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CONCEPTS, FORMULAE AND SHORTCUTS
Any point on the xaxis will have the coordinates of the form (x,0) i.e has ordinate=0
Any point on the yaxis will have the coordinates of the form (y,0) i.e. has abscissa=0
DISTANCE FORMULA:
Distance between Two points: Let A and B are two points whose coordinates are given by A(x1 ,y1), B(x2 ,y2)
respectivelythen AB=
.
¦ x
2
−x
1
)
2
+¦ y
2
−y
1
)
2
=
.
¦ x
1
−x
2
)
2
+¦ y
1
−y
2
)
2
=
.¦ Differenceof abscissa)
2
+¦ Difference of ordinates)
2
Note: In order to prove that a given figure is a
a) square:Prove all sides and diagonals are equal
b) A parallelogram: To prove that opposite sides are equal
c) A parallelogram but not a rectangle: To prove its opposite sides are equal but diagonals are not equal
d) Rectangle: Prove opposite sides are equal and diagonals are equal
e) Rhombus: Prove all sides are equal and diagonals
f) Rhobmus but not a squre: Only sides are equal but diagonals are not equal
Remark:
i. Every square is a rectangle
ii. Every rhombus is a parallelogram
iii. In a rhombus diagonals bisect each other.
SECTION FORMULA:
i)Internal division: If P(x,y) divides the line joining A(x1 ,y1) and B(x2 ,y2) in the ratio m:n then x=
mx
2
+nx
1
m+n
y=
my
2
+ny
1
m+n
i.e coordinates of the point P which divides AB internally in the ratio m:n is P
¦
mx
2
+nx
1
m+n
,
my
2
+ny
1
m+n
)
ii)External Division: coordinates of the point P which divides AB internally in the ratio m:n is
P
¦
mx
2
−nx
1
m−n
,
my
2
−ny
1
m−n
)
Note: 1. If m/n is positive, the division is internal , but if m/n is negative, the division is external.
2.If R(x,y) divides the join of P(x1 ,y1) and Q(x2 ,y2) in the ration k:1(k>0) then
x=
kx
2
!x
1
k!1
; y=
ky
2
!y
1
k!1
+ve sign is taken for internal division and negative sign is taken for external
division
3.For finding ratio, use k:1. If k is positive, then divides internally and if k is negative, then divides internally
MIDPOINT FORMULA: Coordinates of the midpoint of the line joining the points (x1 ,y1) and (x2 ,y2) is given by
¦
x
1
+x
2
2
,
y
1
+y
2
2
)
Coordinates of CENTROID, INCENTRE, CIRCUMCENTRE, ORTHOCENTRE AND EXCENTRE OF A
TRAINGLE
CENTROID(G): Centroid of a traingle is the point of concurrency of medians. (The median is the line joining any
vertex to midpoint of the opposite side.) The centroid G of the traingle ABC, divide median AD in the ratio 2:1 and
Coordinate of centroid of the traingle formed by the vertices (x1 ,y1)
(x2 ,y2) and (x3,y3) are given by
¦
x
1
+x
2
+x
3
3
,
y
1
+y
2
+y
3
3
)
INCENTRE(I): The incentre I of the traingle is the point of concurrency of the internal
bisectors of the angles of the traingle. This is the centre of the circle which touches the
sides of the given traingle. (The bisector of the angle is the line which passes through the
vertex of the angle and divides into two equal angles). Coordinates of incentre I(x,y)=
I
¦
ax
1
+bx
2
+cx
3
a+b+c
,
ay
1
+by
2
+cy
3
a+b+c
)
CIRCUMCENTRE(O): Circumcnetre is the point of concurrency of perpendicular bisectors of the sides of
traingle.(The lines through the mid point of a side and perpendicular to it ). This is a point which is equidistant from
the three vertices of the traingle. This is also the centre O of the circle passing through the vertices of the given
traingle. The coordinates of circumcentre is given by
O
¦
x
1
sin2A+x
2
sin2B+x
3
sin2C
sin2A+sin2B+sin2C
,
y
1
sin2A+y
2
sin2B+y
3
sin2C
sin2A+sin2B+sin2C
)
ORTHOCENTRE(H):Orthocentre of the traingle ABC is the point of concurrency of altitudes of the traingle .
Altitude of a traingle is the line drawn through a vertex perpendicular to the opposite side.
H
¦
x
1
tanA+x
2
tanB+x
3
tanC
tanA+tanB+tanC
,
y
1
tanA+y
2
tanB+y
3
tanC
sin2A+sin2B+sin2C
)
PAGE 1
IMPORTANT NOTE: a)Let ABC be any traingle, If the lengths of the perpendicular from I upon the three sides of
the traingle are equal. then I is the Incentre of traingle ABC.
b)Orthocentre of a right angled traingle ABC with right angle at the point A is the point A.
c)If OA=OB=OC, then O is the circumcentre of traingle ABC
d)Centroid G of traingle ABC divdes the median AD or BE or CF in the ratio 2:1
AREA OF A TRAINGLE:
Area of traingle ABC with vertices A(x1 ,y1) B(x2 ,y2) and C(x3 ,y3) dentoed by Δ and given by
Δ =
1
2
[x1(y2y3)+x2(y3y1)+x3(y1y2)]=
1
2
[(x1y2+x2y3 +x3y1)(y1x2+y2x3+y3x1)]
or=
∣
1
2
∣
x
1
y
1
1
x
2
y
2
1
x
3
y
3
1
∣
∣
=or
∣
1
2∣
x
1
−x
3
x
2
−x
3
y
1
−y
3
y
2
−y
3
∣∣
Corollary: i)If one vertex (x1,y1) is at origin (0,0) then Δ =
1
2

x
1
y
2
−x
2
y
1
¦
ii)If points A,B, C are collinear (lies in a straight line) then
Δ =0 i.e.
∣
x
1
y
1
1
x
2
y
2
1
x
3
y
3
1
∣
=0 or AB+BC=AC(using distance formula) or AC+AB=BC
iii)If arx+bry+Cr=0(r=1,2,3) are equations the sides of a traingle then area of traingle is given by
Δ =
1
2k
1
k
2
k
3∣
a
1
b
1
C
1
a
2
b
2
c
2
a
3
b
3
c
3
∣
Where k1,k2,k3 are the cofactors of c1,c2,c3 in the determinant.
