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Annotated bibliography of climate change adaptation [resilience building] in the marine environment (areas of economics, ecology, physiology, policy

, community
science etc)

Abel, N., R. Gorddard, et al. (2011). "Sea level rise, coastal development and planned retreat: analytical framework, governance principles and an Australian case study." Environmental Science & Policy 14(3): 279‐288. Sea level rise is a major global issue for areas of coastal development. This article explores the concept of, and develops an analytical framework for planned retreat from the sea behind natural ecological defenses as an adaptation option to global sea level rising. The authors use South East Queensland, Australia as a case study and describe why the option of planned retreat in this area is diminishing as a viable management and adaptation option. The authors present five guiding principles for the implementation of planned retreat which could be adopted in coastal governance policies. DOI: 10.1016/j.envsci.2010.12.002 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S146290111000167X KEYWORDS: adaptation; climate change; coastal development; ecological defence; governance; management; planned retreat; policy; sea level rise Adger, N. W., S. Huq, et al. (2003). "Adaptation to climate change in the developing world." Progress in Development Studies 3(3): 179‐195. Resistance of social and ecological systems to extreme events is dependent on resilience. Social‐ecological systems which are resilient to disasters typically incorporate mechanisms for dealing with and learning from change and unforseen events. This type of disaster management requires multi‐level governance systems that can develop resilience measures within the system. Coastal use in terms of human settlement, resource use and global environment change emphasize the need for building resilience in coastal systems. Resilience of coastal ecosystems to recover following disturbance should not be anticipated, and socio‐economic resilience must be understood and actively incorporated into management of these areas. DOI: 10.1191/1464993403ps060o http://pdj.sagepub.com/content/3/3/179.abstract KEYWORDS: adaptation; climate change; environmental policy; uncertainty; vulnerability Adger, W. N. (2000). "Social and ecological resilience: are they related?" Progress in Human Geography 24(3): 347‐364. Social resilience (ability of groups to cope with stress exerted from social, political and environmental change) and ecological resilience (the ability of ecosystems to resist change in the face of perturbance) are clearly linked. This link appears strongest for social groups that rely on ecological and environmental resources for their livelihoods. However, it is unclear whether resilience in ecosystems transfers to resilience in communities; which is examined here in reference to a resource‐dependent coastal community in Vietnam. The issues of resilience and vulnerability are likely to become more important in the development of resource management questions for the future. DOI: 10.1191/030913200701540465 http://phg.sagepub.com/content/24/3/347.abstract KEYWORDS: Resilience; social resilience; cultural geography; ecological resilience; human ecology; resource;

dependency; sustainable development; southeast‐Asia; resource; vulnerability; sustainability; environment; conservation; biodiversity; inequality; knowledge; security Adger, W. N. (2003). "Social capital, collective action, and adaptation to climate change." Economic Geography 79(4): 387‐404. Society is faced with the challenge of how to best adapt to future climate change, and the ability to adapt is, in part, governed by the ability to act collectively. Collective action and social capital perspectives help to inform the nature of adaptive capacity and policy formation. The need to learn from past and present adaptation strategies will help to understand the way in which adaptation occurs as well as the limitations of change that are acting in these processes. Aspects of social capital are discussed for two examples: weather extremes in coastal SE Asia and community‐based coastal management in the Caribbean. Both examples highlight the need to base resource management on building resilience to climate change, and illustrate how adaptation processes and collective action help adapt to climate change for the future. DOI: 10.1111/j.1944‐8287.2003.tb00220.x http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1944‐8287.2003.tb00220.x/abstract KEYWORDS: Climate change; adaptive policy; social capital; vulnerability; adaptation; resilience; global climate; change; coastal management; economic development; environmental risk; vulnerability; management; framework; impacts; Vietnam; policy; institutions; perspective; government Adger, W. N. (2006). "Vulnerability." Global Environmental Change 16(3): 268‐281. The paper highlights the danger of research, and research terminology, contributing to a compartmentalised view of systems management. Research and practitioner efforts need to develop shared frameworks for learning. DOI: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2006.02.006 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959378006000422 KEYWORDS: vulnerability, adaptation, resilience, review Adger, W. N., N. W. Arnell, et al. (2005). "Successful adaptation to climate change across scales." Global Environmental Change‐Human and Policy Dimensions 15(2): 77‐86. Climate change impacts and responses are presently observed in physical and ecological systems. Adaptation to these impacts is increasingly being observed in both physical and ecological systems as well as in human adjustments to resource availability and risk at different spatial and societal scales. This paper reviews the nature of adaptation and the implications of different spatial scales for these processes. The authors argue that elements of effectiveness, efficiency, equity and legitimacy are important in judging success in terms of the sustainability of development pathways into an uncertain future. DOI: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2004.12.005 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09593780/15/2 KEYWORDS: adaptation; vulnerability; scenarios; sustainability; decision making Adger, W. N., S. Dessai, et al. (2009). "Are there social limits to adaptation to climate change?" Climatic Change 93(3‐4): 335‐354. While there is a recognised need to adapt to changing climatic conditions, there is an emerging discourse of limits to such adaptation. Limits are traditionally analysed as a set of immutable thresholds in biological, economic or technological parameters. This paper contends that limits to adaptation are endogenous to society and hence contingent on ethics, knowledge, attitudes to risk and culture. The authors conclude that the issues of values and ethics, risk, knowledge and culture construct societal limits to adaptation, but that these limits are mutable. DOI: 10.1007/s10584‐008‐9520‐z http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10584‐008‐9520‐z KEYWORDS: adaptive capacity; change impacts; resilience; vulnerability; climate change Adger, W. N., T. P. Hughes, et al. (2005). "Social‐ecological resilience to coastal disasters." Science 309(5737): 1036‐1039. Resistance of social and ecological systems to extreme events is dependent on resilience. Social‐ecological
Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013


systems which are resilient to disasters typically incorporate mechanisms for dealing with and learning from change and unforseen events. This type of disaster management requires multi‐level governance systems that can develop resilience measures within the system. Coastal use in terms of human settlement, resource use and global environment change emphasize the need for building resilience in coastal systems. Resilience of coastal ecosystems to recover following disturbance should not be anticipated, and socio‐economic resilience must be understood and actively incorporated into management of these areas. DOI: 10.1126/science.1112122 http://www.sciencemag.org/content/309/5737/1036.abstract KEYWORDS: Resilience; adaptation; climate change; social; ecological; coral‐reefs; vulnerability; hurricanes; management; resistance; capacity; tsunami; crisis Adger, W. N., J. Paavola, et al., Eds. (2006). Fairness in adaptation to climate change, MIT Press. This book looks at the challenges of ensuring that policy responses to climate change do not place undue and unfair burdens on already vulnerable populations. Developing countries are more dependent on climate‐sensitive livelihoods such as farming and fishing and hence are more vulnerable. It brings together scholars from political science, economics, law, human geography, and climate science to offer the first assessment of the social justice issues in adaptation to climate change. ISBN‐10:0‐262‐51193‐2 ISBN‐13: 978‐0‐262‐51193‐3 http://mitpress.mit.edu/books/fairness‐adaptation‐climate‐change KEYWORDS: adaptation; climate change; policy Adger, W. N. and K. Vincent (2005). "Uncertainty in adaptive capacity." Comptes Rendus Geoscience 337(4): 399‐410. The capacity to adapt is a critical element of the process of adaptation: it is the vector of resources that represent the asset base from which adaptation actions can be made. Adaptive capacity can in theory be identified and measured at various scales, from the individual to the nation. The assessment of uncertainty within such measures comes from the contested knowledge domain and theories surrounding the nature of the determinants of adaptive capacity and the human action of adaptation. The paper outlines the nature of uncertainty for the major elements of adaptive capacity and illustrates these issues with the example of a social vulnerability index for countries in Africa. DOI: 10.1016/j.crte.2004.11.004 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S163107130400330X KEYWORDS: climate change; adaptive capacity; vulnerability; uncertainties Agrawala, S. and S. Fankhauser, Eds. (2008). Economic Aspects of Adaptation to Climate Change: Costs, Benefits and Policy Instruments. This report provides a critical assessment of adaptation costs and benefits in key climate sensitive sectors, as well as at national and global levels. It moves the discussion beyond cost estimation to the potential and limits of economic and policy instruments ‐ including insurance and risk sharing, environmental markets and pricing, and public private partnerships ‐ that can be used to motivate adaptation actions. They describe that the adaptation must be an integral part of the global deal that will succeed the Kyoto Protocol. Developing countries rightly look to the developed world to help them in their development in the context of a changing climate. DOI: 10.1787/9789264046214‐en http://www.oecd.org/document/2/0,3343,en_2649_34361_40691458_1_1_1_1,00.html KEYWORDS: adaptation; climate change; economic; policy Ainsworth, C. H., J. F. Samhouri, et al. (2011). "Potential impacts of climate change on Northeast Pacific marine foodwebs and fisheries." Ices Journal of Marine Science 68(6): 1217‐1229. The authors explore the potential implications of climate change on the marine food‐web structure in North Pacific shelf ecosystems. Using simulations they explored the changes in: primary productivity, species range shifts, zooplankton community size structure, ocean acidification and ocean deoxygenation. The model simulations predicted that the performance of fisheries and the relative abundance of species
Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013


in the northeast Pacific are expected to change, but not uniformly. The challenge of predicting climate change impacts must be met in order to adapt and manage rapidly changing marine ecosystems in the 21st century. DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/fsr043 http://icesjms.oxfordjournals.org/content/68/6/1217.short Keywords: Alaska; British Columbia; California; climate change; dissolved oxygen; Ecopath; Ecosim; ocean acidification; primary production; range shift; sea surface temperature. Akst, J. (2011). "Adapting to Climate Change." The Scientist 25(9): 23‐23. Recognizing the need for a better understanding of how the changing climate is affecting indigenous populations around the world, a 5‐year research program, Indigenous Health Adaptation to Climate Change (IHACC), was launched in April 2011. This article provides a short description of the project background and its goal. ISSN: 0890‐3670 http://search.proquest.com/docview/888587114/13D7B5650AD1AA60EB4/8?accountid=14245 KEYWORD: indigenous; adaptation; climate change; IHACC Allison, E. H., A. L. Perry, et al. (2009). "Vulnerability of national economies to the impacts of climate change on fisheries." Fish and Fisheries 10(2): 173‐196. Based on several socio‐economic indices, such as the relative importance of fisheries to national economies and diets, the societal adaptive capacity and the exposure to climate change, this study compares the vulnerability of the capture fisheries of 132 national economies to climate change impacts. Among the most vulnerable countries (mainly in Africa, South America and Asia), several countries were among the least developed, poorest and most dependent on fisheries. Despite uncertainties in the impacts of climate change on fisheries, this study indicates that developing countries have the greatest need for adaptation management procedures. DOI:10.1111/j.1467‐2979.2008.00310.x http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467‐2979.2008.00310.x/abstract KEYWORDS: climate change; vulnerability; impact; fisheries; poverty; adaptation; inequalities; society; policy; development Allison, G. (2004). "The influence of species diversity and stress intensity on community resistance and resilience." Ecological Monographs 74(1): 117‐134. The autor presents the results of an experiment in the high zone of a rocky intertidal community in which a thermal stress was applied to experimental plots that differed in diversity. This diversity gradient was created by a prior manipulation of macroalgal species composition. The autor determined the magnitude of the effects of the thermal stress on the different compositional treatments and followed the recovery of the community from the stress. Community resilience was highly dependent on species initially present and degree of disturbance. In highly disturbed areas, initial recovery trajectory was similar in early successional stages, but differences arose later; appearing related to the composition of the surrounding regeneration pool. For treatments devoid of thermal stress, low‐diversity plots remained in states unlike the reference condition for most of the experimentally duration, however plots in high‐diversity treatments returned to states similar to the reference rapidly. This work demonstrates that resilience (but not resistance). The influence of diversity on the overall dynamics of a system is likely to be strongly contingent on the characteristics of the stress and the characteristics of the removed species. DOI: 10.1890/02‐0681 http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/02‐0681 KEYWORDS: disturbance; diversity manipulation; diversity‐stability; macroalgae; Oregon; resilience; resistance; rocky intertidal community; thermal stress; temperature Alongi, D. M. (2008). "Mangrove forests: Resilience, protection from tsunamis, and responses to global climate change." Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 76(1): 1‐13. This paper reviews mangrove resilience to large infrequent disturbance (tsunamis) and their role in coastal protection, as well as to climate change and the future of mangroves in light of these changes. Mangroves have shown considerable resilience over time scales corresponding with shoreline evolution.
Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013


Evidence for this comes from soil accretion rates in mangroves which are currently keeping pace with mean sea‐level rise; with further evidence for resilience coming from recovery patterns from natural disturbances which, combined with life history traits, suggest pioneer‐phase characteristics. Physiological tolerances and competitive interactions produce stand composition and forest structure leading to a mosaic of interrupted succession sequences that occur in response to physical/chemical gradients and landform changes. In certain circumstances, mangroves may offer limited protection from tsunamis, with the magnitude of energy absorption depends on a number of variables including tree density, stem and root diameter, shore slope, bathymetry, spectral characteristics of incident waves, and tidal stage when entering the mangrove forest. Climate change may lead to losses of 10‐15% of mangroves, but should be considered secondary to annual losses of 1‐2% from deforestation. Mangrove resilience is strengthened by a number of factors including a large reservoir of below‐ground nutrients, rapid rates of nutrient flux and microbial decomposition, complex and highly efficient biotic controls, self‐design and redundancy of keystone species, and numerous feedbacks. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecss.2007.08.024 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272771407003915 KEYWORDS: climate change; disasters; disturbance; mangrove forest; resilience; tsunami; sea level rise Alter, E. A., M. P. Simmonds, et al. (2010). "Forecasting the consequences of climate‐driven shifts in human behavior on cetaceans." Marine Policy 34(5): 943‐954. This study explores the range of potential human‐mediatedor tertiary effects of climate change on cetaceans, along with the physical and biological changes underlying them. Inaddition, factors that may make particular cetacean taxa especially sensitiveto human‐mediated climate impacts are discussed. The potential consequences and risks faced by particular cetacean species are assessed here in the face of predicted climate‐driven shifts in human behaviour. Policy recommendations are made here based on findings; including recommendation to incorporate information on cetacean populations into climate‐adaptation decisions and that human‐mediated impacts of climate change be included in cetacean conservation and management plans. DOI: 10.1016/j.marpol.2010.01.026 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X10000278 KEYWORDS: Climate change; cetaceans; economic activity; conservation; whales; dolphins; Arctic; IWC Amaral, V., H. N. Cabral, et al. (2011). "Resistance among wild invertebrate populations to recurrent estuarine acidification." Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 93(4): 460‐467. Acid sulphate soils (ASS) pose a significant threat to estuarine ecosystems. Naive calcifying organisms that are exposed to runoff from ASS for even short periods (1‐2 months) suffer 80% mortality and slowed growth. This paper observed wild oyster, gastropod and crab populations by sampling within three estuaries of New South Wales, Australia. It was confirmed that the oyster Saccostrea glomerata and gastropods (primarily Bembicium aura turn) were less abundant at ASS‐affected than reference sites, while crab abundances did not differ between the acidified and reference sites, and impacts to bivalves and gastropods were far smaller than predicted. This study suggests that at the population level, calcifying organisms display a certain degree of natural resistance to recurrent disturbance from ASS runoff. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecss.2011.05.024 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272771411001818 KEYWORDS: acidity; anthropogenic stress; estuarine acidification; pH; proteomics; waterlogged soils Amaral, V., E. L. Thompson, et al. (2012). "The proteomes of Sydney rock oysters vary spatially according to exposure to acid sulfate runoff." Marine and Freshwater Research 63(4): 361‐369. Acid sulfate soils (ASS) pose a serious threat to the ecology, biodiversity and economic development of estuaries. Oysters display reduced abundance, growth rate and shell thickness when exposed to ASS runoff, yet the molecular underpinnings of their responses have not been explored. This paper applied a quantitative and investigative proteomic methodology to the gill tissue proteomes of Sydney rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata) to identify differences in protein abundances between oysters close to and away from ASS outflow drains. The study found spatial variation in the protein expression of S. glomerata relating to ASS discharge. This suggests that there may be genetic resistance to ASS runoff (acquired through recurrent exposure) or that altered protein expression may underpin short‐term responses.
Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013


