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TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS
2.1 Introduction
The conventional power transmission system is a complex network of passive components, mainly transmission lines and transformers, and its behaviour is commonly assessed using equivalent circuits consisting of inductance, capacitance and resistance. This chapter deals with the derivation of these equivalent circuits and with the formation of the system admittance matrix relating the current and voltage at every node of the transmission system. Among the many alternative ways of describing transmission systems to comply with Kirchhoff s laws, two methods, mesh and nodal analysis, are normally used. The latter has been found to be particularly suitable for digital computer work, and is almost exclusively used for routine network calculations. The nodal approach has the following advantages: The numbering of nodes, performed directly from a system diagram, is very simple.
0
Data preparation is easy. The number of variables and equations is usually less than with the mesh method for power networks.
0 0 0
Network crossover branches present no difficulty, Parallel branches do not increase the number of variables or equations. Node voltages are available directly from the solution, and branch currents are easily calculated. Offnominal transformer taps can easily be represented.
0
2.2 Linear Transformation Techniques
Linear transformation techniques are used to enable the admittance matrix of any network to be found in a systematic manner. Consider, for the purposes of illustration, the network drawn in Figure 2.1. Five steps are necessary to form the network admittance matrix by linear transfor
mation, i.e.
(i) Label the nodes in the original network.
6
2 TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS
Figure 2.1 Actual connected network
7
(ii) Number, in any order, the branches and branch admittances. (iii) Form the primitive network admittance matrix by inspection. This matrix relates the nodal injected currents to the node voltages of the primitive network. The primitive network is also drawn by inspection of the actual network. It consists of the unconnected branches of the original network with a current equal to the original branch current injected into the corresponding node of the primitive network. The voltages across the primitive network branches then equal those across the same branch in the actual network. The primitive network for Figure 2.1 is shown in Figure 2.2. The primitive admittance matrix relationship is:
[YPRIM 1
Offdiagonal terms are present where mutual coupling between branches is present. (iv) Form the connection matrix [C].
Figure 2.2 Primitive or unconnected network
2.3
BASIC SINGLEPHASE MODELLING
7
This relates the nodal voltages of the actual network to the nodal voltages of the primitive network. By inspection of Figure 2.1,
or in matrix form
(v) The actual network admittance matrix which relates the nodal currents to the voltages by
(2.4)
can now be derived from
which is a straightforward matrix multiplication.
2.3 Basic Singlephase Modelling
Under perfectly balanced conditions, transmission plant can be represented by singlephase models, the most extensively used being the equivalentrc circuit.
2.3.1 Transmission lines
In the case of a transmission line, the total resistance and inductive reactance of the line is included in the series arm of the nequivalent and the total capacitance to neutral is divided between its shunt arms.
8
qrFT[
Y&
2 TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS
Figure 2 . 3 Transformer equivalent circuit
2.3.2 Transformer on nominal ratio
The equivalentlr model of a transformer is illustrated in Figure 2.3, where yoc is the reciprocal of zoc (magnetizing impedance) and ysc is the reciprocal of zsc (leakage impedance). zsc and zoc are obtained from the standard shortcircuit and opencircuit tests. This yields the following matrix equation:
I Is I I
Ysc
+ YW/2 I
Ysc
I I vs 1
where ysc is the shortcircuit or leakage admittance, yW is the opencircuit or magnetizing admittance. The use of a threeterminal network is restricted to the singlephase representation and cannot be used as a building block for modelling threephase transformer banks. The magnetizing admittances are usually removed from the transformer model and added later as small, shuntconnected admittances at the transformer terminals. In the per unit system, the model of the singlephase transformer can then be reduced to a lumped leakage admittance between the primary and secondary busbars.
2.3.3 Offnominal transformer tap representation
A transformer with turns ratio a interconnecting two nodes i, k can be represented by an ideal transformer in series with the nominal transformer leakage admittance as shown in Figure 2.4(a). If the transformer is on nominal tap (a = l), the nodal equations for the network branch in the per unit system are:
Iik Iki
 YikVk = Yik v k  Y i k vi
= yikvi
(2.7)
(2.8)
In this case, l i k = Iki. For an offnominal tap setting and letting the voltage on the k side of the ideal transformer be V , , we can write
2.3 BASIC SINGLEPHASE MODELLING
9
Figure 2.4 Transformer with offnominal tap setting
Iki
= yik(Vk  V t ) , = .Iki a
Yik  vi, a
(2.10) (2.11)
lik
Eliminating V, between Equations (2.9) and (2. lo), we obtain
Iki
= yikvk
(2.12) (2.13)
A simple equivalent n circuit can be deduced from Equations (2.12) and (2.13), the elements of which can be incorporated into the admittance matrix. This circuit is illustrated in Figure 2.4(b). The equivalent circuit of Figure 2.4(b) has to be used with care in banks containing deltaconnected windings. In a stardelta bank of singlephase transformer units, for example, with nominal turns ratio, a value of 1.0 per unit voltage on each leg of the star winding produces under balanced conditions 1.732 per unit voltage on each leg of the delta winding (rated line to neutral voltage as base). The structure of the bank requires in the per unit representation an effective tapping at J?; nominal turns ratio on the delta side, i.e. a = 1.732. For a deltadelta or stardelta transformer with taps on the star winding, the equivalent circuit of Figure 2.4(b) would have to be modified to allow for effective taps to be represented on each side. The equivalentcircuit model of the singlephase unit can be derived by considering a deltadelta transformer as comprising a deltastar transformer connected in series (backtoback) via a zeroimpedance link to a star delta transformer, i.e. star windings in series. Both neutrals are solidly earthed. The leakage impedance of each transformer would be half the impedance of the equivalent deltadelta transformer. An equivalent per unit representation of this coupling is shown in Figure 2.5. Solving this circuit for terminal currents:
I’ I,==
ff
(V’  V ” ) y
ff
(2.14)
I’ = ?VP Y I, = 
B
Y  vs,
B2
(2.15)
10
2 TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS
or in matrix form: (2.16)
These admittance parameters form the primitive network for the coupling between a primary and secondary coil.
2.3.4 Phaseshifting representation
To cope with phaseshifting, the transformer of Figure 2.5 has to be provided with a complex turns ratio. Moreover, the invariance of the product VI* across the ideal transformer requires a distinction to be made between the turns ratios for current and voltage, i.e. v I* = v’I‘*,
PP
or
V p= ( a
+ jb)V’ = aV’,
I‘ I’ I P = a  j b  a*‘
Thus, the circuit of Figure 2.5 has two different turns ratios, i.e.
aU = a!
+j b
for the voltages, for the currents.
and
ai = ( I I jb
Solving the modified circuit for terminal currents: I’ (V’  V”)y I,==
ffi
ffi
Y  (Vplffu  VS/P>Y = vp
Qi
Uuai
 v,, Y
QiS
(2.17)
rp
1
I‘
V
1:0
I
Figure 2.5 Basic equivalent circuit in p.u. for coupling between primary and secondary coils with both primary and secondary offnominal tap ratios of ct and /?
