THE SCENARIO OF INDUSTRIAL CONFLICTS AND RESOLUTION A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA LABOUR UNION
BY EMMANUEL NELSON BASSEY (MBA,CNA.NIAFA.)
COLLEGE OF ACCOUNTANCY AND COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY BLOCK B, FLAT 8, MASOJE ESTATE. EFFURUN DELTA STATE. NIGERIA.
in the School of Business Studies,
department of Business Administration, COLLEGE OF ACCOUNTANCY AND COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY as
meeting the requirement for the award of higher national diploma in Business Administration.
________________ Centre Co-ordinator
I dedicate this project to Almighty God for his divine guidance, grace and mercy throughout my academic pursuit. May all Glory, Honour, Majesty and power be ascribed unto His Holy Name in Jesus Name.
I hereby Acknowledged the following people that has made my dream and purpose in life to come through. First of all, thanks to Almighty God who gave me power and wisdom, and the grace to be educated and to MR ___________________________________________ and my dear mother Mrs. ___________________________________________ who is an encouragement to my life and my brothers and Sisters
________________ ___________________________________________________________ ________ for their love towards me in prayer, also my supervisor who has been a great help to me.
_______________________________________ and my lovely Register of warri center MRS Stella Oyabugbe and my Co-odinator of warri Centre Mrs Alex Obinaka for her love towards me and my father ______________________________________________________ whose Vision for my life was to be great and useful in life and those many love ones too numerous to name. My prayer to God Almighty is that HE should bless you all richly in JESUS NAME.
Conflicts in employment and industrial relations are a complex matter and there are a numerous factors affecting their latent presence and the propensity to conflict. The relatively low volume of labour disputes in Nigeria may be attributed to the "juridification" of industrial relations, and to institutions about which there is a joint consensus among the bargaining parties. Both provide the
framework for a detailed allocation of certain substantive issues to different institutions within the dual system ie, collective
bargaining (unions and employers' associations) and workers' representation at establishment level (works committee).
Negotiation and co-determination under the legal obligation of "social peace" and "trustful cooperation" lead to the neutralisation of the workplace by moving conflict from the workplace to the industry level. These mechanisms channel and depoliticise conflicts, encourage professionalisation of conflict management, lead to a higher predictability of behaviour and in the end serve the purpose of containing and dampening conflict.
In this research work, the researcher will consider in chapter one….the introduction of the study which will in turn considers the following topics. The background of the study, the statement of
research problem, the objective of the study, significance of the study, the hypothesis and the structure of the work. Chapter two focuses on the literature review, this chapter is where the researcher extract materials from various books, magazines, news papers and internet resources. In chapter three, the
researcher deals on research methods while chapter four is data analysis and presentation. The findings, summary, and conclusion is in chapter five.
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION In this chapter one, the following are to be introduced and analyzed. These includes background of the study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, the scope of the study, research hypothesis, significance of the study, limitations of the study, definitions of the essential terms and the structure of the work.
THE BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The first labor union—the civil service union— emerged in 1912. By 1950 the number had grown to 144 with more than 144,000 members, and 300,000 in 1963 affiliated with 5 central labor associations. Because of a series of labor problems and the meddling of politicians between 1963 and 1975, the military government dissolved the central unions and decreed only 1 central unit, the Nigerian Labor Congress, in 1976. In 1977 11 labor union leaders were banned from further union activity. A 1978 labor decree amendment reorganized more than 1,000 previously existing unions into 70 registered industrial unions under the Nigerian Labor Congress. In addition to the recognized trade unions, women's organizations, mostly professional and social clubs, collectively seek to improve women's conditions and participation in the economic 7
and political life of the nation. Journalists, university professors, and students have their own organizations also as interest groups. The term industrial conflict denotes the clash of interests, and resulting disputes of varying intensity, between individuals, groups and organisations in the industrial relations system. The relationship between the owners/managers and the workers/employees is frequently one of conflict. Conflicts may exist latently or manifest themselves overtly at every level of industrial relations. The overt forms of conflict are various and include absenteeism, sabotage, goslows, work-to-rule, restriction of output, non-cooperation and industrial action (strikes, lock-outs, boycotts). Industrial conflict may centre around differences in values and objectives, and relationships in terms of power, status and distribution. Whereas industrial conflict and peace refer to industrial relations issues, social conflict and peace refer to issues in the wider political and social sphere. There are numerous theories on the source of industrial conflict, ranging from radical class-oriented Marxist views to theories views which attribute conflict to the clash of economic interests in the employment relationship, because
workers/employees and managers have different interests with regard to wages and effort. The term industrial action refers to a situation where the employers' or the employees' side takes collective action to exert pressure on 8
the other collective bargaining party in order to achieve its goals. The term is often used synonymously with labour dispute. Forms of industrial actions include strikes by employees, lock-outs by employers, and boycotts. Industrial action can be measured in three dimensions: the number of strikes and lock-outs (frequency of
industrial action); and
the number of working days lost (volume of
industrial action). It is much disputed whether industrial action as a means of coercion is necessary to the conclusion of a collective agreement and whether its availability is a necessary precondition for free collective bargaining. Some argue that strikes are just accidents in faulty negotiations or exist to show that the trade unions' weapons are not becoming rusty. Others argue that the right to bargain collectively presupposes that the social partners can establish and maintain a balance of bargaining power by resorting to industrial action. Still others argue that strikes serve as filtering and information mechanisms whereby the union receives information on the profits of the employer and the employer receives information on union militancy. As a consequence, more profitable employers will settle 9
more quickly, implying higher wage rises for the unions, whereas low levels of profit will lead to long strikes and low settlements.
STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM In looking at the scenario of industrial conflicts and resolution, some of the questions that easily come to mind are what may likely be the consequences of conflict and how can it disrupt the workplace?.
How resolving workplace conflict is an integral part of everyone's job in a company.
The common causes of workplace conflict and how to recognize them.
Diffusing disagreements before they get out of hand. What can the damage escalating conflict and violence can do to an organization.
How collaboration can be a valuable tool in resolving conflicts. How to apply proven conflict resolution techniques and strategies to solve problems.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The main objective of the study was to determine/analysis the nature of industrial conflicts and resolution in Nigeria Labour Congress. The subsidiary objectives includes: Determining the Costs and benefits of industrial conflict. Adopting a yardstick for measuring the cost and benefits of the industrial conflicts in and organization. Whether the costs and benefits is financial, personal, social, political and international.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY This study is significant because it will produce data and findings appraisal on manpower efficiency and performance
that will be useful to:
1. Members of the board or council 2. The promoters of this firm in Nigeria and oversees 3. Those at the helm of the organisation which include top level managers, and low level managers in the industry 4. Supervisors who carry out the actual personnel
management functions. 5. The financial managers, management accountants. 6. The junior staff of the firm 11
7. The pubic at large and customers of this firm. 8. Nigeria Labour Congress 9. Nigeria civil service commission
HYPOTHESES It is a conjectural statement of the relationships between two or more variables. It is testable, tentative problem
explanation of the relationship between two or more variables that create a state of affairs or phenomenon.
E,C, Osuola (1986 page 48) said hypothesis should always be in declarative sentence form, and they should relate to them generally or specially variable to variables. HYPOTHESIS THUS: 1. 2. 3. Explain observed events in a systematic manner Predict the outcome of events and relationships Systematically summarized existing knowledge.
In essence, there exist NULL HYPOTHESIS set up only to nullify the research hypothesis and the ALTERNATIVE
HYPOTHESIS for the purpose of the study. For the efficiency of the study, the hypothesis is as follows: 12
NULL HYPOTHESIS (HO) 1. Disputes are not often the result of inadequate
consultation by management with their employees. 2 Employers does not apply grievance procedures but
negotiate agreements directly with employees to resolve disputes. ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS
1. Disputes are often the result of inadequate consultation by
management with their employees.
2. Employers uses grievance procedures and negotiate
agreements directly with employees to resolve disputes
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY A research work of this nature cannot come to an end without limitation. The researcher encountered numerous problems which affected the smooth running of the work. These problems includes, difficulty in procuring materials for the project, time factor and financial constraints.
Material Procurement There was a lot constraints as to getting information and materials for the job. The researcher made series of
consultations and visit to most renowned institutions to acquire the needed information. Most materials used were very difficult to come by, as there is no library within the town.
Time Constraints Combining academic work with job is no doubt a thought provoking issue, as it has to do with time. Actually, a lot of time was wasted as the researcher visited the organizations and individuals together with government agencies to obtain valuable information for the project.
Financial Constraints The researcher would have obtained more information than what is obtainable here but due to lack of money to visit some of the firms and government agencies located a bit farther from the researcher place of resident.
STRUCTURE OR ORGANISATION OF THE STUDY This research work is to be organized in five chapters as
follows: 1. Introduction 2. Review of Related Literature 3. Research Methods and Producers 4. Data presentation and Analysis and 5. Summary, Findings and Conclusion
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW
INTRODUCTION New patterns of working, the globalisation of production and the introduction of information technologies are changing the way we work. This new working environment has eliminated some risks whilst introducing others. The importance of the psychosocial working environment for the health of employees is now well documented, but the effects of managerial style have received relatively little attention. Yet management is an increasingly important aspect of companies’ policies. In this research work, we will examine the relationship between industrial conflict management in the workplace and self-reported measures of stress, poor general health,
exhaustion and sickness absence due to overstrain or fatigue and resolution. Nigerian labor laws prohibit forced or compulsory labor. They also prohibit the employment of children under 15 years of age in commerce and industry and restrict other child labor to domestic or agricultural work. Many children, however, hawk goods in markets and junctions of major roads and streets in the cities and assist their parents in trade and commerce. In 16
1974 the military government changed the work week from 35 to 40 hours by decree and stipulated payment for extra work done over the legal limit. Employers are required by law to compensate employees injured at work and dependent survivors of those who died in industrial accidents. Strikes or industrial actions by workers tend to be frequent in Nigeria. Although plagued by leadership struggles, ideological differences, and regional ethnic conflicts, the Nigerian Labor Congress has been able to organize or threaten nationwide workers' strikes, demanding the retention of government subsidies on petroleum products, minimum wages, and improved working conditions. Public health doctors organized in 1985; several labor unions in 1998 protested the austerity measures of the Structural Adjustment Program. Similar actions were taken by the Academic Staff Union of Nigerian Universities (1986, 1988)(and even now our universities are on strick), the National Union of Nigerian Students (1986, 1989, 1990s), and the National Union of Petroleum and Natural Gas Workers (1997). Conditions for workers in Nigeria are far from ideal. Civil servants and employees of private companies (foreign) have relatively good offices and facilities, health care, and wages, but that is not the case for most of the others. Conditions in 17
deteriorated markedly because of repression, underfunding, and irregular payment of salaries. Protests or industrial actions by trade union leaders often resulted in detention. A number of university students were killed by the police, and the universities shut down following students' protests and riots. Some doctors and professors lost their jobs because of industrial action. In addition, income inequalities between the rulers and bureaucrats on the one hand and masses of workers on the other, poor wages, and late payment of salaries demoralize workers. Furthermore, they adversely affect their standard of living, health, and work productivity. The poor conditions contribute to the pervasive corruption in Nigeria and the use of the country as a conduit for drug trafficking. 2.1 INDUSTRIAL CONFLICT AND LABOUR DISPUTES: THE TERMS DEFINED It is important to be clear about the meaning of different concepts such as labour dispute/industrial action, industrial conflict, or social conflict, which are often used in close connection, even synonymously, but which address different issues.