DOI: doi.org/10.1071/MF11213 http://www.publish.csiro.au/?paper=MF11213 KEYWORDS: acidity; anthropogenic stress; estuarine acidification; proteomics; waterlogged soils; acid sulfate soils; runoff; Sydney rock oyster Anderson, L. G. (2002). "A bioeconomic analysis of marine reserves." Natural Resource Modelling 15(3): 311‐334. The use of marine reserves as a fishery management tool is receiving increased attention in the literature and in real world management. This paper feollows Hannesson [1999] and Sanchirico and Wilen [2001] where effort is a function of profitability which is in part determined by the existence of reserves. The paper extends Hannesson’s analysis by deriving sustainable catch and revenue curves which provide a more complete picture of how marine reserves affect the proportion of the stock which is available for harvest and a comparison of the economic operation of the fleet under open access and marine reserves. DOI: 10.1111/j.1939‐7445.2002.tb00092.x http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1939‐7445.2002.tb00092.x/abstract KEYWORDS: bioeconomic; sustainable catch; marine reserves; stock assessment Andersson, A. J. and F. T. Mackenzie (2011). "Technical comment on Kroeker et al. (2010) Meta‐analysis reveals negative yet variable effects of ocean acidification on marine organisms. Ecology Letters, 13, 1419–1434." Ecology Letters 14(8): 1‐2. Ocean acidification as a result of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations has attracted a wealth of interest over the impacts this may have on marine organisms and associated ecosystems. To date, experimental results have varied and sometimes contradicted each other, thus making it difficult to quantitatively synthesize research findings. This Technical Comment addresses the issue of calcification strategies of marine organisms and the need for categorizing different mineral groups used by calcifying organisms, which the authors believe should not be combined together into one group nor treated as the same category. The authors provide comment on the meta‐analysis performed by Kroeker et al. (2010) and suggest further refinements for analyses evaluating the sensitivity and responsiveness of calcareous organisms to ocean acidification. DOI: 10.1111/j.1461‐0248.2011.01646.x http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1461‐0248.2011.01646.x/abstract KEYWORDS: Aragonite; CaCO3; calcification; calcite; carbonate chemistry; CO2; meta‐analysis; Mg‐calcite; ocean acidification; solubility. Anthony, K. R. N. and J. A. Maynard (2011). "Coral reefs in the emergency room: continued carbon emissions will increase the need for intensive care." Carbon Management 2(3): 215‐218. Escalating CO2 levels in the atmosphere pose major threats to the world’s coral reefs. Recent studies have shown that mitigating local‐scale stressors caused by human activity promotes the resilience of reefs to the global threat from carbon emissions, and failing to mitigate local‐scale stressors will result in declining conditions of many reefs during this century. This article argues that continued mitigation of local‐scale stressors is important to preserve reef ecosystem function, and is crucially urgent for sustaining coral reefs and their dependent socio–economic systems in developing countries. DOI 10.4155/cmt.11.21 http://www.future‐science.com/doi/abs/10.4155/cmt.11.21 KEYWORDS: coral reef; local‐scale; mitigation; carbon emission; marine protected area; fisheries Anthony, K. R. N., J. A. Maynard, et al. (2011). "Ocean acidification and warming will lower coral reef resilience." Global Change Biology 17(5): 1798‐1808. The combined effect of CO2 and fishing pressure on herbivores, on the resilience of a simplified benthic reef community was modeled. Ecological resilience was defined as the capacity of the community to maintain and recover to coral‐dominated states, and depended on the growth and mortality of simulated branching corals and macroalgae. Coral growth and survival were affected by acidification and warming through processes of calcification, coral bleaching, temperature‐induced mortality, macroalgal mortality by grazing and macroalgal nutrient‐dependent growth. The IPCC’s fossil‐fuel intensive A1FI predictions for sea surface temperature and CO2 concentrations for this century were used as inputs to the model. Results indicate that herbivore overfishing and nutrification result in increased vulnerability to higher CO2
Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013


M. risk.02364.." Global Environmental Change 18(1): 86‐98.jsessionid=3E6A64D2129F51AAFC B3373ADA06567B. "Assessing impacts of introduced aquaculture species on native fish communities: Nile tilapia and major carps in SE Asian freshwaters. coral reef. There is escalating concern for food security and the livelihoods of these fisherfolk with increasing evidence of the impacts climate change on aquatic systems. H.5 billion consumers rely on fish oil for more than 20% of their dietary protein. current.002 http://www. et al. and further understanding is needed in areas such as capacity. climate change. Native fish biomass was not affected by stocking of the non‐native species.2009. This study presents results from experiments carried out between 1999 and 2002 in wetland sites in 46 southern Lao PDR. The processes of individual and collective adaptive learning are fundamental to adaptation to climate change. identification of best practice. learning. Almost 1. I. framework. aquaculture. et al. et al. (2010).2010.gloenvcha. "Adaptive co‐management and the paradox of learning. The effect of the introduction and stocking of non‐native species was estimated by comparing traits between sites where the non‐native species were introduced and sites where these species were absent. management of local‐scale disturbances will be critical for reef ecosystems. et al. enhancement. Lorenzen." Aquaculture 299(1‐4): 81‐88.wiley. This article presents an overview of the fishing activities adopted in marine and coastal environments in Mexico and discusses the potential implications of climate change on the ecosystems and human activities in the region. provided by the 36 million fisherfolk that depend on fishing for their livelihood. ocean acidification.unam. and this in turn impacts on human populations and their resulting interactions with the ecosystems." Marine Policy 34(3): 375‐383. R.1111/j.1111/j. yield. http://journals.concentrations and that above 450‐500 ppm CO2. This mild‐to‐moderate impact on the native fish communities suggests that the introduction of these species to these sites would constitute a viable fisheries enhancement procedure. fisheries. Except for a moderately negative effect on Simpson diversity and equitability in the observational study.com/science/article/pii/S0044848609009387 KEYWORDS: fisheries.d02t03 KEYWORDS: global warming. M. including sea surface temperature. species introduction.2010. Allison. K. A.sciencedirect. E. experience. M.php/atm/article/view/23805/0 KEYWORDS: circulation models. Biotic and abiotic factors impact on marine and coastal ecosystems. adaptive management. "Impacts of climate variability and change on fishery‐based livelihoods.mx/index. marine ecosystem." Atmósfera 24(1): 103‐123. This paper synthesizes the pathways through which climate change and variability impact the livelihood of fisherfolk at Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 7 ..x http://onlinelibrary. (2008).2007.07.x/abstract. collaborative management. Stocking of non‐native species increased fish biomass by 180% in the observational study and by 49% in the experimental study (sites of recent non‐native species stocking).com/doi/10. natural‐resource management.. Marschke. social‐ecological systems. "Vulnerability to climate change of marine and coastal fisheries in Mexico. however this area is somewhat neglected in climate adaptation policy. community.sciencedirect. and the development of critical assessment frameworks. DOI: 10. (2011). sea grass communities. Indonesia Arroyo. sea level rise and precipitation patterns. DOI: 10. Understanding of these processes is also in its infancy.1016/j. S.1016/j. D. coral reefs. resilience. M.02364. Naim. The authors examine the sustainability of marine ecosystem in light of current and future predictions of human fishing activities and changing climatic conditions. DOI: 10..11. sustainability. overfishing Armitage. coastal lagoon. stocking of the non‐native species did not significantly impact traits in the different sites. risk Badjeck. conservation.1365‐2486.‐C. (2010).aquaculture. native species.022 http://www. sustainability Arthur. resilience.1365‐2486. co‐management. climate change.com/science/article/pii/S0959378007000490 KEYWORDS: adaptive governance.

"Ecosystems ‐ Reef corals bleach to survive change. regional shifts in fertility." Progress in Human Geography 35(5): 686‐695. This work presents results from transplant experiments using varying combinations of coral host and algal symbiont.. fishery. morbidity and mortality. DOI: 10. recognition of climate‐change driven opportunity. A. Stern Report. and assesses management and climate policies in relation to these." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101(26): 9694‐9697.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X09001237 KEYWORDS: Climate change. governmentality. migration." Nature 411(6839): 765‐766. understanding of response mechanisms to climate change (to inform planned adaptation)." Nature 430(7001): 741‐741. A. adaptation Balmford. climate change. J. mortality. and in high‐cost. diversity.com/nature/journal/v430/n7001/full/430741a.com/nature/journal/v411/n6839/full/411765a0. ecology. based on a survey of the running costs of 83 MPAs worldwide. there are potential private gains from improved fisheries and tourism and likely social gains from increasing the sustainability of fisheries and securing vital ecosystem services. climate adaptation policy. making them more resistant to potential future increases in thermal stress.html KEYWORDS: zooxanthellae.1073/pnas. However. A. Starger. ecology. Coral bleaching involves the loss of symbiotic algae from reef‐building invertebrates is a drastic and highly detrimental response to adverse environmental conditions. This report describes how studies of the population geographies are deepening an appreciation of climate change and the nature of the climate change debate. resilience. although as yet. (2004).sagepub. coral bleaching Baker. adaptation. Coral reefs may potentially be able to safeguard against extinction by changing to new symbionts. "Coral reefs: corals' adaptive response to climate change. Annual running costs were higher in MPAs that were smaller. exploring current and potential adaptation strategies. there is no direct evidence that this response can occur. DOI: doi:10. flexibility. C.nature. DOI: doi:10. developed countries.1016/j. DOI: 10.007 http://www.08. Gravestock. P. "Population geographies and climate change. climate variability Bailey. C.marpol. responses to climate change should include approaches building the livelihood asset base while minimizing vulnerability to stressors. hypothesis. fisheries.sciencedirect. (2001). vulnerability Baker.nature. C. It is recognized that climate change can lead to changes in demographic conditions. overall population growth and distribution. global networks. This approach could be advantageous for reefs facing increasingly frequent and severe mass bleaching due to climate change.2009. (2011).1038/35081151 http://www.com/content/35/5/686. A.html KEYWORDS: reef corals. et al. Models extrapolating these findings suggest that a global MPA network conserving 20‐30% of the world's seas might cost between $5 billion and $19 billion annually to run and would probably create one million jobs. From this. This paper demonstrates that corals containing unusual algal symbionts which are thermally tolerant are more abundant on coral reefs which have been affected severely by recent climate change impacts.household and community levels. et al. climate change.0403239101 Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 8 . climate change. adaptive strategies with multi‐sector perspectives and recognising the potential of fisheries contribution towards mitigation efforts. and supports an alternative understanding where bleaching offers a high‐risk ecological opportunity for corals to free themselves of suboptimal algae and acquire new symbionts. patterns. diversity.short KEYWORDS: demography. (2004). This paper provides an estimate of the costs of a global MPA network. "The worldwide costs of marine protected areas. ecological citizenship. mobility. J..1038/430741a http://www. Long‐term response of coral reefs to climate change depends on their reef‐building symbioses to adapt or acclimatize to warmer temperatures.1177/0309132510383358 http://phg. livelihoods. This represents an adaptive shift in symbionts communities. closer to coasts. DOI: 10.

1016/j.au/paper/MF08283. (2010). collapse. J.htm KEYWORDS: ENSO. The authors of this article call for the development of modeling frameworks that are capable of evaluating the transfer of climate signals from the atmosphere to marine environments. C. management. DOI: 10. Marine Protected Areas Balston. barramundi Ban. MJO. Large‐scale climate changes (e. DOI: 10. Local changes to water temperatures and river flow have also been shown to affect species. using Canada's Pacific waters as a case study. marine ecosystem. "Cumulative impact mapping: Advances. The cumulative impact of human activities on marine ecosystems is an important concept which is rapidly developing as a valuable tool for the effective management of marine ecosystems.1016/j. region. (2009). The authors map and analyses the cumulative impacts of 38 human activities in the region and assess the effectiveness of pre‐existing conservation regions. biodiversity. fisheries. This article discusses emerging models which attempt to address the above phenomenon. and the significant advances which could be made in the management of marine ecosystems with the development of coupled modeling frameworks.2010. It was found that warmer sea surface temperatures. DOI: 10." Fisheries Research 99(2): 83‐89. In this study. N. oscillations Balston.com/science/article/pii/S1877343510001089 Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 9 . However. Australia. and discuss limitations that exist in cumulative impact mapping.05. sustainable. sustainable. The authors were surprised to discover that most areas with conservation status actually contained higher impact levels as a result of human activities than surrounding regions. but research on the relationship between climate variability and catadromous species that are dependent on estuarine nursery habitats and freshwater flows is more limited. et al. El Niño) have been known to affect the catch of both inshore and offshore species. (2010).org/content/101/26/9694.pnas.01. have been shown to have large‐scale impacts on some of the pelagic fisheries of the world. "Short‐term climate variability and the commercial barramundi (Lates calcarifer) fishery of north‐east Queensland. benefits.05.sciencedirect.010 http://www. ecosystems. Africa. "An analysis of the impacts of long‐term climate variability on the commercial barramundi (Lates calcarifer) fishery of north‐east Queensland.2009. few studies have linked inshore fisheries with long‐term climate cycles." Marine and Freshwater Research 60(9): 912‐923.2009. The more information that is acquired about the location and impacts of human activities on the ecosystems of concern could enable a reduction in the stressors that are acting on these systems. W.abstract KEYWORDS: reserves. high rainfall.001 KEYWORDS: decadal. increased freshwater flow and low evaporation were significantly correlated with barramundi catch 2 years later and suggest that young barramundi survival is enhanced under these conditions. W. Decadal climate oscillations in the Pacific Ocean such as the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) and Pacific Interdecadal Oscillation (PDO). M. fisheries." Marine Policy 34(5): 876‐886. and the resulting impact this may have on both marine organisms and fisheries operations. DOI: 10. J. management.1071/mf08283 http://www.org/10.cosust.002 http://www. M. barramundi. (2009). the associated challenges.csiro.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X10000114 KEYWORDS: climate change.g. Australia. Cheung.marpol.2010.publish. H. management.sciencedirect. This study investigated the relationship between the barramundi (Laces calcarifer) landings in north‐east Queensland and the index of the Quasi‐biennial Oscillation. fisheries. region Barange.http://www.doi..10. et al.1016/j. conservation. This article presents human activity data from a regional area in Canada’s Pacific marine waters. the correlation between the barramundi catch from the Princess Charlotte Bay area and climate variables were analyzed. Alidina.1016/j. relevance and limitations to marine management and conservation. long‐term.001 http://dx." Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 2(5‐6): 326‐333. "Modelling the potential impacts of climate change and human activities on the sustainability of marine resources. cumulative impact. L. SOI.fishres..fishres.

