Indus Valley Civilization
Discovered in 1921 Belonged to the bronze age An area of about 1.3 mn sq km Existed between 3300-1600 BC in three phases: early, mature and late phases
Early (pre-Harappan) Mature (Harappan) Harappa Mohenjodaro Chanhu-daro Lothal Kalibangan Banawali (Hissar) Sutkagendor (Pakistan) Sukotada (Gujarat) Dholavira Rakhigarhi Late phase (post-urban)
Dholavira (Kutch) Rakhigarhi (Ghaggar)
Dholavira Rakhigarhi Bhagwanpura Manda (Jammu); Chandigarh, Shangol (Punjab); Daulatpur, Mitthal (Haryana); Alamgirpur. Hulas (West UP)
Site Sutkagendor – Surkotada Mohenjo-daro
Remarkable Feature Marked by a citadel Great Bath; Large granary Impressive drainage system Piece of woven cotton Mother Goddess Seal of pashu-pati Grain and plough
Town planning Grid system The Indus people were the earliest to produce cotton
Male dominated Pastoral Horse and Cow were significant animals. Rig veda – Consists of 10 mandalas (books): Book 1 and 10 are relatively new Earliest specimen of Indo-European language: 2200 BC inscription in Iran. Later in the Hittite inscriptions in Anatolia 1500 BC came to India Sindhu is the river par excellence for them Saraswati is the best of the rivers in Rig Veda Panchajana – five tribes into which Aryans were divided Used ploughshare Land did not form a well-established type of private property
4. 8. Use intoxicants 5. Right speech 4. Indulge in corrupt practices
No god or atman exists Used Pali Main elements of Buddhism: Buddha. First: Rishab Dev 23rd: Parshavnath Mahavir (599 BC – 527 BC) or (540 BC – 468 BC) In Kundagrama near Vaishali Father – Siddartha (Jnatrika clan) Mother – Trishala (sister of Lichchhavi chief Chetaka) Died at Pavapuri near Rajgir Five doctrines: Do not – violence. vidatha. 7. Dhamma Brahamana ruler Pashyamitra Shunga persecuted the Buddhists Mihirakula (Huna king) killed Buddhists Buddhist text: Suttanipata Gandhara Art First human statues worshipped Barabar hills: Caves for monks
Kingdoms and Capitals
. Right determination 3. Sangha. Right action Do not 1. right action Spread to Kalinga in first century BC. acquire property and do observe brahmacharya Did not condemn the varna system Triratna: right knowledge.
Metal working was known Rajan – king Samiti. sabha.gana – tribal assembly
24 tirthankaras. lie. Shakya family. Kapilavastu. Literature written in Ardhamagadhi Prepared the grammar of Apabhramsha Contributed to the growth of Kannada
563 – 483 BC – Lumbini. Commit violence 3. 6. steal. Covet other’s property 2. King Kharavela Used Prakrit language. Suddhodan and Mahamaya Death: Kushinagar (Kasia in Deoria distt of UP) 5. Right observation 2. Right livelihood Right exercise Right memory Right meditation
Eight-fold path (for end of misery) 1. right faith. Nepal.
Killed Maurya king Brihadratha
Balisadhaka – tax collectors during the times of Nandas Shaulkiki or shulkadhyakshas were also toll collectors Shakyas and Lichchhavis were republics
Literature Book Digha Nikaya
Remark Buddhist text
.Mahajanpadas Anga Kashi Koshala Mallas Vatsa/Vamsa Avanti Magadha Chedi/Cheti Kuru Panchala Matsya Surasena Ashmaka Gandhara Kamboja Vriji/Vajji
Champa Varanasi Shravasti Kushinara Kaushambi Ujjain (North)/ Mahishamati (South) Rajgir (Girivraja)
Satvanahanas Pandya Chola Chalyukyas Pallavas Kadambas Gangas First Magadhan Empire
Paithan Madurai Puhar (kaveripattanam) Badami (Bijapur) Kanchi Vijayanti Kolar
Bimbisara Ajatsatru Udayin Mahapadma Nanda
Contemporary of Buddha Built fort on the confluence of Ganga and Son at Patna Destroyed the power of Avanti
Shishunagas Nandas (most powerful rulers of Magadha) Mauryas (Patliputra) Mauryas had a very elaborate bureaucracy
Chandragupta Maurya Megasthenes visited during his time Bindusara Links with Greek princes Ashoka Buddhism Pushyamitra Shunga Destroyed the Mauryan empire.
