Digital Modulation | Modulation | Bandwidth (Signal Processing)

DIGITAL MODULATIONS

(Chapter 8)
1999 BG Mobasseri 2
Why digital modulation?
 If our goal was to design a digital
baseband communication system, we have
done that
 Problem is baseband communication won’t
takes us far, literally and figuratively
 Digital modulation to a square pulse is
what analog modulation was to messages

1999 BG Mobasseri 3
A block diagram
Messsage
source
Source
coder
Line coder
Pulse
shaping
demodulator detector
channel
modulator
decision
1011
GEOMETRIC
REPRESENTATION OF
SIGNALS
1999 BG Mobasseri 5
The idea
 We are used to seeing signals expressed
either in time or frequency domain
 There is another representation space that
portrays signals in more intuitive format
 In this section we develop the idea of
signals as multidimensional vectors
1999 BG Mobasseri 6
Have we seen this before?
 Why yes! Remember the beloved e
j2πfct

which can be written as
e
j2πfct
=cos(2πf
c
t)+jsin(2πf
c
t)
inphase
quadrature
1999 BG Mobasseri 7
Expressing signals as a
weighted sum
 Suppose a signal set consists of M signals
s
i
(t),I=1,…,M. Each signal can be
represented by a linear sum of basis
functions
s
i
t ( ) = s
ij
|
j
t ( )
j =1
N
¿
i =1,..., M
0 s t s T
1999 BG Mobasseri 8
Conditions on basis functions
 For the expansion to hold, basis functions
must be orthonormal to each other
 Mathematically:

 Geometrically:
|
i
t ( )|
j
t ( )
}
dt =
0 i = j
1 i = j
¦
´
¹
|
i
|
j
|
k
1999 BG Mobasseri 9
Components of the signal
vector
 Each signal needs N numbers to be
represented by a vector. These N numbers
are given by projecting each signal onto
the individual basis functions:



 s
ij
means projection of s
i
(t)on |
j
(t)
s
ij
= s
i
(t)|
j
t ( )
0
T
}
dt
s
ij

s
i

|
j

1999 BG Mobasseri 10
Signal space dimension
 How many basis functions does it take to
express a signal? It depends on the
dimensionality of the signal
 Some need just 1 some need an infinite
number.
 The number of dimensions is N and is
always less than the number of signals in
the set
N<=M
1999 BG Mobasseri 11
Example: Fourier series
 Remember Fouirer series? A signal was
expanded as a linear sum of sines and
cosines of different frequencies. Sounds
familiar?
 Sines and cosines are the basis functions
and are in fact orthogonal to each other
cos 2tnf
o
t ( )
T
o
}
cos 2tmf
o
t ( )dt = 0, m = n
f
o
=1/ T
o
1999 BG Mobasseri 12
Example: four signal set
 A communication system sends one of 4
possible signals. Expand each signal in
terms of two given basis functions
1 1
1 1 2
1
-0.5
2
1
1999 BG Mobasseri 13
Components of s
1
(t)
 This is a 2-Dsignal space. Therefore, each
signal can be represented by a pair of
numbers. Let’s find them
 For s
1
(t)
s
11
= s
1
(t)|
1
t ( )
0
2
}
dt = 1 ( ) 1 ( )
0
1
}
dt + 0 =1
s
12
= s
1
(t)|
2
t ( )
0
2
}
dt = 0 + ÷0.5 ( ) 1 ( )
0
1
}
dt = ÷0.5
t
t
1 2
1
1
-0.5
s
1
(t)
|
1

s=(1,-0.5)
1999 BG Mobasseri 14
Interpretation
 s
1
(t) is now condensed into just two
numbers. We can “reconstruct” s
1
(t) like
this
s
1
(t)=(1)|
1
(t)+(-0.5)|
2
(t)
 Another way of looking at it is this
1
-0.5
|
1

|
2

1999 BG Mobasseri 15
Signal constellation
 Finding individual components of each
signal along the two dimensions gets us
the constellation
s4
s1
s2
s3
|
1

|
2

-0.5
-0.5 0.5
1999 BG Mobasseri 16
Learning from the
constellation
 So many signal properties can be inferred
by simple visual inspection or simple math
 Orthogonality:
• s
1
and s
4
or orthogonal. To show that, simply find
their inner product, < s
1
, s
4
>
< s
1
, s
4
>=s
11
xs
41
+s
12
xs
42
(1)(0.5)+(1)(-0.5)=0

1999 BG Mobasseri 17
Finding the energy from the
constellation
 This is a simple matter. Remember,


 Replace the signal by its expansion
E
i
= s
i
2
(t)dt
0
T
}
E
i
= s
ij
|
j
(t)
j =1
N
¿

¸

(
¸
(
0
T
}
s
ik
|
k
(t)
k =1
N
¿

¸

(
¸
(
dt
1999 BG Mobasseri 18
Exploiting the orthogonality
of basis functions
 Expanding the summation, all cross
product terms integrate to zero. What
remains are N terms where j=k
E
i
= s
ij
2
|
j
2
t ( )
j =1
N
¿

¸

(
¸
(
0
T
}
dt = s
ij
2
|
j
2
t ( )dt
0
T
}

¸

(
¸
(
j=1
N
¿
s
ij
2
|
j
2
t ( )dt
0
T
}
=1
j =1
N
¿
= s
ij
2
j =1
N
¿
1999 BG Mobasseri 19
Energy in simple language
 What we just saw says that the energy of a
signal is simply the square of the length of
its corresponding constellation vector
3
2
E=9+4=13
E
1999 BG Mobasseri 20
Constrained energy signals
 Let’s say you are under peak energy E
p
constraint in your application. Just make
sure all your signals are inside a circle of
radius sqrt(E
p
)
E
p
1999 BG Mobasseri 21
Correlation of two signals
 A very desirable situation in is to have
signals that are mutually orthogonal. How
do we test this? Find the angle between
them
u
s1
s2
cos u
12
( ) =
s
1
T
s
2
s
1
× s
2
transpose
1999 BG Mobasseri 22
Find the angle between s
1
and
s
2