FAO: pp. ocean acidification. 7‐106. social‐ecological. http://www. I. K. impacts. however there are no continuous shelf/slope connections to Antarctica (which contains 3 major linear shelves). Physical and ecological impacts of climate change relevant to marine and inland capture fisheries and aquaculture. 4) Summary of findings. biodiversity. Evidence suggests that toleration and adaptation are often not possible due to slow generation turn‐over. A. Evidence of these types of range‐shifts occurring exist along linear coastlines. inland. "Geographic range shift responses to climate change by Antarctic benthos: where we should look. This chapter reviews the physical and ecological impacts of climate change relevant to marine and inland capture fisheries and aquaculture. A. "Adapting to climate change in Pacific Island Countries: The problem of uncertainty. geographic limits. DOI: 10. C. The chapter concludes with specific anticipated responses of regional marine ecosystems (Arctic. (2009). exploring the limitations of the dominant approach to climate change induced vulnerability and adaptation. Geographic range of several Southern Ocean invertebrate species was examined for areas where species limits coincided. Monitoring of these range shifts will provide information into the biodiversity response to climate change. "Rapid evolution of cold tolerance in stickleback. J. 3) Scenarios of climate change impacts on fish production and ecosystems. including toleration. R. Increasing global temperatures as a result of climate change are predicted to impact on biological communities. management. North Pacific.fao. adaptation.g.1016/S0305‐750X(01)00022‐5 http://www. (2001). Climate change implications for fisheries and aquaculture: overview of current scientific knowledge. Southern Ocean. et al.. or both. D. seasonality processes Barnes. range‐shifts. Avoiding extinction therefore relies on linear migration. D. The greatest potential for thermally‐driven range shifts is for the Kerguelen Plateau.com/science/article/pii/S0305750X01000225 KEYWORDS: Climate change. adaptation. resilience. although the way in which organisms and communities respond to these changes will vary and depend upon species adaptive evolution of temperature tolerance. Specific Pacific Island climate change and sea‐level issues are discussed. This article reports research Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 10 . sea‐level rise. continental shelf. Soto and T. coastal upwelling. resilience. H.. Perry (2009). coral reefs. climate change. impacts.org/docrep/012/i0994e/i0994e00. D. adaptation Barrett. Young. 2) Observed effects of climate variability and change on ecosystem and fish production processes. Scientific uncertainty creates problems for policies aimed at dealing with climate change and sea‐level rise. and should be replaced with enhancing resilience of entire island social‐ecological systems in order to formulate goals aimed at adaptation policy making. marine ecosystem. Southern Ocean. freshwater systems and aquaculture systems) to climate change. Rome. The dominant approach to dealing with these requires impact anticipation. K. DOI: 10. North Atlantic. Pacific Islands.htm KEYWORDS: ecological impacts. 530. J. This paper highlights the inability of Pacific Island countries to plan effectively for sea‐level rise and climate change due to scientific uncertainty. development. Griffiths. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No." Marine Ecology Progress Series 393: 13‐26. fisheries. and help to determine whether species are becoming tolerant or migrating to other areas. warming). tropical and subtropical regions. South Georgia. D. policy.com/abstracts/meps/v393/p13‐26/ KEYWORDS: Climate change.int‐res. uncertainty.3354/meps08246 http://www. H. moving into deeper waters. regional warming. et al. which the author argues is not a successful strategy.sciencedirect.KEYWORDS: climate signals. and R. migration or extinction. vulnerability. adaptation. Cochrane. Kerguelen Barnett. (2011). Paccard." Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 278(1703): 233‐238. The chapter consists of four sections: 1) Climate change: the physical basis in marine and freshwater systems. M. Several strategies exist for Southern Ocean species facing climate change (e." World Development 29(6): 977‐993. Bahri. coupled modelling frameworks Barange.

but this was dependent on lowering of greenhouse gas emissions.1890/08‐0139. R. This work also suggests greater relative importance of reducing additional anthropogenic impacts that affect coral‐macroalgal competition. 2) Scope the likely impacts of climate change as they relate to the Tasmanian salmonid aquaculture industry.. both with and without connectivity.02062. This study developed a model of coral and symbiont ecological dynamics and symbiont evolutionary dynamics to be able to test the potential for response.0923. The authors conclude that cold tolerance appears to be under strong selection and marine sticklebacks demonstrate sufficient genetic variation which should allow them to adapt to temperature changes over a relatively short timescale. Although corals and their symbiont algae may have some ability to respond to thermal changes through genetic adaptation and changes in community composition.. M. Greenhouse gas emissions will have a significant effect on the future of coral reefs. show that protection of.1111/j. zooxanthellae Baskett.0923 http://rspb. L. stickleback. genetic model.findings of the adaptive evolution of cold tolerance in stickleback fish populations. Modeled results incorporating varying initial conditions show that protecting diverse communities is essential for maintaining long‐term coral cover.. and coral survivorship. et al. phenotype. quantitative genetic model. size‐structured matrix model.1 http://www. Results with genetic or community variability in thermal tolerance predicted coral reef persistence into the next century.. as is protecting communities comprised of higher abundances of thermally tolerant species.2010. Climate change and its associated thermal stress‐related impacts on coral reefs causing mass bleaching events represents one of the greatest anthropogenic threats faced by reefs.com/doi/10. adaptation Battaglene. D. coral reefs. L. and 3) Scope possible solutions for adaptation and identify viable industry development opportunities. Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 11 . Gaines.1365‐2486. Carter. DOI: 10. climate change." Global Change Biology 16(4): 1229‐1246. Protecting the capacity of corals to respond to increases in thermal stress may involve: promoting resistance and resilience of coral reefs and reducing anthropogenic impacts that are likely to decrease resistance and resilience. early coral life history stages. global climate change. M.02062. "Conservation management approaches to protecting the capacity for corals to respond to climate change: a theoretical comparison. Scoping study into adaptation of the Tasmanian salmonid aquaculture industry to potential impacts of climate change.2009. and connectivity to.esajournals. climate change. Freshwater sticklebacks were shown to tolerate lower minimum temperatures compared with marine sticklebacks. (2010).wiley.1 KEYWORDS: adaptation. S. (2009).1098/rspb. This study has three objectives: 1) Identify and review key climate change information needs as they relate to the Tasmanian salmonid aquaculture industry. cold tolerance. Report to DAFF. Model results incorporating temperature trajectories from different locations. Tasmania.org/content/early/2010/07/29/rspb.1111/j.2010. the rate at which climate change is occurring may be too rapid for corals to be able to respond. evolution. The results of modeling with no variation in thermal tolerance by symbionts suggest that reef collapse would occur within decades under multiple future climate change scenarios. et al. Nisbet. while marine sticklebacks demonstrated cold tolerance evolution over three generations when placed within a freshwater environment." Ecological Applications 19(1): 3‐17.x/abstract KEYWORDS: coral bleaching. S. and accounting for biodiversity and biological dynamics is vital to being able to estimating the size of this effect. low‐thermal‐stress locations may also increase capacity for corals to be able to respond to climate change impacts. M.org/doi/abs/10.2009. This work quantitatively compares potential priorities and current recommendations for protecting the response capacity of corals to climate change – with emphasis on the relevant dynamics. et al. processes. coral reefs. (2008). DOI: 10. C.1890/08‐0139. temperature Baskett. and parameters in a size‐structured model of coral and zooxanthellae ecological and evolutionary dynamics in relation to predicted future thermal stress. August 2008. Coral reefs are faced with a number of anthropogenic threats including bleaching from climate change related impacts.1365‐2486. Australia: 90.abstract KEYWORDS: adaptation.royalsocietypublishing. quantitative.x http://onlinelibrary. DOI: 10. "Symbiont diversity may help coral reefs survive moderate climate change.

utas. This is report is a major undertaking by eminent regional scientists on behalf of the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC).http://www. conservation.esajournals. To do this.com/science/article/pii/S0079661109000317 KEYWORDS: Global warming.sciencedirect.. this book brings together valuable contributions from scientists and fisheries managers from 36 institutions around the world to provide this vital information.04. and 3. lakes Belkin.2 http://www. JE.1016/j. In order to understand the vulnerability of the sector to the changing climate and how best to adapt. climate change.imas. "Rapid warming of Large Marine Ecosystems. climate change Bell. aquaculture." Ocean & Coastal Management 51(8‐9): 589‐593. population density). The book provides a comprehensive assessment of the vulnerability of tropical Pacific fisheries and aquaculture to climate change. DOI:10. (2004). sustainability. W. E. (2009). http://www.html KEYWORDS: Pacific. the European Seas and the East Asian Seas..0. aggregating wild individuals in no‐take zones. vulnerability.1016/j. et al. over‐exploitation. B. One idea assumes a constant environment with variables that shift (e..1890/1540‐9295(2003)001[0376:ASSIE]2. systems. I. large marine ecosystems. pollution. thresholds. 2. alternative stable states. P.1890/1540‐9295(2003)001%5B0376%3AASSIE%5D2. holothuria.K. J. T. ecosystems. review. disease and climate change. Meteorological Office Hadley Centre SST climatology from 1957 to 2006. (2011). subarctic gyre.2009. adaptation. and the other anticipates changes to underlying environmental ‘drivers’. DOI: 10. Haydon. (2008). Theory behind the idea of alternative stable states existing in communities has developed two perspectives into how a community may shift from one stable state to another. M.ocecoaman. D.edu. et al. adaptation. D. (2003). DOI: 10.2008.06. D. Such a large‐scale crisis requires scaling‐up of management efforts which are based primarily on increasing knowledge of the ecological processes that underlie coral reef resilience. J. the authors review Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 12 . "Restoring small‐scale fisheries for tropical sea cucumbers. J.0. stability.int/climate‐change/fisheries/assessment/main‐book. A three‐step procedure: 1. hysteresis. opportunities Beisner.. An urgent reassessment of current management practices is needed to address the worldwide decline in coral reefs – which is largely the result of overharvesting. Three regions of particularly intense warming were detected: the Subarctic Gyre." Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 1(7): 376‐382. opening small farms to rear wild‐caught sea cucumbers to the size above sexual maturity. examining the two perspectives and incorporating the concepts of resilience and hysteresis as well as the role that stochasticity plays within each.com/science/article/pii/S0964569108000586 KEYWORDS: fisheries. management.g. Hughes. The sea‐surface temperature (SST) trends of 63 Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs) was investigated using the U. with the exception of two upwelling areas." Progress In Oceanography 81(1‐4): 207‐213.011 http://www. communities. restocking no‐take zones with hatchery‐reared juveniles." Nature 429(6994): 827‐833. Vulnerability of tropical Pacific fisheries and aquaculture to climate change. T. et al.sciencedirect.CO.011 http://www. restocking. currently threatened by over‐exploitation. is given and its socio‐economic and ecological benefits are discussed. mitigation Bellwood. "Confronting the coral reef crisis. East Asian seas Bell. et al.CO%3B2?journalCo de=fron KEYWORDS: Resilience. The alternative stable states theory is reviewed here. salmonoid.au/ data/assets/pdf_file/0020/68420/Salmonid_Climate_Change_Final_Report_Distri bution. tropical fisheries. European seas.pocean. which have undergone a slight cooling. Purcell. This study discusses management procedures needed for the restoration of small‐scale fisheries of tropical sea cucumbers. The majority of LMEs have experienced an accelerated warming since the early 80s. R.org/doi/abs/10. S. "Alternative stable states in ecology. aquaculture.spc. California and Humboldt currents.pdf KEYWORDS: Tasmania.

Cambridge University Press. diversity. This paper examines the concept of resilience and the manner in which some legal and regulatory frameworks governing federal natural resource agencies have difficulty accommodating it. "Evolution of co‐management: Role of knowledge generation. "Can We Manage for Resilience? The Integration of Resilience Thinking into Natural Resource Management in the United States. Diadema‐Antillarum philippi. J. biodiversity. As federal agencies begin to incorporate this concept. J.the ecological roles of critical reef functional groups fundamental to understanding resilience and the avoidance of phase shifts to less desirable ecosystems. since long‐term biodiversity conservation requires an understanding the processes that allow species to persist in natural and human‐dominated ecosystems." Ambio 32(6): 389‐396. great‐barrier‐reef. ecosystem management. the implementation of marine protected areas and importance of biodiversity hotspots as conservation management tools.6.jenvman. eastern Pacific Bengtsson.1579/0044‐7447‐32. fisheries management. Navigating social–ecological systems: building resilience for complexity and change. et al. Eds. resilience and dynamic landscapes. Social–ecological systems. long‐term decline. biodiversity. The underlying framework rests on Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 13 . S. (2009). reef‐marine‐park. Existing static reserves should be complemented with dynamic reserves that are part of ecosystem management.389 http://www.2008. diversity.nature. (2003).12. H. Longitudinal approaches have potential value in providing much needed information in regard to knowledge creation.html KEYWORDS: Climate change. ecosystem management. disturbances.. knowledge. Colding. "Reserves. infrequent. particularly in regard to the dynamic qualities of networks.com/nature/journal/v429/n6994/abs/nature02691. ecological resilience. highlighting the vulnerability of Caribbean reef ecosystems. This book discusses sustainability in terms of developing new conceptual frameworks to better understand the dynamics between social and ecological systems.org/doi/abs/10. and the need to focus on creating resilient coral reef ecosystems.1038/nature02691 http://www. The authors highlight the critical lack of coral reef knowledge.springerlink. Angelstam. conservation.1579/0044‐7447‐32. bridging organizations and social learning.bioone. institutions.sciencedirect. DOI: 10. Implications arise for reef restoration. DOI: 10. Caribbean corals. (2003). F. M. et al. coral reefs. therefore conservation strategies need to be pro‐active in incorporating the large areas of land that are managed for use by humans.com/science/article/pii/S0301479708003587 KEYWORDS: co‐management. biodiversity hotspots.1007/s00267‐011‐9693‐5 http://www. conservation priorities." Environmental Management 48(3): 392‐399. UK. elaboration of networks and collective learning processes generally. Cambridge. Natural resource management. and A. Agencies Berkes. DOI: 10.389?prevSearch=&cookieSet=1 KEYWORDS: Resilience. Spatial resilience (ecological memory) is essential for ecosystems to be able to restructure following natural and human induced perturbance. governance Berkes. resilience. Governance. phase‐shifts. Biodiversity conservation is essential for being able to maintain ecosystem resilience and ensure a sustainable flow of ecosystem goods and services. conservation. Biogeographic differences in species richness and composition of functional groups are identified. capacity building. rain‐forests.001 http://www.6. Garmestani (2011). genotypic.. island Benson. F. bridging organizations. Environmental management. juvenile corals. social learning. careful attention should be paid to what managing for resilience will require in terms of institutional reconfigurations and resource investment in order to make it successful..1016/j. Further research is needed to better understand the maturing processes described in this article. coral‐reefs. biodiversity.com/content/974155p706635364/ keywords: Resilience.. Existing reserves and parks are unlikely to be able to incorporate the long‐term and large‐scale dynamics that influence ecosystems. DOI: 10. P." Journal of Environmental Management 90(5): 1692‐1702.

