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Studies of Religion - Islam 1

Studies of Religion - Islam 1

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Published by Lachlan Brown
HSC 2009 SoR notes for Islam
Included are notes for the significant person and for sexual ethics
HSC 2009 SoR notes for Islam
Included are notes for the significant person and for sexual ethics

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Published by: Lachlan Brown on Oct 14, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Ayatollah Khomeini Biography • Ayatollah Khomeini lived from 1902-1989.

• He accused the Shah of Iran for abandoning Islamic precepts in favour of imperialism in the early 1960s. • Opposed the Shah's White Revolution which was intended to modernise the state and fled the country in 1964. • During 15 years of exile he wrote a book on how to apply a pure form of Islam to the state, and issued many fatwas. • One particular fatwa called on the whole religious establishment to move with him against the Shah. • In 1977, Khomeini again called for the overthrow of the Shah. Interpretation of Principal Beliefs • Wanted a return to the basic Islamic principles. • Fundamentalist Muslim. • Wanted an Islamic State – a theocracy with Allah at the head. • Wished to apply Shari'a law to Iran, and by extension, the whole world. • Firmly believed that the only way to heal the alienation in Iranian society was to create a state based entirely on a pure form of Islamic law. Contribution to Islam • Fundamentalist Islam. • Return to Shari'a law. • Strengthened country of Iran spiritually, and gave a sense of national and religious pride. Impact of Life • By revolutionising Iran, Khomeini was able to spread the ideology of fundamentalist Islam throughout much of the Arabic world. • Popularised a desire to fight for a return to pure Islam. • This fuelled tensions between Westerners and Muslims – hostage crisis of 1979 • Lead to militant fundamentalist Islamic groups such as Hezbollah, the Taliban, and various terror organisations. • Inspired many to re-devote their lives to Islam. • Iran-Iraq War • USA as the Great Satan Muzzo Secks Premarital and Extramarital Sex • Fall under the category of 'fornication' or 'zina'. • Sura 24 verse 2 “The woman and the man guilty of illegal sexual intercourse, flog each of them with a hundred stripes (of the whip).” • In some Islamic countries, being alone with a stranger of the opposite gender is as bad as having sex with them. • The first few verses of sura 23 make it clear that a man is allowed to have sex with his wives (up to four) and any female slaves he might legally own. • However, other verses seem to be in favour of monogamy because the man must treat his wives equally or else only take one.

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Monogamy is thought to have been sanctioned because in Muhammad's time, many women would be left without a husband or father because of a battle so it was seen as an act of kindness to take many wives. To have sex outside the bond of marriage is seen as an attack on the community and a breach of the marriage contract.

Gaybuttsecks • The Qur'an makes a direct link between the sins of the city of Sodom and homosexuality in sura 7 verse 80-84. • Allah condemns homosexuality and rains stones down on the city of Sodom in punishment. • In sura 4 verse 15, Allah also condemns lesbianism and commands that lesbians be confined to their house until death. • Aside from that, there is no explicit punishment in the Qur'an for homosexuality but the Prophet says in the Hadith to “Kill the one who sodomises and the one who lets it be done with him”. • He also likens homosexuality to adultery which is punishable by stoning to death. • Most Islamic societies refuse to see homosexuality as a personal identity or lifestyle choice, but instead see it as a sinful and illicit act which deviates from the male-female marriage and birth of children which are essential to Islamic life. Intimacy • Men and women are kept segregated for as much as possible outside of marriage to keep them from performing illicit sexual acts. Sura 17:32 • Muslim women must also be chaperoned when they are in public and they must keep themselves covered when in public. • The only contact between men and women who are unfamiliar with each other should be supervised courting before marriage and nothing else. Contraception • There are no verses in the Qur'an that specifically discuss contraception. • In practice, most Muslim authorities permit contraception to preserve the health of the mother or the well-being of the family. • There are a number of Hadith that imply that the Prophet approved of contraception in some circumstances. • Permanent contraception with the aim of having a completely child-free marriage is not permissible because it is accepted that a Muslim couple will reproduce.

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