The term industrial conflict denotes the clash of interests, and resulting disputes of varying intensity, between individuals, groups and organisations in the industrial relations system. The relationship between the owners/managers and the workers/employees is frequently one of conflict. Conflicts may exist latently or manifest themselves overtly at every level of industrial relations. The overt forms of conflict are various and include absenteeism, sabotage, go-slows, work-to-rule,
restriction of output, non-cooperation and industrial action (strikes, lock-outs, boycotts). Industrial conflict may centre around differences in values and objectives, and relationships in terms of power, status and distribution. Whereas industrial conflict and peace refer to industrial relations issues, social conflict and peace refer to issues in the wider political and social sphere. There are numerous theories on the source of industrial conflict, ranging from radical class-oriented Marxist views to theories views which attribute conflict to the clash of economic interests in the employment relationship, because workers/employees and managers have different interests with regard to wages and effort. The term industrial action refers to a situation where the employers' or the employees' side takes collective action to exert pressure on the other collective bargaining party in order to 19
achieve its goals. The term is often used synonymously with labour dispute. Forms of industrial actions include strikes by employees, lock-outs by employers, and boycotts. Industrial action can be measured in three dimensions: the number of strikes and lock-outs (frequency of industrial action);
the number of affected workers (extent of industrial action); and
the number of working days lost (volume of industrial action).
It is much disputed whether industrial action as a means of coercion is necessary to the conclusion of a collective agreement and whether its availability is a necessary precondition for free collective bargaining. Some argue that strikes are just accidents in faulty negotiations or exist to show that the trade unions' weapons are not becoming rusty. Others argue that the right to bargain collectively presupposes that the social partners can establish and maintain a balance of bargaining power by resorting to industrial action. Still others argue that strikes serve as filtering and information mechanisms whereby the union receives information on the profits of the employer and the employer receives information on union militancy. As a
consequence, more profitable employers will settle more quickly,
implying higher wage rises for the unions, whereas low levels of profit will lead to long strikes and low settlements. 2.3 COMMON CAUSES OF INDUSTRIAL CONFLICT Wage Demands The level of wage and salaries is often the major cause of disputes between an employee and employer. It also refers to a demand by employees for an increase in their wage rate or changes to the way in which their wages are calculated or determined. As well, wage demands may relate to pay rates may need to be adjusted to compensate employees in times of inflationary pressures such as GST and interest rates. Employees are more likely to seek wage increases to maintain their standards of living. Australian unions and workers fight for improved wages. Working Conditions Disputes often arise over issues of working conditions and safety at the workplace. Include disputes concerning issues such as leave entitlements, pensions, compensation, hours of work. Employers will need to monitor physical working conditions and provide adequate protective clothing and equipment, first aid facilities, quality working equipment and
amenities such as lunch rooms, change rooms and toilet facilities. Employees will take action if there is a risk to either their or others health and safety. Management Policy Disputes are often the result of inadequate consultation by management with their employees. Disputes over changes that management wishes to implement will often cause industrial conflict. Matters include terms and conditions of employment, new awards and agreements, award
restructuring, outsourcing and technology acquisitions and structural change. Political Goals and Social Issues This usually refers to non-industrial issues, but rather involves wider issues directed at persons or situations rather than those relating to the employer-employee relationship.
Employee unions, federations and associations will often undertake actions that are unrelated to the basic wages and conditions of their members.
Political Goals and Social Issues This usually refers to non-industrial issues, but rather involves wider issues directed at persons or situations rather than those relating to the employer-employee relationship.
Employee unions, federations and associations will often undertake actions that are unrelated to the basic wages and conditions of their members. 2.4
PERSPECTIVES ON CONFLICT The different stakeholders in employment relations view the relationship between employers and employees from a range of different perspectives. Unitary Perspective In unitary perspective employees and employers work
together as a team to achieve common goals. The unitary approach in ER assumes stakeholders such as employees and their employers work “hand in hand” to achieve shared goals. It sees the business as a unified entity in which everyone shares the same purpose and is part of the same team. If conflict does arise, it is seen as the fault of poor employee management or communication problems. Unions are rarely needed.
