You are on page 1of 59

THE SCENARIO OF INDUSTRIAL CONFLICTS AND

RESOLUTION

A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA LABOUR UNION

BY

EMMANUEL NELSON BASSEY

(MBA,CNA.NIAFA.)

COLLEGE OF ACCOUNTANCY AND COMPUTER

TECHNOLOGY

BLOCK B, FLAT 8, MASOJE ESTATE.

EFFURUN

DELTA STATE.

NIGERIA.

NOVEMBER 2009
CERTIFICATION PAGE

We certify that this work was carried out by

………………………… in the School of Business Studies,

department of Business Administration, COLLEGE OF

ACCOUNTANCY AND COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY as

meeting the requirement for the award of higher national

diploma in Business Administration.

__________________ ________________

(Supervisor) Centre Co-ordinator

Date __________ Date __________

2
DEDICATION PAGE

I dedicate this project to Almighty God for his divine

guidance, grace and mercy throughout my academic

pursuit. May all Glory, Honour, Majesty and power be

ascribed unto His Holy Name in Jesus Name.

3
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I hereby Acknowledged the following people that has made my dream

and purpose in life to come through. First of all, thanks to Almighty God

who gave me power and wisdom, and the grace to be educated and to

MR ___________________________________________ and my dear

mother Mrs. ___________________________________________ who is

an encouragement to my life and my brothers and Sisters

________________

___________________________________________________________

________ for their love towards me in prayer, also my supervisor who

has been a great help to me.

_______________________________________ and my lovely Register

of warri center MRS Stella Oyabugbe and my Co-odinator of warri

Centre Mrs Alex Obinaka for her love towards me and my father

______________________________________________________

whose Vision for my life was to be great and useful in life and those

many love ones too numerous to name. My prayer to God Almighty is

that HE should bless you all richly in JESUS NAME.

4
ABSTRACT

Conflicts in employment and industrial relations are a complex

matter and there are a numerous factors affecting their latent

presence and the propensity to conflict. The relatively low volume of

labour disputes in Nigeria may be attributed to the "juridification" of

industrial relations, and to institutions about which there is a joint

consensus among the bargaining parties. Both provide the

framework for a detailed allocation of certain substantive issues to

different institutions within the dual system - ie, collective

bargaining (unions and employers' associations) and workers'

representation at establishment level (works committee).

Negotiation and co-determination under the legal obligation of

"social peace" and "trustful cooperation" lead to the neutralisation

of the workplace by moving conflict from the workplace to the

industry level. These mechanisms channel and depoliticise conflicts,

encourage professionalisation of conflict management, lead to a

higher predictability of behaviour and in the end serve the purpose

of containing and dampening conflict.

In this research work, the researcher will consider in chapter

one….the introduction of the study which will in turn considers the

following topics. The background of the study, the statement of

5
research problem, the objective of the study, significance of the

study, the hypothesis and the structure of the work.

Chapter two focuses on the literature review, this chapter is where

the researcher extract materials from various books, magazines,

news papers and internet resources. In chapter three, the

researcher deals on research methods while chapter four is data

analysis and presentation. The findings, summary, and conclusion is

in chapter five.

6
CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

In this chapter one, the following are to be introduced and

analyzed. These includes background of the study, statement of the

problem, purpose of the study, the scope of the study, research

hypothesis, significance of the study, limitations of the study,

definitions of the essential terms and the structure of the work.

1.0 THE BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The first labor union—the civil service union— emerged in 1912. By

1950 the number had grown to 144 with more than 144,000

members, and 300,000 in 1963 affiliated with 5 central labor

associations. Because of a series of labor problems and the

meddling of politicians between 1963 and 1975, the military

government dissolved the central unions and decreed only 1 central

unit, the Nigerian Labor Congress, in 1976. In 1977 11 labor union

leaders were banned from further union activity. A 1978 labor

decree amendment reorganized more than 1,000 previously existing

unions into 70 registered industrial unions under the Nigerian Labor

Congress. In addition to the recognized trade unions, women's

organizations, mostly professional and social clubs, collectively seek

to improve women's conditions and participation in the economic

7
and political life of the nation. Journalists, university professors, and

students have their own organizations also as interest groups.

The term industrial conflict denotes the clash of interests, and

resulting disputes of varying intensity, between individuals, groups

and organisations in the industrial relations system. The relationship

between the owners/managers and the workers/employees is

frequently one of conflict. Conflicts may exist latently or manifest

themselves overtly at every level of industrial relations. The overt

forms of conflict are various and include absenteeism, sabotage, go-

slows, work-to-rule, restriction of output, non-cooperation and

industrial action (strikes, lock-outs, boycotts). Industrial conflict

may centre around differences in values and objectives, and

relationships in terms of power, status and distribution. Whereas

industrial conflict and peace refer to industrial relations issues,

social conflict and peace refer to issues in the wider political and

social sphere. There are numerous theories on the source of

industrial conflict, ranging from radical class-oriented Marxist views

to theories views which attribute conflict to the clash of economic

interests in the employment relationship, because

workers/employees and managers have different interests with

regard to wages and effort.

The term industrial action refers to a situation where the employers'

or the employees' side takes collective action to exert pressure on

8
the other collective bargaining party in order to achieve its goals.

The term is often used synonymously with labour dispute. Forms of

industrial actions include strikes by employees, lock-outs by

employers, and boycotts. Industrial action can be measured in three

dimensions:

• the number of strikes and lock-outs (frequency of

industrial action);

• the number of affected workers (extent of

industrial action); and

• the number of working days lost (volume of

industrial action).