His capital at Sakala (Sialkot) Converted to Buddhism by Nagasena (Nagarjuna) Succeeded the Greeks in North West Rudradaman I : most famous ruler He issued first ever long inscription in chaste Sanskrit
Followed Shakas Famous king: Gondophernes St. Thomas came during his reign
Aka Yuechis or Tocharians Kadphises was the first king Kanishka is the most famous ruler Started the Shaka era in 78 AD Held the Buddhist council in Kashmir where the doctrines of Mahayana form were finalized Patronized Ashvaghosa Kushan inscriptions and coins found at Toprak Kala in Khorezm Kushanas were the first rulers to issue gold coins on a large scale Introduced the Satrap system of government They controlled the Silk Route Worshipped both Shiva and Buddha.North-West India Indo-Greek
Menander (Milinda) was the most famous Indo-Greek ruler. Appointed governors called strategos
Satavahanas Succeeded Mauryas in Deccan Brahmana rulers Gautamiputra Satkarni (AD 106-130) Vashishthiputra Pulimayi: Capital at Paithan Started the practice of granting tax-free villages to Brahmanas and Buddhist Monks Yajna Sri Satakarni Chaityas (Buddhist temples) and Viharas (monastaries) were constructed during their times Most famous Chaitya at Karle in Deccan Show trace of matrilineal social structure Administration Ahara – district Officials – amatyas or mahamatras Gaulmika – head of a small military regiment and look after administration in rural areas Three grades of feudatories: raja. mahabhoja. senapati Language: Prakrit
. Kanishka built a large number of Stupas Greek ambassador Heliodorus set up a piller in honor of Vasudeva near Vidisa. Some worshipped Vishnu too.
the Pallavas and the Chalukyas Three types of villages:
Ur (commoners).South Pandya
Sent embassies to the Roman emperor Augustus Elara conquered Sri Lanka Karikala founded Puhar aka Kaveripatnam which was their capital
Kerala and parts of TN Senguttavan is the greatest king Roman influence: Muziris. Nagaram (traders etc)
Major events 326-325 BC Alexander’s invasion
. Also built a temple of Augustus
Vellalas – rich peasants Arasar – ruling class Pariyars – agricultural labourers Shrent – artisan guilds
Badami (Bijapur) Pulakesin II was the important ruler Court poet Ravikirti wrote his eulogy in the Aihole inscription They succeeded the Ikshvakus Kanchipuram was their capital Came in conflict with kadambas Mayurasharman had founded the Kadamba kingdom (Capital: Vijayanti/Banavasi) Nasrimhavarman occupied the Chalukya capital Vatapi in 642 AD Assumed the title of Vatapikonda Constructed a number of temples Ratha temples at Mahabs built by Narsimhavarman who founded Mahabs Pattadakal: Papanatha temple and Virupaksha temple Kailashnath temple at Kanchi
One of the major revolt in the south was the Kalabhras revolt. Sabha (Brahmans). It was so widespread that it could be put down only through the joint efforts of the Pandyas.