G. (2001). This will have a direct influence on the capacity for adaptive learning frameworks to guide and influence adaptation within systems subject to dynamic change.2008. adaptive management. canada Berkes. traditional knowledge.00954.sciencedirect. J.1016/j." Oecologia 163(2): 517‐525.1007/s11027‐007‐9139‐9 KEYWORDS: Climate change. management plans." Conservation Biology 22(3): 568‐574." Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 13(8): 765‐791.010 http://www. F. The supply of Phyllospora comosa.ncbi. R. social‐ecological systems. fisheries. Sargassum sp.org/gb/knowledge/isbn/item5706278/?site_locale=en_GB KEYWORDS: resilience. aquatic invasive species. Seixas (2005). DOI 10.2004. Coleman. DOI: 10. fisheries. This paper examined available U. Although the authors of this article identify a number of challenges in developing resilience factors into tools for measurement..com/article/10. The paper examines the emergence and development of aboriginal participation in resource management in the Canadian Arctic. based on both qualitative and quantitative data. Local level assessment and the development of resilience factors is a critical area of research for adaptive learning and adaptation to climate change. (2008). and future revisions to management plans are likely to be the easiest avenue through which to address climate‐change effects on AIS management activities.. "Economy‐wide impacts of climate change: a joint analysis for sea level rise and tourism. Thomas.nih.cambridge. Mathias.1007/s10021‐005‐0140‐4 http://link. et al.complex systems theory. lagoon systems. "Cross‐habitat impacts of species decline: response of estuarine sediment communities to changing detrital resources. et al. The results show that programs have the capacity to incorporate information about climate‐change effects and that the adaptive‐management framework may be an appropriate approach. S. F.. Activities associated with monitoring showed the highest capacity to include information on changing conditions." Ocean & Coastal Management 44(7‐8): 451‐469. Tourism. adaptive capacity Berkes. J. This paper attempts to disentangle and highlight the role of the interactions among the diverse impacts of climate change on human life. By using a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model the two impacts categories are analysed in both developed and developing countries. "Building resilience in lagoon social‐ecological systems: A local‐level perspective.x http://www. B. decentralisation. "The Canadian Arctic and the Oceans Act: the development of participatory environmental research and management.nlm. A.S. with emphasis of exploring ways to build social‐ecological resilience (i. It focuses on the economic assessment of two specific climate change impacts: sea‐level rise and changes in tourism flows. In most ecosystems there is not information about how the taxonomic composition of organic matter influences community composition." Ecosystems 8(8): 967‐974. state aquatic invasive species (AIS) management plans to assess each program's capacity to adapt to climate‐change effects. et al. climate change.1111/j. adaptive management Bigano. Sea level rise.springer. It emphasizes the use of traditional environmental knowledge as a mechanism by which participatory approaches can be implemented in the region.1523‐1739. Most plans did not mention climate change specifically. social‐ecological.biocon. M. and C. M. adaptive management) which will thereby increase the capacity for coping with complexity and change. and Ecklonia Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 14 . arctic. Brazil Bierwagen. A. there is potential for further expansion in this area. Bosello. F.1016/S0964‐5691(01)00060‐6 http://www.com/science/article/pii/S0964569101000606 KEYWORDS: co‐management. DOI: 10.e. DOI: 10. aboriginal groups. "Capacity of management plans for aquatic invasive species to integrate climate change. (2010).1007%2Fs10021‐005‐0140‐4 KEYWORDS: resilience.01. but some did acknowledge climatic boundaries of species and ecosystem sensitivities to changing conditions. et al.. (2008).gov/pubmed/18577086 KEYWORDS: adaptive capacity. Computable general equiribrium model Bishop. DOI: 10.

variability Brander. K.com/nature/journal/v458/n7240/full/nature07933. (2011). scale. (2009). "Impacts of climate change on fisheries. habitat loss. stakeholders. reef‐crest demise occurred at +3m and reef back‐stepping occurred at +6m. adaptation. but indicate their potential risks in the long‐term due the existence of thresholds in the functioning of marine ecosystem.html KEYWORDS: climate‐change. Butler. Booth." Nature 458(7240): 881‐886.1007/s00442‐009‐1555‐y http://link. their level of confidence. "Impacts of climate change on marine ecosystems and fisheries. This study advocates for stronger regional management procedures. R. DOI: 1323‐1650/11/091027 http://www. sea‐level. human well‐being.springer. The authors found that increases in water temperature.. coral reef. K. "Rapid sea‐level rise and reef back‐stepping at the close of the last interglacial highstand. The author identifies vulnerable areas. geographic limits. D." Global Environmental Change 21(3): 876‐893. climate‐change impacts. (2011).publish.1038/Nature07933 http://www.009 http://www.org. A complete reef‐crest sequence and its U‐series from the northeast Yucatan peninsula (Mexico) for the last interglacial sea‐level highstand were analyzed. 15 Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 .2011. et al. mitigation. the anthropogenic climate change and how it affects the ocean climate.nature. isotope‐analysis. changes in distribution of organisms. macroinvertebrates." Marine Biological Association of India 51(1): 1‐13. fisheries. regional management.. E.in/journaldload. et al.com/article/10. spatial subsidy Blanchon. "Future makers or future takers? A scenario analysis of climate change and the Great Barrier Reef. (2010). future scenarios. he discussed about the evaluating and prediction studies.au/?paper=MF10270 KEYWORDS: catch databases.gloenvcha. Phyllospora comosa. distributional patterns. The author list every impact found like sensitivity of growth and early life survival of fish. range edge." Journal of Marine Systems 79(3‐4): 389‐402.1007/s00442‐009‐1555‐y Keywords: Detritus. marine ecosystems. http://mbai. estuarine and marine fish were reviewed. extinction. (2009).radiata were experimentally manipulated to assess responses by macroinvertebrate communities. Back‐stepping appeared to be triggered 121 kyr ago by 2‐3m jumps in sea‐level caused by an episode of ice‐sheet instability at the end of the last interglacial period. Only one Australian study exhibited evidence of climate‐induced range shifts. and most studies focusing instead on future predictions. reduced freshwater flows and changes in ocean currents are likely to be the key drivers of climate‐induced range shifts in Australian fishes. This study concludes that even prior to extinction of detrital sources. interglacial. A. credibility and prediction ability. "Detecting range shifts among Australian fishes in response to climate change. decision‐making. DOI: 10. Bond. This demonstrated that the ecological ramifications of speces decline can extend to spatially removed ecosystems. small changes in their provision of organic matter may alter the structure of subsidised communities. great barrier reef.1016/j..sciencedirect. DOI: 10.php?id=2090&bkid=97 KEYWORDS: Climate change. sea‐level rise Brander. This review collects and discusses the historical background and the evidence of impacts of climate variability. N. A. P. J.com/science/article/pii/S0959378011000367 KEYWORDS: climate change. Also. distributional range. Results suggest the positive short‐term outcome of regional mitigation procedures. species and marine ecosystems. Eisenhauer." Marine and Freshwater Research 62(9): 1027‐1042.csiro. Bahamas Bohensky.03. ocean acidification. J. Four scenarios designed to investigate how key uncertainties may influence climate change impacts on the Great Barrier Reef and adjacent catchments by 2100 are discussed. and the urgent need for action from decision‐makers to maintain ecosystem services and the resulting human well‐being. et al. Reef development was affected by sea‐level. DOI: 10. Studies about the climate‐induced environmental changes and their apparent and potential implications for freshwater.

is the principal feasible means of reducing the impacts of climate change. which in some cases may translate into ecosystem regime shifts. future monitoring and research must be closely linked to responsive. M.0702059104 http://www.1745‐5871.x http://onlinelibrary. "Global fish production and climate change. DOI: 10.nlm. DOI: 10. global warming.wiley.1073/pnas. ocean acidification. There are strong interactions between the effects of fishing and the effects of climate because fishing reduces the age. making both more sensitive to additional stresses such as climate change. The Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 16 .2008. S.046 http://www. A. The findings show the importance of process and participation for adaptive management and suggest that success can be judged in terms of learning outcomes.cub.gov/pubmed/19640499 KEYWORDS: climate change. Kingsford (2009). Mitigation procedures are explored.nih. DOI: 10. fisheries management.org/content/104/50/19709. This paper presents a set of indicators of vulnerability and capacity to adapt to climate variability. and M.ncbi. learning. DOI: 10.05..1111/j. J. derived using a novel empirical analysis of data aggregated at the national level on a decadal timescale." Global Environmental Change‐Human and Policy Dimensions 15(2): 151‐163.Evidence of the impacts of climate change on marine ecosystems is accumulating." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104(50): 19709‐19714. water quality.12.sciencedirect.1111/j.jmarsys. Although our existing knowledge is in many respects incomplete it nevertheless provides an adequate basis for improved management of fisheries and of marine ecosystems and for adapting to climate change. but suggests low confidence in predictions of future fisheries production because of uncertainty over future global aquatic net primary production. mitigation. Among others. K. Great Barrier Reef." Current Biology 19(14): 602‐614.abstract KEYWORDS: fisheries. sea‐level rise. regime shift.1016/j. (2005). but must be evaluated in the context of the "normal" climate cycles and variability which have caused fluctuations in fisheries. resilience Broderick.2008.com/doi/10. climate impact. N. and geographic diversity of populations and the biodiversity of marine ecosystems. "Adaptive management for water quality improvement in the great barrier reef catchments: Learning on the edge. Neil Adger.2009.1745‐5871. flexible and reflexive management systems. Australia Brooks. marine ecosystems Brander. The paper suggests an adaptive management approach to achieve water quality improvement in large catchments based on stakeholder participation. The potential for adaptation of organisms is discussed along with the variability of resistance and resilience of ecosystems. et al. fish populations. with an emphasis on the reduction of CO2 emissions. global warming. "The determinants of vulnerability and adaptive capacity at the national level and the implications for adaptation.2008. which are currently fully exploited or overexploited. oceanic circulation. with negative implications for ecosystems services and human food security. K. "Impacts of climate change on marine organisms and ecosystems. ecosystem services. sea‐level rise and altered ocean circulation will affect biological processes on diverse spatial and temporal scales. In order to adapt to changing climate. net primary production. W. El Niño Brierley. This paper reviews several physical processes affected by climate change and their effects on biological processes and ecosystems. This paper identifies a number of climate‐related threats to both fisheries and aquaculture.015 http://www.pnas. climate.com/science/article/pii/S0924796309000931 KEYWORDS: climate change." Geographical Research 46(3): 303‐313. (2007).00525.00525. Recent studies of the effects of climate on primary production are reviewed and the consequences for fisheries production are evaluated through regional examples.1016/j. (2008). ocean acidification.x/abstract KEYWORDS: adaptive management. aquaculture. size. Reducing fishing mortality in the majority of fisheries.

predation. in some cases. and is a function of physically defined climate hazards and socially constructed vulnerability. two regional and international policy programs are perceived to have eroded resilience and intensified vulnerability – a river basin management and the development of a Marine Protected Area.06. macroalgal dominance.com/science/article/pii/S1462901110000663 KEYWORDS: resilience. management procedures. risk. (2009). phase shifts.1890/08‐1781. DOI: 10. J. and represent an entry point to more detailed explorations of vulnerability and adaptive capacity.gloenvcha. The effects of changes in primary production on Australian ecosystems was simulated using Ecosim coupled to models of lower trophic levels. C. DOI: 10. Management procedures should therefore account for processes driving primary productivity. food web model Bruno. et al. stressor. social and ecological systems are subject to an array of environmental. climate change and cross‐scale vulnerability in coastal Africa: how development projects undermine resilience.1111/j. adaptive governance.com/doi/10. governance. the frequency. mortality.wiley. competition. "Effects of climate‐driven primary production change on marine food webs: implications for fisheries and conservation. benefit ecosystem production. reef management Bunce.analysis is based on a conceptual framework in which risk is viewed in terms of outcome. East African coastal. literacy. The data are used to provide a robust assessment of vulnerability to climate‐related mortality at the national level. F. Florida keys. health. Fulton.2010. Brown. et al. spatial extent.x/abstract KEYWORDS: Climate change. and L. et al. Using 3581 surveys of 1851 reefs from 1996 to 2006. river basins. and degree of macroalgal dominance of coral reefs were analyzed. "Policy misfits.. adaptation Burns. climate change Brown. Africa. Tourism is likley to affected by global change. "The end of tourism? Climate change and societal challenges.1016/j.1365‐2486.2004.com/science/article/pii/S0959378004000913 KEYWORDS: vulnerability. national‐level. indicators. resilience. Results indicate an overall macroalgal dominance that is less intense than expected. the inclusion of complex competition and predation sub‐models resulted. in the opposite response. Recent work has stressed the link between human vulnerability in the world’s poorest countries and the exposure to numerous stressors acting in combination with climate change. fisheries and threatened marine species.1111/j. E. further intensifying their vulnerability. Bibbings (2009). Indo‐Pacific.006 http://www. contradicting previous studies. climate change. ecological interactions.gov/pubmed/19569362 KEYWORDS: Coral reefs. vulnerability. macroalgae.1365‐2486. K..sciencedirect.12. (2010).2009. Great Barrier Reef. This may represent an example of policy development failing to account for the cross‐scale dynamic of change (a ‘policy misfit’). However. M." Global Change Biology 16(4): 1194‐1212. This problem may be remedied by adaptive governance which builds on the adaptive capacity of those most vulnerable in society. Specifically. development policy. H. social and economic changes.envsci. P. on the whole.x http://onlinelibrary. A. caribbean. These results have implications for coral reef management procedures since these ecosystems appear to be more resistant to macroalgal blooms than assumed. Yet the industry is characterised by a fragmented and global Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 17 ." Ecology 90(6): 1478‐1484.nih. adaptive governance. J.02046.." Environmental Science & Policy 13(6): 485‐497.sciencedirect. (2010). fisheries.1016/j. DOI: 10. climate change.02046. while future modeling studies should focus on predation and competition processes. Sweatman.ncbi. primary production. Marine Protected Areas. Results indicate that the expected increase in primary productivity will.nlm.003 http://www. interactions between numerous stressors or long‐term climate change. "Assessing evidence of phase shifts from coral to macroalgal dominance on coral reefs. Mixed model empirical research explores local perceptions of recent changes at 4 coastal sites in eastern Africa. adaptive capacity." Twenty‐First Century Society 4(1): 31‐51. DOI: 10.1 http://www. Climate and non‐climate stressors are used and ranked according to livelihood.2009. conservation.

et al. The findings demonstrate that adaptive capacity varies with context and is affected by the complexity. ethical consumption. due to the narcotic effect these stressors have on sperm. and thus ocean warming may enhance fertilization.. complex systems.002 http://www. Carter. calcifying stage.2010. M.futures.com/science/article/pii/S0016328711002874 KEYWORDS: adaptive capacity. et al. vulnerability sea urchin. Soars. The ocean warming. 49: 1‐42. the interactive effects of ocean warming and ocean acidification/hypercapnia on fertilization in intertidal and shallow subtidal echinoids. M. embryos and early juveniles. policies. J." Futures 44(4): 385‐397. embryos Byrne. Fertilization in marine organisms may be negatively affected by climate change driven ocean acidification and hypercapnia.com/doi/abs/10.supply chain.12. calcification. The interactive effect of these stressors for marine biota remains a significant challenge. (2010). M. The effects of warming and acidification were experimentally examined in one species of abalone and one species of sea urchin by experimentally manipulating fertilization conditions.royalsocietypublishing. (2010). Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review. ocean acidification. calcification. Bussey. hypercapnia. early juveniles. "Unshelled abalone and corrupted urchins: development of marine calcifiers in a changing ocean.2011. Gibson. The authors conclude that projected climate change will have deleterious effects on development in these two vulnerable species. "Framing adaptive capacity through a history‐futures lens: Lessons from the South East Queensland Climate Adaptation Research Initiative. institutions and imaginative resources inherent to the social system examined. vulnerabilities larvae. DOI: 10. W. N.. Exposure to warming and acidification resulted in unshelled larvae and abnormal juveniles.1016/j. "Fertilization in a suite of coastal marine invertebrates from SE Australia is robust to near‐future ocean warming and acidification." Marine Biology 157(9): 2061‐2069. Ho. vulnerabilities invertebrates. an asteroid and a mollusc species was examined. M. Data about thermo and pH/pCO2 tolerance of fertilization and development in marina invertebrates are reviewed in order to do a prognostication over the next 100‐200 years. mitigation has to acknowledge the anthropogenic causes of climate change.1080/17450140802642424 KEYWORDS: Climate change. R. warming. tourism business and consumer contradictions accentuate the problem. (2012). climate change. scenarions Byrne. This paper identifies those issues and presents them as a series of research questions. and responses should be underpinned by this. R. Impact of ocean warming and ocean acidification on marine invertebrate life history stages:Vulnerability and potential for persistance in a changing ocean. Queensland. abalone Byrne. (2011). decreased carbonate saturation and their interactive effects are likely to have a negative impact on the skeletogenesis process of marine invertebrates. A. relating to ethical consumption. R. M. acidification. To assess future vulnerability that ocean might have on fertilization success. Contrastingly.abstract KEYWORDS: Climate change. ocean warming.2010. futures. societal challenges. M. The paper examines how the history‐futures interface can inform adaptation options to climate change based on case studies in Southeast Queensland. et al. and due to this. leadership. D. The paper suggests a set of 'practical' lessons for those engaged with climate change currently and into the future. DOI: 10. Eggs were fertilized in all combinations of three temperature and pH/PCO2 treatments and placed in projected near‐future Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 18 . eBook: 978‐1‐43‐985365‐8: http://www. Australia. Atkinson and J.2404. Vol 49. acidification." Proceedings of the Royal Society B‐Biological Sciences 278(1716): 2376‐2383. thermotolerance. N. as skeletal dissolution and mortality.org/content/early/2010/12/21/rspb.2404 http://rspb.1098/rspb. warmer less viscous may positively affect swimming speed of sperm.com/books/details/9781439853641/ KEYWORDS: Climate change.tandfonline.sciencedirect. technology. Gordon. While sustainable tourism is possible and desirable.taylorandfrancis.1080/17450140802642424 http://www. The data show that the warming and acidification/hypercapnia in the ocean produce damage on larvae. actions and communication. sustainable tourism. vulnerability. sustainability. DOI: 10..