Pluralist Perspective The pluralist perspective believes that conflict between
employers and employees given their different aims and interests is expected at times. It also recognizes that some interests are shared and that decision making should be shared between the competing parties. Both parties need to accept that the differing views can be considered for
successful industrial relations to occur. So managers must develop an effective system of communications that allows employees to express their views and to resolve them without damaging the organisation and its performance. Radical Perspective Radical approach believes that there are such fundamental differences between employer and employee that it’s almost certain that conflict will always occur. Sees conflict in the workplace and reflects the traditional view of “us employees VS those employers”. It believes that employers and
employees are too opposed to work together. Roles of stakeholders in resolving disputes Employers: Use grievance procedures and negotiate
agreements directly with employees to resolve disputes. Line 24
managers are playing a much greater role today in resolving disputes. Employees: Use grievance procedures and negotiate
agreements with employers with or without unions, on a collective or individual basis. Employer associations: Provide information and support to employers, assist in negotiations with unions, represent employers in tribunals. Unions: Represent employees in disputes from the shop floor to the national level, negotiate with management, employers and associations, represent employees in tribunals. Government organisations: Through their legislation can resolve or even prevent disputes. Government has also established the rules under which the parties negotiate, whether in individual contracts, collective bargaining or in the conciliation and arbitration system. Government also has the responsibility of ensuring that these rules are followed, and stands ready to intervene if an agreement cannot be reached. 2.5
TYPES OF INDUSTRIAL ACTION There are two main forms of industrial action that can be taken by employees or employers; overt action (physical
response, highly visible) and covert action (silent and unseen response) Overt Lockouts, pickets, strikes, bans, work-to-rule Overt industrial action is highly visible, direct and aimed at gaining max awareness and well organised by unions. Lockouts Action taken by employers where employees aren’t permitted to enter the workplace and are locked out from the workplace unless they agree to follow management order or work as directed Pickets Pickets is where striking workers or a union attempt to gather outside the workplace forming a line to prevent entry of other employees, contract labour or suppliers from entering the workplace. Strikes A strike is a withdrawal of labour from production. Strikes are the most overt form of industrial action and aim to attract publicity and support for the employees case. Strikes occur 26
when employees withdraw their labour in order to enforce a demand or express a grievance. Bans Is when employees refuse to form a task that is usually not specified in their employment contract, such as overtime. Work-to-Rule Working to rule is similar to a work ban and involves workers only performing what is contained in their employment contract or award and following the strict terms of their employment contract or award. Covert Absenteeism, sabotage, turnover, exclusion from decisionmaking in business Covert action is not openly acknowledged or displayed with no organisation. Absenteeism Usually refers to when employees are unhappy, usually when employees are not being considered by employers in times of dispute, the employees may undertake a system where they do not show up to work, and absent themselves. Employees 27
may undertake mass absenteeism with many being off at the same time, or rotational absenteeism where they almost roster who will be taking time off. Action of this sort disrupts the business but does not stop the employee’s income (sick leave), so it is favored by some employees Sabotage Employees may take industrial action in the form of
deliberately damaging physical items and causing vandalism in the workplace. Damage is done by employees to either the product or in the production of the product. Employees usually take such action to harm or destroy the image of a firm. Staff Turnover High voluntary labour turnover (resignation) rates are often linked with absenteeism rates as indicators of conflict and dissatisfaction among employees. 2.6 EXCLUSION FROM DECISION-MAKING IN BUSINESS Conflict can arise when employees believe that they haven’t been given the opportunity to have their say for e.g. not inviting employees to meetings. It occurs when an employer does not involve employees in decisions that affect them. 28
grievance procedures, negotiation, mediation, common law action, business/division closure Many firms now try to develop a corporate climate in which disputes are minimised through collaborative working
relationships, and by training staff in procedures, policies and guidelines for managing disputes. 2.7 Grievance Procedures The very first step of negotiating any industrial relations issue starts in the workplace. A grievance procedure is a formal series of steps which are meant to be followed when a dispute arises. They usually start with the first point of contact, such as a supervisor and then to senior levels of management. 2.8 Negotiation This involves a formal or informal discussion between the employee and employer level in which both parties agree to a mutual agreement to resolve the dispute. Under the process of negotiation parties do not require the assistance of unions or other assistance.
MEDIATION Mediation follows if negotiation is unsuccessful. Mediation occurs when a neutral third person is introduced who helps the parties to find a basis for an agreement that is acceptable to the disputing parties to reach a final agreement.
2.10 CONCILIATION Conciliation is the formal means of settling a dispute when it cannot be resolved and may be referred to a third party, such as the AIRC, usually an industrial commissioner with the necessary qualification and skillswho encourages the parties to negotiate their own agreement and brings the parties together. 2.11 ARBITRATION If conciliation fails, the matter may be referred to arbitration, arbitration is very similar to the procedures of conciliation, where the independent third party again comes from the Industrial Relations Commission. The main difference here is that the arbitrator considers the arguments of both sides and makes the final decision, which is legally binding on the parties involved. 30
COMMON LAW ACTION This is where a dispute goes beyond the boundaries of a quick resolution such as conciliation, arbitration; grievance
procedures, negotiation and mediation, and needs to be settled in court, where common law applies. Here the Australian legal system will be used if the party believes that the dispute or action has broken the law. This could be a breach in tort law or contract law. 2.13 BUSINESS/DIVISION CLOSURE If the dispute is impossible to resolve it may result in the closure of that division or business. Closure of a division or a business permanently or temporarily may also be a resolution or outcome of a dispute 2.14 COSTS AND BENEFITS OF INDUSTRIAL CONFLICT Industrial conflicts have both costs and benefits although in many cases they are difficult to measure. The costs and benefits may be financial, personal, social, political and international. Financial: Costs
Cost could include loss of production and reduced productivity due to bans, and loss of wages for the employee if the dispute results in cutting production and work. Firm’s reputation may be damaged. The cost associated with legal representation is a financial burden upon the firm. Benefits Benefits could mean better work practices and increased productivity, and for employees through higher wages. It could result with fewer disputes and less absenteeism and labour turnover. Personal: Costs Could include a high level of stress for employer and employee and reduced job satisfaction and could result with an increase in absenteeism. Benefits Could mean improved working conditions for employees, including better occupational health and safety, and better more efficient production processes for employers. Greater employee involvement and motivation. Social: Costs
Tensions and dissatisfaction at work can lead to breakdowns at home, even domestic violence. Employers could suffer from vandalism of the workplace and conflict in the community. Benefits For both employers and employees could be that the conflict clears the air and leads to improved communications systems. Political: Costs Cost could include damaged reputations for some politicians and political parties associated with industrial conflicts.