 Given that s
1
=(1,2)
T
and s
2
=(2,1)
T
, what is
the angle between the two?
s
1
T
s
2
= 1 2
| |
2
1

¸

(
¸
(
= 2 + 2 = 4
s
1
= 1+ 4 = 5
s
2
= 4 +1 = 5
cos u
12
( ) =
4
5 × 5
=
4
5
¬u
12
= 36.9
o
1999 BG Mobasseri 23
Distance between two signals
 The closer signals are together the more
chances of detection error. Here is how we
can find their separation
d
12
2
= s
1
÷ s
2
2
= s
1j
÷ s
2 j
( )
2
j =1
N
¿
= (1)
2
+ (1)
2
= 2
¬ d
12
= 2
1 2
1
2
1999 BG Mobasseri 24
Constellation building using
correlator banks
 We can decompose the signal into its
components as follows
s(t)
|
1

|
2

|
N

dt
0
T
}
dt
0
T
}
dt
0
T
}
s
1

s
2

s
N

N components
1999 BG Mobasseri 25
Detection in the constellation
space
 Received signal is put through the filter
bank below and mapped to a point
s(t)
|
1

|
2

|
N

dt
0
T
}
dt
0
T
}
dt
0
T
}
s
1

s
2

s
N

components
mapped to a single point
1999 BG Mobasseri 26
Constellation recovery in
noise
 Assume signal is contaminated with noise.
All N components will also be affected.
The original position of s
i
(t) will be
disturbed
1999 BG Mobasseri 27
Actual example
 Here is a 16-level constellation which is
reconstructed in the presence of noise
-2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
-2
-1.5
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
Eb/No=5 dB
1999 BG Mobasseri 28
Detection in signal space
 One of the M allowable signals is
transmitted, processed through the bank of
correlators and mapped onto constellation
question is based on what we see , what
was the transmitted signal?
received signal
which of the four did it
come from
1999 BG Mobasseri 29
Minimum distance decision
rule
 It can be shown that the optimum decision,
in the sense of lowest BER, is to pick the
signal that is closest to the received
vector. This is called maximum likelihood
decision making
this is the most likely
transmitted signal
received
1999 BG Mobasseri 30
Defining decision regions
 An easy detection method, is to compute
“decision regions” offline. Here are a few
examples
decide s1
decide s2
s1
s2
measurement
decide s1
decide s2
decide s3 decide s4
s1
s2
s3
s4
decide s1
s1
1999 BG Mobasseri 31
More formally...
 Partition the decision space into M
decision regions Z
i
, i=1,…,M. Let X be the
measurement vector extracted from the
received signal. Then
if XeZ
i
¬s
i
was transmitted
1999 BG Mobasseri 32
How does detection error
occur?
 Detection error occurs when X lands in Z
i

but it wasn’t s
i
that was transmitted.
Noise, among others, may be the culprit
departure from transmitted
position due to noise
X
s
i

1999 BG Mobasseri 33
Error probability
 we can write an expression for error like
this
P{error|s
i
}=P{X does not lie in Z
i
|s
i
was
transmitted}
 Generally

P
e
= P X eZ
i
| s
i
{ }P{
i =1
M
¿ s
i
}
1999 BG Mobasseri 34
Example: BPSK
(binary phase shift keying)
 BPSK is a well known digital modulation
obtained by carrier modulating a polar NRZ
signal. The rule is
1: s
1
=Acos(2πf
c
t)
0:s
2
= - Acos(2πf
c
t)
1’s and 0’s are identified by 180 degree
phase reversal at bit transitions
1999 BG Mobasseri 35
Signal space for BPSK
 Look at s
1
and s
2
. What is the basis
function for them? Both signals can be
uniquely written as a scalar multiple of a
cosine. So a single cosine is the sole basis
function. We have a 1-D constellation

A -A
cos(2pif
c
t)
1999 BG Mobasseri 36
Bringing in E
b

 We want each bit to have an energy E
b
.
Bits in BPSK are RF pulses of amplitude A
and duration T
b
. Their energy is A
2
T
b
/2 .
Therefore
E
b
= A
2
T
b
/2 --->A=sqrt(2E
b
/T
b
)
 We can write the two bits as follows
s
1
t ( ) =
2E
b
T
b
cos 2tf
c
t ( )
s
2
t ( ) = ÷
2E
b
T
b
cos 2tf
c
t
( )
1999 BG Mobasseri 37
BPSK basis function
 As a 1-D signal, there is one basis function.
We also know that basis functions must
have unit energy. Using a normalization
factor


E
|
=1
|
1
t ( ) =
2
T
b
cos 2tf
c
t ( )
1999 BG Mobasseri 38
Formulating BER
 BPSK constellation looks like this
√E
b
-√E
b

X|1=[√E
b
+n,n]
transmitted
received
noise
P
e1
= P E
b
+ n < 0 | 1 is transmitted
{ }
if noise is negative enough, it will push
X to the left of the boundary, deciding 0
instead
1999 BG Mobasseri 39
Finding BER
 Let’s rewrite BER


 But n is gaussian with mean 0 and
variance N
o
/2
P
e1
= P E
b
+ n < 0 | 1
{ }
= P n < ÷ E
b
{ }
-sqrt(E
b
)
1999 BG Mobasseri 40
BER for BPSK
 Using the trick to find the area under a
gaussian density(after normalization with
respect to variance)

BER=Q[(2E
b
/No)
0.5
]
or
BER=0.5erfc[(E
b
/No)
0.5
]
1999 BG Mobasseri 41
BPSK Example
 Data is transmitted at R
b
=10
6
b/s. Noise
PSD is 10
-6
and pulses are rectangular with
amplitude 0.2 volt. What is the BER?
 First we need energy per bit, E
b
. 1’s and 0’s
are sent by
±
2E
b
T
b
cos(2tf
c
t) ¬
2E
b
T
b
= 0.2
1999 BG Mobasseri 42
Solving for E
b