It is much disputed whether industrial action as a means of coercion

is necessary to the conclusion of a collective agreement and

whether its availability is a necessary precondition for free collective

bargaining. Some argue that strikes are just accidents in faulty

negotiations or exist to show that the trade unions' weapons are not

becoming rusty. Others argue that the right to bargain collectively

presupposes that the social partners can establish and maintain a

balance of bargaining power by resorting to industrial action. Still

others argue that strikes serve as filtering and information

mechanisms whereby the union receives information on the profits

of the employer and the employer receives information on union

militancy. As a consequence, more profitable employers will settle

9
more quickly, implying higher wage rises for the unions, whereas

low levels of profit will lead to long strikes and low settlements.

1.1 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM

In looking at the scenario of industrial conflicts and resolution,

some of the questions that easily come to mind are

• what may likely be the consequences of conflict and how can

it disrupt the workplace?.

• How resolving workplace conflict is an integral part of

everyone's job in a company.

• The common causes of workplace conflict and how to

recognize them.

• Diffusing disagreements before they get out of hand.

• What can the damage escalating conflict and violence can do

to an organization.

• How collaboration can be a valuable tool in resolving conflicts.

• How to apply proven conflict resolution techniques and

strategies to solve problems.

10
1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The main objective of the study was to determine/analysis the

nature of industrial conflicts and resolution in Nigeria Labour

Congress. The subsidiary objectives includes:

• Determining the Costs and benefits of industrial conflict.

• Adopting a yardstick for measuring the cost and benefits of

the industrial conflicts in and organization.

• Whether the costs and benefits is financial, personal, social,

political and international.

1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study is significant because it will produce data and

findings on manpower efficiency and performance

appraisal that will be useful to:

1. Members of the board or council

2. The promoters of this firm in Nigeria and oversees

3. Those at the helm of the organisation which include top

level managers, and low level managers in the industry

4. Supervisors who carry out the actual personnel

management functions.

5. The financial managers, management accountants.

6. The junior staff of the firm

11
7. The pubic at large and customers of this firm.

8. Nigeria Labour Congress

9. Nigeria civil service commission

1.4 HYPOTHESES

It is a conjectural statement of the relationships between two

or more variables. It is testable, tentative problem

explanation of the relationship between two or more variables

that create a state of affairs or phenomenon.

E,C, Osuola (1986 page 48) said hypothesis should always be

in declarative sentence form, and they should relate to them

generally or specially variable to variables.

HYPOTHESIS THUS:

1. Explain observed events in a systematic manner

2. Predict the outcome of events and relationships

3. Systematically summarized existing knowledge.

In essence, there exist NULL HYPOTHESIS set up only to

nullify the research hypothesis and the ALTERNATIVE

HYPOTHESIS for the purpose of the study. For the efficiency

of the study, the hypothesis is as follows:
12
NULL HYPOTHESIS (HO)

1. Disputes are not often the result of inadequate

consultation by management with their employees.

2 Employers does not apply grievance procedures but

negotiate agreements directly with employees to resolve

disputes.

ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS

1. Disputes are often the result of inadequate consultation by

management with their employees.

2. Employers uses grievance procedures and negotiate

agreements directly with employees to resolve disputes

1.5 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

A research work of this nature cannot come to an end without

limitation. The researcher encountered numerous problems

which affected the smooth running of the work. These

problems includes, difficulty in procuring materials for the

project, time factor and financial constraints.

13
Material Procurement

There was a lot constraints as to getting information and

materials for the job. The researcher made series of

consultations and visit to most renowned institutions to

acquire the needed information. Most materials used were

very difficult to come by, as there is no library within the

town.

Time Constraints

Combining academic work with job is no doubt a thought

provoking issue, as it has to do with time. Actually, a lot of

time was wasted as the researcher visited the organizations

and individuals together with government agencies to obtain

valuable information for the project.

Financial Constraints

The researcher would have obtained more information than

what is obtainable here but due to lack of money to visit some

of the firms and government agencies located a bit farther

from the researcher place of resident.

14
1.6 STRUCTURE OR ORGANISATION OF THE STUDY

This research work is to be organized in five chapters as

follows:

1. Introduction

2. Review of Related Literature

3. Research Methods and Producers

4. Data presentation and Analysis and

5. Summary, Findings and Conclusion

15
CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 INTRODUCTION

New patterns of working, the globalisation of production and

the introduction of information technologies are changing the

way we work. This new working environment has eliminated

some risks whilst introducing others. The importance of the

psychosocial working environment for the health of employees

is now well documented, but the effects of managerial style

have received relatively little attention. Yet management is an

increasingly important aspect of companies’ policies.

In this research work, we will examine the relationship

between industrial conflict management in the workplace and

self-reported measures of stress, poor general health,

exhaustion and sickness absence due to overstrain or fatigue

and resolution.

Nigerian labor laws prohibit forced or compulsory labor. They

also prohibit the employment of children under 15 years of

age in commerce and industry and restrict other child labor to

domestic or agricultural work. Many children, however, hawk

goods in markets and junctions of major roads and streets in

the cities and assist their parents in trade and commerce. In
16
1974 the military government changed the work week from

35 to 40 hours by decree and stipulated payment for extra

work done over the legal limit. Employers are required by law

to compensate employees injured at work and dependent

survivors of those who died in industrial accidents.

Strikes or industrial actions by workers tend to be frequent in

Nigeria. Although plagued by leadership struggles, ideological

differences, and regional ethnic conflicts, the Nigerian Labor

Congress has been able to organize or threaten nationwide

workers' strikes, demanding the retention of government

subsidies on petroleum products, minimum wages, and

improved working conditions. Public health doctors organized

in 1985; several labor unions in 1998 protested the austerity

measures of the Structural Adjustment Program. Similar

actions were taken by the Academic Staff Union of Nigerian

Universities (1986, 1988)(and even now our universities are

on strick), the National Union of Nigerian Students (1986,

1989, 1990s), and the National Union of Petroleum and

Natural Gas Workers (1997).