T. et al. They concluded that higher water temperatures were associated with a higher frequency and severity of bleaching and also showed that microbial communities of bleached seaweeds were distinct from those in healthy seaweeds. macroalgae. and stability. hypercapnia. sustainable development Casini. http://www. M.1231332100 http://www. pathogens macroalgae. (2003).com/doi/10. fertilization. solar radiation.1073/pnas. and highlights the potential for warming to influence disease dynamics.. echinoid Campbell. (2003). (2009).1007/s00227‐010‐1474‐9 KEYWORDS: Climate change. D. environmental management. DOI: 10. W.jstor. applies and extends these points to the study mostly of systems programs linking knowledge to action for sustainable development. et al.springerlink. Climate change impacts should focus on vulnerable life history stages. coral‐reefs. The researchable topics are suggested as a way to better understand the socioeconomic impacts of MPAs and the potential response of stakeholders to proposed protected areas. indicating that fertilization may be robust to temperature and pH/PCO2 fluctuations.1016/S0964‐5691(03)00017‐6 http://www.org/discover/10.2011.x/abstract KEYWORDS: warming ocean.1365‐2486.1111/j. Clark. DOI: 10.. These results indicate that bleaching in some seaweeds is the result of temperature‐mediated bacterical infections. J. In general.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569103000176 KEYWORDS: bioeconomic model. reflecting possible adaptation to temperature and PH fluctuations that often characterise shallow coastal habitats. "Protected areas in marine resource management: another look at the economics and research issues. regimes. "Trophic cascades promote threshold‐like shifts in pelagic marine ecosystems. such as embryo and larval stages which have long development times and may therefore be subject to temperature and pH impacts. Environmental change can result in disease increase and spread by affecting host susceptibility and its pathogens. ocean acidification." Ocean & Coastal Management 46(5): 439‐456. C. DOI: warming ocean. http://onlinelibrary.wiley. "Knowledge systems for sustainable development. A. "Climate change and disease: bleaching of a chemically defended seaweed. General observations are made regarding the net effects of MPAs on these two stakeholder categories. macroalgae. information. This study provides a 19 Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 . functioning. H. The authors experimentally manipulated temperature. pathogens macroalgae. et al.02456. and the advising of "boundary work" which is working between communities of experts and communities of decision markers. the evaluations of scientific advice about environmental assessments.2307/3139884?uid=3737536&uid=2&uid=4&sid=21100837184741 KEYWORDS: Science boundary." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100(14): 8086‐8091. marine protected areas Cash. D. This paper reviews the research to date that relates to the economics of MPAs.conditions for SE Australia.com/content/b124760j48467523/ DOI: 10.. Finally. algal chemical defences and microbial pathogens to investigate how these factors impacted a bleaching disease affecting seaweeds. this work integrates. adaptation. The authors use information collected during three decades (1974–2005) to show evidence for a reorganization of the central Baltic Sea ecosystem caused by cascading effects of the top predator collapse. surface‐associated microbial communities. The authors discuss three main points or issues: the historical analyses of environmental issues. Harder. reserves. W." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106(1): 197‐202. Hjelm. the review finds that the empirical research on the economics of MPAs is limited and that there are several issues that might merit further investigation. A special effort is made to examine the evidence on the benefits and costs of MPAs in terms of consumptive and nonconsumptive marine resource interests. Fertilization was not significantly affected by warming or acidification. surface‐associated microbial communities. They provide quantitative evidence that the underlying mechanisms driving the trophic cascade allowed the establishment of 2 alternative ecosystem configurations that are separated by an ecological threshold and characterized by different system structure. W. (2011). negotiations. Carter." Global Change Biology 17(9): 2958‐2970.

org/content/106/1/197. ENSO. et al.2007. stresses Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 20 . (2008). In order to make optimal use of our current understanding of the implications of climate change. http://www. climate versus top‐down control CBD (2010). "Ecosystem stewardship: sustainability strategies for a rapidly changing planet. sea‐surface temperature. sea birds. DOI:10. reduced breeding success and altered breeding timing for some species.1073/pnas. "Observed and predicted effects of climate on Australian seabirds.html KEYWORDS: adaptation.. Devney. http://www..1016/j. DOI: 10. which is described as an action‐oriented framework that is proposed to address the social‐ecological sustainability of a changing planet. REPORT ON IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAMME OF WORK ON MARINE AND COASTAL BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY.sciencedirect.pnas. S.12. This paper reviews the literature to assess and determine the vulnerability of Australian seabirds to variation and change in climate and identify which species and ecosystems may be more resilient to future climate warming.cbd.5. The effects of climate variation on marine top predators remains unknown owing to the difficulty in obtaining long‐term and short‐term datasets on multiple species.7549e4d91267b3b9887800029022.int/doc/meetings/sbstta/sbstta‐14/official/sbstta‐14‐04‐en. nesting trends. the authors discuss the development of strategies to compliment this knowledge.009 http://www. biological diversity. Baltic Sea. which include reducing the magnitude of known stresses. climate change.int/doc/?meeting=SBSTTA‐14. This review discusses the concept of ecosystem stewardship. ecosystem resilience.pdf Keywords: coastal biodiversity. N.10. global warming. "Is climate change affecting the population dynamics of the endangered Pacific loggerhead sea turtle?" Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 356(1‐2): 136‐143.int. global status. implementation of the programme. social‐ecological systems that have some form of adaptive capacity and resilience to climate change will be able to sustain ecosystem services.0806649105 http://www. Kamezaki. R. UNEP/CBD/SBSTTA/14/INF/2 www.1071/mu10033 http://www. Many seabirds are apex predators for which changes in climatic and oceanic dynamics have driven range movements poleward. C. ecosystem.org/publications/artiklar/ecosystemstewardshipsustainabilitystrategiesforarapidl ychangingplanet.publish. A.cbd. This paper used generalised additive regression modeling and autoregressive‐prewhitened cross‐correlation analysis to explore whether regional ocean temperatures affect the long‐term nesting population dynamics for the 2 Pacific loggerhead genetic stocks in Japan. DOI: 10.int/doc/?meeting=SBSTTA‐14.com/science/article/pii/S0022098107005813 KEYWORDS: Climate change. E. invasive alien species Chaloupka. S.stockholmresilience." Emu 111(3): 235‐251.jembe. regional and global levels.. (2011).au/?paper=MU10033 KEYWORDS: Climate change.csiro. The authors posit that through ecological stewardship.short KEYWORDS: Alternative dynamics. The third sections review main barriers to implementation of the programme of work and priorities for capacity building to address these barriers. Chapin. Carpenter.tree. http://www.1016/j. ecological thresholds. (2010). resource management.contribution to debate on the consequences of top predator declines in marine systems. adopting proactive policies and avoidance of unsustainable socio‐ecological traps. The second section reviews the implementation of the programme of work at the national.008. This document is organized in three sections. L. UNEP/CBD/SBSTTA. Loggerhead sea turtle. http://www. et al. and Australia. SST Chambers. F. The first section provides an update on the global status of marine and coastal biodiversity.cbd. It is widely understood that pelagic longline fisheries pose the major risk for endangered Pacific loggerhead turtles but the effects of other risk factors such as human‐induced global climate change have rarely been considered. coastal protected areas. M.cbd. DOI: 10." Trends in Ecology and Evolution 25: 241‐249.2009. et al.

D." Ecology and Society 17(3). "Community Adaptation to the Hebei‐Spirit Oil Spill. M. pH. climate change." Science 324(5935): 1683.2011.1111/j. W. based on a social‐ecological systems (SESs) perspective. et al. The Arctic system is important biologically (migrations of marine mammals and fish as well as birds). partly due to the constancy of pH in the endolymph. Crassostrea virginica. oceans and scale: governance." Molecular Ecology 20(7): 1431‐1449. marine systems.1016/j. "People. calcification. This unexpected result highlights the need for a better understanding of the different effects of CO2 and pH on biomineralization processes in marine organisms. The paper focuses on the significance of dependence for communities to survive and adapt in times of environmental disasters. human‐ocean interactions. larval growth. "The transcriptomic responses of the eastern oyster. Arctic.nih. vulnerability Chapman.1579/0044‐7447(2006)35%5B198:BRAATM%5D2. with interactions between temperature and pH impacting gene expression. et al.com/science/article/pii/S1877343512000668 KEYWORDS: social‐ecological systems. (2012).CO%3B2 KEYWORDS: Resilience.1111/j.ncbi. R. economically (petroleum and minerals) and ecologically (e.. The authors successfully used transcript signatures to measure transcript responses to environmental conditions. livelihoods. The Arctic represents a somewhat important ecosystem for being able to maintain near‐natural ecological and social processes. environmental variation.1365‐294X. to environmental conditions. salinity and dissolved oxygen affected oyster physiology. therefore developing management policy to enhance the resilience and adaptation ability of the Arctic system are fundamentally essential..05018.x/abstract KEYWORDS: adaptation.cosust. G. F. While negative impacts of acidification on the growth of several other taxas have been reported and linked to reduced calcification. It examines several themes including governance. The findings show that dependence is necessary and can be both positive and negative depending on the relations between external entities and affected communities as well as the Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 21 . Dickson. well‐being and climate adaptation. Polar Regions are the cooling systems for the planet). M. adaptation. pH. A.allenpress.1169806 http://www. S." Ambio 35(4): 198‐202. Resilience is being able to sustain ecosystem attributes important to society despite change (such as global warming) and adaptation refers to the development of socio‐ecological relationships that function effectively under new (i. fish. genomics/proteomics.1365‐294X.x http://onlinelibrary. M.011 http://www. otolith.. Jr.com/doi/pdf/10. oyster physiology Charles.g. DOI: 10. and represents the opportunity to therefore better understand the dynamics of change and to apply these in areas which have had greater human modification.e.wiley.gov/pubmed/19556502 KEYWORDS: acidification. (2011).05. (2012). Hoel. The paper suggests that cross‐scale linkages connecting scales of impacts and levels of decision‐making are critical elements in improving marine SESs governance.Chapin. adaptation Checkley. livelihoods and climate change adaptation in marine social‐ecological systems.nlm. It was shown that temperature.2012.0.05018. "Building resilience and adaptation to manage Arctic change. changing) conditions.sciencedirect. The paper examines elements for successful and sustainable interactions of people and oceans. http://pinnacle. this study reports an enhancement of otolith growth in young white sea bass. A. Mancia.1126/science. DOI: 10. S. ecotoxicology.com/doi/10. "Elevated CO2 enhances otolith growth in young fish. This article explored changes in gene expression in the eastern oyster in response to oceanic physio‐chemical conditions and contaminants. et al. ecological genetics." Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 4(3): 351‐357.2011. (2006). DOI: 10. A.. cross‐scale linkages. gene expression. (2009). climate change. and propose that important linkages between transcriptomics and physiological outcomes may provide an integrated approach for assessing the impacts of climate change on marine organisms. Eggs and pre‐feeding larvae of white sea bass were experimentally subjected to CO2‐induced acidified conditions prior to the measurement of their sagittal otolith. metabolism Cheong.

00315. ocean acidification.1365‐2486.. particularly evident in the Pacific Ocean. (2011). Results indicate that climate change may result in local species extinctions and species invasions.x http://onlinelibrary. "Large‐scale redistribution of maximum fisheries catch potential in the global ocean under climate change. with major increases in high latitude regions and decreases in tropical regions. community adaptation.fsr012. L. et al.abstract KEYWORDS: biogeochemistry.2009.01995. This article uses a dynamic bioclimatic envelope model which aims to incorporate these factors into projections of species distributions and catch potentials within the Northeast Atlantic marine region. J. L. species extinction. distributions and catch potentials. climate change. the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) regions with the greatest increase in catch potential include Norway. Dunne. DOI: 10. DOI: 10. catch potential is expected to decline in the southward margins of semi‐enclosed seas and increase in poleward tips of continental shelf margins. redistribution.1111/j. DOI: 10. model projections. Lam. The authors report that this information has not been factored into previous global analyses which projected species distributional shifts and fisheries catch potential across the global oceanic systems by 2050 (contained within the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES)). W. DOI: 10.wiley. Y.com/doi/10.org/content/early/2011/04/13/icesjms. marine. et al. "Projecting global marine biodiversity impacts under climate change scenarios.2008. W." Fish and Fisheries 10(3): 235‐251. global marine biodiversity. "Integrating ecophysiology and plankton dynamics into projected maximum fisheries catch potential under climate change in the Northeast Atlantic. V. (2010). marine fishes. Atlantic. marine. The global patterns of climate change impacts on marine biodiversity were investigated using a novel dynamic bioclimatic envelope model. et al. fisheries.2009. W. climate change.com/doi/10. ecology. climate change impact.00315. global. W.x http://onlinelibrary. productivity. and the differences between the authors projections compared with previous projections. oxygen. This paper predicts the climate change impacts on global catch potential modeled for 2005‐2055 for 1066 species of exploited marine fish and invertebrates. W.1093/icesjms/fsr012 http://icesjms.ecologyandsociety. Lam. Chile and China. species invasion. Greenland. fisheries catch potential. adaptive capacity." Global Change Biology 16(1): 24‐35. Climate change impacts on global food supplies have in recent focused primarily on terrestrial sources.01995.1467‐2979.1467‐2979. Alaska and Russia (Asia). by projecting the 2050 distributional ranges of 1066 exploited fish and invertebrates. (2009). This illustrates the potential of large‐scale redistribution of global catch potential.wiley.5751/Es‐05079‐170326 http://www. species turnover.1111/j.oxfordjournals..2008. niche‐based model. distribution.capacity of the community to absorb resources and information.org/vol17/iss3/art26/ KEYWORDS: environmental disaster. many of the tropical regions that are likely to be impacted the most are already socio‐economically vulnerable to these changes.1111/j. models. ecosystem services Cheung. the EEZ regions with the greatest decrease in maximum catch potential are expected to include Indonesia. develop and implement adaptation policy aimed at minimizing climate change impacts through fisheries. Such dramatic shifts in species composition will have severe impacts on ecosystem services." ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil 68(6): 1008‐1018. growth. Additionally. Further to this. range shift Cheung.1365‐2486. temperature. Y. L. particularly intense in sub‐polar regions.1111/j. W. cod 22 Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 . W. ignoring the large contribution that comes from marine capture fisheries. environmental change Cheung. These results indicate the need to design. with global‐scale projections of the impacts of climate change on these fisheries is lacking. It is predicted that under these climate change scenarios. V. the United States (excluding Alaska and Hawaii). The authors discuss the implications of ocean acidification and reduced oxygen content on species growth performance.x/abstract KEYWORDS: catch. W. On the other hand.x/abstract KEYWORDS: bioclimate envelope..