2.4 THREEPHASE SYSTEM ANALYSIS
11
(2.18)
1' Y 1, =  = vp
B
%B
Y  vs.
B2
Thus, the general singlephase admittance of a transformer including phase shifting is:
.I;
[Yl
=
(2.19)
a"B
P2
It should be noted that, although an equivalent lattice network similar to that in Figure 2.5 could be constructed, it is no longer a bilinear network as can be seen from the asymmetry of y in Equation (2.19). The equivalent circuit of a singlephase phaseshifting transformer is thus of limited value and the transformer is best represented analytically by its admittance matrix.
2.4 Threephase System Analysis
2.4.1 Discussion of the frame of reference
Sequence components have long been used to enable convenient examination of the balanced power system under both balanced and unbalanced loading conditions. The symmetrical component transformation is a general mathematical technique developed by Fortescue whereby any 'system of n vectors or quantities may be resolved, when n is prime, into n different symmetrical n phase systems'[l]. Any set of threephase voltages or currents may therefore be transformed into three symmetrical systems of three vectors each. This in itself would not commend the method, and the assumptions that lead to the simplifying nature of symmetrical components must be examined carefully. Consider, as an example, the series admittance of a threephase transmission line, shown in Figure 2.6, i.e. three mutually coupled coils. The admittance matrix relates the illustrated currents and voltages by
where
(2.21)
and (2.22)
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2 TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS
l a
Figure 2 . 6 Admittance representation of a threephase series element (a) series admittance element; (b) admittance matrix representation
By the use of the symmetrical components transformation the three coils of Figure 2.6 can be replaced by three uncoupled coils. This enables each coil to be treated separately with a great simplification of the mathematics involved in the analysis. The transformed quantities (indicated by subscripts 012 for the zero, positive and negative sequences respectively) are related to the phase quantities by
[ V O I Z= I [T~I[ '~ a ~ x I t
[10121
(2.23) (2.24)
= [Tsl'[labc]
(2.25) = [Tsl [yabcl [Ts 1 [ VOI21 v where [Ts] is the transformation matrix. The transformed voltages and currents are thus related by the transformed admittance matrix, [ y o 1 2 1 = i ~ s 1  I[ y a b c l [ ~ s l . (2.26) Assuming that the element is balanced, we have
Yaa Yab Yba
'
= Ybb = Ycc. = Ybc = Yea,
(2.27) = Ycb = Yac, and a set of invariant matrices [TI exists. Transformation (2.26) will then yield a diagonal matrix [ y 0 1 2 ] . In this case, the mutually coupled threephase system has been replaced by three uncoupled symmetrical systems. In addition, if the generation and loading may be
2.4 THREEPHASE SYSTEM ANALYSIS
13
assumed balanced, then only one system, the positive sequence system, has any current flow and the other two sequences may be ignored. This is essentially the situation with the singlephase load flow. If the original phase admittance matrix [yabc] is in its natural unbalanced state, then the transformed admittance matrix [yo121 is full. Therefore, current flow of one sequence will give rise to voltages of all sequences, i.e. the equivalent circuits for the sequence networks are mutually coupled. In this case, the problem of analysis is no simpler in sequence components than in the original phase components and symmetrical components should not be used. From the above considerations, it is clear that the asymmetry inherent in all power systems cannot be studied with any simplification by using the symmetrical component frame of reference. Data in the symmetrical component frame should only be used when the network element is balanced, for example synchronous generators. In general, however, such an assumption is not valid. Unsymmetrical interphase coupling exists in transmission lines and to a lesser extent in transformers, and this results in coupling between the sequence networks. Furthermore, the phase shift introduced by transformer connections is difficult to represent in sequence component models. With the use of phase coordinates the following advantages become apparent:
(i)
Any system element maintains its identity.
(ii) Features such as asymmetric impedances, mutual couplings between phases and between different system elements, and line transpositions are all readily considered.
(iii) Transformer phase shifts present no problem.
2.4.2 The use of compound admittances
When analysing threephase networks, where the three nodes at a busbar are always associated together in their interconnections, the graphical representation of the network is greatly simplified by means of compound admittances, a concept which is based on the use of matrix quantities to represent the admittances of the network. The laws and equations of ordinary networks are all valid for compound networks by simply replacing single quantities by appropriate matrices [2]. Consider six mutually coupled single admittances, the primitive network of which is illustrated in Figure 2.7.
Figure 2.7 Primitive network of six coupled admittances
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2 TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS
The primitive admittance matrix relates the nodal injected currents to the branch voltages as follows:
(2.28)
6x1
Partitioning Equation (2.28) into 3 x 3 matrices and 3 x 1 vectors, the equation becomes:
where

(2.29)
(2.30)
Graphically, we represent this partitioning as grouping the six coils into two compound coils (a) and (b), each composed of three individual admittances. This is illustrated in Figure 2.8. On examination of [Y&] and [ Y b a ] , it can be seen that
[Ybal
= EY,bIT*
if, and only if, Yi& = y&i for i = 1 to 3 and k = 4 to 6. That is if, and only if, the couplings between the two groups of admittances are bilateral. In this case, Equation (2.29) may be written
(2.31)
2.4 THREEPHASE SYSTEM ANALYSIS
15
Figure 2.8 Two coupled compound admittances
Figure 2.9 Sample network represented by single admittances
[YAl
Figure 2.10
Sample network represented by compound admittances
The primitive network for any number of compound admittances is formed in exactly the same manner as for single admittances, except in that all quantities are matrices of the same order as the compound admittances. The actual admittance matrix of any network composed of the compound admittances can be formed by the usual method of linear transformation; the elements of the connection matrix are now n x n identity matrices where n is the dimension of the compound admittances.
16
2 TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS
Figure 2.11 Primitive networks and corresponding admittance matrices. (a) Primitive network using single admittances; (b) Primitive admittance matrix; (c) Primitive network using compound admittances; (d) Primitive admittance matrix
If the connection matrix of any network can be partitioned into identity elements of equal dimensions greater than one, the use of compound admittances is advantageous. As an example, consider the network shown in Figures 2.9 and 2.10, which represents a simple line section. The admittance matrix will be derived using single and compound admittances to show the simple correspondence. The primitive networks and associated admittance matrices are drawn in Figure 2.1 1. The connection matrices for the single and compound networks are illustrated by Equations (2.32) and (2.33),
2.4 THREEPHASE SYSTEM ANALYSIS
17
respectively.
(2.32)
(2.33)
T h exact equivalence, with appropriate matrix partitionin is clear.