Conditions for workers in Nigeria are far from ideal. Civil

servants and employees of private companies (foreign) have

relatively good offices and facilities, health care, and wages,

but that is not the case for most of the others. Conditions in

17
the pre-collegiate schools and the universities have

deteriorated markedly because of repression, underfunding,

and irregular payment of salaries. Protests or industrial

actions by trade union leaders often resulted in detention. A

number of university students were killed by the police, and

the universities shut down following students' protests and

riots. Some doctors and professors lost their jobs because of

industrial action. In addition, income inequalities between the

rulers and bureaucrats on the one hand and masses of

workers on the other, poor wages, and late payment of

salaries demoralize workers. Furthermore, they adversely

affect their standard of living, health, and work productivity.

The poor conditions contribute to the pervasive corruption in

Nigeria and the use of the country as a conduit for drug

trafficking.

2.1 INDUSTRIAL CONFLICT AND LABOUR DISPUTES: THE
TERMS DEFINED

It is important to be clear about the meaning of different

concepts such as labour dispute/industrial action, industrial

conflict, or social conflict, which are often used in close

connection, even synonymously, but which address different

issues.

18
The term industrial conflict denotes the clash of interests, and

resulting disputes of varying intensity, between individuals,

groups and organisations in the industrial relations system.

The relationship between the owners/managers and the

workers/employees is frequently one of conflict. Conflicts may

exist latently or manifest themselves overtly at every level of

industrial relations. The overt forms of conflict are various and

include absenteeism, sabotage, go-slows, work-to-rule,

restriction of output, non-cooperation and industrial action

(strikes, lock-outs, boycotts). Industrial conflict may centre

around differences in values and objectives, and relationships

in terms of power, status and distribution. Whereas industrial

conflict and peace refer to industrial relations issues, social

conflict and peace refer to issues in the wider political and

social sphere. There are numerous theories on the source of

industrial conflict, ranging from radical class-oriented Marxist

views to theories views which attribute conflict to the clash of

economic interests in the employment relationship, because

workers/employees and managers have different interests

with regard to wages and effort.

The term industrial action refers to a situation where the

employers' or the employees' side takes collective action to exert

pressure on the other collective bargaining party in order to

19
achieve its goals. The term is often used synonymously with

labour dispute. Forms of industrial actions include strikes by

employees, lock-outs by employers, and boycotts. Industrial

action can be measured in three dimensions:

• the number of strikes and lock-outs (frequency of industrial

action);

• the number of affected workers (extent of industrial action);

and

• the number of working days lost (volume of industrial action).

It is much disputed whether industrial action as a means of

coercion is necessary to the conclusion of a collective agreement

and whether its availability is a necessary precondition for free

collective bargaining. Some argue that strikes are just accidents

in faulty negotiations or exist to show that the trade unions'

weapons are not becoming rusty. Others argue that the right to

bargain collectively presupposes that the social partners can

establish and maintain a balance of bargaining power by

resorting to industrial action. Still others argue that strikes serve

as filtering and information mechanisms whereby the union

receives information on the profits of the employer and the

employer receives information on union militancy. As a

consequence, more profitable employers will settle more quickly,

20
implying higher wage rises for the unions, whereas low levels of

profit will lead to long strikes and low settlements.

2.3 COMMON CAUSES OF INDUSTRIAL CONFLICT

Wage Demands

The level of wage and salaries is often the major cause of

disputes between an employee and employer. It also refers to

a demand by employees for an increase in their wage rate or

changes to the way in which their wages are calculated or

determined. As well, wage demands may relate to pay rates

may need to be adjusted to compensate employees in times

of inflationary pressures such as GST and interest rates.

Employees are more likely to seek wage increases to maintain

their standards of living. Australian unions and workers fight

for improved wages.

Working Conditions

Disputes often arise over issues of working conditions and

safety at the workplace. Include disputes concerning issues

such as leave entitlements, pensions, compensation, hours of

work. Employers will need to monitor physical working

conditions and provide adequate protective clothing and

equipment, first aid facilities, quality working equipment and

21
amenities such as lunch rooms, change rooms and toilet

facilities.

Employees will take action if there is a risk to either their or

others health and safety.

Management Policy

Disputes are often the result of inadequate consultation by

management with their employees. Disputes over changes

that management wishes to implement will often cause

industrial conflict. Matters include terms and conditions of

employment, new awards and agreements, award

restructuring, outsourcing and technology acquisitions and

structural change.

Political Goals and Social Issues

This usually refers to non-industrial issues, but rather involves

wider issues directed at persons or situations rather than

those relating to the employer-employee relationship.

Employee unions, federations and associations will often

undertake actions that are unrelated to the basic wages and

conditions of their members.

22
Political Goals and Social Issues

This usually refers to non-industrial issues, but rather involves

wider issues directed at persons or situations rather than

those relating to the employer-employee relationship.

Employee unions, federations and associations will often

undertake actions that are unrelated to the basic wages and

conditions of their members.

2.4 PERSPECTIVES ON CONFLICT

• The different stakeholders in employment relations view the

relationship between employers and employees from a range

of different perspectives.

Unitary Perspective

In unitary perspective employees and employers work

together as a team to achieve common goals. The unitary

approach in ER assumes stakeholders such as employees and

their employers work “hand in hand” to achieve shared goals.

It sees the business as a unified entity in which everyone

shares the same purpose and is part of the same team. If

conflict does arise, it is seen as the fault of poor employee

management or communication problems. Unions are rarely

needed.

23
Pluralist Perspective

The pluralist perspective believes that conflict between

employers and employees given their different aims and

interests is expected at times. It also recognizes that some

interests are shared and that decision making should be

shared between the competing parties. Both parties need to

accept that the differing views can be considered for

successful industrial relations to occur. So managers must

develop an effective system of communications that allows

employees to express their views and to resolve them without

damaging the organisation and its performance.

Radical Perspective

Radical approach believes that there are such fundamental

differences between employer and employee that it’s almost

certain that conflict will always occur. Sees conflict in the

workplace and reflects the traditional view of “us employees

VS those employers”. It believes that employers and

employees are too opposed to work together.