 Since bit rate is 10
6
, bit length must be
1/R
b
=10
-6
 Therefore,
E
b
=20x10
-6
=20 µw-sec
 Remember, this is the received energy.
What was transmitted are probably several
orders of magnitude bigger
1999 BG Mobasseri 43
Solving for BER
 Noise PSD is N
o
/2 =10
-6
. We know for BPSK
BER=0.5erfc[(E
b
/No)
0.5
]
 What we have is then




 Finish this using erf tables

BER=
1
2
erfc
E
b
N
o
|
\

|
.
| =
1
2
erfc
2 ×10
÷7
2 ×10
÷6
|
\

|
.
|
=
1
2
erfc( 0.1) =
1
2
erfc(0.316)
1999 BG Mobasseri 44
Binary FSK
(Frequency Shift Keying)
 Another method to transmit 1’s and 0’s is
to use two distinct tones, f
1
and f
2
of the
form below



 But what is the requirements on the tones?
Can they be any tones?
s
i
t ( ) =
2E
b
T
b
cos 2tf
i
t ( ), 0 s t s T
b
0
¦
´
¦
¹
¦
1999 BG Mobasseri 45
Picking the right tones
 It is desirable to keep the tones orthogonal
 Since tones are sinusoids, it is sufficient
for the tones to be separated by an integer
multiple of inverse duration, i.e.
f
i
=
n
c
+ i
T
b
, i =1, 2
n
c
= some integer
1999 BG Mobasseri 46
Example tones
 Let’s say we are sending data at the rate
of 1 Mb/sec in BFSK, What are some
typical tones?
 Bit length is 10
-6
sec. Therefore, possible
tones are (use n
c
=0)
f
1
=1/T
b
=1 MHz

f
2
=2/T
b
=2MHz

1999 BG Mobasseri 47
BFSK dimensionality
 What does the constellation of BFSK look
like? We first have to find its dimension
 s
1
and s
2
can be represented by two
orthonormal basis functions:


 Notice f
1
and f
2
are selected to make them
orthogonal

|
i
t ( ) =
2
T
b
cos 2tf
i
t ( ), 0 s t s T
b
1999 BG Mobasseri 48
BFKS constellation
 There are two dimensions. Find the
components of signals along each
dimension using
s
11
= s
1
t ( )
0
T
b
}
|
1
t ( )dt = E
b
s
12
= s
1
t ( )
0
T
b
}
|
2
t ( )dt = 0
s
1
= ( E
b
, 0)
E
b
E
b
1999 BG Mobasseri 49
Decision regions in BFSK
 Decisions are made based on distances.
Signals closer to s
1
will be classified as s
1

and vice versa
1999 BG Mobasseri 50
Detection error in BFSK
 Let the received signal land where shown.
 Assume s
1
is sent. How would a detection
error occur?


 x
2
>x
1
puts X in the
s
2
partition
s
1

s
2

X=received
x
1

x
2

P
e1
=P{x
2
>x
1
|s
1
was sent}
1999 BG Mobasseri 51
Where do (x
1
,x
2
) come from?
 Use the correlator bank to extract signal
components
x=
s
1
(t)+noise
|
1

|
2

dt
0
T
b
}
dt
0
T
b
}
x
1
(gaussian)
x
2
(gaussian)
1999 BG Mobasseri 52
Finding BER
 We have to answer this question: what is
the probability of one random variable
exceeding another random variable?
 To cast P(x
2
>x
1
) into like of P(x>2), rewrite
P(x
2
>x
1
|x
1
)
 x
1
is now treated as constant. Then,
integrate out x
1
to eliminate it



1999 BG Mobasseri 53
BER for BFSK
 Skipping the details of derivation, we get
P
e
= BER=
1
2
erfc
E
b
2N
o
|
\

|
.
|
1999 BG Mobasseri 54
BPSK and BFSK comparison:
energy efficiency
 Let’s compare their
BER’s
P
e
=
1
2
erfc
E
b
2N
o
|
\

|
.
|
, BFSK
P
e
=
1
2
erfc
E
b
N
o
|
\

|
.
|
, BPSK
 What does it take to
have the same BER?
 E
b
in BFSK must be
twice as big as BPSK
 Conclusion: energy per
bit must be twice as
large in BFSK to
achieve the same BER
1999 BG Mobasseri 55
Comparison in the
constellation space
 Distances determine BER’s. Let’s compare





 Both have the same E
b
, but BPSK’s are
farther apart, hence lower BER
E
b
÷ E
b
2 E
b
E
b
E
b
1.4× E
b
1999 BG Mobasseri 56
Differential PSK
 Concept of differential encoding is very
powerful
 Take the the bit sequence 11001001
 Differentially encoding of this stream
means that we start we a reference bit and
then record changes


