬a (¤z+t -o¬a) a·rr =+rs rr-:r = s¤ =+
¤tzt¤a s +¤r t+ s·az ·rrza ¤ +·«ra aro +·«rat ora s a·rr ¤-¤ = otan o¬a º«
=+rs ¤e a s 1 ¬+ ·rrza + «rar«zªr ¤ rrs=rs o¸ ¬= aot a ¤z+t rr-: rrs=rs` ·rt +rar
¬r= aor1 ¤: o ¤rz ¤=rr«¬ + =·rr= ¤z ¬+ = oa +z= + taº a+a +r ¤¤ro +er ar
a+ar (¤z+t-a-a·) rr-: s¤rzt ·rr·rr¤r +r ¤ o += o¤r1 ·rr at º« s·azt¤ + =·rr= ¤z
¬+ ¤s=r«r +:ar ar +¤t¬ (¤z+t-+¤t= a +t-+¤rrr) ¤r¬r¤r (+rz=t-¤r¬r¤·) ¤r:z
:=ar=r (+ rz=t-:=ar=·) ¤r¬r (+rz=t - ¤r¬·) rr-: ¤¤taa sr oº1
¬+ +r+a ¤r z +·rrz (¤+ort==ar=) a·rr +=rrzr º« =¤z+: ¤:rr ( s- +t+=ar=)
= ·rrza ¤ ¤«r a·rr +ar +r ¤r¤ra +er ar ·rrza +t ·rr·rr¤r ¤ ¤¬tz t+rrt¤rr t¤=ar
+r:r¤ ¤=++r ¤rt: ¤«r a·rr ¤ra¸ + =rrzr =rz+¸¬r =r+r=t (+rz=t-= r¸+r=t) az+¸¬
=rrr¤rat =+ ¤rt: +ar + =r¤- rr-: ·rt ¤r oº1 ¤t=a¤-rrr== + :rzr= ¤·¤ ºtrr¤r
¤rz s zr=t ¤¤tzr + zttatz«r¬r + ¤=+zªr ¤z ·rrza + =r¤-a ·rt +s t-+st :r«a : =
ao ·r1 ¤sr +t :r«ar ¤ oar+¬r¤ = o--r+ ++t +ra¸rrrst sa«r--r=t t¤ers¤r ¤zr=t
¬r= aot1 =rr= + =r·r ¤¤rz +r a·rr ¤r= + =r·r oa+: +r ¤¤r o sr = aor1 ot¤ ¤r ¤
rrz+a ¤ z-+r +-+t +r ¤¤a= sr o¤r1 t=zrt¤·r ¤ ¤ ar« a·rr =rt¤·r ¤ ++r+ º« +t¤r
:r«a + ¤t·r-= ¤o += oº 1 n orz-¤=r·r= a·rr ¤=rz¬= + =º s¤r:r= ¤rº ar s=+
=r·r s=+ rr-: ·rt ¤rº 1 =r= +r s> =r+ = t=r¬r+ = ¤r arrr ¤rt: rr-:r +r ¤¤ro
s=+r ¤¤rªr s 1 +ro¬ +ro¬ra +ro¬t - ¬ = ¤z+t rr-:r = ¤s = +a t¤aar s t+
=·r«a· ¤z+ + aror = ·rrza ¤ +ro¬ +=r= +r ¤¤rz t+¤r1 ¤t=r+rzt =++rrrt
z=t:r+rzt z+¸otzt - ¬= rr-:r = +ar-+rrra + tr > ¤ rr-:r = ¬ st ¬+r=r +t +-¤z
+ ¤·rr« +t ¬r=+rzt t¤aat s 1
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s:rszªrr·r ¤=a a s -
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·rrza +t ¤rta+ º+ar ¤z t«¤rz +za s º sr e «r=:« ‘rzªr ¤o«ra +r +·r= s t+
·rrzat¤ =rts·¤ +t º+r·¤+ar + ¤¸a ¤ ·rrza +t ¤¸a ¤t=ra ·rrzat¤ = =+rz - ·rr‛rr