The network admittance matrix is given by the linear tran,xmation equation,
This matrix multiplication can be executed using the full matrices or in partitioned form. The result in partitioned form is
I
I
I
2.4.3 Rules for forming the admittance matrix of simple networks
The method of linear transformation may be used to obtain the admittance matrix of any network. For the special case of networks where there is no mutual coupling, simple rules may be used to form the admittance matrix by inspection. These rules, which apply to compound networks with no mutual coupling between the compound admittances, may be stated as follows: (a) Any diagonal term is the sum of the individual branch admittances connected to the node corresponding to that term. (b) Any offdiagonal term is the negated sum of the branch admittances which are connected between the two corresponding nodes.
18
2 TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS
2.4.4 Network subdivision
To enable the transmission system to be modelled in a systematic, logical and convenient manner, the system must be subdivided into more manageable units. These units, called subsystems, are defined as follows: A subsystem is the unit into which any part of the system may be divided such that no subsystem has any mutual couplings between its constituent branches and those of the rest of the system. This definition ensures that the subsystems may be combined in an extremely straightforward manner. The system is first subdivided into the most convenient subsystems consistent with the definition above. The most convenient unit for a subsystem is a single network element. In previous sections, the nodal admittance matfix representation of all common elements has been derived. The subsystem unit is retained for input data organization. The data for any subsystem is input as a complete unit, the subsystem admittance matrix is formulated and stored and then all subsystems are combined to form the total system admittance matrix.
2.5 Threephase Models of Transmission Lines
Transmission line parameters are calculated from the line geometrical characteristics. The calculated parameters are expressed as a series impedance and shunt admittance per unit length of line. The effects of ground currents and earth wires are included in the calculation of these parameters [3,43.
2.5.1 Series impedance
A threephase transmission line with a ground wire is illustrated in Figure 2.12(a). The following equations can be written for phase a
Va  Vh = la(&
+j w L ) +I b ( j w L b ) +I c ( j o L c ) + jwLgIg j U L m I n + Vn, Vn = In(&+ j w & )  I, j w L 0  I b j W L t b  I, j w k c  Igj w k B ,
In
(2.34)
(2.35)
and substituting
=Ia+Ib+Ic+Ig,
(2.36)
Va  V i = la(&
+ j w L ) + Ib jwLb + Ic jwLC + j W L g l g  j W L n ( & + Ib + IC + I g ) + v n .
(2.37)
Regrouping and substituting for V,, i.e.
A V , = Va  V:
(2.38)
2.5
THREEPHASE MODELS OF TRANSMISSION LINES
19
Figure 2.12 (a) Threephase transmission series impedance equivalent; (b) Threephase transmission shunt impedance equivalent
and writing similar equations for the other phases, the following matrix equation results:
(2.41)
Since we are interested only in the performance of the phase conductors, it is more convenient to use a threeconductor equivalent for the transmission line. This
20
2 TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS
is achieved by writing matrix Equation (2.41) in partitioned form as follows:
(2.42)
(2.43) (2.44) From Equations (2.42) and (2.43), and assuming that the ground wire is at zero potential: (2.45) A vabc = Zabclabc
3
(2.46)
2.5.2 Shunt admittance
With reference to Figure 2.12(b), the potentials of the line conductors are related to the conductor charges by the matrix Equation [3]:
(2.47)
Similar considerations as for the series impedance matrix lead to
Vabc
= PLbcQabc
9
(2.48)
where Pbbc is a 3 x 3 matrix which includes the effects of the ground wire. The capacitance matrix of the transmission line of Figure 2.12 is given by
(2.49)
The series impedance and shunt admittance lumpedn model representation of the threephase line is shown in Figure 2.13(a) and its matrix equivalent is illustrated
2.5
THREEPHASE MODELS OF TRANSMISSION LINES
21
Figure 2.13 Lumped7r model of a shortthree phase line series impedance. (a) Full circuit representation; (b) Matrix equivalent; (c) Using threephase compound admittances
in Figure 2.13(b). These two matrices can be represented by compound admittances, (Figure 2.13(c)), as described earlier. Following the rules developed for the formation of the admittance matrix using the compound concept, the nodal injected currents of Figure 2.13(c) can be related to the nodal voltages by the equation:
I ,
I
(2.50)
1
I
6x1
6x6
6x1
22
2 TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS
This forms the element admittance matrix representation for the short line between busbars i and k in terms of 3 x 3 matrix quantities. This representation may not be accurate enough for electrically long lines. The physical length at which a line is no longer electrically short depends on the wavelength; therefore, if harmonic frequencies are being considered, this physical length may be quite small. Using transmission line and wave propagation theory, more exact models may be derived [5,6].However, for normal mains frequency analysis, it is considered sufficient to model a long line as a series of two or three nominaln sections.
2.5.3
Equivalent a model
For long lines a number of nominal n models are connected in series to improve the accuracy of voltages and currents, which are affected by standing wave effects. For example, a threesection IT model provides an accuracy to 1.2% for a quarter wavelength line (a quarter wavelength corresponds with 1500 and 1250 km at 50 and 60 Hz, respectively). As the frequency increases, the number of nominal IT sections to maintain a particular accuracy increases proportionally, e.g. a 300 km line requires 30 nominal IT sections to maintain the 1.2% accuracy for the 50th harmonic. However, near resonance the accuracy departs significantly from an acceptable value. The computational effort can be greatly reduced and the accuracy improved with the use of an equivalent r model derived from the solution of the second order linear differential equations describing wave propagation along transmission lines [ 5 ] . The solution of the wave equations at a distance x from the sending end of the line is:
V(X) = exp(p)vi
+ exp(yx>vr,
(2.5 1)
I(X) = (Z’)’y[eXp(yx)Vi  exp(yx)vr~,
(2.52)
where y = = (Y + j/3 is the propagation constant, Z’ = r + j 2 n f L is the series impedance per unit length, Y’ = g j 2 n f C is the shunt admittance per unit length, and V i and Vr the forward and reverse travelling voltages, respectively. Depending on the problem in hand, e.g. if the evaluation of terminal quantities only is required, it is more convenient to formulate a solution using twoport matrix equations. This leads to the equivalent n model, shown in Figure 2.14, where
+
Z = Z, sinh(yf),
Y*=Y2=1 cosh(yf)  1 1 =  tanh Z , , sinh(yf) Z,
(2.53)
) : (
,
(2.54)
and
z ,=
(2.55)
is the characteristic impedance of the line. Due to the standing wave effect of voltages and currents on transmission lines, the maximum values of these are likely to occur at points other than at the receiving end or sending end busbars. These local maxima could result in insulation damage, overheating
2.5
THREEPHASE MODELS OF TRANSMISSION LINES
23
Figure 2.14
The equivalent j 7 model of a long transmission line
or electromagnetic interference. It is thus important to calculate the maximum values of currents and voltages along a line and the points at which these occur. In the case of multiconductor transmission lines, the nominal n series impedance and shunt admittance matrices per unit distance, [Z'] and [Y']respectively, are square and their size is fixed by the number of mutually coupled conductors. The derivation of the equivalent 77 model for harmonic penetration studies from the nominal n matrices is similar to that of the single phase lines, except that it involves the evaluation of hyperbolic functions of the propagation constant which is now a matrix:
[Yl = ([z~l[yw2.