Area of polygon whose vertices are (x1,y1) (x2,y2)(x3, y3)............(xn,yn) is
A=
1
2
[(x1y2y1x2)+(x2y3x3y2)+..............+(xny1ynx1)]
=
1
2
∣
x
1
y
1
x
2
y
2
∣
+
∣
x
2
y
2
x
3
y
3
∣
+.........+
∣
x
n−1
y
n−1
x
n
y
n
∣
+
∣
x
n
y
n
x
1
y
1
∣
¦
NOTE: There is a possibility of getting negative value, then take it's modulus value to find area.
LOCUS AND EQUATION OF LOCUS:
LOCUS: When a point moves in a plane under certain geometrical condition or conditions, the point traces out a path.
This path of the moving point is known its locus.
EQUATION OF LOCUS: The equation to the locus of a point is the relation which is satisfied by the coordinates
of every point on the locus of the point.
Procedure for finding the equation of the locus of a point:
a) Consider the point(Coordinates) (h,k) or (x,y) whose locus is to be found.
b) Using the geometrical condition satisfied by the point or conditions given , Express the given condition as
equation in terms of 'h' and 'k' by eliminating various parameters given
c) Now generalise (h,k) by replacing h by x and k by y. The equation thus obtained is the locus of the required
point P.
SLOPE OF A STRAIGHT LINE:
Inclination of a line: The angle which a line makes with the positive direction of xaxis measured in the
anticlockwise direction is called the inclination of the line.
Slope (or gradient) of a straight line: The tangent of the angle made by the line with x axis in the positive direction
is called slope of a straight line.
If θ(#90°) is the inclination of a straight line, then tanθ is called its slope (or gradient). The slope of a line is usually
denoted by m. i.e m=tan θ ¦0≤0≤180
0
)
Remark. Since tan θ is not defined when θ = 90°, therefore, the slope of a vertical line i.e. perpendicular to x axis
is not defined.
(a) If tan θ >o then 0< θ <90
0
i.e slope of the line is +ve if inclination of line is acute
(b) If tan θ =0, then θ=0
0
, 180
0
which means line is itself x axis or it is parallel to x axis. ie slope of a line
parallel to x axis is zero.
(c) If tan θ <0 then 90
0
< θ <180
0
or 270
0
< θ 360
0
(d) The slope is independent of the sense of the line segment
i.e. slope of PQ = slope of QP
∴ Slope of QP=tan( n +θ )=tanθ =slope of PQ
Slope of the line joining two points
The slope m of a nonvertical line passing through the points P(x
1
, y
1
) and Q(x
1
, y
1
) is given by
slope = m =
¦ y
2
−y
1
)
¦ x
2
−x
1
)
=
Difference of y co−ordinates¦ordinates)
Difference of x co−ordinates¦abscissae)
Note: If three points A, B, C are collinear then slope of AB =slope of BC =slope of AC
Remarks
• Two (nonvertical) lines are parallel iff their slopes are equal.
• Two (nonvertical) lines are perpendicular iff the product of their slopes = 1.
• Slope of a perpendicular line is the negative reciprocal of the slope of the given line. PAGE 2
π +θ
θ
INTERCEPTS ON X AND Y AXIS: If a line meets the x axis at A, then OA (with proper sign) is calleIf a line
meets X axis at A, then OA with proper sign is called the X intercept and usually denoted by a. If a line meets the y
axis at B, then OB with proper sign is called the yintercept, usually denoted by b. If the intercepts are a and b, then
the line passes through the points (a,0) and (o,b). Thes intercepts may be +ve or ve depending upon the location of
points A and B.
EQUATION OF A STRAIGHT LINE:
Equation of a Straight Line in different forms
1. (i) Equation of a line
parallel to xaxis is
y = b.
2. ii)Equation of a line
parallel to yaxis is
x = a.
3. Equation to x axis is y=0
4. Equation to y axis is x=0
5. SlopeIntercept form
The equation of a straight line having slope m
and making an intercept c on yaxis is
y = m x +c
6. Pointslope form
The equation of a straight line passing through
the fixed point (x
1
, y
1
) and having slope m is
y y
1
= m (x x
1
)
Corollary. The equation of a line passing
through origin and having slope m is y = m x.
An equation of a line passing through the
origin and
a)making an angle θ with the positive direction
of the x axis is y=xtan θ
b)having a slope m is y=mx
c)passing through the point (x1,y1) is x1y=yx1
7. Twopoint form
The equation of the line passing through two
fixed points A (x
1
, y
1
) and B (x
2
,y
2
) is
y  y
1
=

¦ y
2
−y
1
)
¦ x
2
−x
1
)
¦
¦ x−x
1
)
or
y−y
1
x−x
1
=
y
2
−y
1
x
2
−x
1
In determinant form it is given as:
∣
x y 1
x
1
y
1
1
x
2
y
2
1
∣
=0 is the equation of line.
8. Intercept form
The equation of the line cutting off intercepts a
and b on the axes is
x
a
+
y
b
=1 or
x
xintercept
+
y
yintercept
=1
Note:1. If Line L is parallel to X axis, X
intercept is undefined. If Line L is parallel to Y
axis , Y intercept is undefined.
2. If x intercept is a then line passes through
(a,0) and if y intercept is b then line passes
through (b,0) and viceversa
9. Normal (or perpendicular) form
The equation of a straight line in terms of the
length of perpendicular from the origin upon it
and the angle which this perpendicular makes
with the positive direction of xaxis is given by
x cosα + y sinα = p where α be the angle made
by the perpendicular drawn from origin to the
line and p be the length of this perpendicular.
10. Parametric or
symmetrical or
Distance form of a
line:
The equation of the
line passing through
fixed point A(x1,y1)
makes an angle θ
with the +ve direction of x axis is given by
x−x
1
cos0
=
y−y
1
sin0
=r¦ say) where r is the
distance of any point P(x,y) from the point
A(x1,y1) on the same line and x=x1 +r cos θ ,
y=y1 +r sin θ is the coordinate of general point
A(x,y) on the line.