1999 BG Mobasseri 57
Differential encoding example
 Data to be encoded
1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1
 Set the reference bit to 1, then use the
following rule
• Generate a 1 if no change
• Generate a 0 if change
1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1
1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1
1999 BG Mobasseri 58
Detection logic
 Detecting a differentially encoded signal is
based on the comparison of two adjacent
bits
 If two coded bits are the same, that means
data bit must have been a 1, otherwise 0
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1
Encoded received
bits
unknown transmitted
bits
1999 BG Mobasseri 59
DPSK: generation
 Once data is differentially encoded, carrier
modulation can be carried out by a straight
BPSK encoding
• Digit 1:phase 0
• Digit 0:phase 180
1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1
0 0 π 0 0 π 0 0 0
Differentially encoded data
Phase encoded(BPSK)
1999 BG Mobasseri 60
DPSK detection
 Data is detected by a phase comparison of
two adjacent pulses
• No phase change: data bit is 1
• Phase change: data bit is 0
0 0 π 0 0 π 0 0 0
1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1
Detected data
1999 BG Mobasseri 61
Bit errors in DPSK
 Bit errors happen in an interesting way
 Since detection is done by comparing
adjacent bits, errors have the potential of
propagating
 Allow a single detection error in DPSK
0 0 π π 0 π 0 0 0
1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1
1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1
Back on track:no errors
Transmitted bits
Incoming phases
Detected bits
2 errors
1999 BG Mobasseri 62
Conclusion
 In DPSK, if the phase of the RF pulse is
detected in error, error propagates
 However, error propagation stops quickly.
Only two bit errors are misdetected. The
rest are correctly recovered
1999 BG Mobasseri 63
Why DPSK?
 Detecting regular BPSK needs a coherent
detector, requiring a phase reference
 DPSK needs no such thing. The only
reference is the previous bit which is
readily available
1999 BG Mobasseri 64
M-ary signaling
 Binary communications sends one of only 2
levels; 0 or 1
 There is another way: combine several bits
into symbols
1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1

 Combining two bits at a time gives rise to
4 symbols; a 4-ary signaling
1999 BG Mobasseri 65
8-level PAM
 Here is an example of 8-level signaling
0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1
binary
7
5
3
2
1
-1
-3
-5
-7
1999 BG Mobasseri 66
A few definitions
 We used to work with bit length T
b
. Now
we have a new parameter which we call
symbol length,T
1 1
0
T
T
b

1999 BG Mobasseri 67
Bit length-symbol length
relationship
 When we combine n bits into one symbol;
the following relationships hold
T=nT
b
- symbol length

n=logM bits/symbol
T=T
b
xlogM- symbol length
 All logarithms are base 2
1999 BG Mobasseri 68
Example
 If 8 bits are combined into one symbol, the
resulting symbol is 8 times wider
 Using n=8, we have M=2
8
=256 symbols to
pick from
 Symbol length T=nT
b
=8T
b

1999 BG Mobasseri 69
Defining baud
 When we combine n bits into one symbol,
numerical data rate goes down by a factor
of n
 We define baud as the number of
symbols/sec
 Symbol rate is a fraction of bit rate
R=symbol rate=R
b
/n=R
b
/logM
 For 8-level signaling, baud rate is 1/3 of bit
rate
1999 BG Mobasseri 70
Why M-ary?
 Remember Nyquist bandwidth? It takes a
minimum of R/2 Hz to transmit R
pulses/sec.
 If we can reduce the pulse rate, required
bandwidth goes down too
 M-ary does just that. It takes R
b
bits/sec
and turns it into R
b
/logM pulses sec.
1999 BG Mobasseri 71
Issues in transmitting 9600
bits/sec
 Want to transmit 9600 bits/sec. Options:
• Nyquist’s minimum bandwidth:9600/2=4800 Hz
• Full roll off raised cosine:9600 Hz
 None of them fit inside the 4 KHz wide
phone lines
 Go to a 16 - level signaling, M=16. Pulse
rate is reduced to
R=R
b
/logM=9600/4=2400 Hz

1999 BG Mobasseri 72
Using 16-level signaling
 Go to a 16-level signaling, M=16. Pulse rate
is then cut down to
R=R
b
/logM=9600/4=2400 pulses/sec
 To accommodate 2400 pulses /sec, we
have several options. Using sinc we need
only 1200 Hz. Full roll-off needs 2400Hz
 Both fit within the 4 KHz phone line
bandwidth

1999 BG Mobasseri 73
Bandwidth efficiency
 Bandwidth efficiency is defined as the
number of bits that can be transmitted
within 1 Hz of bandwidth
q=R
b
/B
T
bits/sec/Hz
 In binary communication using sincs,
B
T
=R
b
/2--> q=2 bits/sec/Hz

1999 BG Mobasseri 74
M-ary bandwidth efficiency
 In M-ary signaling , pulse rate is given by
R=R
b
/logM. Full roll-off raised cosine
bandwidth is B
T
=R= R
b
/logM.
 Bandwidth efficiency is then given by
q=R
b
/B
T
=logM bits/sec/Hz
 For M=2, binary we have 1 bit/sec/Hz. For
M=16, we have 4 bits/sec/Hz

1999 BG Mobasseri 75
M-ary bandwidth
 Summarizing, M-ary and binary bandwidth
are related by

B
M-ary
=B
binary
/logM
 Clearly , M-ary bandwidth is reduced by a
factor of logM compared to the binary
bandwidth
1999 BG Mobasseri 76
8-ary bandwidth
 Let the bit rate be 9600 bits/sec. Binary
bandwidth is nominally equal to the bit
rate, 9600 Hz
 We then go to 8-level modulation (3
bits/symbol) M-ary bandwidth is given by
B
M-ary
=B
binary
/logM=9600/log8=3200 Hz
1999 BG Mobasseri 77
Bandwidth efficiency
numbers
 Here are some numbers
n(bits/symbol) M(levels) q(bits/sec/Hz)
1 2 1
2 4 2
3 8 3
4 16 4
8 256 8

1999 BG Mobasseri 78
Symbol energy vs. bit energy
 Each symbol is made up of n bits. It is not
therefore surprising for a symbol to have n
times the energy of a bit
E(symbol)=nE
b

E
b
E
1999 BG Mobasseri 79
QPSK
quadrature phase shift keying
 This is a 4 level modulation.
 Every two bits is combined and mapped to
one of 4 phases of an RF signal
 These phases are 45
o
,135
o
,225
o
,315
o

s
i
(t) =
2E
T
cos 2tf
c
t +(2i ÷1)
t
4

¸
(
¸
, i =1, 2,3, 4
0
¦
´
¦
¹
¦
, 0 s t s T
Symbol energy
Symbol width
1999 BG Mobasseri 80
QPSK constellation