(2.56)
There is no direct way of calculating sinh or tanh of a matrix, thus a method using eigenvalues and eigenvectors, called modal analysis, is employed [6] that leads to the following expressions for the series and shunt components of the equivalent n circuit [7]: sinh(y l ) (2.57) [ZIEPM = l[Z'I[Ml yl [MI',
[
]
where 1 is the transmission line length, [&pM is the equivalent IT series impedance matrix, [MI is the matrix of normalized eigenvectors, sinh( y11) 0 ... O 1
and y, is the j t h eigenvalue for j / 3 mutually coupled circuits. Similarly (2.59) is the equivalent n shunt admittance matrix. where [ Y ] E P M Computer derivation of the correction factors for conversion from the nominal IT to the equivalent n model, and their incorporation into the series impedance and shunt
2.5 THREEPHASE MODELS OF TRANSMISSION LINES
25
The coupled series elements represent the electromagnetic coupling while the coupled shunt elements represent the capacitive or electrostatic coupling. These coupling parameters are lumped in a similar way to the standard line parameters. With the admittances labelled as in Figure 2.16, and applying the rules of linear transformation for compound networks, the admittance matrix for the subsystem is defined as follows:
IA
IB
1,
ID
q.
VfJ 12x 1 (2.60)
12 x 1
12 x 12
It is assumed here that the mutual coupling is bilateral. Therefore Y21 = YT12, etc. The subsystem may be redrawn as in Figure 2.17. The pairs of coupled 3 x 3 compound admittances are now represented as a 6 x 6 compound admittance. The matrix representation is also shown. Following this representation and the labelling of
FYs1]
Figure 2.17 A 6 x 6 compound admittance representation of two coupled threephase lines: (a) 6 x 6 matrix representation; (b) 6 x 6 compound admittance representation
26
2 TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS
the admittance blocks in the figure, the admittance matrix may be written in terms of the 6 x 6 compound coils as
(2.61)
This is clearly identical to Equation (2.60) with the appropriate matrix partitioning. The representation of Figure 2.17 is more concise and the formation of Equation (2.61) from this representation is straightforward, being exactly similar to that which results from the use of 3 x 3 compound admittances for the normal single threephase line. The data that must be available to enable coupled lines to be treated in a similar manner to single lines are the series impedance and shunt admittance matrices. These matrices are of order 3 x 3 for a single line, 6 x 6 for two coupled lines, 9 x 9 for three and 12 x 12 for four coupled lines. Once the matrices [Z,] and [ Y,] are available, the admittance matrix for the subsystem is formed by application of Equation (2.61) When all the busbars of the coupled lines are distinct, the subsystem may be combined directly into the system admittance matrix. However, if the busbars are not distinct then the admittance matrix as derived from Equation (2.61) must be modified. This is considered in the following section.
2.5.5
Consideration of terminal connections
The admittance matrix as derived above must be reduced if there are different elements in the subsystem connected to the same busbar. As an example, consider two parallel transmission lines as illustrated in Figure 2.18. The admittance matrix derived previously related the currents and voltages at the four busbars A l , A2, B1 and B2. This relationship is given by
(2.62)
~
vB2
The nodal injected current at busbar A, I,, is given by (2.63)
(2.64)
2.5 THREEPHASE MODELS OF TRANSMISSION LINES Busbar
27
@
&
+
/BI
Busbar
@
A2
Figure 2.18 Mutually coupled parallel transmission lines
Also, from inspection of Figure 2.18
VA
= VAI = VA2,
VB
= VBl = vB2,
(2.65)
The required matrix equation relates the nodal injected currents, 1, and IB, to the voltages at these busbars. This is readily derived from Equation (2.62) and the conditions specified above. This is simply a matter of adding appropriate rows and columns, and yields
(2.66)
This matrix [ Y A B ] is the required nodal admittance matrix for the subsystem. It should be noted that the matrix in Equation (2.62) must be retained as it is required in the calculation of the individual line power flows.
2.5.6
Shunt elements
Shunt reactors and capacitors are used in a power system for reactive power control. The data for these elements are usually given in terms of their rated MVA and rated kV; the equivalent phase admittance in p.u. is calculated from these data. Consider, as an example, a threephase capacitor bank shown in Figure 2.19. A similar triple representation to that for a line section is illustrated. The final two forms are the most compact and will be used exclusively from this point on.
I.
I
Figure 2.19 Representation of a shunt capacitor bank
28
2 TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS
Figure 2.20 Graphic representation of series capacitor bank between nodes i and k
The admittance matrix for shunt elements is usually diagonal as there is normally no coupling between the components of each phase. This matrix is then incorporated directly into the system admittance matrix, contributing only to the selfadmittance of the particular bus.
2.5.7 Series elements
Any element connected directly between two buses may be considered a series element. Series elements are often taken as being a section in a line sectionalization which is described later in the chapter. A typical example is the series capacitor bank which is usually taken as uncoupled, i.e. the admittance matrix is diagonal. This can be represented graphically as in Figure 2.20. The admittance matrix for the subsystem can be written by inspection as:
(2.67)
2.5.8 Line sectionalization
A line may be divided into sections to account for features such as the following:
0
Transposition of line conductors. Change of type of supporting towers. Variation of soil permitivity. Improvement of line representation (series of two or more equivalentlr networks). Series capacitors for line compensation. Lumping of series elements not central to a particular study. An example of a line divided into a number of sections is shown in Figure 2.21.
0
0
0
0
0
2.5 THREEPHASE MODELS OF TRANSMISSION LINES
29
The network of Figure 2.21 is considered to form a single subsystem. The resultant admittance matrix between bus A and bus B may be derived by finding, for each section, the ABCD or transmission parameters, then combining these by matrix multiplications to give the resultant transmission parameters. These are then converted to the required admittance parameters. This procedure involves an extension of the usual twoport network theory to multitwoport networks. Currents and voltages are new matrix quantities and are defined in Figure 2.22. The ABCD matrix parameters are also shown.
1
I
I
f
I
1
5
1
I

1
I
7
I
I
I
I/
I/
I\
I
cI.
41
41
Transposition
Figure 2.22 Twoport network transmission parameters. (a) Normal twoport network; (b) Transmission parameters; (c) Multitwoport network; (d) Matrix transmission parameters
30
2 TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS
220 kV
I
,Bus B
220166 kV
Bus A
s 220166 kV
(i)6
Bus B
Bus c kV
6
Bus A 220 kV
i
Section No 1
I
! Section
No 2
i
BUS C
Section No 3
,
(ii)
Figure 2.23 Sample system to illustrate line sectionalization. (a) System single line diagram; (b) system redrawn to illustrate line sectionalization
The dimensions of the parameter matrices correspond to those of the section being considered, i.e. 3, 6, 9, or 12 for 1, 2, 3 or 4 mutually coupled threephase elements, respectively. All sections must contain the same number of mutually coupled threephase elements, ensuring that all the parameter matrices are of the same order and that the matrix multiplications are executable. To illustrate this feature, consider the example of Figure 2.23.