NOTE: The coordinates of any point on the line
lying at a distance r from point A(x1 ,y1) can be
taken as (x1 +r cos θ , y=y1 +r sin θ)
11. General form
Every straight line can be represented by an
equation of the first degree in x and y, and
conversely every first degree equation in x, y
represents a straight line.
The equation a x +b y +c= 0 (where at least
one of a and b is non zero)
12. a) Slope and intercepts on axes by the line
ax +by +c=0
Slope of a line = −
a
b
=
coeff. of x
coeff. of y
x intercept: = −
c
a
y intercept: = −
c
b
Intercepts: Put y=o in the given equation and
find x=
−
c
a
and
then put y=o and find y= −
c
b
which are
respectively the intercepts on the axes of x and
y.
b)The equation ax+by+c=0 represents a line
i)parallel to x axis A=0 i.e coeff of x is 0
ii)paralle to y axis B=0 i.e. coeff of y is 0
iii)passing through origin C=0 i.e.
constant term is 0.
CONVERSION OF GENERAL EQUATION ax+by+c=0 OF STRAIGHT LINE IN DIFFERENT FORMS:
i)Slope intercept form: ax+by+c=0 is by=axc
y= −
a
b
x−
c
b
; y=mx+c; where m= −
a
b
=
−coefficient of x
coefficient of y
=Slope of ax+by+c=0
and y intercept(Intercept on yaxis)=
−constant term
coefficient of y
PAGE 3
x = a.
y=0
x
=
0
θ
θ
A(x
1
,y
1
)
P(x,y)
M
(0,0)
y = b.
ii)Intercept form of ax+by+c=0 is ax+by=c
x
−
c
a
+
y
−
c
b
=1
where x intercept= −
c
a
; y intercept= −
c
b
iii)Normal form of general equation ax+by+c=0 is given as (ax+by)=c
−
ax
.a
2
+b
2
−
by
.a
2
+b
2
=
c
. a
2
+b
2
xcos o+ysino=p where xcosα+ysinα=p where
cosα=
−
ax
.a
2
+b
2
sinα=
−
by
.a
2
+b
2
p=
c
.a
2
+b
2
p=LENGTH OF PERPENDICULAR FROM ORIGIN TO
STRAIGHT LINE ax+by+c=0 is
c
.a
2
+b
2
ANGLE BETWEEN TWO LINES
The angle between two nonvertical and nonperpendicular lines:
• Let l
1
and l
2
be the two nonvertical and nonperpendicular lines with slopes m
1
and m
2
respectively. Let θ
1
and θ
2
be their inclinations, then m
1
= tan θ
1
and m
2
=
tan θ
2
. There are two angles θ and π  θ between the lines l
1
and l
2
, given by
tan θ = ±
¦m
1
−m
2
)
¦1+m
1
m
2
)
• If θ is the acute angle between the two lines then tanθ =
∣
m
1
−m
2
1+m
1
m
2
∣
• Remark: 1)If lines are parallel then θ =0
0
tanθ =tan0
0
=0
m
1
−m
2
1+m
1
m
2
=0 m1=m2
2)If lines are perpendicular to each other i.e. θ=90
0
then 1+m1m2 =0 i.e. m1m2=1
3)If lines re perpendicular and slope of one of the line be m then slope of the other line be −
1
m
PARALLEL AND PERPENDICULAR LINES:
• Conditions of parallelism and perpendicularity.
Two lines with slopes m
1
and m
2
are
(i) parallel if and only if m
1
= m
2
(ii) perpendicular if and only if m
1
m
2
= 1
• Any line parallel to the line ax+by+c=0 is of the form ax+by+k=0 and any line perpendicular to it is of the
form bxay+k=0
ANGLE BETWEEN TWO LINES WHOSE GENERAL EQUATIONS ARE GIVEN:
Let θ be the angle between two lines L1 : a1x +b1y +c1 =0 L2 : a2x+b2y+c2 =0 ; then tan θ =
∣
a
2
b
1
−b
2
a
1
a
1
a
2
+b
1
b
2
∣
CONDITONS FOR TWO GIVEN LINES TO BE PARALLEL AND PERPENDICULAR:
The two lines a1x +b1y +c1 =0 , and a2x+b2y+c2 =0
i)are parallel if
a
1
a
2
=
b
1
b
2
≠
c
1
c
2
or a1b2 =b1a2
ii) and coincident if
a
1
a
2
=
b
1
b
2
=
c
1
c
2
iii)These lines will be perpendicular if a1a2 +b1b2 =0
i.e. product of the coefficients of x + product of
coefficients of y=0.
iv)Intersecting if a1b2 a2b1#0 i.e.
a
1
a
2
≠
b
1
b
2
POINT OF INTESECTION OF TWO LINES&EQUATION OF LINE PASSING THROUGH IT:
1) The point of intersection of two lines
a1x +b1y +c1 =0 , and a2x+b2y+c2 =0 is given by obtained by solving the two equations
x
b
1
c
1
b
2
c
2
=
y
a
1
c
1
a
2
c
2
=
1
a
1
b
1
a
2
b
2
i.e x= x=
¦b
1
c
2
−b
2
c
1
)
¦a
1
b
2
−a
2
b
1
)
and y=
¦a
2
c
1
−a
1
c
2
)
¦a
1
b
2
−a
2
b
1
)
Provided a1b2#a2c1[cramer's rule]
2) Equation of the line through the intersection of L1=0 and L2=0 is of the form L1 +kL2 =0
The equation of family of lines passing through the point of intersection of a1x +b1y +c1 =0 , and
a2x+b2y+c2 =0 is given by :
a1x +b1y +c1 +k( a2x+b2y+c2) =0 where k is arbitrary real number.