• Roles of stakeholders in resolving disputes

• Employers: Use grievance procedures and negotiate

agreements directly with employees to resolve disputes. Line

24
managers are playing a much greater role today in resolving

disputes.

• Employees: Use grievance procedures and negotiate

agreements with employers with or without unions, on a

collective or individual basis.

Employer associations: Provide information and support to

employers, assist in negotiations with unions, represent

employers in tribunals.

• Unions: Represent employees in disputes from the shop floor

to the national level, negotiate with management, employers

and associations, represent employees in tribunals.

• Government organisations: Through their legislation can

resolve or even prevent disputes. Government has also

established the rules under which the parties negotiate,

whether in individual contracts, collective bargaining or in the

conciliation and arbitration system. Government also has the

responsibility of ensuring that these rules are followed, and

stands ready to intervene if an agreement cannot be reached.

2.5 TYPES OF INDUSTRIAL ACTION

• There are two main forms of industrial action that can be

taken by employees or employers; overt action (physical

25
response, highly visible) and covert action (silent and unseen

response)

Overt

Lockouts, pickets, strikes, bans, work-to-rule

Overt industrial action is highly visible, direct and aimed at

gaining max awareness and well organised by unions.

Lockouts

Action taken by employers where employees aren’t permitted

to enter the workplace and are locked out from the workplace

unless they agree to follow management order or work as

directed

Pickets

Pickets is where striking workers or a union attempt to

gather outside the workplace forming a line to prevent entry

of other employees, contract labour or suppliers from entering

the workplace.

Strikes

A strike is a withdrawal of labour from production. Strikes are

the most overt form of industrial action and aim to attract

publicity and support for the employees case. Strikes occur
26
when employees withdraw their labour in order to enforce a

demand or express a grievance.

Bans

Is when employees refuse to form a task that is usually not

specified in their employment contract, such as overtime.

Work-to-Rule

Working to rule is similar to a work ban and involves workers

only performing what is contained in their employment

contract or award and following the strict terms of their

employment contract or award.

Covert

Absenteeism, sabotage, turnover, exclusion from decision-

making in business

Covert action is not openly acknowledged or displayed with no

organisation.

Absenteeism

Usually refers to when employees are unhappy, usually when

employees are not being considered by employers in times of

dispute, the employees may undertake a system where they

do not show up to work, and absent themselves. Employees
27
may undertake mass absenteeism with many being off at the

same time, or rotational absenteeism where they almost

roster who will be taking time off. Action of this sort disrupts

the business but does not stop the employee’s income (sick

leave), so it is favored by some employees

Sabotage

Employees may take industrial action in the form of

deliberately damaging physical items and causing vandalism

in the workplace. Damage is done by employees to either the

product or in the production of the product. Employees

usually take such action to harm or destroy the image of a

firm.

Staff Turnover

High voluntary labour turnover (resignation) rates are often

linked with absenteeism rates as indicators of conflict and

dissatisfaction among employees.

2.6 EXCLUSION FROM DECISION-MAKING IN BUSINESS

Conflict can arise when employees believe that they haven’t

been given the opportunity to have their say for e.g. not

inviting employees to meetings. It occurs when an employer

does not involve employees in decisions that affect them.

28
Dispute resolution processes – conciliation, arbitration,

grievance procedures, negotiation, mediation, common law

action, business/division closure

Many firms now try to develop a corporate climate in which

disputes are minimised through collaborative working

relationships, and by training staff in procedures, policies and

guidelines for managing disputes.

2.7 Grievance Procedures

The very first step of negotiating any industrial relations issue

starts in the workplace. A grievance procedure is a formal

series of steps which are meant to be followed when a dispute

arises. They usually start with the first point of contact, such

as a supervisor and then to senior levels of management.

2.8 Negotiation

This involves a formal or informal discussion between the

employee and employer level in which both parties agree to a

mutual agreement to resolve the dispute. Under the process

of negotiation parties do not require the assistance of unions

or other assistance.

29
2.9 MEDIATION

Mediation follows if negotiation is unsuccessful. Mediation

occurs when a neutral third person is introduced who helps

the parties to find a basis for an agreement that is acceptable

to the disputing parties to reach a final agreement.

2.10 CONCILIATION

Conciliation is the formal means of settling a dispute when it

cannot be resolved and may be referred to a third party, such

as the AIRC, usually an industrial commissioner with the

necessary qualification and skillswho encourages the parties

to negotiate their own agreement and brings the parties

together.

2.11 ARBITRATION

If conciliation fails, the matter may be referred to arbitration,

arbitration is very similar to the procedures of conciliation,

where the independent third party again comes from the

Industrial Relations Commission.

The main difference here is that the arbitrator considers the

arguments of both sides and makes the final decision, which

is legally binding on the parties involved.
30
2.12 COMMON LAW ACTION

This is where a dispute goes beyond the boundaries of a quick

resolution such as conciliation, arbitration; grievance

procedures, negotiation and mediation, and needs to be

settled in court, where common law applies. Here the

Australian legal system will be used if the party believes that

the dispute or action has broken the law. This could be a

breach in tort law or contract law.

2.13 BUSINESS/DIVISION CLOSURE

If the dispute is impossible to resolve it may result in the

closure of that division or business. Closure of a division or a

business permanently or temporarily may also be a resolution

or outcome of a dispute

2.14 COSTS AND BENEFITS OF INDUSTRIAL CONFLICT

Industrial conflicts have both costs and benefits although in

many cases they are difficult to measure.

The costs and benefits may be financial, personal, social,

political and international.

Financial: Costs

31
Cost could include loss of production and reduced productivity

due to bans, and loss of wages for the employee if the dispute

results in cutting production and work. Firm’s reputation may

be damaged. The cost associated with legal representation is

a financial burden upon the firm.