==+a +r ¤r o ar ¤tzat¤ s st ¤z-a s=+ =r·r ¤-¤ ¤t=ra ·rrzat¤ ·rr‛rr¤r- ¤r+a
¤¤·r-’r ¤rz ¤z+t « +rz=t +r +¤ ¤r o:r= =st s 1`` (·rrza +t ¤rta+ º+ar -re-)z=)
·rrzat¤ ·rr‛rr¤r ¤ ¤o ¬t +t ‘r-:r«at
¤o¬t = ¤roa ‘r-:r«at ·rt =·rt ·rrzat¤ ·rr‛rr¤r +t ·rrt‛r+ º+ar +r ¤‛e º« =+a +=r
zst s1 s= +rzªr ·rrzat¤ ·rr‛rr¤r +r ¤r·rt=+t+zªr sr zsr s 1 a =r+ = ¤-¤> º+ a =r
¤ t«=arz = t««¤=r +t s t+ t+= ¤+rz =¤=a ·rrzat¤ ·rr‛rr¤r ¤ ¤o¬t ‘r-:r +r
¤¤ro t=z-az +ear ¬r zsr s 1 ¤ ·¤+ ·rr‛rr +r ¤rt+=` ¬r=«rar ¤r¤ ¤r:¤t zra +r
=r= = ¤sa ¤ar¤` aorar s 1 =+ z + ’r` ¤z ¤=e` aor+z e¸·r + ’r` +zar s a:z
+t¤` aor+z z¬ z` = ’r«` +zar s =r¤` º« ’r-¤¸` = =srar s s¤z ¤r¤a`
aor+z ¤¤= +ra +=rar s ¤szt«¤z` ’re` ¤ e` a·rr ¬rsr ¤ ¤a¤r«z` +re`
=¸e` ¤r«z+re` ¤s=+z =rst+a`/ +=`/ ar+a e =` = ¤¤= ¤rt+= ¬rar s 1 ¤·¤+
·rr‛rr +r =rs+` ·rt ¤¤= ¤rt+= ¬ra sº ¤s =+ +zar s ¤s +ra ¤ao s t+ «s ’re`
¤z ers` ·rt aorar s ’re` +r +raz` et+ +zar s ’r¸` / +¸e` ¤s=+z ¤¤z` ¤z
+e+z et+a` ¤z aor +++r=e` +z ¤¤=t +rz` = ¤¤= ¤rt+= ¬rar s 1 ¤+ ¤ ·¤+
·rr‛rr + ¤·¤¤ =az + ¤tz«rzr ¤ ¤¤z`et+a`=r+r=e`eta+r=` ¤r+rsa`et «t `
«rt’ro ¤’rt=` ¤rt: =r¤r=r / s¤+zªrr +r ¤¤ro ¤r¤ sr o¤r s ¤r z s= +rzªr s= ‘r-:r
+r ¤¤ro ·rt ¤ ·¤+ ·rr‛rr +r ·¤t+a +zar s 1=·rt ·rrzat¤ ·rr‛rr¤r + +--¤¸ez ¤z +r¤
+z= «ra ·¤t+a ¤e¤¤-e s-ez=e s & +r¤= º+=-arzz ºsª= «rz º-et«r¤z=
+-ee +--¤¸ez +r¤t ers¤ e+=e eo eªr-=+z srs=ars sr+¤¸ ¤e srer =re¤s
¤ro r¤ +rsa + r¤ e +rs=z ¤¤rzt ¤a ¤rs¤ + rs=z ¤¸¬z ta+ «-s «rss «+ «+
«+ =rse «+ =rse ¤-r =t+ o =«z =rse =r+e«¤z sr¤¤¬ ¤rt: ‘r-:r +r ·rs-a =
¤¤ro +za s 1
«a ¤r= ¤ ¤’rr== t«nr= a+=t+ º« ¤r:¤rto+t + tr>r ¤ =¤r= ‘r-:r«at =·rt
·rrzat¤ ·rr‛rr¤r +t =-¤:r s 1+-:t¤ ts-:t t=: ’rra¤ zrzr ¤+rt’ra ¤t=ra ·rrzat¤
‘r-:r«at` ¤ «tªra s= t«t·r-= t«‛r¤r = =-+t-·ra ao·ro =ee ‘r-:r ¤ = ss ¤ta’ra ‘r-:
=·rt ·rrzat¤ ·rr‛rr¤r ¤ =¤r= s 1

¤r¤ º« :t«s ¤tz«rz +t ·rr‛rr¤r ¤ =«t=+ a·«r +r ¤z=¤z ¤r:r=-¤:r=