45
o

00
01
11
10
√E
|
1
t ( ) =
2
T
cos2tf
c
t
|
2
t ( ) =
2
T
sin 2tf
c
t
Basis functions
S=[0.7 √E,- 0.7 √E]
1999 BG Mobasseri 81
QPSK decision regions
00
01
11
10
Decision regions re color-coded
1999 BG Mobasseri 82
QPSK error rate
 Symbol error rate for QPSK is given by


 This brings up the distinction between
symbol error and bit error. They are not the
same!
P
e
= erfc(
E
2N
o
)
1999 BG Mobasseri 83
Symbol error
 Symbol error occurs when received vector
is assigned to the wrong partition in the
constellation




 When s
1
is mistaken for s
2
, 00 is mistaken
for 11
00
11
s1
s2
1999 BG Mobasseri 84
Symbol error vs. bit error
 When a symbol error occurs, we might
suffer more than one bit error such as
mistaking 00 for 11.
 It is however unlikely to have more than
one bit error when a symbol error occurs
10 10 11 10 00
11 10 11 10 00
10 symbols = 20 bits
Sym.error=1/10
Bit error=1/20
1999 BG Mobasseri 85
Interpreting symbol error
 Numerically, symbol error is larger than bit
error but in fact they are describing the
same situation; 1 error in 20 bits
 In general, if P
e
is symbol error
P
e
logM
s BER s P
e
1999 BG Mobasseri 86
Symbol error and bit error for
QPSK
 We saw that symbol error for QPSK was


 Assuming no more than 1 bit error for each
symbol error, BER is half of symbol error


 Remember symbol energy E=2E
b


P
e
= erfc(
E
2N
o
)
BER =
1
2
erfc(
E
2N
o
)
1999 BG Mobasseri 87
QPSK vs. BPSK
 Let’s compare the two based on BER and
bandwidth
BER Bandwidth
BPSK QPSK BPSK QPSK

1
2
erfc
E
b
N
o
|
\

|
.
|
1
2
erfc
E
b
N
o
|
\

|
.
|
R
b
R
b
/2
EQUAL
1999 BG Mobasseri 88
M-phase PSK (MPSK)
 If you combine 3 bits into one symbol, we
have to realize 2
3
=8 states. We can
accomplish this with a single RF pulse
taking 8 different phases 45
o
apart
s
i
(t) =
2E
T
cos 2tf
c
t +(i ÷1)
t
4

¸
(
¸
, i =1,...,8
0
¦
´
¦
¹
¦
, 0 s t s T
1999 BG Mobasseri 89
8-PSK constellation
 Distribute 8 phasors uniformly around a
circle of radius √E
45
o

Decision region
1999 BG Mobasseri 90
Symbol error for MPSK
 We can have M phases around the circle
separated by 2π/M radians.
 It can be shown that symbol error
probability is approximately given by
P
e
~ erfc
E
N
o
sin
t
M
|
\
|
.
|
\

|
.
| , M > 4
1999 BG Mobasseri 91
Quadrature Amplitude
Modulation (QAM)
 MPSK was a phase modulation scheme. All
amplitudes are the same
 QAM is described by a constellation
consisting of combination of phase and
amplitudes
 The rule governing bits-to-symbols are the
same, i.e. n bits are mapped to M=2
n

symbols
1999 BG Mobasseri 92
16-QAM constellation using
Gray coding
 16-QAM has the following constellation
 Note gray coding
where adjacent symbols
differ by only 1 bit
0010 0011 0001 0000
1010
1110
0110
1011
1111
0111
1001
1101
0101
1000
1100
0100
1999 BG Mobasseri 93
Vector representation
of 16-QAM
 There are 16 vectors, each defined by a
pair of coordinates. The following 4x4
matrix describes the 16-QAM constellation
[a
i
, b
i
] =
÷3, 3 ( ) ÷1, 3 ( ) 1, 3 ( ) 3, 3 ( )
÷3,1 ( ) ÷1,1 ( ) 1,1 ( ) 3,1 ( )
÷3, ÷1 ( ) ÷1, ÷1 ( ) 1, ÷1 ( ) 3, ÷1 ( )
÷3, ÷3 ( ) ÷1, ÷3 ( ) 1, ÷3 ( ) 3, ÷3 ( )

¸



(
¸
(
(
(
1999 BG Mobasseri 94
What is energy per symbol in
QAM?
 We had no trouble defining energy per
symbol E for MPSK. For QAM, there is no
single symbol energy. There are many
 We therefore need to define average
symbol energy E
avg

E
avg
=
1
M
a
i
2
+ b
i
2
( )
i =1
M
¿
1999 BG Mobasseri 95
E
avg
for 16-QAM
 Using the [a
i
,b
i
] matrix and using
E=a
i
^2+b
i
^2 we get one energy per signal
E =
18 10 10 18
10 2 2 10
10 2 2 10
18 10 10 18

¸



(
¸
(
(
(
E
avg
=10
1999 BG Mobasseri 96
Symbol error for M-ary QAM
 With the definition of energy in mind,
symbol error is approximated by
P
e
~ 2 1÷
1
M
|
\
|
.
erfc
2E
avg
2 M ÷1 ( )N
o
|
\

|
.
|
1999 BG Mobasseri 97
Familiar constellations
 Here are a few golden oldies
V.22
600 baud
1200 bps
V.22 bis
600 baud
2400 bps
V.32 bis
2400 baud
9600 bps
1999 BG Mobasseri 98
M-ary FSK
 Using M tones, instead of M
phases/amplitudes is a fundamentally
different way of M-ary modulation
 The idea is to use M RF pulses. The
frequencies chosen must be orthogonal
s
i
t ( ) =
2E
T
cos 2tf
i
t ( ), 0 s t s T
i =1,..., M
1999 BG Mobasseri 99
MFSK constellation:
3-dimensions
 MFSK is different from MPSK in that each
signal sits on an orthogonal axis(basis)
s
1