Features of interest
(a) As a matter of programming convenience, an ideal transformer is created and included in Section 1. (b) The dotted coupling represents coupling which is zero. It is included to ensure correct dimensionality of all matrices. (c) In the p.u. system, the mutual coupling between the 220 kV and 66 kV lines is expressed to a voltage base given by the geometric mean of the base lineneutral voltages of the two parallel circuits. In Table 2.1, [u] is the unit matrix, [O] is a matrix of zeros, and all other matrices have been defined in their respective sections. Once the resultant ABCD parameters have been found, the equivalent nodal admittance matrix for the subsystem can be calculated from the following equation.
[YI =
(2.68)
2.6 EVALUATION OF OVERHEAD LINE PARAMETERS
31
Table 2.1 ABCD parameter matrices for the common section types
Transformer
[YsPl [ yss 1
Shunt element
Series element
W I
[ZI = [GI + [&I
Note: All the above matrices have dimensions corresponding to the number of coupled threephase elements in the section.
2.6 Evaluation of Overhead Line Parameters
The lumped series impedance matrix [Z] of a transmission line consists of three components, while the shunt admittance matrix [ Y ] contains one.
+ [&I,
(2.69)
(2.70)
[YI = [YgI,
where [ZC] is the internal impedance of the conductors (Sl.km'), [Z,] is the impedance due to the physical geometry (shown in Figure 2.24) of the conductor's arrangement (Q.km'), [&I is the earth return path impedance (R.km'), and [Y,] is the admittance due to the physical geometry of the conductor (SZ'.krnl). In multiconductor transmission all primitive matrices (the admittance matrices of the unconnected branches of the original network components) are symmetric and, therefore, the functions that define the elements need only be evaluated for elements on or above the leading diagonal.
2.6.1 Earth impedance matrix
[&I
The impedance due to the earth path varies with frequency in a nonlinear fashion. The solution of this problem, under idealized conditions, has been given in the form of either an infinite integral or an infinite series [ 9 ] .
32
2 TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS
i
vi Y j
0
Ground
Yi+ Y j
i'
Image of conductors
Figure 2.24
Conductor and its image
As the need arises to calculate ground impedances for a wide spectrum of frequencies, the tendency is to select simple formulations aiming at a reduction in computing time, while maintaining a reasonable level of accuracy. Consequently, what was originally a heuristic approach [ l o ] is becoming the more favoured alternative, particularly at high frequencies. Based on Carson's work, the ground impedance can be concisely expressed as
te = 1000J(r, B)(Q.km'),
(2.71)
where
ze
E
[&I,
WVa
~ ( r0) , = w,
7r
6)
+ j Q ( r , e)),
eij
ei j
= arctan
xi () +
Yi
xj
Yj
for i # j ,
w
f
Yi
= 0 for i = j , =2 7 rf (radesI), = frequency (Hz), = height of conductor i(m),
2.6
EVALUATION OF OVERHEAD LINE PARAMETERS
33
xi
P
 x,
Pa
= horizontal distance between conductors i and j (m), = permeability of free space = 7 n x lO'(H.m'), = earth resistivity (S2.m).
Carson's solution to Equation (2.71) is defined by eight different infinite series which converge quickly for problems related to transmission line parameter calculation, but the number of required computations increases with frequency and separation of the conductors. More recent literature has described closed form formulations for the numerical evaluation of lineground loops, based on the concept of a mirroring surface beneath the earth at a certain depth. The most popular complex penetration model which has had more appeal is that of C. Dubanton [ 111, due to its simplicity and high degree of accuracy for the whole frequency span for which Carson's equations are valid. Dubanton's formulae for the evaluation of the self and mutual impedances of conductors i and j are (2.72) (2.73) is the complex depth below the earth at which the mirroring where p = 1/4= surface is located. An alternative and very simple formulation has been recently proposed by Acha [ 123, which for the purpose of harmonic penetration yields accurate solutions when compared with those obtained using Carson's equations.
2.6.2 Geometrical impedance matrix matrix [Y,]
[&I and admittance
If the conductors and the earth are assumed to be equipotential surfaces, the geometrical impedance can be formulated in terms of potential coefficients theory. The selfpotential coefficient +ij for the ith conductor and the mutual potential coefficient +i, between the ith and jth conductors are defined as follows,
+ii
= In (2Yi/ri)7 = ln
(Qj/(xi
(2.74) (2.75)
+ij
 xi)),
where ri is the radius of the ith conductor (m) while the other variables are as defined earlier. For bundle conductors, ri is replaced by the Geometrical Mean Radius (GMRi), given by GMRi = where
R ~ ~
( a ~
,
= ~ radius d l ~ of bundle,
= number of conductors in bundle.
n
34
2 TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS
The use of GMR ignores proximity effects, hence it is valid only if the subconductor is much smaller than the spacing between phases of the line. Potential coefficients depend entirely on the physical arrangement of the conductors and need only be evaluated once. For practical purposes the air is assumed to have zero conductance and
[z,]
= jwK'[@I Chkm',
(2.76)
where [3r3 is a matrix of potential coefficients and K' = 2 x The lumped shunt admittance parameters [ Y ] are completely defined by the inverse relation of the potential coefficients matrix, i.e.
where = permittivity of free space = 8.857 x 1012(F.rn'). As [Z,] and [Y,] are linear functions of frequency, they need only be evaluated once and scaled for other frequencies.
2.6.3 Conductor impedance matrix [Q]
This term accounts for the internal impedance of the conductors. Both resistance and inductance have a nonlinear frequency dependence. Current tends to flow on the surface of the conductor, this skin effect increases with frequency and needs to be computed at each frequency. An accurate result for a homogeneous nonferrous conductor of annular crosssection involves the evaluation of long equations based on the solution of Bessel functions,
(2.78)
where
xe
xi
ri
=jdFiGCZ9 =jJFiGE,
re = external radius of the conductor (rn),
= internal radius of the conductor (m), J O = Bessel function of the first kind and zero order, J b = derivative of the Bessel function of the first kind and zero order, N o = Bessel function of the second kind and zero order, Nb = derivative of the Bessel function of the second kind and zero order, a , = conductivity of the conductor material at the average conductor temperature. The Bessel functions and their derivatives are solved, within a specified accuracy, by means of their associated infinite series. Convergence problems are frequently encountered at high frequencies and low ratios of conductor thickness to external radius, i.e. (re  ri)/ret necessitating the use of asymptotic expansions.