DOI: 10. network analysis.499300 http://www. T. Kenya.com/science/article/pii/S0959378011001579 KEYWORDS: vulnerability. The most common management recommendation has been to prohibit fishing using fisheries closures. review Chircop.. The paper reviews existing knowledge of the exposure of marine ecosystems to ocean‐atmospheric changes. marine protected areas. This article outlines the need for action in marine environmental cooperation at both regional and global levels. E. Ecosystem. R. "Gear‐based fisheries management as a potential adaptive response to climate change and coral mortality. et al. "Review of climate change impacts on marine fisheries in the UK and Ireland. "Vulnerability of coastal communities to key impacts of climate change on coral reef fisheries. Socioeconomic Factors Cinner. Specific gears used by artisanal fishers differentially target fish functional groups. A. Given that full fisheries closures are not always practical. Mauritius.1016/j. amid recommendations from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment. R.1002/Aqc. McClanahan.09.11. The socioeconomic factors shaping the ways that societies use coral reefs are poorly understood. fisheries.1016/j.2010." Journal of Applied Ecology 46(3): 724‐732. Indian Ocean Islands. Fisheries methods.2248 http://onlinelibrary.Cheung.cub. et al. marine conservation. It proposes that. W. DOI: 10. Tanzania). This paper examines relationships between human population density... McClanahan. but this response often has limited support from resource users. impacts. (2012).wiley. management. the consequences of these changes for marine fisheries. This study presents a way to help reduce the negative impacts of climate change and potentially increase resilience of marine ecosystems by managing fishing gear. coastal marine ecosystem. R.sciencedirect. Pinnegar. selectively banning or restricting fishing gears is a potentially powerful tool for Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 23 . (2012)." Current Biology 19(3): 206‐212. It also proposes a network‐based approach to examining sensitivity to changes that incorporates linkages between fishery and non‐fishery occupations. mitigation and adaptation should not be hindered. DOI: 10. UK. and adaptive capacity) of coastal communities to the impacts of coral bleaching on fishery returns. and the adaptability of the fisheries sector in the UK and Ireland.1002/aqc.018 http://www. J. L. coral reefs. particularly measures that can generate co‐benefits. climate change. McClanahan. DOI: 10." Global Environmental Change 22(1): 12‐20. Seychelles. sensitivity. The article discusses the current situation within the South China Sea (SCS) region and the need for accelerated action to protect marine ecosystems in light of further proposed climate and ecological changes to the regions coastal marine ecosystems.com/doi/10.1080/00908320.2011. J. adaptive capacity. South China Sea. J. J. T. Interviews as Topic. adaptation. despite knowledge gaps. W. Fishes/growth & development. traps and spear guns targeted a high proportion of species highly susceptible to coral mortality and critical to coral reef resilience." Ocean Development & International Law 41(4): 334‐356. (2010). Managing fisheries across coral mortality events is expected to influence the persistence of species and reef recovery potential..2008. et al. Such approach is believed to provide insights into the types of policy interventions that may help reduce vulnerability. and the condition of coral reef fish populations in five countries across the Indian Ocean (Madagascar. a multidimensional index of socioeconomic development. "Regional cooperation in marine environmental protection in the South China Sea: a reflection on new directions for marine conservation.2244/abstract KEYWORDS: fisheries.sciencedirect. "Linking social and ecological systems to sustain coral reef fisheries. et al. (2009).com/doi/full/10.055 http://www. For instance. T. environmental change Cinner. (2009).gloenvcha." Aquatic Conservation‐Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 22(3): 368‐388. climate change. ocean acidification.com/science/article/pii/S0960982208015728 KEYWORDS: Conservation of Natural Resources.1080/00908320.tandfonline. region Cinner.2010. The paper examines three dimensions of vulnerability (exposure.499300 KEYWORDS: adaptation. Population Density. E. E. reef complexity. IPCC.

impacts. sea level) to observed changes in ecosystem structure and fish production processes. After reviewing the current state and trends in aquaculture production. thermal tolerance. energy expenditure. Papua New Guinea. D.com/doi/10. Pacific salmon. The first paper links the physical processes known to be impacted by climate change (e. Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 24 .060517 http://www. K. herbivory. global warming. sex specific. based on power sharing and ecosystem approaches) is less uncertain and results in greater benefits and long term viability. (2011). Although primary fisheries management may be beneficial for more fishermen. adaptation.1111/j.1467‐2979." Journal of Experimental Biology 214(18): 3074‐3081. coral reef. Sockeye salmon.00392. Andrew. circulation. Jeffries. (2009). K.x/abstract KEYWORDS: Fisheries management.org/docrep/012/i0994e/i0994e00.ncbi. carbon emission Cochrane. artisanal fishery.x http://www. K. This paper further explores the concepts of vulnerability and adaptive capacity of systems. T. tertiary management (higher costs. small‐scale fisheries.1365‐2664. phase‐shifts. No.ingentaconnect. L. Fraser river. their spatial and socio‐economical heterogeneity. Rome: 212 pp. authors propose scenarios of anticipated responses of fish production to climate change in different regional marine ecosystems. spawning migration. This work investigated the resilience of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) to high temperatures in comparison to other Pacific salmonids. degradation. while tertiary management is a necessity for long term sustainability.2010. De Young. "Primary fisheries management: a minimum requirement for provision of sustainable human benefits in small‐scale fisheries. The last paper reviews the potential impacts of climate change on aquaculture.fao. potential adaptation and mitigation procedures that could be implemented in this sector are addressed." Fish and Fisheries 12(3): 275‐288. N. its low‐cost implementation results in low benefits and high risk due to high uncertainties. These characteristics offer a physiological explanation for the success of this kind of salmon throughout the current climate warming and would confer a selective advantage over other species. heart rate. coral bleaching. where primary health care covers the basic needs of all.wiley. DOI: 10. L. the authors examine the direct and indirect impacts of climate change on this sector. primary management. On the other hand.htm KEYWORDS: Climate change.2010. The second paper focuses on capture fisheries and the expected impacts of climate change on these complex and dynamic social‐ecological systems.nih. carbon sequestration. data storage tags. inland. This study discusses the benefits and limits of primary fisheries management.00392. "Exceptional aerobic scope and cardiovascular performance of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) may underlie resilience in a warming climate. fresh water. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper. In the last section. et al. swimming performance. climate change. exploitation.1467‐2979. C. ISBN:978‐92‐5‐106347‐7 http://www.. marine protectred areas. Climate change implications for fisheries and aquaculture: overview of current scientific knowledge.gov/pubmed/21865520 KEYWORDS: cardiac output.com/content/bsc/jappl/2009/00000046/00000003/art00027 KEYWORDS: adaptive management. marine.g. DOI: 10. conservation Clark.nlm. oxygen consumption rate.reducing the detrimental ecosystem effects of climate change disturbances. reef fish communities. resilience.01648. aquaculture impacts.2009. precautionary. DOI:10.. 530.x http://onlinelibrary.1111/j. metabolic rates Cochrane. et al. poverty reduction. Finally. scenarios.. The reason is because the pink salmon has some exceptional cardiorespiratory adaptations and thermal tolerance during their spawning migration in the rivers. (2011). health care. climate change. Primary fisheries management is therefore seen as an emergency and temporary procedure. metabolic rate.1111/j. approach. temperature. et al. M. This workshop report contains three papers reviewing different aspects of the current scientific knowledge of climate change impacts on fisheries and aquaculture. British Columbia.1242/jeb. Great Barrier reef. and the need for government intervention in the implementation of mitigation and adaptation procedures. mitigation strategies. stratification. fisheries. in both marine and inland fisheries. a term initially used in health care.

and suggest that annual temperature maxima levels within 30 years may cause frequent bleaching and widespread decline." Ecology and Society 17(3). Results suggest a strong negative impact of poor weather conditions on the level of satisfaction of tourists. This report presents the role that decision support tools can play in marine spatial planning. Decision Guide: Selecting Support Tools for Marine Spatial Planning. Inputting scientific and spatial information into decision making approaches is gaining momentum. The report is intended as a Decision Guide in order to assist resource managers and planners with the selection process of decision support tools for marine spatial planning relevant to their region. Stanford Universtiy. Potential mechanisms providing resistance and protection to elevated temperatures and light include inducible heat shock proteins that act to refold denatured cellular and structural proteins.com/science/article/pii/S0065288103460045 KEYWORDS: climate change. seasickness). spatially‐explicit tools will be required by resource planners and managers to assist with the incorporation of data from a range of disciplines (i. When considered in combination with experimental and observational evidence of coral recovery. the assessment of management alternatives and the evaluation of management progress. The effect of weather conditions on the reef experience of 1000 tourists in the Cairns/Port Douglas region was tested.com/doi/abs/10. Brown (2003). and B. Foley. et al. heat‐shock‐protein. weather. DOI:10. E. DOI: 10. A. production of oxidative enzymes which act to inactivate harmful oxygen radicals. In order to achieve these goals.. coral bleaching. fluorescent coral pigments that reflect and dissipate light energy. yet these projections have not incorporated the variability which exists in bleaching response. Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 25 . El Niño. 46: 183‐223. models will not be able to accurately predict coral reef destiny until there is a better understanding of coral‐algal acclimatization and adaptation potential. producing toxic forms of oxygen which inhibit cellular processes. This result indicates the importance of weather conditions on the reef tourism industry. which act to increase biochemical reaction rates associated with zooxanthellar photosynthesis. Coles. C. http://centerforoceansolutions. ecological. "Community Resilience and Oil Spills in Coastal Louisiana. and B. (2012).1016/S0065‐2881(03)46004‐5 http://www. whereby human activities in the marine environment are planned around maintaining ecosystem health. "Welcome to the Wet Tropics: the importance of weather in reef tourism resilience. S. E. Prideaux (2009).org/sites/default/files/cos_msp_guide_6. an industry already vulnerable to climate change. London. J. economic.e. and phenotypic adaptations of zooxanthellae and adaptive shifts in their populations at increased temperatures.." Current Issues in Tourism 12(2): 89‐104. L. et al. these mechanisms suggest an undefined capacity to adapt to climate change impacts. social systems).tandfonline. with the overarching goal to promote the efficient use of marine areas while reducing the impact this may have on marine ecosystems. tourism. Great Barrier Reef. Advances in Marine Biology. diving. Scleractinian corals Colten. Information suggests that corals and their associated symbionts may be capable of acclimatization and selective adaptation to a degree. particularly during periods of El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). function and services. The report provides a framework for future planning processes. conflict. Great Barrier Reef Coleman. marine spatial planning. C. M.1080/13683500802596367 http://www. Studies indicate that bleaching results largely from increased sea water temperatures under high light conditions. Southern oscillation event. and uses a spatial component to add a regional‐based focus. H. Coral bleaching ‐ Capacity for acclimatization and adaptation.1080/13683500802596367 KEYWORDS: climate change.pdf KEYWORDS: climate change. resource use. Coral bleaching has occurred with increasing frequency in the past 20 years. ecosystem‐based management. (2011). planning tool. reef. due to the disruption of their activities (e.sciencedirect. Academic Press Ltd.g. impact. Although there are limits to level of acclimatization. Hay.Coghlan. Predictions of increasing ocean temperatures result from global warming.

This study further reviews several published ecosystem services values. and corals reefs are used as a model to demonstrate this.org/vol17/iss3/art5/ KEYWORDS: resilience. job loss and indirect economic costs associated with marine habitat damage caused by acidification.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10. response. adaptation. The authors argue that the expected increase in resilience of natural communities to climate change through reduction in local stressors may be incorrect. The projected negative economic impacts are expected to particularly occur in developing and coastal nations. indicating that resilience‐based management may result in increased vulnerability to the impacts of climate change. J. and recovery. marine protected areas. H. It analyses activities taken in advance of and following a series of oil spills in terms of community resilience: anticipation. Global trends suggest an increased vulnerability of low‐latitude regions to ocean acidification and a consequently greater need for adaptive mitigation strategies. adaptation. http://www. Caribbean reefs." Environmental Research Letters 4(2): 8.tos. social memory. phase‐shifts. C. The causes and consequences of ocean acidification on ecosystem services are discussed. economic projections for the next 50 years are modeled using atmospheric CO2 trajectories and laboratory‐based studies of their effects. This acidification of surface waters and decrease in areas hospitable to calcium carbonate shells and skeletons may have severe impact for humans. ecosystem services. M. Coral reef conservation management typically advocates marine reserves as spatial management options to increase resilience.ecologyandsociety. M. "Anticipating ocean acidification's economic consequences for commercial fisheries.The paper employs a comparative historical analysis to examine practices that natural resource‐dependent residents deploy to cope with disruptions and that are retained in their collective memory ("inherent resilience"). Darling (2010). Increasing dissolved CO2 and decreasing ocean pH. coral reefs. (2009). and E.1371%2Fjournal. with focus on mollusks.pdf KEYWORDS: climate change. I. management implications Cooley.5751/Es‐05047‐170305 http://www. Coral reefs are in decline worldwide. and. mitigation. "Rethinking Ecosystem Resilience in the Face of Climate Change. vulnerability Cooley. alternative states.1000438 http://www.. and S.1088/1748‐9326/4/2/024007 http://iopscience. ocean acidification. and A." Oceanography 22(4): 172‐181.1000438 KEYWORDS: Resilience. ecosystem resilience. which also alters resource availability and disrupts other ecosystem services." Plos Biology 8(7): 5.1371/journal. carbonate ion concentration and calcium carbonate mineral saturation on a worldwide scale.org/oceanography/archive/22‐4_cooley.pbio. coral‐reef crisis. shocks. DOI: 10.plosbiology. compares global fisheries captures and seafood production to protein human requirements. but the authors discuss whether reserves really do meet this goal. reduced vulnerability. their predators and also their coral reef habitats. and face multiple stressors including climate change. DOI: 10. R. biodiversity. "Resilience thinking meets social theory: Situating social change in Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 26 . aquaculture Cote. climate change. economic assessment. L. This paper reviews the implications for marine management strategies and proposes potential adaptation strategies designed to support fishery based communities which may already possess lower economic resilience. the first of which being declining harvests and fishery revenues from decreases in shellfish. resilience. S. commercial fisheries. In 2007 mollusks contributed $748 million (19%) of the US ex‐vessel revenues.org/1748‐9326/4/2/024007 KEYWORDS: Climate change. DOI: 10. S. Doney (2009). ocean acidification. "Ocean Acidification's Potential to Alter Global Marine Ecosystem Services. Using a US fishery example. disturbance. fishing. Nightingale (2012). adaptive capacity. fisheries. et al. which are the most dependent on ecosystem services. the global ocean absorbs about ~30% of the released anthropogenic CO2. R. S. social‐ecological systems. management Cote. Increasing anthropogenic CO2 emissions over the last two centuries have substantially increased ocean acidification. Kite‐Powell. The impacts of ocean acidification on this fishery include substantial declines in revenue.pbio. eutrophication and sedimentation.iop. and currently.