s
2

s
3

|
1

|
2

|
3

|
i
t ( ) =
2
T
cos 2tf
i
t
( )
,
0 s t s T
i =1,..., M
s
1
=[√E ,0, 0]
s
2
=[0,√E, 0]
s
3
=[0,0,√E]
√E
√E
√E
1999 BG Mobasseri 100
Orthogonal signals:
How many dimensions, how many
signals?
 We just saw that in a 3 dimensional space,
we can have no more than 3 orthogonal
signals
 Equivalently, 3 orthogonal signals don’t
need more than 3 dimensions because
each can sit on one dimension
 Therefore, number of dimensions is always
less than or equal to number of signals
1999 BG Mobasseri 101
How to pick the tones?
 Orthogonal FSK requires tones that are
orthogonal.
 Two carrier frequencies separated by
integer multiples of period are orthogonal
1999 BG Mobasseri 102
Example
 Take two tones one at f
1
the other at f
2
. T
must cover one or more periods for the
integral to be zero
2cos 2tf
1
t ( )cos 2tf
2
t ( )dt = cos2t f
1
+ f
2
( )dt
0
T
}
averages to zero
0
T
}
+ cos2t f
1
÷ f
2
( )dt
0
T
}
averages to zero if T =i/(f1 -f2)
; i=integer
Take f
1
=1000 and T=1/1000. Then
if f
2
=2000 , the two are orthogonal
so will f
2
=3000,4000 etc
1999 BG Mobasseri 103
MFSK symbol error
 Here is the error expression with the usual
notations
P
e
s
1
2
M ÷1 ( )erfc
E
2N
o
|
\

|
.
|
1999 BG Mobasseri 104
Spectrum of M-ary signals
 So far E
b
/N
o
, i.e. power, has been our main
concern. The flip side of the coin is
bandwidth.
 Frequently the two move in opposite
directions
 Let’s first look at binary modulation
bandwidth
1999 BG Mobasseri 105
BPSK bandwidth
 Remember BPSK was obtained from a
polar signal by carrier modulation
 We know the bandwidth of polar NRZ using
square pulses was B
T
=R
b
.
 It doesn’t take much to realize that carrier
modulation doubles this bandwidth
1999 BG Mobasseri 106
Illustrating BPSK bandwidth
 The expression for baseband BPSK (polar)
bandwidth is
S
B
(f)=2E
b
sinc
2
(T
b
f)




B
T
=2R
b

f 1/T
b

BPSK
f
c
+/T
b
f
c
-/T
b

f
c

2/T
b
=2R
b

1999 BG Mobasseri 107
BFSK as a sum of two RF
streams
 BFSK can be thought of superposition of
two unipolar signals, one at f
1
and the
other at f
2


0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000
-1
-0.8
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
BFSK for 1 0 0 1 0 1 1
+
1999 BG Mobasseri 108
Modeling of BFSK bandwidth
 Each stream is just a carrier modulated
unipolar signal. Each has a sinc spectrum
f
1
f
2

1/T
b
=R
b

f
c

f
c
=(f
1
+f
2
)/2
Af
B
T
=2 Af+2R
b

Af= (f
2
-f
1
)/2
1999 BG Mobasseri 109
Example: 1200 bps bandwidth
 The old 1200 bps standard used BFSK
modulation using 1200 Hz for mark and
2200 Hz for space. What is the bandwidth?
 Use
B
T
=2Af+2R
b

Af=(f
2
-f
1
)/2=(2200-1200)/2=500 Hz
B
T
=2x500+2x1200=3400 Hz
 This is more than BPSK of 2R
b
=2400 Hz



1999 BG Mobasseri 110
Sunde’s FSK
 We might have to pick tones f
1
and f
2
that
are not orthogonal. In such a case there
will be a finite correlation between the
tones
µ =
2
T
b
cos(2tf
1
t)
0
T
b
}
cos(2tf
2
t)dt
1 2 3
2(f
2
-f
1
)T
b

Good points,zero correlation
µ
1999 BG Mobasseri 111
Picking the 2nd zero crossing:
Sunde’s FSK
 If we pick the second zc term (the first
term puts the tones too close) we get
2(f
2
-f
1
)T
b
=2--> Af=1/2T
b
=R
b
/2
remember Af is (f
2
-f
1
)/2
 Sunde’s FSK bandwidth is then given by
B
T
=2Af+2R
b
=R
b
+2R
b
=3R
b
 The practical bandwidth is a lot smaller

1999 BG Mobasseri 112
Sunde’s FSK bandwidth
 Due to sidelobe cancellation, practical
bandwidth is just B
T
=2Af=R
b
f
1
f
2

1/T
b
=R
b

f
c

f
c
=(f
1
+f
2
)/2
Af
B
T
=2 Af+2R
b

Af= (f
2
-f
1
)/2
Af
1999 BG Mobasseri 113
B  FSK example
 A BFSK system operates at the 3rd zero
crossing of µ-T
b
plane. If the bit rate is 1
Mbps, what is the frequency separation of
the tones?
 The 3rd zc is for 2(f
2
-f
1
)T
b
=3. Recalling that
Af=(f
2
-f
1
)/2 then Af =0.75/T
b

 Then Af =0.75/T
b
=0.75x10
6
=750 KHz
 And B
T
=2(Af +R
b
)=2(0.75+1)10
6
=3.5 MHz

1999 BG Mobasseri 114
Point to remember
 FSK is not a particularly bandwidth-friendly
modulation. In this example, to transmit 1
Mbps, we needed 3.5 MHz.
 Of course, it is working at the 3rd zero
crossing that is responsible
 Original Sunde’s FSK requires B
T
=R
b
=1 MHz
Bandwidth of MPSK
modulation
1999 BG Mobasseri 116
MPSK bandwidth review
 In MPSK we used pulses that are log
2
M
times wider tan binary hence bandwidth
goes down by the same factor.
T=symbol width=T
b
log
2
M
 For example, in a 16-phase modulation,
M=16, T=4T
b
.
B
qpsk
=B
bpsk
/log
2
M= B
bpsk
/4
1999 BG Mobasseri 117
MPSK bandwidth
 MPSK spectrum is given by