2.6 EVALUATION OF OVERHEAD LINE PARAMETERS
35
A new closed form solution has been proposed based on the concept of complex penetration [lo]; unfortunately errors of up to 6.6% occur in the region of low order harmonic frequencies. To overcome the difficulties of slow convergence of the Bessel function approach and the inaccuracy of the complex penetration method at relatively low frequency, an alternative approach based upon curve fitting to the Bessel function formula has been proposed by Acha [12]. Lewis and Tuttle [I31 presented a practical method for calculating the skin effect resistance ratio by approximating ACSR (aluminium conductor steel reinforced) conductors to uniform tubes having the same inside and outside diameters as the aluminium conductors, see Figure 2.25(a). Figure 2.25(b) illustrates the skin effect ratio for different models and various tube ratios for ACSR conductors. Skin effect
Steel strand core
Aluminium strands
5.0
tlr;= 1.0
''vO
50
100
150
200
250
300
(b)
f(fIR,,,)
Figure 2.25 ACSR hollow conductor: (a) conductor geometry; (b) skin effect resistance for different models
36
2 TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS
modelling is important for long lines. Although the series resistance of a transmission line is typically a small component of the series impedance, it dominates its value at resonances.
2.6.4 Series impedance approximation for electromagnetic transients
Based on Semiyen's complex depth of penetration concept, PSCADEMTDC uses the following expressions for the self and mutual series impedance parameters of the line < Dij in Figure 2.24): (on the assumption that D, <
jowo z i ; =
(
27r
In 
)i:(
+0.3565 + p p cothl(0.777&M) 27rR~
7r@
S2.m', (2.80)
where Rc and l$. are the conductive and external conductor radii,
De
=/"
jmpo '
pc = conductor resistivity (S2.m),
p g = ground resistivity (S2.m).
2.7 Underground and Submarine Cables [14]
A unified solution similar to that of overhead transmission is difficult for underground cables because of the great variety in their construction and layouts. The crosssection of a cable, although extremely complex, can be simplified to that of Figure 2.26 and its series per unit length harmonic impedance is calculated by the following set of loop equations.
 dV2/&] =
dV3/h where
2; 1
Z&reoutside
[
dVl/h
[z:
0
2;2
Z;,
z:~]
z ; 3
z;*
[li]
,
(2.81)
is the sum of the following three component impedances, is the internal impedance of the core with the return path outside the core,
Z&re.insu,ation is the impedance of the insulation surrounding the core, Z:heathinside is the internal impedance of the sheath with the return path inside the sheath.
2.7 UNDERGROUND AND SUBMARINE CABLES [ 141
37
LOOP 2
Loop 3
External
Figure 2.26 Cable crosssection
Similarly
; ' 2
=
; '3
iheathoutside
k Z:heath/armourinsulation
+ Zknourinside + Z:arthinside'
9
(2.82)
(2.83)
and
= Zkouroutside
+ ':rmour/earthinsulation
The coupling impedances Z',2 = Z;, and Z;, = Z;, are negative because of opposing current directions (1, in negative direction in loop 1, and I 3 in negative direction in loop 2), i.e.
';2
=
= Z:heathmutua13
9
(2.84) (2.85)
z;, = z;, = z'armourmutual
where
Zihea[hmutual
is the mutual impedance (per unit length) of the tubular sheath between inside loop 1 and the outside loop 2.
Z~rmourmutual is the mutual impedance (per unit length) of the tubular armour; between the inside loop 2 and the outside loop 3.
Finally, Z;, = Z;, = 0 because loop 1 and loop 3 have no common branch. The impedances of the insulation are given by (2.86) where
p
routside rinside
is the permeability of insulation in H.rn', is the outside radius of insulation, is the inside radius of insulation.
If there is no insulation between the armour and earth, then Zfnsulation = 0.
38
2 TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS
The internal impedances and the mutual impedance of a tubular conductor are a function of frequency, and can be derived from Bessel and Kelvin functions.
(2.87~)
mr =
4J.%C
1
1 s2’
S2
(2.88)
mq =
19’
with
K =
s=
(2.89)
81r x
9 , r
f pr
(2.90)
(2.91)
q = inside radius, r = outside radius, R&, = d.c. resistance in !3kml.
The only remaining term is Z&rthinside in Equation (2.83) which is the earth return impedance for underground cables, or the sea return impedance for submarine cables. The earth return impedance can be calculated approximately with Equation (2.87a) by letting the outside radius go to infinity. This approach, also used by Bianchi and Luoni [lS] to find the sea return impedance is quite acceptable considering the fact that sea resistivity and other input parameters are not known accurately. Equation (2.81) is not in a form compatible with the solution used for overhead conductors, where the voltages with respect to local ground and the actual currents in the conductors are used as variables. Equation (2.81) can easily be brought into such a form by introducing the appropriate terminal conditions, namely with
VI = vcore  Vsheath,
1 1 = Icore,
and
2.8 THREEPHASE MODELS OF TRANSFORMERS
39
Equation (2.81) can be rewritten as
where
[
dvcore/& dVsheath/& dVarmour/k
Z , :
][
=
Zkc
Zks
ZLa Zia]
g s zgc z
L Zia Zkc Z
[
Icore
Isheath]
9
(2.92)
Iarmour
= Z’,I
ZLS = z:,
ZLa =
+ 2Z;, + Z , ; + 2Zi3 + Z i 3 , = zl,, + z ; ,+ 2z;, + z;y
z l , = ,z;, = zgs= z;, + Zi3,
z:, = Z;, + 2Zi3 + Zi3, z’ =z ‘ aa 33’
Because a good approximation for many cables having bonding between the sheath and the armour, and the armour earthed to the sea, is Vsheath = VarmOur = 0, the system can be reduced to (2.93) dVcore/& = Zlcore, where Z is a reduction of the impedance matrix of Equation (2.92). Similarly, for each cable the per unit length harmonic admittance is:
jwC‘,
0
0
(2.94) where C[ = 2m0sr/ln(r/q). Therefore, when converted to core, sheath and armour quantities, Y; Y\ 0
 dIsheath/&
d ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ Y;u ~ Y;+ Y ~; ] where Yi = j d i . If, as before, Vsheafh = Va,o,r = 0, Equation (2.95) reduces to dIcoreIb = Y ; Vcore (2.96) Therefore, for frequencies of interest, the cable per unit length harmonic impedance, Z’, and admittance, Y’, are calculated with both the zero and positive sequence values being equal to the Z in Equation (2.93), and the Y’ in Equation (2.96), respectively. In the absence of rigorous computer models, such as described above, power companies often use approximations to the skin effect by means of correction factors. Typical corrections used by the NGC (UK) and EDF (France) are given in Table 2.2.
[
=
[
Y\
Y’+ Y;
Y;
2.8 Threephase Models of Transformers
The inherent assumption that the transformer is a balanced threephase device is justified in the majority of practical situations, and traditionally, threephase transformers are represented by their equivalent sequence networks.