Bitterness between unions and government can lead to political conflict Benefits Could flow to politicians and political parties who present policies that reduce industrial conflict International: Costs Nations reputation for stability can be lost and Gain a reputation as being an unreliable supplier. Productivity levels drop increasing costs and making Australian business less competitive against overseas efficient businesses.
Furthermore a loss of export income could occur after periods of disruption.
Benefits Conflict improves business’s international competitiveness presenting opportunities for international expansion and
RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN
The research method selected for the study is a combination of a survey and an industrial study. The survey research method is described hereunder that: (i) It is a design in which primary data is gathered from members of the sample that represents a specific population; (ii) It is a design in which a structure and systematic research instrument like a questionnaire or an interview schedule is utilized together with the primary data; (ii) It is a method in which the researcher manipulates no explanatory variables because they have already occurred and so they cannot be manipulated; (iii) Data are got directly from the subjects; 35
The subjects give the data the natural settings of their workplaces; (iv) The answers of the respondents are assumed to be largely unaffected of the content in which they are brought; (v) The impacts of the confounding factors are “controlled” statistically; and (vi) The aim of the research may span from the exploration phenomena to hypotheses testing (stone 1995).
The survey research method has some merit, which are to be articulated hereunder: In the survey research method, the sample of the respondents are selected in such a way as to make it low due to the utilization of big sample sizes, which results in generally low sample errors.
The survey research method also has the merit that data collection takes place in the “natural” settings of the
workplace rather than an activated laboratory. Data are got directly from the respondents. The advantage that the survey yields data that suggests new hypothesis is very illuminating. There is also the merit that a set of systematic data collection instruments such as questionnaire interview schedules and observation gadgets can either be used alone or in
conjunction with other instruments (stone, 1995). 36
SAMPLING Spiegel (1992) observes that sampling theory is a study of the relationship existing between a population or universe and the samples drawn from it. The population in this study is from the senior junior staff of the firms. In order to make conclusions of sample theory and statistical references to be valid, a sample must be selected as to be representative of the population (Spiegel,1992). One way in which a
representative sample may be got, is by the process of stratified random sampling. In this research work, the technique of simple random sampling is used to select the sample of 100 respondents from each group of the personnel, making a total sample size of 200.
The list of all senior and junior staff of the firm is from the personnel department of the company. The numbers were written on a piece of paper, put in a basket and the papers were folded to cover the numbers and one of the pieces of paper was selected at a time without replacing it and any name corresponding to the number becomes a number of the sample. This method of sampling without replacement was done until the sample of 100 respondents per group of personnel was arrived at. 37
Population The population, in this study is the totality of the senior and junior staff of Niger Labour Congress (Delta State Chapter. Warri. The sample size is 200 and this number of respondents was chosen from the population. The rationale for studying a sample rather than the population includes that:
Most empirical research work in the social science involves studying a sample in place of the population.
Statistical Laws reveal that statistics composed from the sample data are usually reasonably accurate.
Luckily, it is usually possible to estimate the level of confidence that can be placed on the results. We should note that above is only possible if the probability sample size is large enough.
DATA COLLECTION Questionnaire As earlier stated, the primary data collection instrument in this study is the questionnaire. In the questionnaire method of primary data collection, heavy dependence is placed on verbal reports from the subjects to get information on the earnings per share and standard set. 38
The questionnaire has a lot of merits. It needs less skill to administer. Questionnaire can be administered to a big number of individuals at the same time. Also with a specific research budget, it is usually possible to cover a broader area. The impersonal nature of a questionnaire, its structure and standardized wording, its order of question, its standardized instructions conclude for recording it offers answers some might make one to one
measurement occasion to another (Selltiz et al, 1976). Another merit of questionnaire is that subjects may have a bigger confidence in their anonymity, and thus feel freer to express views they feel might be disapproved. Another attribute of the questionnaire that is sometimes, though not always desirable is that it might place less pressure on the subjects for immediate response (Selltiz et al, 1976). The questionnaire also has some demerits. It has noted that for purpose of giving dependable responses to a
questionnaire, respondents must be considerably educated. Thus one of the demerits of the usual questionnaire is that it is appropriate only for with a considerable amount of education. There is also demerit that subject may be reluctant and unable.