CONCURRENT STRAIGHT LINES: Three or more lines are said to be concurrent if they pass through the same
point. The condition of concurrency of the three given lines a1x +b1y +c1 =0 , a2x+b2y+c2 =0
and a3x +b3y +c3 =0 is
∣
a
1
b
1
c
1
a
2
b
2
c
2
a
3
b
3
c
3
∣
=0
SOME FACTS about CONCURRENT ST LINES IN THE CARTESIAN SYSTEM:
1. Three lines ax+by+c=0, bx+cy+a=0, cx+ay+b=0 will be concurrent if
i)a
3
+b
3
+c
3
=3abc or ii)a
2
+b
2
+c
2
=ab+bc+ca or iii)a+b+c=0
2. The condition when lines y=m1x +c1 , y=m2x +c2, y=m3x +c3 are concurrent or meet at a point is
m1(c2 c3) +m2(c3 c1) +m3(c1c2)=0 PAGE 4
THE RATIO IN WHICH A GIVEN LINE DIVIDES THE LINE SEGMENT JOINING TWO POINTS: Let the
given line ax+by+c=0 divide the line segment joining A(x1, y1) and B(x2 ,y2) in the ratio m:n , then :
m
n
=−
ax
1
+by
1
+c
ax
2
+by
2
+c
If A and B are on the same side of the given line , then
m
n
is negative, but if A and B are
on opposite sides of the given line, then
m
n
is positive.
LOCATION OF TWO POINTS W.R.T A LINE:
Two points (x1,y1) and (x2,y2) are on the same side of a line ax+by+c=0 if ax1 +by1 +c1 =0 if ax1 +by1 +c1 and ax2 +by2
+c are of same sign(i.e. either both positive or both negative) and points are on the opposite side if ax1 +by1 +c and ax2
+by2 +c are of opposite sign.
POSITION OF A POINT W.R.T A LINE: A point (x1,y1) lies on the origin side of the line ax+by+c=0 if
ax1 +by1+c=0 if ax1 +by1 +c and c have the same sign and (x1,y1) lies on the opposite side of origin if ax1 +by1 +c and
c have the opposite signs.
DISTANCE OF A POINT FROM A LINE
i) The(Length of ) perpendicular distance d of a point P (x 1, y 1) from the line
ax +by +c = 0 is given by
d =
∣
ax
1
+by
1
+c
.¦a² +b² )
∣
ii)The distance between the parallel lines ax+by+c=0 and ax+by+c'=0 is
∣
c−c'
.a
2
+b
2
∣
e.g. The distance between the parallel lines 3x4y+5=0 and 6x8y+5=0 i.e. 3x4y+5/2=0
is
∣
5−5/ 2
.9+16
∣
=
5
2×5
=
1
2
Rule to find the distance between parallel lines:
i. Choose a point on one of the given parallel lines.
ii. Find the perpendicular distance from this point to the other line
EQUATION OF THE BISECTORS OF THE ANGLES:
between the lines a1x+b1y+c1 =0 and a2x+b2y+c2 =0 (provided a1b2 #b1a2 and c1 , c2 >0) are
ax
1
+by
1
+c
1
.¦a² +b² )
=
!ax
2
+by
2
+c
2
.¦ a²+b² )
ii)To discriminate between the acute angle bisector and obtuse angle bisector:
Let θ be the angle between one of the lines and one of the bisectors, find tan θ .
If tan θ <1 than 2 θ <90
0
so that this bisector is the acute nagle bisector.
If tan θ >1, then we get the bisector to be the obtuse angle bisector.
iii) To discriminate between the bisector of the angle containing the origin and that of
the angle not containing the origin, Rewrite the equations 1x +b1y +c1 =0 and
a2x+b2y+c2 =0 such that the constant terms c, c' are positive. (if constant terms c1
and c2 are negative make them positive by multiplying (1) to both sides of the
given equations)
Then
ax
1
+by
1
+c
1
.¦a² +b² )
=+
ax
2
+by
2
+c
2
.¦a² +b² )
gives the equation of the bisector of the angle containing the origin.
and
ax
1
+by
1
+c
1
.¦a² +b² )
=−
ax
2
+by
2
+c
2
.¦a² +b² )
gives the bisector of the angle not containing the origin.
iv)case 1:As constant terms are positive and If a1a2 +b1b2>0, then the bisector corresponding to '+' sign gives the
obtuse angle bisector and bisector corresponding to '' sign is the bisector of acute angle between the given lines
Equation of the obtuse angle bisector is :
ax
1
+by
1
+c
1
.¦a² +b² )
=+
ax
2
+by
2
+c
2
.¦a² +b² )
(origin lies in the obtuse angle)
Equation of the acute angle bisector is :
ax
1
+by
1
+c
1
.¦a² +b² )
=−
ax
2
+by
2
+c
2
.¦a² +b² )
case 2: As constant terms are positive and If a1a2 +b1b2<0, then the
a)Equation of obtuse angle bisector is :
ax
1
+by
1
+c
1
.¦a² +b² )
=−
ax
2
+by
2
+c
2
.¦a² +b² )
(origin lies in the acute angle)
b)Equation of acute angel bisecotor is :
ax
1
+by
1
+c
1
.¦a² +b² )
=+
ax
2
+by
2
+c
2
.¦a² +b² )
ortHOCENTRE, circUMCENTRE, centroid:
1. a)If a traingle is right angle, orthocentre lies on that vertex at which traingle is right angle.
b)In an equilateral traingle centroid, circumcentre, Incentre and orhocentre coincide with each other.
c)Circumcentre of rightangle traingle is midpoint of its hypotenus.
d)Orthocentre, centroid, cirucmcentre of a traingle lies in a straight
line(collinear) and centroid divide the line joining the orthocentre and
circumcentre in the ratio 2:1. Orthocentre divides the circumcentre and centroid
in the ratio 3:2 externally.
2. If LMN be given traingle and traingle DEF is obtained by joining the midpoints
of the sides of the traingle LMN then
centroid of Δ LMN =centroid of Δ DEF
PAGE 5
L
1
L
2
B
1
B
2
θ
θ
L
D
E
F
M
N
NOTE: In an isosceles traingle altitude is a median as well as perpendicular bisecotor of the sides(base). In an
equilateral traingle, the perpendicular from one vertex onto the opposite side bisects the angle at the vertex and is the
perpendicular bisector, altitude and median.