S
B
(f)=(2E
b
log
2
M)sinc
2
(T
b
flog
2
M)
f/R
b

Notice normalized frequency
1/logM
Set to 1 for zero crossing BW
T
b
flog
2
M=1
-->f=1/ T
b
flog
2
M
=R
b
/log
2
M
B
T
= R
b
/log
2
M
1999 BG Mobasseri 118
Bandwidth after carrier
modulation
 What we just saw is MPSK bandwidth in
baseband
 A true MPSK is carrier modulated. This will
only double the bandwidth. Therefore,
Bmpsk=2R
b
/log
2
M
1999 BG Mobasseri 119
QPSK bandwidth
 QPSK is a special case of MPSK with M=4
phases. It’s baseband spectrum is given by
S
B
(f)=2Esinc
2
(2T
b
f)
f/R
b
0.5
B=0.5R
b
-->
half of BPSK
1
After modulation:
B
qpsk
=R
b

1999 BG Mobasseri 120
Some numbers
 Take a 9600 bits/sec data stream
 Using BPSK: B=2Rb=19,200 Hz (too much
for 4KHz analog phone lines)
 QPSK: B=19200/log
2
4=9600Hz, still high
 Use 8PSK:B= 19200/log
2
8=6400Hz
 Use 16PSK:B=19200/ log
2
16=4800 Hz. This
may barely fit
1999 BG Mobasseri 121
MPSK vs.BPSK
 Let’s say we fix BER at some level. How do
bandwidth and power levels compare?
M Bm-ary/Bbinary (Avg.power)M/(Avg.power)bin
4 0.5 0.34 dB
8 1/3 3.91 dB
16 1/4 8.52 dB
32 1/5 13.52 dB
 Lesson: By going to multiphase modulation, we save
bandwidth but have to pay in increased power, But why?
1999 BG Mobasseri 122
Power-bandwidth tradeoff
 The goal is to keep BER fixed as we
increase M. Consider an 8PSK set.



 What happens if you go to 16PSK? Signals
get closer hence higher BER
 Solution: go to a larger circle-->higher
energy
1999 BG Mobasseri 123
Additional comparisons
 Take a 28.8 Kb/sec data rate and let’s
compare the required bandwidths
• BPSK: B
T
=2(R
b
)=57.6 KHz
• BFSK: B
T
= R
b
=28.8 KHz ...Sunde’s FSK
• QPSK: B
T
=half of BPSK=28.8 KHz
• 16-PSK: B
T
=quarter of BPSK=14.4 KHz
• 64-PSK: B
T
=1/6 of BPSK=9.6 KHz

1999 BG Mobasseri 124
Power-limited systems
 Modulations that are power-limited achieve
their goals with minimum expenditure of
power at the expense of bandwidth.
Examples are MFSK and other orthogonal
signaling

1999 BG Mobasseri 125
Bandwidth-limited systems
 Modulations that achieve error rates at a
minimum expenditure of bandwidth but
possibly at the expense of too high a
power are bandwidth-limited
 Examples are variations of MPSK and many
QAM
 Check BER rate curves for BFSK and
BPSK/QAM cases
1999 BG Mobasseri 126
Bandwidth efficiency index
 A while back we defined the following ratio
as a bandwidth efficiency measure in
bits/sec/HZ
µ=R
b
/B
T
bits/sec/Hz
 Every digital modulation has its own µ
1999 BG Mobasseri 127
µ for MPSK
 At a bit rate of R
b
, BPSK bandwidth is 2R
b

 When we go to MPSK, bandwidth goes
down by a factor of log
2
M
B
T
=2Rb/ log
2
M
 Then
µ=R
b
/B
T
= log
2
M/2 bits/sec/Hz
1999 BG Mobasseri 128
Some numbers
 Let’s evaluate µ vs. M for MPSK
M 2 4 8 16 32 64
µ .5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
 Notice that bits/sec/Hz goes up by a factor
of 6 from M=2 and M=64
 The price we pay is that if power level is
fixed (constellation radius fixed) BER will
go up. We need more power to keep BER
the same

1999 BG Mobasseri 129
Defining MFSK:
 In MFSK we transmit one of M frequencies
for every symbol duration T
 These frequencies must be orthogonal.
One way to do that is to space them 1/2T
apart. They could also be spaced 1/T apart.
Following The textbook we choose the
former (this corresponds to using the first
zero crossing of correlation curve)