To report on the particular subject matter. Also, if a subject misinterprets a question or give his or her answer in a batting manner, there is often a little that can be done to ameliorate the situation. In a questionnaire, the information the
researcher gets is limited to the fixed alternative answer format, when a specific answer is not available, it can lead to error (Selltiz, 1976). There is also limitation of memory in reporting on past facts. The researcher is not a policeman that can compel answers. That is, the information may not be readily accessible to subject and thus the subject may be reluctant to put forth enough alternative information that he or she is only barely conscious of (Selltiz et al, 1996).
questionnaire is utilized which is made up of two parts namely, the personal data section and the section on the data on the actual subject matter of the work. The questionnaire was undisguised in the sense that the purpose of the data collection which was to collect primary data for writing up the researcher’s HND project was made know to the 200 respondents. The questionnaire was structured in the sense the questions are logically sequenced and are to be asked to the respondents in the same manner and no follow up 40
questions are to be allowed. Some of the questions are of the fixed alternative answer format type. Ten (10) of the questions have yes or no answers, Ten (10) of the questions have alternative answer for the respondents to tick. The structured questionnaire has the merit that it yields data that is easier to analysis than Also data the produced structured by an
diminishes both researcher’s and research instrument biases. It however has the demerit that the rigidity of the research instrument diminishes the amount of information that could be got.
Interview The method of communication of the research instrument is by means of the personal interview. The method has the merit that it produces a better sample of the population than either mail or the telephone methods. It also has the merit that it gives a very high completion and response rates. It has the merit that the interview has a bigger sensitively
misunderstandings by the respondents and gives a chance for clarification of misunderstood questions. It has the merit that it is a very feasible method (Selltiz et al, 1976). The personal interview method has the demerit that it is more costly than 41
the mail or the telephone methods of communication of a questionnaire.
Observations In addition to questionnaire and face-to face interviews, observation was also carried out. This was to enable the researcher to witness by herself the officers of this firm and to interact with these people.
FIELD WORK The researcher and three other field data collectors did the fieldwork. The field data collectors were other classmates also offering the Part-time HND program, who have also offered research methodology. They had no problem gaining entrance into the office under consideration since one of them has a friend working there. They were to be trained by the researcher on how to greet the respondents and how to tick the questionnaire correctly and honestly.
DESCRIPTION OF DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS TOOLS
The data presentation tools are simple bar charts, histograms, and pictorial tables. The most important parts of a table include; (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Table numbers Title of the table Caption Stub or the designation of the rows and columns The body of the table. The head note or prefatory note or explanatory just
before the title. (g) Source note, which refers to the literally or scientific
source of the table (Mills and Walter 1995) Anyiwe (1994) has observed that a table has the following merits over a prose information that; (f) (g) A table ensure an easy location of the required figure; Comparisons are easily made utilizing a table than a
prose information; (h) Patterns or trends within the figures which cannot be
visualized in the prose information can be revealed and better depicted by a table; and A table is more concise and takes up a less space than a prose formation: The data is to be analysed by means of percentage, cross tabulation and the chi-square test of population proportions 43
for testing the two hypothesis. Percentages express the ratio of two sets of data to a common base of 100. The researcher made us of the computer program called SPSS (statistical package for social science) to carry out the computation of the hypothesis testing.
Limitation of The Study Research work is subject to one form of limitation or the other, mine is not an exemption. It was the initial thought of the researcher that the exercise was easy but the contrary was the case. As a student, several academic demands compete with the limited but precious time available. This implies that none of the competing exercise could be effectively handled without the others being worse off. This was my situation. Although the time expended was too small to do justice to the study. The opportunity cost in terms of other equally important activities forgone or cursorily attended to, was made. The researcher faces some embarrassment arising from lowlevel educated staff who could not understand the essence of the research work as this.
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
INTRODUCTION In the previous chapter, the research methods and
procedures have been handled. In this chapter the data presentation and analysis are to be done. The data is to be presented by means of tables, two simple bar charts, one histogram and one pie chart to make it amenable for further analysis. By analysis is meant the act of noting relationship and aggregating the set of variables with similar attributes
and also breaking the unit of their components (Mills and Walters 1995). In this research work, the research accepts the contention of Podsakoff and Dalton (1995) that the factual information from the data can be used as a basis for reasoning, calculation and discussion. 45
Apart from the heading above, the other headings in this chapter includes: Data Presentation, Percentage analysis Cross-tabulated analysis Hypothesis testing 4.2 DATA PRESENTATION
TABLE1 THE SUMMARY OF THE PERSONAL DATA OF THE RESPONDENTS 1 SEX Male Female Total Marital Status Married Single Total AGE 21-30 years 31-40 years 41-50 years 51-60 years Total HIGHER EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION DIPLOMA OND HND FIRST DEGREE SECOND DEGREE NIM TOTAL FREQUENCY 150 50 200 130 70 200 90 90 10 10 200 Angles suspended in degree
10 30 80 20 40 20 200
18 54 144 36 32 36 360
The marital statuses of the 200 respondents it is found that 130 of them are married while 70 of them are single. For the ages
of the 200 respondents they are 21-30 years, 31-40 years, 5160 years with frequency of 90 and 10 respectively. For the highest educational qualification of the 200 respondents they are diploma, OND, HND, First Degree, Second Degree, NIM. and they have frequencies of 10, 30, 80, 20, 40 and 20 respectively.