1. NOTE: In an equilateral traingle centroid, cirucumcentre, Incentre and orthocentre coincide with each other.
2. NOTE: In a right angled traingle ABC, ∟C=90
0
, the orthocentre H is the vertex C of the traingle.
3. In a traingle any lines out of three lines i.e. AB, BC, CA are perpendicular then orthocentre is the
point of intersection of two perpendicular lines.
OTHER FACTS:
Area of parallelogram ABCD=
p
1
P
2
sin0
Where p1 and p2 are the distances between parallel sides and θ is the angle
between two adjacent sides
Area of Rhombus :(in case of Rhombus) (p1 =p2) =
p
1
2
sin 0
Area of Rhombus: =
1
2
d
1
d
2
Where d1 and d2 are the lengths of two perpendicular diagonals of a rhombus.
SHORT CUTS:
1.MIRROR IMAGE(REFLECTION) OF A POINT P(x1,y1) W.R.T A GIVEN LINE: Let (x1 ,y1 ) be the given
point and say ax+by+c=0 be given line, the point (x2,y2) will be mirror image of (x1,y1) in the said line if
x
2
−x
1
a
=
y
2
−y
1
b
= −
2¦ax
1
+by
1
+c)
a
2
+b
2
Mirror image of (α ,β) in the line ax+by+c=0 is given by
x−o
a
=
y−ß
b
= −
2¦a o+bß+c)
a
2
+b
2
e.g: The image of (2,3) in the line x+3y+4=0 is
x−2
1
=
y−3
3
= −
2¦1)+3¦3)+4
10
or x=1, y=6 i.e (1, 6)
2. FOOT (x2 ,y2 ) OF PERPENDICULAR DRAWN FROM (x1,y1) TO THE LINE ax+by+c=0: We count
down the following condition
x
2
−x
1
a
=
y
2
−y
1
b
= −
¦ax
1
+by
1
+c)
a
2
+b
2
i.e. Foot of the perpendicular drawn from (α ,β) to the line ax+by+c=0 is given by
x−o
a
==
y−ß
b
= −
¦ao+bß+c)
a
2
+b
2
e.g: The coordinates of the foot of perpendicular from (6,2) on the
line 4x5y+7=0 is
x−6
4
=
y−¦−2)
−5
=
−
¦4.6+¦−5)¦−2)+7)
4
2
+¦−5)
2
or x=2, y=3
3.x axis divides the line segment joining (x1,y1), (x2,y2) in the ratio y1:y2 and y axis divides the same line segment
in the ratio x1:x2
e.g: x axis divides the line segment joining (2,4) , (6,2) in the ratio
(4):2 is 4:2 and y axis divides in the ratio 2:6
4.If ABCD is a parallelogram, then D=AB+C.
e.g: If (1,6), (2,5) , (5,1) are three vertices of a parallelogram, then fourth vertex (12+5, 65+1) i.e. (4,2)
5.If D, E, F are the midpoints of the sides of BC, CA, AB of ABC, then
A=E+FD; B=F+DE; C=D+EF.
e.g: If D(1,1), E(3,3), F(3,1) are the midpoints of the sides of BC, CA, AB then A=(3+31, 311)=(5,5)
B=(3+13, 1+1(3))=(1,3) C=(1+33, 13+1)=(1,1)
AREASHORT CUTS
1. Area of the traingel formed by (x1,y1), (x2,y2), (x3,y3) is
∣
1
2∣
x
1
−x
3
x
2
−x
3
y
1
−y
3
y
2
−y
3
∣∣
e.g: Area of traingel
formed by (3,2), (3,4) (7,2)
=
∣
1
2
∣
3−7 3−7
2−2 −4−2
∣∣
=
∣
1
2
∣
−4 −4
0 −6
∣∣
=12sq units
2. Area of quadrilateral formed by the points (x1,y1), (x2,y2), (x3,y3),(x4,y4) is
∣
1
2∣
x
1
−x
3
x
2
−x
4
y
1
−y
3
y
2
−y
4
∣∣
e.g. Area of quadrilateral formed by points (2, 1), (4,3), (1,2) (3,2) is
∣
1
2
∣
2+1 4+3
−1−2 3+2
∣∣
=
1
2
¦15+21) =18 sq units
PAGE 6
3. Area formed by the lines y=m1x +c1 and y=m2x +c2 and y=m3x +c3 is equals =
∣
1
2

¦ c
1
−c
2
)
2
m
1
−m
2
+
¦c
2
−c
1
)
2
m
2
−m
3
+
¦c
3
−c
1
)
2
m
3
−m
1
¦∣
e.g: The area of the traingle formed by lines y+2x=4, y+3x=5 and y+x+1=0 is
∣
1
2

¦ 4−
5
2
)
2
−2
3
2
+
¦
5
2
+1)
2
−
3
2
−1
+
¦−1−4)
2
−1+2
¦
∣
=
1
2

9
4
×
−2
1
+
49
4
×
−2
1
+25
¦
=
1
2

−9
2
−
49
2
+25
¦
=
1
2
 −29+25¦ =2 sq units. [lines are y=2x+4; y=3/2x +5/2; y=x1]