" Progress in Human Geography 36(4): 475‐489. human livelihoods. DOI: 10. DOI: 10.org/vol17/iss1/art4/ KEYWORDS: fisheries.1205 http://onlinelibrary. trade‐offs Cubero‐Pardo.. Balaenoptera acutorostrata. et al.cambridge. predicted impacts. adaptive capacity. and feedbacks into the resilience of fisheries as a social‐ecological system. This chapter explores and proposes how the fisher and fishing society is adapting (or not) to the many changes and challenges now faced. governance.wiley. C. develops the themes of currently actions for future fishing. This paper examines adaptation among villages in a south Indian fishery using livelihood diversification analysis. It suggests that examining the role of knowledge at the social and environmental dynamics intersections is a way to help address such questions.1016/j. marine mammals. DOI: 10. They concluded that major development centers require management priority if cetaceans are to be protected.N. values. et al.003 http://www.1177/0309132511425708 http://phg.2008. They explored the Gulf of California as a case study.gloenvcha. social theory. S.5751/Es‐04483‐170104 http://www. fish abundance and fish habitats. This work discusses about the cause of the global crisis in fisheries. DOI: 10. fish habitats Coulthard. (2008)." Ecology and Society 17(1). prediction of impacts. large marine areas. climate change‐fisheries. Tursiops truncatus.com/science/article/pii/S0959378008000277 KEYWORDS: fisheries.sciencedirect. The findings suggest that fishers involved with a largely specialised fishery are the least able to adapt.. India Coulthard. UK. W. society adaptation.04. "An exploratory framework for the empirical measurement of resilience. livelihood analysis. cetacean fragility. anthropogenic risks and damage. adaptive capacity. "A proposal to define vulnerability of cetacean areas to human development: variables and analysis procedures applied to the Gulf of California. It argues that policies seeking to support fisheries resilience need to incorporate the consequences of adaptation on fisher well‐being. social‐ecological systems Coulthard. S.ecologyandsociety. and the pursuit of well‐being on the other in the context of fisheries. G. Adaptation and conflict within fisheries: insights for living with climate change. principal component analysis. (2009). adaptation. This methodology was based on cost‐effective variables for which data can be easily obtained through governmental and research institutions. S.1205/abstract Keywords: multivariate analysis.1002/aqc. I." Global Environmental Change 18(3): 479‐489. Cambridge. Adapting to climate change: thresholds. Humpback whales. (2012). vulnerability. G. The paper examines normative and epstemological questions stemming from the extension of the concept of resilience to society. Barnes. resilience." Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 27 . This publication classified the cetacean habitats into vulnerability levels related anthropogenic activity and cetacean characteristics.sagepub." Aquatic Conservation‐Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 21(5): 433‐447. climate change. O’Brien. Lorenzoni and K.socio‐ecological systems (SES) research. Minke whales. Donovan. spatial modelling. Cambridge University Press: 255‐268. (2011).com/content/36/4/475 KEYWORDS: resilience.com/doi/10. adaptation. "Can We Be Both Resilient and Well.org/chapter. social‐ecological systems.1002/aqc. bottle nosed dolphins. http://ebooks. agency in negotiating adaptation strategies.jsf?bid=CBO9780511596667&cid=CBO9780511596667A026 Keywords: conflict within fisheries. S. The paper explores tensions between adapting to change on the one hand. Florida Bay impacts Cumming. and What Choices Do People Have? Incorporating Agency into the Resilience Debate from a Fisheries Perspective. P. Adger. (2005). climate change. "Adapting to environmental change in artisanal fisheries ‐ Insights from a South Indian Lagoon. identified biophysical and anthropogenic factors and variables in order to measure those factors. cetacean vulnerability.

springerlink.2010.8 °C.pdf KEYWORDS: Resilience.1007/s10021‐005‐0129‐z http://www. customs and taboos. knowledge co‐production." Marine Policy 35(4): 440‐449. co‐management. global warming. community. climate change. This approach provides insight into mechanisms behind change as well as to consequences of policy and management decisions. Australia.5 °S) with published bleaching threshold data (Caribbean. S. or formal archives and libraries). integrated management. identity. level of education and technological advances) and memory (e. Dale.marpol.5–26." Marine Policy 34(5): 821‐830. migration. The results expose that the dominant coral kind at study zone are highly susceptible to thermal stress. traditional knowledge Dalton.mdpi. and challenges associated with knowledge co‐production using a co‐management case study in Nunavut. DOI: 10.com/content/p3374422353780v1/fulltext. and R. Ecosystem based management has recently been adopted and implemented across national and international organizations and governmental policy makers. social‐ecological system. seed banks. ecosystem‐based management. R.003 http://www.5 °C) in the study zone for a period greater than four weeks. The autors compared their data (NSW. Canada. connectivity.3390/d3040592 http://www. They found the coral bleaching threshold is at 30–31. socio‐economy. Canada. Also fundamental to understanding the concepts of resilience and identity are innovation (sources may include diversity. social and biological legacies that persist after disturbances. "Monitoring coral health to determine coral bleaching Response at high latitude eastern Australian reefs: an applied model for a changing climate.sciencedirect." Diversity 3(4): 592‐610. managers. "Understanding marine ecosystem based management: A literature review. which has previously not been done. marine ecosystem.marpol. interdisciplinary. laws. This article discusses the emerging concept of. Surrogate measures of current resilience are developed based on assessment of potential for identity changes under specified perturbations and drivers when combined with a scenario‐based approach to considering alternative futures.g. and finally proposed a coral bleaching model. Elderly people.1016/j.01.com/research/understanding‐marine‐ecosystem‐based‐management‐a‐literature‐review/ KEYWORDS: complex adaptive systems. This type of management takes into account the intricate nature and interconnectedness of ecosystem components and ecosystem services which are determined by the structures and functions thereof. and A.1016/j. Knowledge co‐production is proposed to assist scientists. with the aim of learning and adapting within a co‐management capacity for the management of regional marine ecosystem areas. DOI: 10. Prellezo (2010). therefore increases in seawater temperature (exceed 26. discusses its implementation across fisheries and marine systems and acknowledges that human activity can play a vital role in transforming ecosystem functioning. Armitage (2011).019 http://www. The authors highlight how a greater understanding of knowledge co‐production could assist with overcoming challenges that may arise within a co‐management environment. Resilience is likened to a system’s ability to maintain its identity (key relationships and their continuity through space and time). Carroll (2011).10. with associated mortality determined by the duration of the thermal anomaly and the intensity of insolation. social learning. scenario Curtin. will result in extensive coral bleaching. DOI: 10. This review addresses concepts of ecosystem based management.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X1000206X KEYWORDS: adaptive capacity. "Marine mammal co‐management in Canada's Arctic: Knowledge co‐production for learning and adaptive capacity. stakeholder involvement. zoning. 30‐31.2010. and D. infrastructure. Africa and central and northern Pacific regions).Ecosystems 8(8): 975‐987. networks. A.mendeley. ecology.com/1424‐2818/3/4/592 Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 28 . marine users and the broader community in sharing their expertise and knowledge across multiple aspects and uses of the marine environment. This paper seeks to explore a framework for the operationalization of resilience for empirical studies. This work explored spatial patterns of coral bleaching to determine variability of bleaching susceptibility among coral kinds. challenges.5 °S ranges between 26. DOI:10. environment.

climate change. "Marine viruses and global climate change.00323. exploitation.00258. qualitative modelling.com. transport policies. climate change mitigation and adaptation in developed nations. Haemocytes. (2009). Community structure was identified as a major driver of dynamics. P. This book provides guidance for spatial planners on how to meet the economic.2010.com/doi/10.1111/j.2008. Crawford. et al. marine prokaryotes. viruses could influence processes contributing to climate change. Such an approach complements quantitative methods. adaptation. FAO: 2‐43. Some points developed here are: climate change and spatial planning responses. Superoxide anion Danovaro. et al. The authors analyze the mitigation actions like the Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 29 . urban form. model.1111/j. subtropical scleractinian corals. This approach permitted to cope for the lack of precise data and enabled the exploration of the socio‐economic feedbacks controlling exploited systems. W. M.2010. vulnerability. et al.1467‐2979. S. time averaging Dang. (2009). Corinaldesi C. the abalone would more resilience to viruses than bacteria under conditions of elevated temperature. The data suggests that marine viruses will be significantly influenced by climate change and that in turn. The conceptual frameworks is in the categories of fisheries. "Influence of elevated temperatures on the antiviral and antibacterial immune response of abalone Haliotis rubra. indicators. Daw. (2008).Keywords: coral bleaching. vulnerability and resilience. biological carbon pump. DOI: 10.sciencedirect.01. regional development. transport policies." Fish and Fisheries 10(3): 305‐322. prolonged exposure to elevated temperature depressed antibacterial activity. marine aerosol. patterns of settlement compared.google.x/abstract KEYWORDS: marine viruses. J. Dambacher. J. Worldfish Centre Report. DOI:10. transitioning away from oil and vulnerability.00258.au/books?id=rnEfm7tok4cC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false KEYWORDS: change climate. current trends and status of fisheries. Climate change and capture fisheries. Qualitative modeling was used to identify and interpret indicators of use in the implementation of ecosystem‐based fishery management. (2010). to livelihood and economic development.fsi..2012. (2012). This work reported a positive correlation between water temperature and both antiviral and antibacterial activity in wild abalone.1574‐6976." FEMS Microbiology Reviews 35: 993‐1034. Nevertheless. socioeconomic context and units and scales of analysis. V. et al. Gaughan. bleaching thresholds.1467‐2979.1111/j. D. Antibacterial activity. J.. the exposure and sensitivity of fisheries to climate change. DOI: 10." Fish and Shellfish Immunology 32: 732 – 740.1016/j. This review explores the concepts of fisheries' contribution to food security. R. In both cases. Therefore.x http://onlinelibrary.. This article discusses case studies of climate change and the potential consequences on virus functions and virus–host interactions. urban form.wiley. social and environmental challenges that climate change raises for urban and regional development. The authors also experimented with abalone in the laboratory to determine that the results were consistent with the field study.. ocean acidification. Planning for Climate Change: Strategies for Mitigation and Adaptation for Spatial Planners. Heat stress.. which often suffer from the lack of observations. et al. London.com/doi/10.1574‐6976.00323.1111/j.x http://onlinelibrary.x/abstract KEYWORDS: ecosystem‐based management. Davoudi. community matrix.wiley. thermal stress. "Qualitative modelling and indicators of exploited ecosystems.022 http://www. Adger. The authors analyse published information about how marine viruses influence biochemical process of the ocean. this immune depression due to prolonged exposure to elevated water temperatures could increase epidemic disease occurrence with continued ocean warming. http://books. Models describing different ecosystems differently harvested were used and their sensitivities to perturbations tested.com/science/article/pii/S1050464812000332 Keywords: Antiviral activity. T. Speck. Earthscan.2008. press perturbation.

o. Shrimp ponds in New Caledonia are threatened by sea level rise due to their proximity to mangroves.fisheries' contribution to greenhouse gas emissions. Although the method requires improvements (e. The combined effect of increased temperature stress and reduced aragonite saturation state of seawater may be responsible for such a decline. "To Fish or Not to Fish: Factors at Multiple Scales Affecting Artisanal Fishers' Readiness to Exit a Declining Fishery.uk/polopoly_fs/1. G. adaptation and mitigation.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10. aquaculture. Finally. socio‐economic drivers.au/publications/coastline/climate‐change‐risks‐to‐australias‐coasts.aspx KEYWORDS: risk assessment. L.com/abstracts/aei/v2/n1/p27‐38/ Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 30 . E. Results indicate a calcification decline by 14. It demonstrates how adaptive responses to change are influenced by factors at multiple scales. market and trade impacts. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper.gov. This study presents a simple.pone. Bahri. scenarios. vulnerability of regions.0031460 http://www. ISBN:978‐92‐5‐106347‐7 ftp://ftp. large‐scale resilience Daw. http://www. Adding 15 cm of agricultural soil to the pond bottoms reduced the vulnerability to sea level rise and unexpectedly enhanced the yield of the shrimp ponds." PLoS ONE 7(2). After reviewing the current state and trends in aquaculture production. climate change strategy. Cochrane. DOI:10.1126/science.gov/pubmed/19119230 KEYWORDS: climate change. 530: 151‐212.. J.uea.g. A. This chapter reviews the potential impacts of climate change on aquaculture. adaptation. https://www. impacts of global mitigation actions on fisheries. Soto (2009). (2011).1371%2Fjournal.nlm. "Mitigation of sea level rise effects by addition of sediment to shrimp ponds. low‐cost and efficient procedure to mitigate the effects of sea level rise.. C. Adaptation is one of the three pillars of the Australian Government’s climate change strategy. Skeletal records from 328 colonies of massive Porites corals from 69 reefs of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) were analyzed to investigate trends in calcification. J.1371/journal. B.fao. FAO. et al. (2009).ac. Rome. Climate change and aquaculture: potential impacts. De Young. environmental change DCC. potential adaptation and mitigation procedures that could be implemented in this sector are addressed.climatechange. Beliaeff. M.org/docrep/fao/012/i0994e/i0994e04.1165283 http://www. fisheries.pdf KEYWORDS: climate change. unprecedented in the last 400 years. future impacts. mitigation De'ath. (2009). This Report presents the findings of the first national assessment of the risks of climate change for the whole of Australia’s coastal zone..plosone. et al. through increased survival and food conversion ratio.nih. D. C. Climate change risks to Australia’s coast: A first pass national assessment. et al. value‐based decisions. Lough. Also are discussed the climate change impacts on fisheries like the potential impacts ans impacts pathways. "Declining coral calcification on the Great Barrier Reef. C.pdf KEYWORDS: Climate change. S. DOI: 10. coral reef. The paper investigates how socioeconomic variables affected whether fishermen would exit fisheries in the context of hypothetical scenarios of catch declines. S. impacts by sector. examples of adaptation in fisheries and the building adaptive capacity in fisheries. groups and hot spots. and D. the addition of soil negatively impacted meiofaunal colonization) it appears to be an effective and easily applicable solution for New Caledonian farmers.104700!daw%20et%20al%202008%20climate%20change%20and%20captur e%20fisheries. (2012). Soto and T." Aquaculture Environment Interactions 2(1): 27‐38. calcification. T. vulnerability Della Patrona. D.0031460 KEYWORDS: adaptive capacity. M.ncbi. Government.3354/aei00028 http://www. and highlight the importance of understanding natural resource‐based livelihoods in the context of the wider economy and society. Cinner. fisheries. the authors inspect the direct and indirect impacts of climate change on this sector. Climate change implications for fisheries and aquaculture: overview of current scientific knowledge. Great Barrier Reef.2% since 1990. K.pone.int‐res. coastal zone De Silva. DOI: 10." Science 323: 116‐119.