Figure 4.1 below shows the simple bar chart of the data on the sex of the respondents. FIGURE 4.1: THE SIMPLE BAR CHART OF THE DATA ON THE SEX OF THE RESPONDENTS
16014012010080 60 40 20 0
GENDER OF THE RESPONDENTS
GENDER OF THE RESPONDENTS
Frequency percentage Valid Cumulative Percent Percent MAIL 150 75.0 75.0 75.0 FEMALE 50 25.0 25.0 100.0 Total 200 100.0 100.0 47
Source: from data in table 1 (generated from SPSS) From figure 4.1 above, it is shown that male respondents have the modal frequency of 150 of the 200 respondents while the female respondents have the frequency of 50 of them. Figure 4.2 below shows the simple bar chart of the data on the marital statuses of the respondents. FIGURE 4.2: THE SIMPLE BAR CHART OF THE DATA ON THE MARITAL STATUSES OF THE RESPONDENTS
140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0
TABLE 3. Status
MARITAL STATUS OF THE RESPONDENTS
frequency Percentage Valid Cumulative Percent Percent MARRIED 130 65.0 65.0 65.0 SINGLE 70 35.0 35.0 100.0 Total 200 100.0 100.0 48
From figure 4.2 above, it is shown that the married respondents have the modal frequency of 130 out of the 200 respondents while the single respondents have the frequency of 70 of them.
FIGURE 4.3: THE HISTOGRAM OF THE DATA ON THE AGES OF THE RESPONDENTS. AGES OF THE RESPONDENTS
100 20 40 60 80
Std. Dev = 78 Mean = 1.7 N = 200.00 2.0 3.0 4.0
TABLE 4. AGES OF THE RESPONDENTS Categories Frequency Percentage 21 TO 30 YEARS 90 45.0 Valid Cumulative Percentage Percent 45.0 45.0 45.0 5.0 5.0 100.0 90.0 95.0 100.0
31 TO 40 90 45.0 YEARS 41 TO 50 10 5.0 YEARS 51 TO 60 10 5.0 YEARS SOURCE: From the data in Table 1. Total 200 100.0 49
From figure 4.3 above, it is shown that the age classes limit are 20.5-30.5 years, 30.5-40.5 years, 40.5-50.5 years and 50.5-60.5 years with frequencies of 90, 90, 10, and 10 out of 200 respectively. This shows that this is bi-modal distribution as the age classes of 20.5-30.5 years and 30. 5-40.5 years have a frequency of 10. Figure 4.4 below shows the pie chart of the data on the highest educational qualifications of the 200 respondents. FIG.4.4 THE PIE CHART OF THE DATA ON THE HIGHEST EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS OF THE 200 RESPONDENTS
DIPLOMA OND 5%
15% 10% 20% 40% 10%
Educational Percentage Valid Cumulative SOURCE: Frequencydata in table 1. from the TABLE 5. EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS level Percentage Percentage DIPLOMA 10 5.0 5.0 5.0 OND HND FIRST DEGREE SECOND DEGREE NIM Total 30 80 20 40 20 200 15.0 40.0 10.0 15.0 40.0 10.0 20.0 10.0 100.0 20.0 60.0 70.0 90.0 100.0
From figure 4.4 above, the Highest Educational Qualifications are Diploma, O.N.D, First Degree, Second Degree and NIM and the sustained angles in degree is equal to 180, 540, 1440, 360, 720 and 360 and respectively at the center of the circle.
CROSS-TABULATED ANALYSIS Table bellows show the analysis of the statuses of the 200 respondents TABLE 6. Cross- tabulation 1
DISPUTES ARE OFTEN THE RESULT OF INADEQUATE CONSULTATION BY MANAGEMENT WITH THEIR EMPLOYEES
2 2 7 9
DIPLOMA OND HND FIRST DEGREE SECOND DEGREE NIM Total
6 19 14 40 21 100
2 31 10 43
10 19 91 19
2 39 39
40 21 200
39 39 The above table shows that the total of 100 respondents (out of 200 said no. this proved that disputes are often the result of inadequate consultation by management with their
EMPLOYERS USES GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES AND NEGOTIATE AGREEMENTS DIRECTLY WITH EMPLOYEES TO RESOLVE DISPUTES
DIPLOMA 10 TABLE 7. Cross-tabulation 2 OND HND FIRST DEGREE SECOND DEGREE NIM Total 19 14 30 10 40 21 104
NO Total ANSWER 10
19 91 9 19 40 21 200
The above table indicates that employers uses grievance procedures and negotiate agreements directly with employees to resolve disputes 104 respondents out of 200 said yes. While 40 did not agree with the fact.
HYPOTHESIS TESTING In attempting to arrive at decisions about the population, on the basis of sample information it is necessary to make assumptions or guesses about the population parameter involved. Such an assumption is called statistical hypothesis, which may or may not be true. The procedure, which enables the researcher to design on the basis, is sample regards whether a hypothesis is true or not is called test of hypothesis or test of significance. The null hypothesis asserts that there is no significant difference between the statistics and the population
parameters and what ever is observed difference is there, is merely due to fluctuations in sampling from the same 52
population. Null hypothesis is thereby denoted by the symbol H0.Any hypothesis, which contradicts the H0, is called an alternate hypothesis and is denoted by the symbol H1. The researcher has used chi-square analysis.
CHI-SQUARE TEST The c is one of the simplest and most widely used nonparametric test in statistical work. It makes no assumptions about the population being sampled. The quantity c describes the magnitude of discrepancy between theory and
observation i.e. with the help of c test we can know whether a given discrepancy between theory and observation can be attributed to chance or whether it results from the inadequacy of the theory to fit the observed facts. If c is zero, it means that the observed and expected frequencies completely coincide. The greater the value of c the greater will be the discrepancy between observed and expected frequencies. The formula for computing chi-square is – c =∑ (O-E)2/E Where,O=Observed frequency E=Expected or theoretical frequency
SOFTWARE USED FOR DATA ANALYSIS: For the data analysis and the interpretation, the researcher has adopted advanced version of SPSS (statistical package for 53
social science). This application software has facilitated the researcher to construct the frequency table, various types of charts and to find out the valid percentage responses from the sample. By this automated data analysis it has minimized the researcher ’s time constraints and reduced human error and give also accurate outlay of information.
