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Neuroanatomy Structure AndFunction

Neuroanatomy Structure AndFunction

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Published by: thwiseman on Mar 05, 2014
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Neuroanatomy

:
Structure & Function

The Nervous System
• Consists of:
– Brain – Spinal Cord – Cranial nerves and branches – Spinal nerves and branches – Ganglia – Enteric Plexuses – Sensory receptors

The Nervous System
• 3 Functions
1. Sensory function
• • Detection of stimuli (internal and external) Sensory neurons

2. Integrative function

• • •

Process sensory input and make decisions about responses to stimuli Interneurons
Respond to sensory input and carry message to effectors Motor neurons

3. Motor function

The Nervous System
• The Nervous System has 2 subsystems:
– Central Nervous System
• •
• • •

Brain Spinal Cord
Nerves Ganglia Receptors

– Peripheral Nervous System

Peripheral Nervous System
• Peripheral Nervous System- 2 subdivisions
1. Somatic Nervous System
  Sensory neurons deliver to CNS Motor neurons from CNS deliver messages to skeletal muscle only Motor aspect is consciously controlled- Voluntary

  

2. Autonomic Nervous System
Innervation of Viscera and GI tract Motor neurons deliver messages to cardiac muscle, glands, smooth muscle in GI tract Motor aspect not consciously controlled- Involuntary

The Nervous System
• 2 cell types in Nervous System:
1. Neurons
• specialised nerve cells

2. Neuroglia
• Provide support, nourishment, protection to neurons i.e. Schwann cell

Structure of Neuron

Neuroglia
• Schwann Cell
– Outer layer called neurolemma* (sheath of Schwann) – Secretes lipid and protein inner layer called myelin sheath – Electrically insulates axon and increases speed of nerve conduction *Aids in regeneration if axon damaged

Schwann Cell

The Spinal Cord
• Located within the vertebral canal formed by vertebral foramina • Extends from medulla oblongata in the brain to inferior border of L1 • Followed by cauda equina- nerve roots below 2nd lumbar vertebrae • Filum terminale- anchors spinal cord to coccyx • Protected by
– Vertebrae – Meninges (3 layers) – Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

The Spinal Cord

The Spinal Cord

The Spinal Cord
• Grey matter – Contains cell bodies of neurons, dendrites of interneurons and motor neurons – Receives input from sensory neurons, integrates information and provides output via motor neurons – Nervous tissue with little or no myelin appears grey

Grey Matter
• Grey matter is shaped like the letter H • Divided into regions called horns – Dorsal (posterior) gray horn contains sensory cell bodies – Ventral (anterior) gray horn contains motor cell bodies – Lateral gray horn contain cell bodies of the autonomic motor neurons that regulate smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands

The Spinal Cord

The Spinal Cord
• White matter
– Contains bundles of myelinated and unmyelinated axons of sensory neurons, interneurons and motor neurons – Nervous tissue (axons) that are myelinated appear white

• It is divided into 3 columns
– Ventral (anterior) – Dorsal (posterior) – Lateral

White Matter
• Each column of white matter contains bundles of axons called tracts that carry information up and down the spinal cord
– Sensory (ascending) tracts – Motor (descending) tracts

• Sensory tracts contain axons that carry nerve impulses towards the brain; motor tracts carry nerve impulses down the spinal cord away from the brain

The Spinal Cord

Voluntary Movement
• Nerve impulses for precise voluntary movements propagate from the cortex in the brain to somatic motor neurons that innervate skeletal muscles via the direct pathway • The simplest of these pathways consists of sets of two neurons; – Upper motor neurons – Lower motor neurons

Upper Motor Neurons
• Cell bodies located in the cortex of the cerebrum • Axons descend through the pons and decussate (cross over) to the opposite side • The motor cortex of the right side of the brain controls muscles on the left side of the body and vice versa • The axons descend through the lateral corticospinal (descending) tracts and terminate in the anterior gray horn

Lower Motor Neurons
• Cell body located in the anterior gray horn at each spinal cord segment • Axon emerges from spinal cord via the ventral (anterior) root • Dorsal and ventral roots unite to form a spinal nerve at the intervertebral foramen where it exits the vertebral canal • Axons terminate as motor end plates in skeletal muscle

The Spinal Cord

Upper & Lower Motor Neurons
• A few upper motor neurons synapse directly with lower motor neurons • The majority of upper motor neurons synapse with an interneuron which in turn synapses with a lower motor neuron

UMN & LMN Lesions
• Upper Motor Neurone Lesions
– Spastic paralysis of muscles on the opposite side of the body – Hyper-reflexive (& pathological reflexes) – Clonus

• Lower Motor Neurone Lesions
– Flaccid paralysis of muscles on the same side of the body – No voluntary or reflex activity of innervated muscle fibres – Muscle tone decreased or lost

References
• Tortora, G., Derrickson, B., 2008. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology. 12th Edition. John Wiley & Sons • Waugh, A., Grant, A, 2006. Ross and Wilson: Anatomy and Physiology in Health and Illness. 10th Edition. Churchill Livingstone • O’Brien, M., 2010. Aids to the examination of the peripheral nervous system. 5th Edition. Elsevier Saunders • Nolte, J., 2008. The Human Brain: An introduction to it’s functional anatomy. 6th Edition. Mosby Inc.

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