40
2 TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS
Table 2.2 Corrections for skin effect in cables
Company NGC
Voltage (kV)
400, 275 (Based on 2.5 s q h . conductor at 5 in. spacing between centres) 132 400, 225 150, 90
Harmonic order
h 21.5
Resistance
0.74R1(0.267 1 . 0 7 3 A )
+
EDF
h 2 2.35 h 2 2 h 1 2
R I(0.187 + 0.532Ji;) 0.74R1(0.267 1.073Jj;) Ri (0.187 0 . 5 3 2 A )
+
+
More recently, however, methods have been developed [3,4] to enable all threephase transformer connections to be accurately modelled in phase coordinates. In phase coordinates, no assumptions are necessary although physically justifiable assumptions are still used in order to simplify the model. The primitive admittance matrix, used as a basis for the phase coordinate transformer model is derived from the primitive or unconnected network for the transformer windings and the method of linear transformation enables the admittance matrix of the actual connected network to be found.
2.8.1
Primitive admittance model of threephase transformers
Many threephase transformers are wound on a common core and all windings are, therefore, coupled to all other windings. Therefore, in general, a basic twowinding threephase transformer has a primitive or unconnected network consisting of six coupled coils. If a tertiary winding is also present the primitive network consists of nine coupled coils. The basic twowinding transformer shown in Figure 2.27 is now considered, the addition of further windings being a simple but cumbersome extension of the method. The primitive network, Figure 2.28, can be represented by the primitive admittance matrix which has the following general form:
(2.97)
v6
The elements of matrix [Y]can be measured directly, i.e. by energizing coil i and shortcircuiting all other coils, column i of [ Y l can be calculated from yki = &pi.
2.8 THREEPHASEMODELS OF TRANSFORMERS
41
Figure 2.27 Diagrammatic representation of twowinding transformer
Figure 2.28 Primitive network of twowinding transformer. Six coupled coil primitive network. (Note the dotted coupling represents parasitic coupling between phases)
Considering the reciprocal nature of the mutual couplings in Equation (2.97), 21 short circuit measurements would be necessary to complete the admittance matrix. Such a detailed representation is seldom required. By assuming that the flux paths are symmetrically distributed between all windings, Equation (2.97) may be simplified to Equation (2.98).
H
t
I
I
I
(2.98)
Ym
H k
Y;
Y;
I
Y,
I
YE
I
YE
I
Y;
Ym
Y;
Y;
Ys
Y;
I
I
I
I
I
where y,l,, is the mutual admittance between primary coils; y$ is the mutual admittance between primary and secondary coils on different cores; y ; is the mutual admittance between secondary coils.
42
2 TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS
t
where ypi = y/$ , y Sl. = y/# and Mii = y/ffipi
fori=1,2or3andj=4,5or6
Figure 2.29
Primitive network
For three separate singlephase units, all the primed values are effectively zero. In threephase units, the primed values, representing parasitic interphase coupling, do have a noticeable effect. This effect can be interpreted through the symmetrical component equivalent circuits. If the values in Equation (2.98) are available, then this representation of the primitive network should be used. If interphase coupling can be ignored, the coupling between a primary and a secondary coil is modelled as for the singlephase unit, giving rise to the primitive network of Figure 2.29. The new admittance matrix equation is
(2.99)
2.8.2 Models for common transformer connections
The network admittance matrix for any twowinding threephase transformer can now be formed by the method of linear transformation. As a simple example, consider the formation of the admittance matrix for a starstar connection with both neutrals solidly earthed in the absence of interphase mutuals. This example is chosen as it is the simplest computationally. The connection matrix is derived from consideration of the actual connected network. For the starstar transformer, illustrated in Figure 2.30, the connection matrix [C] relating the branch voltages (i.e. voltages of the primitive network) to the node voltages
2.8 THREEPHASE MODELS OF TRANSFORMERS
la
"a
43
lC
"b
Figure 2.30
Network connection diagram for threephase starstar transformer
(i.e. voltages of the actual network) is a 6 x 6 identity matrix, i.e.
(2. loo)
The nodal admittance matrix
[Y]NODE [YINODE
is given by:
= [Cl" YlPRIM[Cl.
(2.101)
Substituting for [C] yields:
[YINODE =
[YIPRIM,
(2.102)
Let us now consider the Wye GDelta connection, illustrated in Figure 2.31. The following connection can be written by inspection between the primitive branch voltages and the node voltages:
(2.103)
44
2 TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS
y;
I
I
v:
Figure 2.31 Network connection diagram of Wye GDelta transformer
or (2.104) we can also write (2.105) and using from Equation (2.98)
[YIPRIM
1
(2.106) Moreover, if the primitive admittances are expressed in per unit, with both the primary and secondary voltages being one per unit, the WyeDelta transformer model must include an effective turns ratio of 4.The upper right and lower left quadrants and the lower right quadrant by 3. of matrix (2.106) must be divided by In the particular case of threesingle phase transformer units connected in Wye GDelta all the y' and y" terms will disappear. Ignoring offnominal taps (but keeping in mind the effective f i turns ratio in per unit) the nodal admittance matrix equation
2.8 THREEPHASE MODELS OF TRANSFORMERS
45
relating the nodal currents to the nodal voltages is:
~,
v,"
(2.107)
where Y is the transformer leakage admittance in p.u. An equivalent circuit can be drawn, corresponding to this admittance model of the transformer, as illustrated in Figure 2.32. The large shunt admittances to earth from the nodes of the star connection are apparent in the equivalent circuit. These shunts are typically around 10 p.u. (for a 10% leakage reactance transformer). The models for the other common connections can be derived following a similar procedure. In general, any twowinding threephase transformer may be represented using two coupled compound coils. The network and admittance matrix for this representation is illustrated in Figure 2.33. It should be noted that V s p l = [YpslT* as the coupling between the two compound coils is bilateral. Often, because more detailed information is not required, the parameters of all three phases are assumed balanced. In this case, the common threephase connections are found to be modelled by three basic submatrices.
....
I
Primary
y//3
J
Secondary
Figure 2.32 Equivalent circuit for stardelta transformer
46
2 TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS
Figure 2 . 3 3 Twowinding threephase transformer as two coupled compound coils Table 2 . 3 Characteristic submatrices used in forming the transformer admittance matrices
Transformer connection Bus P Wye G Wye G Wye G WYe WYe Delta Bus S Wye G WYe Delta WYe Delta Delta
YPP
Selfadmittance
ys,
Mutual admittance
Yps, ysp
YI YI
Yl YII/3
YIIl3
Yll
YI yII/3 YII yII/3 YII YI I
YI
yll/3
Ylll
y11/3 YIII Y11
The submatrices, [ Ypp] [ Y,,] etc., are given in Table 2.3 for the common connections, where
I 2Yt I
Y,=
Yt
I
Yt
I
9
Ylll
=
Finally, these submatrices must be modified to account for offnominal tap ratio as follows: Divide the selfadmittance of the primary by a*. (ii) Divide the selfadmittance of the secondary by /J2. (iii) Divide the mutual admittance matrices by a/J.