Chi-Square Test (1) DISPUTES ARE OFTEN THE RESULT OF INADEQUATE CONSULTATION BY MANAGEMENT WITH THEIR EMPLOYEES. Observed Expected Residual Decision F F YES 100 50.0 50.0 Accept NO 43 50.0 -7.0 Reject DON’T KNOW 39 50.0 -11.0 Reject NO 50.0 ANSWER 18 -32.0 Reject Total 200 Chi-Square Test (2) EMPLOYERS USES GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES AND NEGOTIATE AGREEMENTS DIRECTLY WITH EMPLOYEES TO RESOLVE DISPUTES Observed F 104 40 47 9 200 Expected F 50.0 50.0 50.0 50.0 Residual 54.0 -10.0 -3.0 -41.0 Decision Accept Rejected Rejected Rejected
YES NO DON’T KNOW NO ANSWER Total Residuals
The observed value of the dependent variable minus the value predicated by the regression equation, for each case. Large absolute values for the residuals indicate that the observed values are very different from the predicted values. SOURCE: From the questionnaires administered.
The formulated hypothesis that is subject to statistical test will be at 5% level of significance in testing hypothesis, the calculated value of the test statistics is usually compared with tables of value. The critical values of the test statistics serve as criterion value. It afforded the basis for rejecting the null hypothesis is a function of the value of the tested statistic. Reject the null hypothesis if the calculated value of the test statistic is greater than the critical value. Accept the null hypothesis if the calculated value of the test statistic is less than the critical value.
EMPLOYERS USES GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES AND NEGOTIATE AGREEMENTS DIRECTLY WITH
DISPUTES ARE OFTEN THE RESULT OF INADEQUATE CONSULTATION BY MANAGEMENT WITH THEIR EMPLOYEES. 73.880 3 55
EMPLOYEES TO RESOLVE DISPUTES
note: df = degree of freedom 4.6 SUMMARY OF RESULT Level of significance……….0.05 Critical value………………………43.0 Calculated value……………………73.880 From the above analysis, it could be seen that in the first test, DISPUTES ARE OFTEN THE RESULT OF INADEQUATE CONSULTATION BY MANAGEMENT WITH THEIR EMPLOYEES. ’, the calculated value is greater than the critical value so we reject the hypothesis. In the second test which state that EMPLOYERS USES GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES AND NEGOTIATE AGREEMENTS DIRECTLY WITH EMPLOYEES TO RESOLVE DISPUTES , The level of significance is 0.05, the critical value is 44 while the calculated value from the test statistics table is 94.120. Looking the data above, it shows very clear that the calculated value is more greater than the critical value so we reject the hypothesis.
FINDINGS, SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
INTRODUCTION In this chapter, the researcher deals with the findings as regards the scenario of industrial conflicts and resolution. The work is summarized with the conclusion drawn.
FINDINGS During the research work, the researcher found out that.. Conflict in the workplace is inevitable. Anytime two or more people come together, they will eventually disagree about something. While some conflict can be healthy, it is often an indication that there is something wrong. Conflict is frequently a "call to action"… a problem crying out for a solution. The good news about conflict is that it is usually based on "caring". The more someone defends their point of view in an argument, the more they care. But if conflict is allowed to fester and grow without a resolution, it can lead to serious problems such as threats and even physical violence. The effectiveness of an entire organization can be harmed if 57
SUMMARY “The literature of industrial relations abounds in discourse of conflict. The history of the trade union movement recounts many episodes of violence and bitter confrontation between workers and bosses. The feelings expressed by Slackbridge, the union delegate in coketown in 1854”. In the Nigeria, the juridification and institutionalisation of industrial relations regulate the solution of conflicts in detail. Very important is the strict distinction between conflicts of rights, which concern the interpretation of the collective agreements, and conflicts of interests concerning the terms of new agreements. Conflict of rights are subject to legal regulation and have to be resolved with peaceful means by conciliation committees or, as the last resort, the labour courts. Only conflicts of interest can be resolved by means of "industrial warfare".
Furthermore, a complex system of mediation, arbitration, labour court procedures and peace obligations provides the conflicting parties with rights and duties and permits little space for ambiguity.
Conflicts in employment and industrial relations are a complex matter and there are a numerous factors affecting their latent presence and the propensity to conflict. The relatively low volume of labour disputes in Nigeria may be attributed to the "juridification" of industrial relations, and to institutions about which there is a joint consensus among the bargaining parties. Both provide the framework for a detailed allocation of certain substantive issues to different institutions within the dual system - ie, collective bargaining (unions and employers' associations) and workers' representation at establishment level (works councils). Negotiation and co-determination under the legal obligation of "social peace" and "trustful cooperation" lead to the neutralisation of the workplace by moving conflict from the workplace to the industry level. These mechanisms channel and depoliticise conflicts,
encourage professionalisation of conflict management, lead to a higher predictability of behaviour and in the end serve the purpose of containing and dampening conflict.