4. The area of quadrilateral formed by the lines x+y=1 is equal to 2 square units.
5. Area of the parallelogram formed by the lines
a1x+b1y+c1 =0; a2x +b2y +c2 =0,
a1x+b1y+d1 =0; a2x +b2y +d2 =0, is
∣
¦ d
1
−c
1
)¦d
2
−c
2
)
a
1
b
2
−a
2
b
1
∣
If sides of parallelogram be given by y=mx+a, y=mx+b and y=nx+c, y=nx+d then area will be given by
¦a−b)¦c−d )
m−n
e.g. Area of parallelogram formedby the lines 3x+4y+5=0; 2x+3y+4=0; 3x+4y+7=0; 2x+3y+5=0 is
¦7−5)¦5−4)
9−8
=2 sq units
6. Area of Rhombus formed by the lines ax!by!c=0 is given by
∣
2c
2
2ab
∣
e.g: Area of Rhombus formed by 4x!3y!5=0 is
∣
2¦5
2
)
4×3
∣
=
25
6
sq units
7. Area of traingle made by the line ax+by+c=0 with the coordinate axes is
∣
c
2
2ab
∣
e.g: Area of the traingle formed by 4x+y+1=0 with the coordinate axes is
1
2∣¦4)¦1)∣
=
1
8
sq. units
oTHERS: SHORTCUTS
1. If the two vertices of an equilateral traingle are (x1,y1), (x2 ,y2) then its third vertex is given y
¦
x
1
+x
2
!.3¦ y
1
−y
2
)
2,
y
1
+y
2
!.3¦ x
1
−x
2
)
2
)
e.g: Let A(2,0), B(2,0) be the ends of an equilateral traingle, then its hird vertex is
¦
2−2!.3¦0−0)
2,
0+0!.3¦2+2)
2
)
i.e¦0,!2.3)
2. If (x1,y1) and (x2,y2) are the endpoints of hypotenus of a rightangle isosceles traingle then the co
ordinate of the vertex at which traingle is rightangle is given by
A(X,Y) =
¦
x
1
+x
2
!¦ y
1
−y
2
)
2
,
y
1
+y
2
!¦ x
1
−x
2
)
2
)
e.g: Let A(2,0), B(0,2) be the end points of
hypotenus of rightangled isoscele traingel.
third vertex is
¦
2+0!¦0−2)
2
,
0+2!¦ 2−0)
2
)
i.e (0,0) or (2,2)
3. Circumcentre of the rightangle traingle ABC, rightangled at A is
B+C
2
e.g.Circumcentre of the traingle formed by A(3,2), B(3,4), C(7,2)
=
¦
3+7
2
,
−4+2
2
)
=(5,1) Clearly traingle ABC is rt angled. Why?
Because Circumcentre of rightangle traingle is midpoint of its hypotenus.
4. Orthocentre of the rightangled traingel ABC , rightangled at A is A.
e.g. Orthocentre of the rt. angled traingle formed by A(3,2), B(3,4), C(7,2) is (3,2).
( rt.angle is at A, If a traingle is right angle, orthocentre lies on that vertex at which traingle is right
angle. )
5. If D, E, F are the midpoints of the sides BC, CA, AB of ABC, then the centroid of
ABC= centroid of DEF
e.g.:If D(1,1), E(3,3), F(3,1) are the midpoints of BC, CA, AB, then centroid of ABC is
¦
1+3+3
3
,
1−3−1
3
)
i.e.
¦
7
2,
−1
)
PAGE 7
6. Centroid divides the line joining orhocentre and circumcentre in the ration 2:1
e.g. If the orthocentre of a traingle is (3,5) and circumcentre is (6,2) , then centroid is
¦
2¦6)+1¦−3)
2+1
,
2¦2)+1¦5)
2+1
)
i.e. (3,3)
7. In an equilateral traingle, orthocentre, centroid, circumcentre, incentre coincide .
e.g. The orthocentre, circumcentre, incentre, centroid of equilateral traingle formed by points (a,a), (a,a),
¦−a.3, a .3) is
¦
a−a−a.3
3
,
a−a+a.3
3
)
=
¦
−.3a
3
,
.3a
3
)
8. A traingle is isosceles if any tow of its medians are equal
9. If the vertices of a triangle ABC are (a, 1/a), (b,1/b), (c,1/c) then coordinate of orthocentre is
¦
−1
abc
,−abc
)
e.g: Orhocentre of traingle formed by vertices (4,1/4), (3, 1/3), (1,1) is
¦
−1
4.3.1
,−4.3.1
)
=
¦
−1
12,
12
)
10. Equation of straight lines through (x1,y1) making α with
y=mx+c are :(yy1)=tan(θα)(xx1) and (yy1)=tan(θ +α)(xx1)
OR
Equation of the lines through (x1,y1) and making an angle Φ with
the line ax+by+c=0, b#0 are
yy1 =m1(xx1) where m1=
tan 0−tanΦ
1+tan 0tanΦ
yy1 =m2(xx2) where m2 =
tan0+tanΦ
1−tan0tanΦ
where tanθ = −
a
b
is the slope of the given line. Note that
m1 =tan(θ Φ), m2=tan(θ +Φ) and when b=0, θ=
n
2
e.g.: the two st. lines through (2,1) making an angle 45
0
with the line 6x+5y1=0;
y+1=m1(x2) where m1=
−6
5
−tan45
0
1+¦
−6
5
) tan45
0
=11; y+1=11(x2) i.e. 11xy23=0;
y+1=m2 (x2) where m2=
−6
5
+tan45
0
1−¦
−6
5
) tan45
0
=
−1
11
y+1=
−1
11
(x2) i.e. x+11y+9=0;
11. If set of lines ax+by+c=0 satisfy the condition la+mb+nc=0(where l, m, and n are constants, the line passing
through a fixed point
¦
l
m
,
m
n
)
. For example if 3a+2b+4c=0, then set of line ax+by+c=0 satisfy through
a fixed point
¦
3
4,
1
2
)
12. Equation of a line parallel to the lines ax+by+c1=0 and ax+by+c2 =0 and dividing distance between them in
the ratio m:n
a)Internally is ax+by+
¦
mc
2
+nc
1
m+n
)
=0 b)Externally is ax+by+
¦
mc
2
−nc
1
m−n
)
=0
13. Equation of the line parallel to lines ax+by+c1 =0 and ax+by+c2 =0 and equidistant from them is
ax+by+
¦
c
1
+c
2
2
)
=0 as m:n=1:1
EXCENTRE: Let A(x1,y1), B(x2,y2), C(x3,y3) then (FOR AIEEE)
excentre I1(x,y)=
¦
−ax
1
+bx
2
+cx
3
−a+b+c
,
−ay
1
+by
2
+cy
3
−a+b+c
)
i.e(centre of excircle)touching the side BC
I2(x,y)=
¦
ax
1
−bx
2
+cx
3
a−b+c
,
ay
1
−by
2
+cy
3
a−b+c
)
I3(x,y)=
¦
ax
1
+bx
2
−cx
3
a+b−c
,
ay
1
+by
2
−cy
3
a+b−c
)
PAGE 8
α
α
α
180
0
α
θα
θ
θ
A(x
1
,y
1
)
y=mx+c
L
A(x
1
,y
2
)
B(x
2
,y
2
)
C(x
3
,y
3
)
I
1
I
2
I
3
NINE POINT CIRCLE:A circle which passes through the feet of perpendicular drawn from the vertices of a traingle
to the opposite side, the middle points of the sides and the midpoints of the sides joining the angular points to the
orthocentre is called nine point circle. (FOR IIT/JEE)
In the plane of any traingle ABC, there are nine points through which one and only one circle can pass
These nine points are:
i. Three points, mid points D,E,F of traiangle ABC.