¤r¤ º« :t«s ¤tz«rz +t ·rr‛rr¤r ¤ rr-:r«at + =az ¤z ¤z=¤z ¤r:r=-¤:r= + +rzªr
¤r¤ º« :t«s ¤tz«rz +t ·rr‛rr¤r + =«=r ¼ ·«t=¤r ½ +r osªr +z= +t ¤t+¤r ¤rz-·r
s s1 t¬= t«zr=r = ¤r: ¤ ·rrzr¤t¤ ·rr·rr +t =«t=t¤+-·¤«=·rr +r ¤= ¤r= t+¤r s s=+
¤==rz s=¤ ¤¸z -¤ =«=r ¼ ·«t=¤r ½ +r ¤·rr« ·rr1 ·rrzr¤t¤ ¤tz«rz +t ·rrzat¤
¤r¤ -rrr=rr + s¤a-·r ¤r¤t=a¤ =¤- «t:+ ==+a - ¤ ¤¸z-¤ =«=r ¼ ·«t=¤r ½ +r
¤¤ro s¤r s1 ¤t·r+rrr t«zr=r +t ¤r-¤ar s t+ ¤¸z-¤ =«=r ¼ ·«t=¤r ½ +r ¤ ¤ro :t«s
·rr·rr¤r + ¤·rr« + +rzªr s ¤r s 1 ¤·¤+rat= ·rrzat¤ ¤r¤-·rr·rr +ra ¤ ¤rta º« ¤r+ a
¤rt: ·rr·rr¤r ¤ :t«s ¤tz«rz +t ·rr‛rr¤r + +rzªr s=« º ` º« ¤r ` =«zr +r t«+r= s ¤r1
s=t ¤+rz ¤r:¤ :t«s ·rr·rr ¤ ¤sr¤rªr ·¤¬= =«=r ¼ ·«t=¤r ½ +r ¤·rr« s 1 at¤a a·rr
+c ¤-¤ :t«s ·rr·rr¤r ¤ ¤r¬ ·rt s= =«=r ¼ ·«t=¤r ½ +r ¤¤ro =st sr ar t+-a :t«s
¤tz«rz +t ¤-¤ ·rr·rr¤r ¤·rr aa o ¤a¤ra¤ º« +--rs ¤rt: :t«s ¤tz«rz +t ·rr‛rr¤r ¤
¤sr¤rªr ·¤ ¬= =«=r ¼ ·«t=¤r ½ +r ¤¤ro sr = aor s1 s= ¤+rz ¬sr :t«s-¤tz«rz +t
·rr·rr¤r = ·rrzat¤ ¤r¤ ·rr·rr¤r +r ¤¸z -¤ ¤rt: =«= ¼ ·«t=¤r¡ ½ ¤:r= t+º s «st
¤t·r+rrr ¤r·rt=+ :t«s ·rr·rr¤r = ·rrzat¤ ¤r¤ -¤tz«rz +t ·rr·rr¤r = ¤sr¤rªr ·¤ ¬=
=«=r ¼ ·«t=¤r ½ +r ¤r:r= t+¤r s 1
¤r¤ º« :t«s ¤tz«rz +t ·rr‛rr¤r ¤ ‘r-:oa z¤=r
:r=r ¤tz«rzr +t ¤r·rt=+ ·rr·rr¤r ¤ ·rrt‛r+ - ·¤«=·rr º« = z¤=r·¤+ =¤r=ar¤r +r ·rt
t«+r= s ¤r s 1 s= =-+-·r ¤ :rr + ·rr·rr-«nrt=+r +r ·¤r= t«rr·r =¤ = ¤r+·e sr=r
¤rtsº a·rr s= ¤tz«rzr +t ·rr‛rr¤r + =r:’¤ + º++rta+ ¤·¤¤= =-¤-= sr = ¤rtsº1
¤r·rt=+ ¤r¤ ·rr·rr¤r ¤ ¤z=or +r t«+r= sr zsr s ¬r :t«s-¤tz«rz +t ·rr·rr¤r +t
‘r-:oa z¤=r + ¤==¤ s 1 ¤sr ¤s s-a =r=t¤ s t+ ¤r·rt=+ ·rrzat¤ ¤r¤ ·rr·rr¤r +t
¤z=or +t ¤r¬=r ¤r¤t= ·rrzat¤ ¤r¤ ·rr·rr¤r +t ‘r-:oa z¤=r = t·r-= s1 ==+ a º«
ts-:t +t ‘r-:oa z¤=r¤r + a a=r·¤+ ¤·¤¤= = ¤s =¤‛e s 1 ts-:t ¤ =` +r` =`
s·¤rt: ¤z=o = nr ¤rt: ‘r-:r + ¤r¤ra ¬s+z s=+r =-+-·r «r+¤ + t+=t :¸=z rr-: +