Benefits

Benefits could mean better work practices and increased

productivity, and for employees through higher wages. It

could result with fewer disputes and less absenteeism and

labour turnover.

Personal: Costs

Could include a high level of stress for employer and

employee and reduced job satisfaction and could result with

an increase in absenteeism.

Benefits

Could mean improved working conditions for employees,

including better occupational health and safety, and better

more efficient production processes for employers. Greater

employee involvement and motivation.

Social: Costs

32
Tensions and dissatisfaction at work can lead to breakdowns

at home, even domestic violence. Employers could suffer from

vandalism of the workplace and conflict in the community.

Benefits

For both employers and employees could be that the conflict

clears the air and leads to improved communications systems.

Political: Costs

Cost could include damaged reputations for some politicians

and political parties associated with industrial conflicts.

Bitterness between unions and government can lead to

political conflict

Benefits

Could flow to politicians and political parties who present

policies that reduce industrial conflict

International: Costs

Nations reputation for stability can be lost and Gain a

reputation as being an unreliable supplier. Productivity levels

drop increasing costs and making Australian business less

competitive against overseas efficient businesses.

33
Furthermore a loss of export income could occur after periods

of disruption.

Benefits

Conflict improves business’s international competitiveness

presenting opportunities for international expansion and

improved production.

34
CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES

3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN

The research method selected for the study is a combination

of a survey and an industrial study. The survey research

method is described hereunder that:

(i) It is a design in which primary data is gathered from

members of the sample that represents a specific population;

(ii) It is a design in which a structure and systematic research

instrument like a questionnaire or an interview schedule is

utilized together with the primary data;

(ii) It is a method in which the researcher manipulates no

explanatory variables because they have already occurred and

so they cannot be manipulated;

(iii) Data are got directly from the subjects;

35
The subjects give the data the natural settings of their

workplaces;

(iv) The answers of the respondents are assumed to be

largely unaffected of the content in which they are brought;

(v) The impacts of the confounding factors are “controlled”

statistically; and

(vi) The aim of the research may span from the exploration

phenomena to hypotheses testing (stone 1995).

The survey research method has some merit, which are to be

articulated hereunder: In the survey research method, the

sample of the respondents are selected in such a way as to

make it low due to the utilization of big sample sizes, which

results in generally low sample errors.

The survey research method also has the merit that data

collection takes place in the “natural” settings of the

workplace rather than an activated laboratory. Data are got

directly from the respondents. The advantage that the survey

yields data that suggests new hypothesis is very illuminating.

There is also the merit that a set of systematic data collection

instruments such as questionnaire interview schedules and

observation gadgets can either be used alone or in

conjunction with other instruments (stone, 1995).

36
3.2 SAMPLING

Spiegel (1992) observes that sampling theory is a study of

the relationship existing between a population or universe and

the samples drawn from it. The population in this study is

from the senior junior staff of the firms. In order to make

conclusions of sample theory and statistical references to be

valid, a sample must be selected as to be representative of

the population (Spiegel,1992). One way in which a

representative sample may be got, is by the process of

stratified random sampling. In this research work, the

technique of simple random sampling is used to select the

sample of 100 respondents from each group of the personnel,

making a total sample size of 200.

The list of all senior and junior staff of the firm is from the

personnel department of the company. The numbers were

written on a piece of paper, put in a basket and the papers

were folded to cover the numbers and one of the pieces of

paper was selected at a time without replacing it and any

name corresponding to the number becomes a number of the

sample. This method of sampling without replacement was

done until the sample of 100 respondents per group of

personnel was arrived at.

37
3.3 Population

The population, in this study is the totality of the senior and

junior staff of Niger Labour Congress (Delta State Chapter.

Warri.

The sample size is 200 and this number of respondents was

chosen from the population. The rationale for studying a

sample rather than the population includes that:

1. Most empirical research work in the social science

involves studying a sample in place of the population.

2. Statistical Laws reveal that statistics composed from

the sample data are usually reasonably accurate.

3. Luckily, it is usually possible to estimate the level of

confidence that can be placed on the results.

We should note that above is only possible if the probability

sample size is large enough.

3.4 DATA COLLECTION

Questionnaire

As earlier stated, the primary data collection instrument in

this study is the questionnaire. In the questionnaire method

of primary data collection, heavy dependence is placed on

verbal reports from the subjects to get information on the

earnings per share and standard set.

38
The questionnaire has a lot of merits. It needs less skill to

administer. Questionnaire can be administered to a big

number of individuals at the same time. Also with a specific

research budget, it is usually possible to cover a broader area.

The impersonal nature of a questionnaire, its structure and

standardized wording, its order of question, its standardized

instructions for recording answers might make one to

conclude that it offers some uniformity from one

measurement occasion to another (Selltiz et al, 1976).

Another merit of questionnaire is that subjects may have a

bigger confidence in their anonymity, and thus feel freer to

express views they feel might be disapproved.

Another attribute of the questionnaire that is sometimes,

though not always desirable is that it might place less

pressure on the subjects for immediate response (Selltiz et al,

1976).

The questionnaire also has some demerits. It has noted that

for purpose of giving dependable responses to a

questionnaire, respondents must be considerably educated.

Thus one of the demerits of the usual questionnaire is that it

is appropriate only for with a considerable amount of

education. There is also demerit that subject may be reluctant

and unable.

39
To report on the particular subject matter. Also, if a subject

misinterprets a question or give his or her answer in a batting

manner, there is often a little that can be done to ameliorate

the situation. In a questionnaire, the information the

researcher gets is limited to the fixed alternative answer

format, when a specific answer is not available, it can lead to

error (Selltiz, 1976).

There is also limitation of memory in reporting on past facts.

The researcher is not a policeman that can compel answers.

That is, the information may not be readily accessible to

subject and thus the subject may be reluctant to put forth

enough alternative information that he or she is only barely

conscious of (Selltiz et al, 1996).