ii. Three points, Altitudes G,H,I drawn from vertices A,B,C
iii. Three points, mid points J,K,L of line segments OA,OB, OC where O is the orthocentre (i.e. the point where
the three altitudes AG, BH and CI intersect)
The centre of the circle is N which is the midpoint of the line segment OT where T is the circumcentre of the line
segment OT where T is the circumcentre of Δ ABC.
NOTE: 1)The centre of the nine point circle lies on the line segment joining orthocentre and circumcentre of the
traingle.
2)The radius of the nine point circle of a traingle is half the radius of circumcircle
3)The centroid, the nine point centre, circumcentre and orhocentre, lies on a straight line.
4)Centroid, circumcentre and orthocentre in a traingle are collinear, and Centroid(G) divide the line segment
joining the orthocentre(H) and circumcentre(M) internally in the ratio 2:1
Let M be the circum centre and H be the orthocentre andG be the centroid of the traingel in ABC. If OD is
perpendicular to BC then D will be its midpoint. Let the median AD meet OP in G. Then it is clear that Δ OGD
and Δ PGA are similar.
DG
AG
=
OG
HG
=
OD
HA
DG
AG
=
OG
HG
=
OD
HA
=
RCOSA
2RCOSA
=
1
2
It follows that G is centroid of the traingle ABC and is situated on the line
OH and divides it in the ratio 1:2
PAGE 9
A
H O
G
D L
B
C
VIJNAN CLASSES PAIR OF LINESSYNOPSIS
HOMOGENEOUS EQUATION OF SECOND DEGREE:
(1) The homogeneous equation of degree 2 in x and y i.e. ax
2
+ 2hxy + by
2
= 0 represents a pair of lines
passing through the origin.These straight lines are
i)real and distinct if h
2
ab>0 i.e. h
2
>ab
ii)are coincident if h
2
ab=0 i.e
h
2
=ab
iii) are imaginary if h
2
ab<0 .
The point of intersection of the pair of lines ax
2
+2hxy+by
2
=0 is origin.
(2) If the individual equations of the above lines are y = m
1
x and y = m
2
x where m1 and m2 are the slopes of
the lines then m
1
+ m
2
= 2h/b and m
1
m
2
= a/b
(3) Acute angle between these lines is given by tan
−1
∣
2. h
2
– ab
a+b
∣
(4) These lines are perpendicular if a + b = 0 and coincident if h
2
= ab
(5) If the individual equations of the above lines are y = m
1
x and y = m
2
x then
m
1
+ m
2
= 2h/b and m
1
m
2
= a/b
(6) The equation of a pair of lines perpendicular to the pair ax
2
+ 2hxy + by
2
= 0 is
(7) bx
2
– 2hxy + ay
2
= 0.(Interchange the coefficients of x
2
and y
2
and change the sign of the term
containing xy.
(If the lines represented by ax
2
+2hxy+by
2
=0 be perpendicular, then a+b=0 or b= a. Hence the equation
becomes ax
2
+2hxyay
2
=0 or x
2
+
2h
a
xy
2
=0 or x
2
+pxy y
2
=0 where p is any constant.)
SECOND DEGREE EQUATION IN X AND Y:
1. The condition for the general equation ax
2
+ 2hxy + by
2
+ 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 to represent a pair of lines
is = 0 or abc + 2fgh – af
2
– bg
2
– ch
2
= 0
2. Equation S= ax
2
+ 2hxy + by
2
+ 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 represents a two degree curve, if
3. i)abc + 2fgh – af
2
– bg
2
– ch
2
= 0, then it represents a pair of straight lines.
ii)abc + 2fgh – af
2
– bg
2
– ch
2
# 0, then a) h
2
=ab (it's a parabola)
b)h
2
>ab ( a hyperbola)
c)h
2
<ab( an ellipse)
4. The point of intersection of these lines is

hf – bg
ab – h
2
,
gh– af
ab – h
2
¦
5. Angle between these lines is the same as the angle between the pair of lines through the origin and hence it
is tan
−1
∣
2.h
2
– ab
a+b
∣
6. Condition for parallel lines is a/h = h/b = g/f
7. The equation ax
2
+ 2hxy + by
2
+ 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 will represent a pair of parallel lines if
abc + 2fgh – af
2
– bg
2
– ch
2
= 0 and h
2
=ab. Also
a
h
=
h
b
=
g
f
8. Distance between parallel lines =
2
.
g
2
– ac
a¦a+b)
NOTE: Remember that a,b,c stand for the coefficients of x
2
and y
2
and constant term respectively and f, g, h stand for
half the coefficients of y,x and xy.
SHORT CUTS:
1). Equation of the bisectors of angle between the lines represented by
a)y=m1x and y=m2x is given by (m1 +m2)(x
2
y
2
) +2(m1. m2 1)xy=0
b) ax
2
+ 2hxy + by
2
= 0: are
x
2
−y
2
a−b
=
xy
h
or
x
2
−y
2
coeff.of x
2
−coeff.of.y
2
=
xy
half of coeff. of xy
c) ax
2
+ 2hxy + by
2
+ 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 are
¦ x−x
1
)
2
−¦ y−y
1
)
2
a−b
=
¦ x−x
1
)¦ y−y
1
)
h
where (x1,y1) is the point of intersection of lines represented by above.