=r·r ·¤+a +za s 1 = =+a ¤ = nr rr-: +r «r+¤ + t+=t :¸=z rr-: = =-+-·r ¤r taa
+z= + taº ‘r-: +t ¤: t=tz` t«·rt+a¤r + zrzr =t’a‛e =-r ¤ srat ·rt1 ==+ a
·¤r+zªrr ¤ =-+-·r ¤r a+ ¤ t«·rt+a¤r¡ ¤re +rz+r +r t=z +zat s1 ts:t ¤ t«·rt+a +
·rzraa ¤z t+=t ·rt = nr rr-: + ¤·¤+ «¤= ¤ ¤t·r+a¤ at= =¤ t¤aa s 1 s=+r s=
=¤r = «r+¤ + ¤-¤ rr-:r + =r·r =-+-·r ¤r taa =st srar1 ts-:t ¤ ¤s +r¤ t«·rt+a¤¤
=¤ + ¤r¤ra ¬s= «ra =` +r` =` ¤rt: ¤z=o +za s1
s=t ¤+rz ¤r·rt=+ ·rrzat¤ ¤r¤ ·rr·rr¤r +t +:-at¤ =¤r º« =¤ +a t+¤r¤r +t ¤r ¬=r
·rt ¤r·rt=+ :t«s ·rr·rr¤r +t ‘r-:oa z¤=r + ¤t·r+ =-r:t+ s 1 ¤¤t¤ ·rr·rr-« nrt=+ s=
t«·r¤ ¤z º+¤a =st s t+ ¤r·rt=+ ·rrzat¤ ¤r¤ ·rr·rr¤r ¤ = ¤+a t+¤r¤r +r ¤¤ro
+«a :t«s ·rr·rr¤r + ¤·rr« + +rzªr s a·rrt¤ =¤ +a t+¤r¤r + +rs -¤ +r +rzªr ar
:t«s ·rr·rr¤r + ¤·rr« +r ¤r=r ¬r =+ar s1
¤r·rt=+ ·rrzat¤ :t«s ·rr·rr¤r ¤ ·rt º= ¤=+ ¤tz«a= sº s ¬r ¤r¤t= :t«s ·rr·rr +t
¤+ta + ¤==¤ =st s a·rr ¤r·rt=+ ·rrzat¤ ¤r¤ ·rr·rr¤r +t «¤r+ztªr+ ·¤«=·rr +
t=+e s 1 ¤r·rt=+ ·rrzat¤ :t«s ·rr·rr¤r ¤ = +c ·rr·rr¤r ¤ = tra·e =+rzr·¤+ t+¤r
=¤r +r s·azr az sr= sr zsr s º« s=¤ t=·r·rr·¤+ ¤·¤¤ º« t+¤r =¤r + ¤ao-¤ao
¤¤ro zrzr =+rzr·¤+ «r+¤r +t z¤=r +t ¤« t·a +e zst s1 ¤r:¤ : t«s ·rr·rr ¤ t=·r·rr·¤+
¤·¤¤ +r ¤ ¤ro t+¤r =¤ + =r·r =tra·e =¤ ¤ sr ar ·rr1 at¤a ¤r¬ ·rt ¤¤=t s=
t«trr·ear +r +=rº s º s 1 =¤=a ·rrzat¤ ¤r¤ ·rr·rr¤r ¤ t=·r·rr·¤+ ¤·¤¤ +r ¤ ¤ro t+¤r
=¤ = t«·r+a =¤ ¤ srar s1 ·rrzat¤ ¤r¤·rr·rr¤r +t s= =t¤¤ ∕ ‘r-:oa z¤=r + ¤==¤
st ·rrzat¤ :t«s-¤tz«rz +t +c ¤r·rt=+ ·rr·rr¤r ¤ t=·r·rr·¤+ ¤·¤¤ +r t+¤r =¤ +
=r·r = tra·e =¤ ¤ =st ¤t¤a t«·r+a =-r ¤ ¤¤ro t¤aar s 1 s=+r aa o = º+ s:rszªr
a+z =¤mr¤r ¬r =+ar s t¬=¤ t=·r·rr·¤+ ¤·¤¤ a:` t+¤r = t«·r+a =¤ ¤ ¤¤+a s
·
== ¤r«:= - ¤ ¬r=or 1 == ¤r«e¤ a: - ¤ =st ¬r=or1
¤r·rt=+ :t«s ·rr·rr¤r ¤ t«rr·rªrr º« t+¤r-t«rr·rªrr +t t¬= =¤ ¤ =z¤=r +t ¬r zst s