(i)
It should be noted that in the p.u. system, a delta winding has an offnominal tap of A. For transformers with ungrounded Wye connections, or with neutral connected through an impedance, an extra coil is added to the primitive network for each unearthed neutral and the primitive admittance matrix increases in dimension. By noting that the injected current in the neutral is zero, these extra terms can be eliminated from the connected network admittance matrix [ 161. Once the admittance matrix has been formed for a particular connection it represents a simple subsystem composed of the two busbars interconnected by the transformer.
2.8 THREEPHASE MODELS OF TRANSFORMERS
47
2.8.3 Threephase transformer models with independent phase tap control
Disregarding interphase mutual couplings, the per unit primitive admittance matrix in terms of the transformer leakage admittance (yti) is
where a l , a2 and a3 are the offnominal taps on windings 1, 2 and 3, respectively. In addition, any windings connected in delta will, because of the per unit system, have an effective tap of The nodal admittance matrix for the transformer windings is:
a.
where [C] is the connection (windings to nodes) matrix. As an example, [Ynode] for a stardelta transformer with earthed neutral is as follows:
[Yncdel
=
48
2 TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS
2.8.4
Sequence components modelling of threephase transformers
In most cases, lack of data will prevent the use of the general model based on the primitive admittance matrix and will justify the conventional approach in terms of symmetrical components. Let us now derive the general sequence components equivalent circuits and the assumptions introduced in order to arrive at the conventional models. With reference to the Wye GDelta commoncore transformer of Figure 2.3 1, represented by Equation (2.106), and partitioning this matrix to separate self and mutual elements, the following transformations apply:
where
and a = eJ2nf3. Therefore
YOPI2
=
0
(2.108)
Secondaly side:
The delta connection on the secondary side introduces an effective the sequence components admittance matrix is
f i turns ratio and
(2.109)
2.8 THREEPHASE MODELS OF TRANSFORMERS
49
Mutual terms:
The mutual admittance submatrix of Equation (2.106), modified for effective turns ratio. is transformed as follows:
0
0
0
0

0
(ym
+ y3L30"
.
(2.110)
Recombining the sequence components submatrices yields:
1; I;
~
(2.1 11) Equation (2.1 11) can be represented by the three sequence networks of Figures 2.34, 2.35 and 2.36, respectively. In general, therefore, the three sequence impedances are different on a commoncore transformer. The complexity of these equivalent models is normally eliminated by the following simplifications:
0
1.
v;
V;
The 30" phase shifts of WyeDelta connections are ignored.
Figure 2.34
Zerosequence node admittance model for a commoncore grounded WyeDelta transformer (3) (01982 IEEE)
50
2 TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS
(Y, + YJ
/30"
1
~Y,Y,',~Y,+YJ
Delta
/30"
(Y,  YJ
 (Y,
+ YJ
/30"
Figure 2.35 Positivesequence node admittance model for a commoncore grounded WyeDelta transformer (3) (01982 IEEE)
Figure 2.36 Negativesequence node admittance model for a commoncore grounde WyeDelta transformer (3) (01982 IEEE) Table 2.4 Typical symmetricalcomponent models for the six most common connections of threephase transformers (3) (0 1982 IEEE)
Bus P
WyeG
Bus Q
WyeG
W y e ~ wye
Wye G
Delta
Wye
Wye
Wye
Delta
Delta
Delta
PosSeq
'SC
P
0
P & Q
p
'SC
Q
P & Q
2.10 REFERENCES
51
The interphase mutuals admittances are assumed equal, i.e. yh = yg = y:. These are all zero with uncoupled singlephase units. The differences (yp  ym) and (ys  ym) are very small and are, therefore, ignored. With these simplifications, Table 2.4 illustrates the sequence impedance models of threephase transformers in conventional steadystate balanced transmission system studies.
2.9 Formation of the System Admittance Matrix
It has been shown that the element (and subsystem) admittance matrices can be manipulated efficiently if the three nodes at the busbar are associated together. This association proves equally helpful when forming the admittance matrix for the total system. The subsystem, as defined in section 2.4, may have common busbars with other subsystems, but may not have mutual couplings terms to the branches of other subsystems. Therefore, the subsystem admittance matrices can be combined to form the overall system admittance matrix as follows:
0
The selfadmittance of any busbar is the sum of all the individual selfadmittance matrices at that busbar. The mutual admittance between any two busbars is the sum of the individual mutual admittance matrices from all the subsystems containing those two nodes.
2.10 References
1. Clarke, E, (1943). Circuit Analysis of a.c. Power Systems, Vol. 1, John Wiley and Sons,
New York. 2. &on, G, (republished in 1965). Tensor Analysis of Networks, MacDonald, London. 3. Chen, M S and Dillon, W E, ( 1 974). Powersystem modelling, Proceedings of the IEEE, 62, (7), pp. 901. 4. Laughton, M A, ( I 968). Analysis of unbalanced polyphase networks by the method of phase coordinates, Part I. System representation in phase frame of reference, Proceedings of the IEE, 115, (8), pp. 1163 I 172. 5 . Kimbark, E W, (1950). Electrical Transmission of Power and Signals, John Wiley and Sons, New York. 6. Wedepohl, L M and Wasley, R G, (1966). Wave propagation in multiconductor overhead lines, Proceedings of the IEE, 113, (4), pp. 627632. 7. Bowman, K J and McNamee, J M, (1964). Development of equivalent pi and T matrix circuits for long untransposed transmission lines, IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, PAS84, pp. 625632. 8. Wilkinson, J H and Reinsch, (197 1). Handbook for Automatic Computations, Vol. If, Linear Algebra, SpringerVerlag, Berlin. 9. Carson, J R, (1926). Wave propagation in overhead wires with ground return, Bell Systems Technical Journal, 5 , pp. 539556. 10. Deri, A, Tevan, G, Semlyen, A and Castanheira, A, (1981). The complex ground return plane, a simplified model for homogeneous and multilayer earth return, IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, PAS100, pp. 36863693.
52
2 TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS
11. Semlyen, A and Deri, A, (1985). Time domain modelling of frequency dependent threephase transmission line impedance, IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, PAS104, pp. 15491555. 12. Acha, E, (1988). Modelling of power system transformers in the complex conjugate
harmonic space, Ph.D. thesis, University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
13. Lewis, V A and Tuttle, P D, (1958). The resistance and reactance of aluminium conductors steelreinforced, IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, PAS77, pp. 11891215. 14. Dommel, H W, (1978). Line constants of overhead lines and underground cables, Course E.E. 553 notes, University of British Columbia. 15. Bianchi, G and Luoni, G, (1976). Induced currents and losses in singlecore submarine cables, IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, PAS95, pp. 4958. 16. Dillon, W E and Chen, M S. (1972). Transformer modelling in unbalanced threephase networks, IEEE Summer Power Meeting, Vancouver.
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