2)Equation of the st. line joining origin to the point of intersection of a second degree curve
ax
2
+ 2hxy + by
2
+ 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 and a st. line lx+my+n=0 is
(i.e.If line lx+my+n=0 intersect the pair of st.lines represented by above
at twopoints A and B, then equation of pair of st.lines passing
through origin and intersection points of curve and line AB i.e. OA and OB is )
ax
2
+ 2hxy + by
2
+ 2gx
¦
lx+my
−n
)
+ 2fy
¦
lx+my
−n
)
+ c
¦
lx+my
−n
)
2
= 0
Method: step 1: Take all the terms of x and y in the equation of the st.line on L.H.S
and constant term on R.H.S.. Then divide both sides by the constant term on R.H.S.
to get 1 on R.H.S. PAGE 10
A
B
X
Y
O
Curve
Line
Step 2: We write 2gx as 2gx.1 ; 2fy as 2fy.1 and c as c(1)
2
Putting the value of 1, in the equation of the curve we get the required joint equation
e.g.: the joint equation of the pair of st.lines joining the origin to the point of intersection of the
line y=3x+2 and the circle x
2
+y
2
=a
2
is x
2
+y
2
=a
2
.(1)
2
=a
2
¦
y−3x
2
)
2
[ y−3x=2⇒
y−3x
2
=1 ]
⇒ 4(x
2
+y
2
)=a
2
(y3x)
2
Note: If the pair of lines given by the above equation are perpendicular, then
coeff.of x
2
+coeff. of y
2
=0 i.e. 49a
2
+4a
2
=0 i.e. 810a
2
=0 i.e. 45a
2
=0.
e.g.2: Find the equation of the st.line oining the origin to the point of intersection of the lne xy=2 and the curve
5x
2
+12xy8y
2
+8x4y+12=0
Sol: From the equation of the line we have xy=2 or
x−y
2
=1; Equation of the curve
5x
2
+12xy8y
2
+4(2xy)+12=0 i.e 5x
2
+12xy8y
2
+4(2xy) .1 +12.(1)
2
=0[Make it homogeneous]
Equation of the required line is 5x
2
+12xy8y
2
+4(2xy) .
¦
x−y
2
)
+12.
¦
x−y
2
)
2
=0[by(1)]
or (5x
2
+12xy 8y
2
)+2(2x
2
3xy+y
2
) +3(x
2
2xy +y
2
)=0 or 12x
2
+0.xy3y
2
=0 or y= ! 2x.
3)Point of Intersection of Lines: Let S=ax
2
+by
2
+2hxy+2gx +2fy+c=0 reprsents a pair of st.lines , then
differentiate w.r.t x(assuming y constnat)
6 S
6 x
=2ax+2hy+2g=0.............(i)
Now differentiate it w.r.t y (assuming x constant)
6 S
6 y
=2by+2hx+2f=0............(ii)
Solution of equation (i) and (ii) gives the Intersection of lines
e.g:The point of intersection of lines given by the equation 3x
2
+10xy+3y
2
15x21y+18=0 is
6 S
6 x
=6x+10y15=0..........(i)
6 S
6 y
=10x+6y21=0............(ii)
From equation (i) and (ii) x=
115
48
y=
1
16
4)If the slope of one of the lines represented by ax
2
+2hxy+by
2
=0 be k times the other, then to determine the
value of k use the result
¦
1+k
2h
)
=
k
ab
e.g.: If the slope of the lines 3x
2
+2hxy+4y
2
=0 are in the ratio 3:1 then h equals____
Here a=3 b=4 k=3 ∴
¦
1+3
2h
)
=
3
ab
⇒ h
2
=
4ab
3
=
4¦3)¦ 4)
3
=4
2
∴ h=4,4
OR Let slopes be m and 3m m+3m=4m= −
2h
b
⇒ m= −
h
2b
= −
h
8
m.3m=
a
b
⇒ 3m
2
=
3
4
⇒ m
2
=
1
4
⇒
¦
−
h
8
)
2
=
1
4
⇒ h
2
=16 ∴ h=4,4
5)Area of traingle formed by the lines ax
2
+2hxy+by
2
=0 and lx+my+n=0 is given by
∣
n
2
.h
2
−ab
am
2
−2hlm+bl
2
∣
e.g.: Area of the traingle formed by the lines x
2
+4xy+y
2
=0 and x+y=1 is
∣
¦−1)
2
.
¦2)
2
−1.1
1¦1)
2
−2.2.1.1+1.¦1)
2
∣
=
.3
2
(By putting n=1, h=2, a=b=l=m=1)
6)If the orhocentre of the traingle formed by the lines ax
2
+2hxy+by
2
=0 and lx+my+1=0(n=1) be denoted by
(x', y') then (x',y') be calculated as
x'
l
=
y'
m
=
a+b
am
2
−2hlm+bl
2
7)If two sides of a traingle be represented by the pair of st. lins ax
2
+2hxy+by
2
=0 and coordinate of orthocentre
be (c,d) then equation of third side of the traingle be given by (a+b)(cx+dy) =ad
2
2hcd +bc
2
8)Product of perpendiculars drawn from the point (x1 ,y1) to the pair of st. lines ax
2
+2hxy+by
2
=0 is
P1P2 =Product of ┴ 's drawn from P(x1,y1) to the given pair to st. lines
=
ax
1
2
+2hx
1
y
1
+by
1
2
.¦ a−b)
2
+4h
2
9)If the equation ax
2
+by
2
+2hxy+2gx +2fy+c=0 represent pair of st.lines
then product of length of perpenduculars drawn from (0,0) to these lines is given by
P1 x P2 =
c
.¦a−b)
2
+4h
2
10)Joint equation of pair of st.lines through (x1,y1) and ┴ to the lines
ax
2
+2hxy+by
2
=0 is given by b(xx1)
2
2h(xx1)(yy1) +a(yy1)
2
=0
and parallel to ax
2
+2hxy+by
2
=0 is given by a(xx1)
2
+2h(xx1)(yy1) +b(yy1)
2
=0
PAGE 11
P(x
1
,y
1
)
P
1
P
2
L
1
L
2
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