Authorship disputed. and Nagananda (plays) Astadhyayi Mahabhashika Suryasiddhanta Brihatsamhita Sushrutsamhita Charaksamhita
Vishakhadatta Megasthenes Buddhist literature of questions of Manender to Nagarjuna Ashvaghosha Ashvaghosha
Vatsyayana Charaka Hala (Satavahana king) <Ilango Adigal? (silappadikaram)> Pliny (Roman writer) Shudraka Kalidasa Amarasimha Banabhatta Harshavardhana Panini Patanjali A treatise on astronomy. Ratnavali. Varahmira (5th CE) Sushrut (2nd CE) Charak (2nd CE)
Megasthenes (ambassador of Seleucus) Fa Hein Hsuan Tsang Pliny wrote Naturalis Historia
During time of
Chandragupta Maurya Chandragupta Vikramaditya Harshavardhana
Mudrarakshasa (play) Indika Milind Panho Buddhacharita Saundarananda (Sanskrit kavya) Mahavastu (Buddhist-hybrid Sanskrit) Divyavandan (Buddhist-hybrid Sanskrit) Kamsutra Charaksamhita Gathasaptasatti (Prakrit book) Tolkkappiyam (deals with grammar and poetics) Silappadikaram and Manimekalai are Tamil epics Natural History (Latin) Mrichchhakatika Abhijnanashakuntalam Amarakosha Romaka Sidhanta (Astronomy) Harshacharita Priyadarshika.
Brahma is the reality. Vedas contain the eternal truth. Tirthas – important functionaries Samaharta – highest officer for tax assessment Sannidhata – chief custodian of the state treasury Sangam was an assembly of Tamil poets held under royal patronage in Madurai Compiled around 300-600 AD Can be divided into two groups: narrative and didactic Narrative: Melkanakku (or Eighteen Major Works) Didactic: Kilkanakku (Eighteen minor works) Silappadikaram and Manimekalai are Tamil epics Shataka was a special type of cloth made at Mathura Artisan guilds were called shrents Uttarapatha was a sea route most frequently in use Gomat – wealthy person
After the fall of Kushans and Satvahanas in mid 3rd century AD Perhaps of Vaishya origin Chandragupta 1. Atma Shankara (Advaita) – is identical with Brahma. Salvation through knowledge acquired through pratyaksha. Salvation through acquisition of knowledge. born in Kerala Ramanuja (Vishistadvaita) Shuddhadvaita (Vallabha) Materialistic philosophy. No god. anumana. Atom theory. Prakriti-Purusha. Discussion of material elements or dravya.Philosophy: Six schools School Philosophy
Yoga Nyaya Vaisheshika
Materialistic. Belief in god. (beginning of physics). shabda Slavation through meditation and physical application System of logic. Reasoning provided for vedic rituals. Perform vedic rites for salvation. Brahmasutra.Samudragupta – Chandragupta II – Kumargupta – Skandagupta Capital: Patliputra Chandragupta I Started the Gupta era in AD 319-20 Samudragupta (aka Napoleon of India) Delighted in violence and conquest
Rajukas – a class of officers appointed by Ashoka for administration of justice Dhammamahamatras – officers of Ashoka for propagating dharma among various social groups. Later turned Kapila spiritualistic.
Ratnavali and Nagananda
. Varahmira and Amarsimha were at his court Fa-hsien visited India Royal seal: Garuda Decline in long distance trade Emergence of priestly landlords Position of shudras improved Subordination of women Buddhism did not receive royal patronage Golden age of ancient India Ajanta Paintings <not by Guptas but mostly during their period> Nalanda university flourished 13 plays written by Bhasa Mrichchhakatika – Shudraka Kalidasa Plays were mostly comic Ramayana and Mahabharata compiled Development of Sanskrit Grammar Aryabhatiya – Aryabhatta Romaka Sidhanta – book on astronomy Was poor in architecture Huna invasion made the empire weak Vishti – forced labour by peasants for the army officials
After the fall of Guptas Capital: Kanauj Banabhatta: court poet (wrote Harshacharita) Ran the administration on similar lines as Guptas Law and order: not well maintained Nalanda flourished as a centre of Buddhist learning Became a great parton of Buddhism (was a Shaiva earlier) Convened a grand assembly as Kanauj to widely publicise the doctrines of Mahayana Authored three dramas: Priyadarshika.
Court poet: Harishena Chandragupta II (Vikramaditya) [375-415 AD] Exercised indirect influence over the Central Indian kingdom of Prabhavati through his daughter Ujjain was his second capital Navratnas Kalidasa.