In this research project, a structured and undisguised

questionnaire is utilized which is made up of two parts

namely, the personal data section and the section on the data

on the actual subject matter of the work. The questionnaire

was undisguised in the sense that the purpose of the data

collection which was to collect primary data for writing up the

researcher’s HND project was made know to the 200

respondents. The questionnaire was structured in the sense

the questions are logically sequenced and are to be asked to

the respondents in the same manner and no follow up

40
questions are to be allowed. Some of the questions are of the

fixed alternative answer format type.

Ten (10) of the questions have yes or no answers,

Ten (10) of the questions have alternative answer for the

respondents to tick.

The structured questionnaire has the merit that it yields data

that is easier to analysis than data produced by an

unstructured questionnaire. Also the structured nature

diminishes both researcher’s and research instrument biases.

It however has the demerit that the rigidity of the research

instrument diminishes the amount of information that could

be got.

Interview

The method of communication of the research instrument is

by means of the personal interview. The method has the merit

that it produces a better sample of the population than either

mail or the telephone methods. It also has the merit that it

gives a very high completion and response rates. It has the

merit that the interview has a bigger sensitively

misunderstandings by the respondents and gives a chance for

clarification of misunderstood questions. It has the merit that

it is a very feasible method (Selltiz et al, 1976). The personal

interview method has the demerit that it is more costly than

41
the mail or the telephone methods of communication of a

questionnaire.

Observations

In addition to questionnaire and face-to face interviews,

observation was also carried out. This was to enable the

researcher to witness by herself the officers of this firm and to

interact with these people.

3.5 FIELD WORK

The researcher and three other field data collectors did the

fieldwork. The field data collectors were other classmates also

offering the Part-time HND program, who have also offered

research methodology. They had no problem gaining entrance

into the office under consideration since one of them has a

friend working there. They were to be trained by the

researcher on how to greet the respondents and how to tick

the questionnaire correctly and honestly.

3.6 DESCRIPTION OF DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

TOOLS

42
The data presentation tools are simple bar charts, histograms,

and pictorial tables. The most important parts of a table

include;

(a) Table numbers

(b) Title of the table

(c) Caption

(d) Stub or the designation of the rows and columns

(e) The body of the table.

(f) The head note or prefatory note or explanatory just

before the title.

(g) Source note, which refers to the literally or scientific

source of the table (Mills and Walter 1995)

Anyiwe (1994) has observed that a table has the following

merits over a prose information that;

(f) A table ensure an easy location of the required figure;

(g) Comparisons are easily made utilizing a table than a

prose information;

(h) Patterns or trends within the figures which cannot be

visualized in the prose information can be revealed and better

depicted by a table; and

A table is more concise and takes up a less space than a

prose formation:

The data is to be analysed by means of percentage, cross

tabulation and the chi-square test of population proportions

43
for testing the two hypothesis. Percentages express the ratio

of two sets of data to a common base of 100. The researcher

made us of the computer program called SPSS (statistical

package for social science) to carry out the computation of

the hypothesis testing.

3.7 Limitation of The Study

Research work is subject to one form of limitation or the

other, mine is not an exemption.

It was the initial thought of the researcher that the exercise

was easy but the contrary was the case. As a student, several

academic demands compete with the limited but precious

time available.

This implies that none of the competing exercise could be

effectively handled without the others being worse off.

This was my situation. Although the time expended was too

small to do justice to the study. The opportunity cost in terms

of other equally important activities forgone or cursorily

attended to, was made.

The researcher faces some embarrassment arising from low-

level educated staff who could not understand the essence of

the research work as this.

44
CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.1 INTRODUCTION

In the previous chapter, the research methods and

procedures have been handled. In this chapter the data

presentation and analysis are to be done. The data is to be

presented by means of tables, two simple bar charts, one

histogram and one pie chart to make it amenable for further

analysis. By analysis is meant the act of noting relationship

and aggregating the set of variables with similar attributes

and also breaking the unit of their components (Mills and

Walters 1995).

In this research work, the research accepts the contention of

Podsakoff and Dalton (1995) that the factual information from

the data can be used as a basis for reasoning, calculation and

discussion.

45
Apart from the heading above, the other headings in this

chapter includes:

Data Presentation,

Percentage analysis

Cross-tabulated analysis

Hypothesis testing

4.2 DATA PRESENTATION

TABLE1
THE SUMMARY OF THE PERSONAL DATA OF THE
RESPONDENTS

1 SEX FREQUENCY
Male 150
Female 50
Total 200
Angles
2 Marital Status suspended
Married 130 in degree
Single 70
Total 200

3 AGE
21-30 years 90
31-40 years 90
41-50 years 10
51-60 years 10
Total 200

4 HIGHER
EDUCATIONAL
QUALIFICATION
DIPLOMA 10 18
OND 30 54
HND 80 144
FIRST DEGREE 20 36
SECOND DEGREE 40 32
NIM 20 36
TOTAL 200 360

46
The marital statuses of the 200 respondents it is found that 130

of them are married while 70 of them are single. For the ages

of the 200 respondents they are 21-30 years, 31-40 years, 51-

60 years with frequency of 90 and 10 respectively. For the

highest educational qualification of the 200 respondents they

are diploma, OND, HND, First Degree, Second Degree, NIM. and

they have frequencies of 10, 30, 80, 20, 40 and 20 respectively.

Figure 4.1 below shows the simple bar chart of the data on the sex

of the respondents.

FIGURE 4.1: THE SIMPLE BAR CHART OF THE DATA ON THE SEX OF
THE RESPONDENTS

GENDER OF THE RESPONDENTS
160-

140-

120-

100-

80 -

60 -

40 -

20 -

0 -
MAIL FEMALE

TABLE 2. GENDER OF THE RESPONDENTS
Frequency percentage Valid Cumulative
Percent Percent
MAIL 150 75.0 75.0 75.0
FEMALE 50 25.0 25.0 100.0
Total 200 100.0 100.0
47
Source: from data in table 1 (generated from SPSS)

From figure 4.1 above, it is shown that male respondents

have the modal frequency of 150 of the 200 respondents

while the female respondents have the frequency of 50 of

them.