a·rr s=+r t¬= ¤+rz t«+r= sr zsr s s= ¤z ·rt ·rrzat¤ ¤r¤ ·rr·rr -¤tz«rz +t ·rr·rr¤r
+r ¤·rr« :=rr ¬r =+ar s 1
¤r¤ º« : t«ªr ¤tz«rz +t ·rr‛rr¤r +t «r+¤t«-¤r=t =z¤=r
«r+¤-=z¤=r +t :t·e = ·rt :r=r ¤tz«rzr +t ·rr·rr¤r ¤ =r:’¤ s 1 :r =r ¤tz«rzr +t
·rr·rr¤r + s= =r:’¤ +r at¤ +z+ sre = =tta +¤rz ¤re -¤r = ta=rr s· :t«s ¤tz«rz
+t ·rr·rr¤r -¤·rr at¤a ¤·r«r +-=s +t ·rr·rr +r +rs «r+¤ =r·rrzªra· +oar ¤·r«r ts-:t
+r «r+¤ += =+ar s ¤t: s¤ s= «r+¤ ¤ ¤¤+a :t«s rr-:-=¤r + =·rr= ¤z rr-:+¤
¤ ¤tz«a= t+¤ t+=r st ts-:t ¤·r«r +oar ·rr·rr + =¤r=·r+ rr-:-=¤r +r ¤¤r o +z :1
t+-a s= t«t·r = +rz=t ¤·r«r ¤o ¬t + «r+¤r +r ¤r·rt=+ ·rrzat¤ ¤r¤ ·rr·rr¤r +
«r+¤r ¤ =¤rt¤a +z=r =-·r« =st s `1
¤¤t¤ sre ¤re-¤r +r ¤s +·r= ¤ ·¤+ :t«s ·rr·rr + ¤·¤+ ¤+rz + «r+¤ + taº et+
=st +ear t+-a =r¤r-¤a· ¤s =·¤ s 1 =t¤ ts-:t º« a ao + «r+¤r zrzr :r=r ¤tz«rzr
+t ·rr·rr¤r +t «r+¤-=z¤=r + =r:’¤ +t ¤ «ta +r ¤s¤r=r ¬r =+ar s 1
ts-:t - s¤ =·¤ +·rr +sa s 1
aao - ¤¤ =·¤¤s=r +·r= ¤¤¤-==r¤ 1
ts-:t - «s ¤·¤r¤+ s= as+r +r ¤rzar s 1
a ao - ¤r ¤ a a t¤-aa= +ree ars 1
s== «r+¤r ¤ «¤r+ztªr+ =«or +r =¤r= +¤ =¤·e s 1 «r+¤r·¤+ z¤=r +t :t‛e =
·rrzat¤ ·rr‛rr¤r +t º+ar + =-+-·r ¤ t«=aa t««¤= ¤¤ttra s1
s:rszªrr·r ·rrzat¤ ·rr‛rr¤r ¤ =+¤+ t+¤r¤r «rat «r+¤r·¤+ =z¤=r¤r ¤ +ar +¤ º«
t+¤r ¤:+·rr +r +¤ t=-= s ·
¤+r¤r·¤+ +rte +ar +¤ t+ ¤r
=z¤=r·¤+ s+rs ¤:+-·r ¤:-r-·r ¤:-r-·r
¤:+-·r = nr ¤:+-·r ¼ NP ½ =nr ¤:+-·r ¼ NP ½ t+¤r ¤:+-·r ¼ VP½
s:rszªr t’r+rzt = º+ ‘rz ¤rzr

·rrzr¤t¤ ¤tz«rz ·rrzr¤t¤ ¤tz«rz +t ¤¸zr¤t¤ ·rr”rr¤r ¤ ¤s ؤ t·r-= s 1 ¤·rr·
¤+r¤r·¤+ +rte +ar tؤr +¤
-r: + ·r
=nr ¤:+·r( NP ) tؤr¤:+·r ( VP ) =nr ¤:+·r( NP )
s:rszªr
The hunter shot a tiger
s:rszªrr·r =¤¸ = + arz ¤z ¤r·rt=+ ·rrzat¤ ¤r¤ ·rr”rr¤r ¤ = ts-:t + oar ¤zret º«
¤r·rt=+ ·rrzat¤ :t«s ·rr”rr¤r ¤ = at¤a aao ¤a¤ra¤ +-=s + «r+¤r zrzr :r=r