1999 BG Mobasseri 130
MFSK bandwidth
 Symbol duration in MFSK is M times longer
than binary
T=T
b
log
2
M symbol length
 Each pair of tones are separated by 1/2T. If
there are M of them,
B
T
=M/2T=M/2T
b
log
2
M
-->B
T
=MR
b
/2log
2
M
1999 BG Mobasseri 131
Contrast with MPSK
 Variation of bandwidth with M differs
drastically compared to MPSK
MPSK MFSK
B
T
=2R
b
/log
2
M B
T
=MR
b
/2log
2
M
 As M goes up, MFSK eats up more
bandwidth but MPSK save bandwidth
1999 BG Mobasseri 132
MFSK bandwidth efficiency
 Let’s compute µ’s for MFSK
µ=R
b
/M=2log
2
M/M bits/sec/Hz…MFSK
M 2 4 8 16 32 64
µ 1 1 .75 .5 .3 .18
 Notice bandwidth efficiency drop. We are
sending fewer and fewer bits per 1 Hz of
bandwidth
COMPARISON OF DIGITAL
MODULATIONS*
*B. Sklar, “ Defining, Designing and Evaluating Digital Communication Systems,”
IEEE Communication Magazine, vol. 31, no.11, November 1993, pp. 92-101
1999 BG Mobasseri 134
Notations
M = 2
m
# of symbols
m = log
2
M bits/symbol
R =
m
T
s
=
log
2
M
T
s
bits/ sec
T
s
= symbol duration
R
s
= symbol rate
T
b
=
1
R
=
T
s
m
=
1
mR
s
bit length
 Bandwidth efficiency
measure
R
W
=
log
2
M
WT
s
=
1
WT
b
1999 BG Mobasseri 135
Bandwidth-limited Systems
 There are situations where bandwidth is at
a premium, therefore, we need
modulations with large R/W.
 Hence we need standards with large time-
bandwidth product
 The GSM standard uses Gaussian minimum
shift keying(GMSK) with WT
b
=0.3
1999 BG Mobasseri 136
Case of MPSK
 In MPSK, symbols are m times as wide as
binary.
 Nyquist bandwidth is W=R
s
/2=1/2Ts.
However, the bandpass bandwidth is twice
that, W=1/Ts
 Then
R
W
=
log
2
M
WT
s
= log
2
M bits/sec/Hz
1999 BG Mobasseri 137
Cost of Bandwidth Efficiency
 As M increases, modulation becomes more
bandwidth efficient.
 Let’s fix BER. To maintain this BER while
increasing M requires an increase in E
b
/N
o
.
1999 BG Mobasseri 138
Power-Limited Systems
 There are cases that bandwidth is
available but power is limited
 In these cases as M goes up, the
bandwidth increases but required power
levels to meet a specified BER remains
stable
1999 BG Mobasseri 139
Case of MFSK
 MFSK is an orthogonal modulation scheme.
 Nyquist bandwidth is M-times the binary
case because of using M orthogonal
frequencies, W=M/Ts=MR
s

 Then
R
W
=
log
2
M
WT
s
=
log
2
M
M
bits/sec/Hz
1999 BG Mobasseri 140
Select an Appropriate
Modulation
 We have a channel of 4KHz with an
available S/No=53 dB-Hz
 Required data rate R=9600 bits/sec.
 Required BER=10
-5
.
 Choose a modulation scheme to meet
these requirements
1999 BG Mobasseri 141
Minimum Number of Phases
 To conserve power, we should pick the
minimum number of phases that still meets
the 4KHz bandwidth
 A 9600 bits/sec if encoded as 8-PSK results
in 3200 symbols/sec needing 3200Hz
 So, M=8
1999 BG Mobasseri 142
What is the required E
b
/No?
S
N
o
=
E
b
R
N
o
=
E
b
N
o
R
E
b
N
o
(dB) =
S
N
o
(dB÷ Hz) ÷ R(dB÷bits/ sec
=13.2dB
1999 BG Mobasseri 143
Is BER met? Yes
 The symbol error probability in 8-PSK is


 Solve for Es/No

 Solve for PE


P
E
M ( ) = 2Q
2E
s
N
o
sin
t
M
|
\
|
.

¸

(
¸
(
BER=
P
E
log
2
M
=
2.2 ×10
÷5
3
= 7.3 ×10
÷6
E
s
N
o
= log
2
M ( )
E
b
N
0
= 3 ×20.89 = 62.67
1999 BG Mobasseri 144
Power-limited uncoded
system
 Same bit rate and BER
 Available bandwidth W=45 KHz
 Available S/No=48-dBHz
 Choose a modulation scheme that yields
the required performance
1999 BG Mobasseri 145
Binary vs. M-ary Model

M-ary Modulator R bits/s
R
s
=
R
log
2
M
symbols/ s
M-ary demodulator
S
N
o
=
E
b
N
o
R =
E
s
N
o
R
s
1999 BG Mobasseri 146
Choice of Modulation
 With R=9600 bits/sec and W=45 KHz, the
channel is not bandwidth limited
 Let’s find the available Eb/No
E
b
N
o
(dB) =
S
N
o
dB÷ Hz ( ) ÷ R(dB÷ bit / s) =
E
b
N
o
(dB) = 48dB÷ Hz
= ÷(10log9600)dB÷ bits / s
= 8.2dB
1999 BG Mobasseri 147
Choose MFSK
 We have a lot of bandwidth but little power
->orthogonal modulation(MFSK)
 The larger the M, the more power
efficiency but more bandwidth is needed
 Pick the largest M without going beyond
the 45 KHz bandwidth.
1999 BG Mobasseri 148
MFSK Parameters
 From Table 1, M=16 for an MFSK
modulation requires a bandwidth of 38.4
KHz for 9600 bits/sec data rate
 We also wanted to have a BER<10^-5.
Question is if this is met for a 16FSK
modulation.
1999 BG Mobasseri 149
16-FSK
 Again from Table 1, to achieve BER of 10^-
5 we need E
b
/No of 8.1dB.
 We solved for the available E
b
/No and that
came to 8.2dB
1999 BG Mobasseri 150
Symbol error for MFSK
 For noncoherent orthogonal MFSK, symbol
error probability is
P
E
M ( ) s
M ÷1
2
exp ÷
E
s
2N
o
|
\

|
.
|
E
s
= E
b
log
2
M
1999 BG Mobasseri 151
BER for MFSK
 We found out that Eb/No=8.2dB or 6.61
 Relating Es/No and Eb/No



 BER and symbol error are related by
E
s
N
o
= log
2
M ( )
E
b
N
o
P
B
=
2
m÷1
2
m
÷1
P
E
1999 BG Mobasseri 152
Example
 Let’s look at the 16FSK case. With 16
levels, we are talking about m=4 bits per
symbol. Therefore,


 With Es/No=26.44, symbol error prob.
PE=1.4x10^-5-->PB=7.3x10^-6
P
B
=
2
3
2
4
÷1
P
E
=
8
15
P
E
1999 BG Mobasseri 153
Summary
 Given:
• R=9600 bits/s
• BER=10^-5
• Channel bandwith=45
KHz
• E
b
/No=8.2dB
 Solution
• 16-FSK
• required bw=38.4khz
• required E
b
/No=8.1dB

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