Figure 4.2 below shows the simple bar chart of the data on

the marital statuses of the respondents.

FIGURE 4.2: THE SIMPLE BAR CHART OF THE DATA ON THE
MARITAL STATUSES OF THE RESPONDENTS

140 -

120 -

100 -

80 -
60 -
40 -
20 -
0 -
MARRIED SINGLE

TABLE 3. MARITAL STATUS OF THE RESPONDENTS

Status frequency Percentage Valid Cumulative
Percent Percent
MARRIED 130 65.0 65.0 65.0
SINGLE 70 35.0 35.0 100.0
Total 200 100.0 100.0

48
From figure 4.2 above, it is shown that the married respondents

have the modal frequency of 130 out of the 200 respondents while

the single respondents have the frequency of 70 of them.

FIGURE 4.3: THE HISTOGRAM OF THE DATA ON THE AGES OF THE
RESPONDENTS.

AGES OF THE RESPONDENTS
100
80
60
40
20

Std. Dev = 78 Mean
= 1.7
0

N = 200.00
1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0

TABLE 4. AGES OF THE RESPONDENTS

Categories Frequency Percentage Valid Cumulative
Percentage Percent
21 TO 30 90 45.0 45.0 45.0
YEARS
31 TO 40 90 45.0 45.0 90.0
YEARS
41 TO 50 10 5.0 5.0 95.0
YEARS
51 TO 60 10 5.0 5.0 100.0
YEARS
SOURCE: From the data in Table 1.
Total 200 100.0
49 100.0
From figure 4.3 above, it is shown that the age classes limit are

20.5-30.5 years, 30.5-40.5 years, 40.5-50.5 years and 50.5-60.5

years with frequencies of 90, 90, 10, and 10 out of 200

respectively. This shows that this is bi-modal distribution as the age

classes of 20.5-30.5 years and 30. 5-40.5 years have a frequency

of 10.

Figure 4.4 below shows the pie chart of the data on the highest

educational qualifications of the 200 respondents.

FIG.4.4 THE PIE CHART OF THE DATA ON THE HIGHEST
EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS OF THE 200
RESPONDENTS

NIM DIPLOMA

OND

5%
15%
SECOND DEGREE
10%

20%

40%
10%

Educational
SOURCE: Frequency
TABLE from the dataPercentage
in table 1. Valid Cumulative
level 5. EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS
Percentage Percentage
DIPLOMA 10 5.0 5.0 5.0

OND 30 15.0 15.0 20.0

HND 80 40.0 40.0 60.0

FIRST DEGREE 20 10.0 10.0 70.0

SECOND 40 50 20.0 20.0 90.0
DEGREE
NIM 20 10.0 10.0 100.0

Total 200 100.0 100.0
From figure 4.4 above, the Highest Educational Qualifications are

Diploma, O.N.D, First Degree, Second Degree and NIM and the

sustained angles in degree is equal to 180, 540, 1440, 360, 720 and

360 and respectively at the center of the circle.

4.3 CROSS-TABULATED ANALYSIS

Table bellows show the analysis of the statuses of the 200

respondents

TABLE 6. Cross- tabulation 1
DISPUTES ARE OFTEN THE RESULT OF INADEQUATE
CONSULTATION BY MANAGEMENT WITH THEIR
EMPLOYEES
NO
YES NO DON’T ANSWER Total
10
KNOW 2
19
2 91
DIPLOMA 6 2 2
OND 19 7 19
HND
FIRST
14 31 9
40
DEGREE - 10 39 21
SECOND 40 18 200
DEGREE 21
NIM
Total 100 43 39

39 39
The above table shows that the total of 100 respondents (out

of 200 said no. this proved that disputes are often the result

of inadequate consultation by management with their

employees.

EMPLOYERS USES GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES AND NEGOTIATE
YES DON’T NO
AGREEMENTS DIRECTLY WITH EMPLOYEES TO RESOLVE DISPUTES
NO KNOW Total
DIPLOMA 10
ANSWER 10
TABLE 7. Cross-tabulation 2
OND 19 19
HND 14 30 47 91
FIRST 51
DEGREE 10 9 19
SECOND
DEGREE 40 40
NIM 21 21
Total 104 40 47 9 200
The above table indicates that employers uses grievance procedures and

negotiate agreements directly with employees to resolve disputes

104 respondents out of 200 said yes. While 40 did not agree

with the fact.

4.4 HYPOTHESIS TESTING

In attempting to arrive at decisions about the population, on

the basis of sample information it is necessary to make

assumptions or guesses about the population parameter

involved. Such an assumption is called statistical hypothesis,

which may or may not be true. The procedure, which enables

the researcher to design on the basis, is sample regards

whether a hypothesis is true or not is called test of hypothesis

or test of significance.

The null hypothesis asserts that there is no significant

difference between the statistics and the population

parameters and what ever is observed difference is there, is

merely due to fluctuations in sampling from the same

52
population. Null hypothesis is thereby denoted by the symbol

H0.Any hypothesis, which contradicts the H0, is called an

alternate hypothesis and is denoted by the symbol H1.

The researcher has used chi-square analysis.

CHI-SQUARE TEST

The c is one of the simplest and most widely used non-

parametric test in statistical work. It makes no assumptions

about the population being sampled. The quantity c describes

the magnitude of discrepancy between theory and

observation i.e. with the help of c test we can know whether a

given discrepancy between theory and observation can be

attributed to chance or whether it results from the inadequacy

of the theory to fit the observed facts. If c is zero, it means

that the observed and expected frequencies completely

coincide. The greater the value of c the greater will be the

discrepancy between observed and expected frequencies.