¤tz«rzr +t ·rr”rr¤r + «r+¤r +t =¤r= =z¤=r +r =¤”e +z= +r ¤¤r= t+¤r ¬r zsr
s ·¼ a=r+ +r ¤s =r¤ot +-:t¤ ts-:t ==·rr= + s :zr+r: +-: + ¤r + =z º« tr>t¤
t=:’r+ sr et + =rzr¤ªr t¤-a + =r¬-¤ = ¤r-a s s ½
¼)½
·rr”rr +r =r¤
=nr¤:+·r(NP) =nr ¤:+·r( NP ) tؤr¤:+·r ( VP )
ts-:t zrsa æt«s ¤·ct tØds V =raar s
+oar zrsa æt«s ·rrar tØds V =ra
¤zret zrsa æt«s ¤roar tØds V
=rGar
at¤a zrsa æt«s tØds V~ Vq uYy
t«G¤rtet+zr=
a ao zrsa æt«s tØds V ckxk ¤rsars
-ra¤ra¤ zrsa æt«s =-a«ªªr¤tØds Íq
+tG++¤
+-=s zrsa æt«s tØds Vq pUukxh ¤rsar=
¼z½
·rr”rr +r =r¤
¤·«¤ ¤:+·r =nr ¤:+·r
tؤr¤:+·r
ts-:t +ar= ¤ et¤z -rer zsr s
+oar +ar= et¤z ¤rsr·c
¤zret «ora et¤z t’r+«a ¤rs
at¤a +art=a et¤z ¤re¤¤rt-a+rst++zrz
a ao +ar=ar et¤z ·r:« ¤ -¤a-=rs
-ra¤ra¤ +art=a et·¤z ¤tet-¤·¤+rtªetz++-=
+-=s +ar==t-a et¤= ¤r:t’¤ar=

¼a½
·rr”rr +r =r¤
=«=r¤ ¤:+·r ¤·¤¤ ¤:+·r
tؤr¤:+·r
ts-:t s== +re ¤ ¤¤ta +t
+oar = +re ¤r¤ta +rzar
¤zret ·¤r= +rera ¤¤ta +at
at¤a ¤«= +rtea ¤-¤ta ¤¤ta=t+zr=
a ao ¤a= +rear ¤¤ta ¤=rs
-ra¤ra¤
¤¤rG
+rteea ¤-¤ta+re·a
+-=s ¤”e +re=t-a ¤¤ta ¤rtsar=
·rrza ¤ +rat ¬r= «rat t·r-= ·rr‛rr ¤tz«rzr +t ·rr·rr¤r + =¤r= +rs + «nrt=+ º«
·¤«t=·ra ¤·¤¤= +t ¤r«r¤+ar ¤=t:··r s1 t+=t ·rt t«‛r¤ +r ·r: :t‛e = ¤·¤¤=
+z= ¤z ¬sr s¤ ¤-az ¤=¤r=arº t·r-=arº ¤t·r+ t:=rrs : at s s=t t«‛r¤ +r ¤·r:
:t‛e = ¤·¤¤= +z= ¤z s¤ º+ar =¤r=ar =r:’¤ =¬ z ¤rar s 1 t«zr=r = ·rrza +t
·rr‛rr¤r + ·r:r +t ¬r ¤ ¤sara ar +s a +t s ; ^ +ra +t =rra ` +s a t=+rat s 1 +r¤=r
s t+ t«zr= aro ·rrza +t ·rr‛rr¤r ¤ t«:¤¤r= =r:’¤ + =¸ >r +t =rr¬ + +r¤ ¤ ·rt
s=t t=‛er + =r·r ¤«·a sr t¬== ·rrza +t ·rrt‛r+ º+ar +t ¤«·rrzªrr ¤rz ¤t·r+ =¤‛e
º« s¬roz sr =+1
---------------------------
¤r+ =z ¤sr«tz =z= ¬ =
¼=«r t=«·a t=:’r+ +-:t¤ ts-:t ==·rr=½
)za stz º-+a«
+a-: ‘rsz - zeaee)
mahavirsaranjain@gmail.com

































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