The formula for computing chi-square is –

c =∑ (O-E)2/E

Where,O=Observed frequency

E=Expected or theoretical frequency

4.5 SOFTWARE USED FOR DATA ANALYSIS:

For the data analysis and the interpretation, the researcher

has adopted advanced version of SPSS (statistical package for
53
social science). This application software has facilitated the

researcher to construct the frequency table, various types of

charts and to find out the valid percentage responses from the

sample. By this automated data analysis it has minimized the

researcher ’s time constraints and reduced human error and

give also accurate outlay of information.

Chi-Square Test (1)

DISPUTES ARE OFTEN THE RESULT OF INADEQUATE
CONSULTATION BY MANAGEMENT WITH THEIR
EMPLOYEES.
Observed Expected Residual Decision
F F
YES 100 50.0 50.0 Accept
NO 43 50.0 -7.0 Reject
DON’T
KNOW 39 50.0 -11.0 Reject
NO 50.0
ANSWER 18 -32.0 Reject
Total 200

Chi-Square Test (2)

EMPLOYERS USES GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES AND
NEGOTIATE AGREEMENTS DIRECTLY WITH EMPLOYEES TO
RESOLVE DISPUTES
Observed Expected Residual Decision
F F
YES 104 50.0 54.0 Accept
NO 40 50.0 -10.0 Rejected
DON’T
KNOW 47 50.0 -3.0 Rejected
NO
ANSWER 9 50.0 -41.0 Rejected
Total 200

Residuals

54
The observed value of the dependent variable minus the value

predicated by the regression equation, for each case. Large

absolute values for the residuals indicate that the observed

values are very different from the predicted values.

SOURCE: From the questionnaires administered.

The formulated hypothesis that is subject to statistical test

will be at 5% level of significance in testing hypothesis, the

calculated value of the test statistics is usually compared with

tables of value. The critical values of the test statistics serve

as criterion value. It afforded the basis for rejecting the null

hypothesis is a function of the value of the tested statistic.

Reject the null hypothesis if the calculated value of the test

statistic is greater than the critical value.

Accept the null hypothesis if the calculated value of the test

statistic is less than the critical value.

TEST STATISTICS

EMPLOYERS USES
GRIEVANCE
DISPUTES ARE PROCEDURES AND
OFTEN THE NEGOTIATE
RESULT OF AGREEMENTS
DIRECTLY WITH
INADEQUATE EMPLOYEES TO
CONSULTATION RESOLVE
BY MANAGEMENT DISPUTES
WITH THEIR
EMPLOYEES.
Chi-Square 73.880 94.120
df 3 55 3
note: df = degree of freedom

4.6 SUMMARY OF RESULT

Level of significance……….0.05

Critical value………………………43.0

Calculated value……………………73.880

From the above analysis, it could be seen that in the first test,
DISPUTES ARE OFTEN THE RESULT OF INADEQUATE
CONSULTATION BY MANAGEMENT WITH THEIR
EMPLOYEES.
’, the calculated value is greater than the critical value so we

reject the hypothesis.

In the second test which state that EMPLOYERS USES
GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES AND NEGOTIATE
AGREEMENTS DIRECTLY WITH EMPLOYEES TO RESOLVE
DISPUTES
, The level of significance is 0.05, the critical value is 44 while

the calculated value from the test statistics table is 94.120.

Looking the data above, it shows very clear that the

calculated value is more greater than the critical value so we

reject the hypothesis.

56
CHAPTER FIVE

FINDINGS, SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

5.0 INTRODUCTION

In this chapter, the researcher deals with the findings as

regards the scenario of industrial conflicts and resolution. The

work is summarized with the conclusion drawn.

5.1 FINDINGS

During the research work, the researcher found out that..

Conflict in the workplace is inevitable. Anytime two or more

people come together, they will eventually disagree about

something. While some conflict can be healthy, it is often an

indication that there is something wrong. Conflict is frequently

a "call to action"… a problem crying out for a solution.

The good news about conflict is that it is usually based on

"caring". The more someone defends their point of view in an

argument, the more they care. But if conflict is allowed to

fester and grow without a resolution, it can lead to serious

problems such as threats and even physical violence. The

effectiveness of an entire organization can be harmed if

57
conflict is allowed to escalate.

5.2 SUMMARY

“The literature of industrial relations abounds in discourse of

conflict. The history of the trade union movement recounts

many episodes of violence and bitter confrontation between

workers and bosses. The feelings expressed by Slackbridge,

the union delegate in coketown in 1854”. In the Nigeria, the

juridification and institutionalisation of industrial relations

regulate the solution of conflicts in detail. Very important is

the strict distinction between conflicts of rights, which concern

the interpretation of the collective agreements, and conflicts

of interests concerning the terms of new agreements. Conflict

of rights are subject to legal regulation and have to be

resolved with peaceful means by conciliation committees or,

as the last resort, the labour courts. Only conflicts of interest

can be resolved by means of "industrial warfare".

Furthermore, a complex system of mediation, arbitration,

labour court procedures and peace obligations provides the

conflicting parties with rights and duties and permits little

space for ambiguity.

5.3 CONCLUSION
58
Conflicts in employment and industrial relations are a complex

matter and there are a numerous factors affecting their latent

presence and the propensity to conflict. The relatively low

volume of labour disputes in Nigeria may be attributed to the

"juridification" of industrial relations, and to institutions about

which there is a joint consensus among the bargaining

parties. Both provide the framework for a detailed allocation

of certain substantive issues to different institutions within the

dual system - ie, collective bargaining (unions and employers'

associations) and workers' representation at establishment

level (works councils). Negotiation and co-determination

under the legal obligation of "social peace" and "trustful

cooperation" lead to the neutralisation of the workplace by

moving conflict from the workplace to the industry level.

These mechanisms channel and depoliticise conflicts,

encourage professionalisation of conflict management, lead to

a higher predictability of behaviour and in the end serve the

purpose of containing and dampening conflict.

59