K. fishery. and whose influences are often difficult to separate.com/doi/10. A. et al.1071/wr08142 http://www. "Cyclonic and anthropogenic influences on tern populations.. breeding‐population dynamics. Short.01565." Ecology Letters 14(2): 156‐162. climate. G. projections.cell. "Regime shifts in marine ecosystems: detection. and determines that the ability to effectively adapt or manage regime shifts depends upon their uniqueness and to understanding causes.org/content/68/6/1019. Regime shifts are relatively sudden changes between contrasting. adaptation Denman. the large fluctuations in the sizes of the breeding populations of these species. Neither cyclones nor tourism had lasting negative impacts on these seabird species breeding.1461‐0248. mitigation.. while the potential pressure of carbon dioxide has increased. These drivers can include both natural and anthropogenic components acting simultaneously.abstract KEYWORDS: adaptation.au/paper/WR08142 KEYWORDS: anthropogenic stressors.2008.1093/icesjms/fsr074 http://icesjms. limited availability of data on tourism trends suggest that a cautionary approach towards management of these populations is warranted and that strategies attempting to mitigate the potential impacts from tourism and pelagic fishery industries should continue. CO2. Long‐term population.oxfordjournals.KEYWORDS: aquaculture.008 http://www. coral‐reef. yield. physiological response. DOI: 10. cyclone activity and anthropogenic disturbance. The authors provide recommendations of a framework which considers the effects of multiple stressors derived from climate change on the thermal tolerance abilities of marine organisms. population dynamics. climate change. shrimp pond. on long‐term population trends. DOI: 10. German Bight. (2008). prediction and management. et al.. However. http://onlinelibrary. The authors worked used 18 years of demographic data collected on the three principal seabird species breeding at Michaelmas Cay (Australia) to investigate the potential influence of two threatening processes. strategy. behavioural response.. management. The authors present research findings of predicted changes in the ocean surface pH levels from the Canadian Earth System Model (CanESM‐1) which demonstrate that CO2 is the major driving factor of ocean acidification when compared with other changes associated with climate change. Diaz‐Pulido. et al. B. There are three key drivers of regime shifts in oceans: abiotic processes. ocean acidification. the inconclusive nature of the recent population trends. linkages and observational capabilities.1016/j. biotic processes and changes to structural habitat." ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil 68(6): 1019‐1029. et al. M.csiro. DOI: 10. the North Sea and Caribbean coral reefs. C. Gouezo. This framework uses three examples: the North Pacific. Barange.com/trends/ecology‐evolution/abstract/S0169‐5347(08)00166‐3 KEYWORDS: long‐term changes." Wildlife Research 36(5): 368‐378. The conceptual framework presented enhances oceanic regime shift detection and prediction ability as well as to effectively manage these shifts. M. M.x/abstract Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 31 . thermal tolerance Devney. framework. J. sea level rise. (2009). Ocean acidification has led to a reduction in the level of supersaturation of calcium carbonate in marine environments globally. R. This paper presents the case that increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO(2) may be an additional process driving a shift from corals to seaweeds on reefs by comparing the mortality of coral (Acropora intermedia) relative to the abundance of the coral‐reef seaweed (Lobophora papenfussii).1111/j. "Potential impacts of future ocean acidification on marine ecosystems and fisheries: current knowledge and recommendations for future research. "High CO2 enhances the competitive strength of seaweeds over corals. cod Gadus morhua.publish. variability.2010.03. persistent states of a system. (2011). and the marine realm has exhibited surprisingly abrupt changes in form and function. (2011). deYoung." Trends in Ecology & Evolution 23(7): 402‐409. scale (local to basin) and management action potential (adaptation to mitigation strategies). Being able to predict oceanic regime shifts and direct management accordingly depends on the shift characteristics in terms of drivers (anthropogenic and natural).tree.wiley. North Pacific. Christian.

(2009). coral reefs. DOI: 10. et al. Great Barrier Reef Dixson.org/content/39/1/66." Ecology Letters 13(1): 68‐75. phase shifts. macroalgae. et al. disturbance. increased frequency of extreme weather events that cause mass coral mortality are likely to more often set back coral reef communities to early successional stages or alternate states. This work demonstrates that Amphiprion percula (marine damselfish) larvae innately detect predators by olfactory cues and that this ability remains through to larval settlement. climate change Donelson. recovery. consequences lie in the replenishment and sustainability of marine populations.abstract KEYWORDS: Great Barrier Reef.1.wiley. The mechanisms of ecological recovery in inshore reefs of the Great Barrier Reef were investigated after the 2006 mass bleaching event.. (1999).1093/icb/39. projected for 2100) and the lowest prey concentration. individuals also grew slower and produced smaller eggs.nlm. providing new insights for reef ecosystem management. percula larvae were not affected by CO2 exposure. "Effects of elevated water temperature and food availability on the reproductive performance of a coral reef fish. However. DOI: 10.1111/j.01400. coral reef fish Done. L. Decreased calcification rates caused by reduced aragonite saturation state of water may also increase the impact that severe weather events have on coral reefs. D. The effect of temperature and food availability on the reproductive performance of the coral reef damselfish (Acanthochromis polyacanthus) was experimentally tested on breeding pairs over a full breeding season. olfactory cues.1371/journal.ncbi. Additionally. "Ocean acidification disrupts the innate ability of fish to detect predator olfactory cues. coral reef. McCook.1461‐0248. If this inability to distinguish predators translates to increases in mortality. adaptation.pone.1111/j. (2010). P. The flow‐on effects for other reef biota such as reef fish are unpredictable. M. DOI: 10. Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 32 . algal overgrowth and coral recovery." PLoS One 4(4): e5239. Larger areas and longer the period of dominance of coral/coralline algae zones of reefs by non‐calcifying stages will reduce the capacity of the reef to accrete the limestone bulk which is locked up in the large skeletal units of the late (old) successional stages.e. (2010). "Doom and boom on a resilient reef: climate change. J. Observations show that an unprecedented bloom of seaweed occurred after the event. and that colonized corals recovered in less than a year and without involving the recruitment of new coral larvae. ocean acidification Diaz‐Pulido. "Coral community adaptability to environmental change at the scales of regions. coral–algal competition." Marine Ecology Progress Series 401: 233‐243.2009. retaining the ability to distinguish predators from non‐predators. P. With increasing temperatures. G. but a shifting steady‐state mosaic null model may deliver a useful conceptual tool for baseline definition and tracking subsequent changes through time. L. Newly hatched A.. not previously exposed to predators) were able to distinguish between olfactory cues of predators and non‐predators. The reduction of reproductive output was found to be a combination of reduced breeding rate and reduced spermatogenesis. et al. T. larvae at settlement stage became attracted to predators and were unable to distinguish between these and non‐predators.2009.01400. when eggs and larvae were exposed to conditions simulating ocean acidification (pH 7.oxfordjournals. resilience.com/doi/10.5°C.8 and 1000ppm CO2). L. Reproductive output declined with increasing temperature and was null at the highest temperature (31.66 http://icb.x/abstract KEYWORDS: Amphiprion percula. adaptation. stable states. Larvae that were reared in aquaria (i. predator recognition. Munday. Munday.0005239 http://www.1461‐0248.. J.gov/pubmed/19384423 KEYWORDS: climate change." American Zoologist 39(1): 66‐79.nih. J. These results indicate the high resilience of some reefs through mechanisms of regeneration and out‐competition of seaweed.KEYWORDS: Carbon dioxide. Acanthaster planci. innate behaviour. reefs and reef zones. ocean acidification.x http://onlinelibrary. L. suggesting the high vulnerability of this species to ocean warming.

S. a review of the current management of the fisheries and protected areas.3354/Meps08366 http://www. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority. symbiosis. vulnerability Donnelly.1111/j. The report includes an analysis of the dynamics and value of the sector. The geographic variability required in thermal adaptation means that some regions may be particularly vulnerable to climate change impacts (e. resilience.2005. general circulation. DOI: 10. The sector collects a vast array of colourful tropical and subtropical fish species. ocean warming.108. bleaching.x http://onlinelibrary. which is the loss of colour due to breakdown of the symbiosis with the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium. climate change. Boyd. This involves developing algorithms that predict mass coral bleaching with GCM‐resolution sea surface temperatures for thousands of coral reefs.2005. ISBN 978 1 921682 44 5 (pdf) http://www. Great Barrier Reef.int‐res. Coral reefs appear highly vulnerable to climate change. E.gbrmpa.1365‐2486. growth Doria. R.au/ data/assets/pdf_file/0019/8209/gbrmpa_RP108_CC_VA_QldAquariumSupplyIndust ry2010. ecology.01073.x/abstract KEYWORDS: adaptation. diversity. (2009).DOI:10. J.com/abstracts/meps/v401/p233‐243/ KEYWORDS: warming. climate change. "Using expert elicitation to define successful adaptation to climate change. et al.2‐1. Results indicated that coral bleaching could become an annual or biannual event in the next 30‐50 years unless there is an increase of 0. Research Publication no. Monitoring and modelling advances will further refine the predictions for individual coral reefs. growth. including the integrative response involving the management agencies and the industry and concludes with an assessment of the vulnerability of the marine aquarium supply sector to climate change. 2010. Micronesia and western Polynesia). Skirving." Global Change Biology 11(12): 2251‐2265." Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 33 .g. D. M.com/doi/10. with increasing water temperatures causing coral bleaching. "Global assessment of coral bleaching and required rates of adaptation under climate change. a review of methodology for assessing ecological risk of the fisheries amid the predicted impacts of climate change. conservation. coral reef fish. the global prediction is unlikely to change. Great Barrier Reef.gov.1111/j. This paper conducts a global assessment of coral bleaching under climate change conditions by adapting NOAA Coral Reef Watch bleaching prediction method to the output of a low and high climate sensitivity general circulation model (GCM). thereby threatening long‐term coral reef viability. The threat of climate change and the associated predicted impacts on coral reefs prompted the industry to include a preliminary response to events linked to climate change in their Stewardship Action Plan (statement of operational standards). mortality. corals and invertebrates to supply Australian domestic retail aquarium outlets and international wholesalers that ultimately provide the specimens to home hobbyists.0 degrees C in thermal tolerance per decade. a summary of the predicted biophysical effects of climate change on the Great Barrier Reef and the added consequences of carbon pollution mitigation policy.1365‐2486.au/resources‐and‐publications/publications KEYWORDS: marine aquarium. The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (GBRMPA) funded the Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment for the aquarium supply sector to further develop industry's climate change preparedness. (2005)..gbrmpa.pdf http://www.01073. The report forms the first stage of a Climate Change Adaptation Plan. W. These response strategies complement climate change response planning developed by the government agencies that oversee sustainable fisheries production and the conservation of biodiversity on the Great Barrier Reef. then using algorithms to determine coral bleaching frequency and the required thermal adaptation of corals under 2 emissions scenarios. thresholds. Frequent or severe bleaching can have consequences such as reduced reproduction. but without a concerted and accelerated effort to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions. vulnerability assessment Donner. Queensland. (2011). T. et al. model. Global climate change could increase the frequency at which coral bleaching occurs. reproduction. impacts.wiley.gov. disease resistance and/or survivorship across large geographic scales. coral reefs. flexibility. Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment: Queensland Marine Aquarium Supply Industry.. The marine aquarium supply sector comprises less than 30 businesses and operates within two hand collection fisheries adjacent to the east coast of Queensland. D.

dependent on community composition. Despite this.springerlink. Oceanic warming and acidification are profounds affecting marine ecosystems. to a predetermined level. change impacts. This work shows that comparatively simple seagrass communities provide reasons to expect a strong positive relationship between species diversity and the functions and services that marine ecosystems provide to humans. Reviewing the outcome of a series of workshops joining a range of Australian tourism stakeholders.2008.com/science/article/pii/S0261517708000745 Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 34 . climate change." Tourism Management 30(1): 63‐74.tourman. According to the final definition.Environmental Science & Policy 12(7): 810‐819.04. Edwards. environmental. demographic and social) may affect the global tourism industry by 2020.. revealing that they are a surprisingly robust group and that important differences in sensitivity to ocean acidification are found between populations and species. a variant of the Delphi technique is used to elicit expert opinion on a definition of successful adaptation to climate change. nevertheless.002 http://www. echinoderm. successful adaptation is any adjustment that reduces the risks associated with climate change. In this paper.1016/S0022‐0981(00)00194‐5 http://www.001 http://www. (2009).. this work suggests that near‐future ocean acidification will negatively impact on this group with consequences likely at the ecosystem level. This paper reviews the impacts of ocean acidification on this group. (2010).1016/j. with calcification one of the focuses for understanding the impact of CO2‐drivenclimate change on one of the key groups likely to be impacted: echinoderms. Ortega‐Martinez. Echinoderms are often keystone ecosystem engineers. This work examines simple seagrass assemblages. DOI: 10. DOI: 10.com/content/2052510111052808/ KEYWORDS: Ocean acidification. C. and will lead to more efficient use of resources and greater ecosystem function capacity and sustainability under disturbance.1007/s10646‐010‐0463‐6 http://www. policy Duarte. successful adaptation. "Destination and enterprise management for a tourism future. L.sciencedirect." Ecotoxicology 19: 449‐462. and environmental sustainability. DOI: 10. "Marine biodiversity and ecosystem services: an elusive link.1016/j. social. There is little consensus on the definition of adapting to climate change in existing debates or on the criteria by which adaptation actions can be deemed successful or sustainable. rather than number. This paper develops definitions of adaptation and successful adaptation to climate change. this study investigates how global change key drivers (economic." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 250(1‐2): 117‐131. "Impact of near‐future ocean acidification on echinoderms. technological. S.sciencedirect. ecosystem services Dupont. agreed by the Delphi panel. Although more data are still needed to fully understand and predict vulnerability to future conditions. Ecosystem functions are. et al. climate change. or vulnerability to climate change impacts.04. with a view to evaluating adaptations. O. political. which have limited species worldwide yet provide strong evidence for the existence of a strong positive link between species richness and ecosystem function.2009. et al.com/science/article/pii/S1462901109000616 KEYWORDS: expert elicitation. D. CO2 Dwyer. This work suggests that populations and species which are naturally exposed to varying pH conditions may be pre‐adapted to future changes in ocean acidification. DOI: 10. M. Multispecific communities also have a number of unrealised functional potentials which may be essential in ensuring the ecosystem function sustainability in the face of disturbance.envsci. (2000). provides increasing expectation of enhanced functional performance of mixed communities.sciencedirect. marine ecosystems. for the functions are species‐specific properties. Adaptation strategies to develop sustainable tourism applicable by tourism operators are discussed. without compromising economic.com/science/article/pii/S0022098100001945 KEYWORDS: Seagrass. Positive interactions in seagrass communities dependent on the presence of engineering species in the community that facilitate the growth of other species. evidence shows that increasing species richness should be linked to an increase in the functional repertoire that exists in the community.

to develop an appropriate set of indicators of destination competitiveness. J. Tasmanian reef. aquaculture industry. adaptation Dwyer.au/ data/assets/pdf_file/0005/156209/AquaImpacts10_Final_110617. DOI: 10. quantitative surveys of plants and animals were made around the Tasmanian coastline. N. .. Aquaculture. P. (1997). marine protected areas. and C. Lough. a. and this report is an update for 2009/10. Germany. et al.sciencedirect. Lough JM. Reef communities in the northern Bass Strait area were found to be distinctly different from those occurring further south. SST.pdf KEYWORDS: economic impacts. F. Marryatville SA 5068: 68. and Mulloway). "The conservation‐related benefits of a systematic marine biological sampling programme: The Tasmanian reef bioregionalisation as a case study. Kim (2003).springerlink. biological sampling. The economic impact of aquaculture on the South Australian state and regional economies. and to identify areas for further conceptual and empirical research. In order to maximise the conservation value of sites within a proposed system of representative MPAs around Tasmania. global changes. tourism. destination competitiveness. Oppen and J.tandfonline. (2009). This allows identification of the relative strengths and weaknesses of different tourism destinations. sustainability. Heidelberg.pir. J. In addition to the identification of appropriate MPA sites. mussels (Blue Mussel). The authors also describe the application of satellite‐based SST's and related products that have been developed to detect and monitor global environmental conditions that may lead to coral bleaching. Springer: 41–67. Climate variability and change: monitoring data and evidence for increased coral bleaching stress. and are considered here to reflect a division between two biographical provinces.. This paper has four major objectives: to develop a model of destination competitiveness that identifies key success factors in determining destination competitiveness. South Australia has been conducting an annual assessment of the economic impact of aquaculture activity since 1997. Causes and Consequences. stakeholders.gov. This chapter focuses on the changing physical environment of coral reef ecosystems and especially sea surface temperatures (SSTs) that are responsible for most mass coral breaching events. El Niño‐‐Southern Oscillation events Econsearch (2011). M. adaptation and change in Icelandic Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 35 . At least one marine reserve within each bioregion would be required within an integrated system of representative MPAs.com/doi/abs/10. The paper develops a model of destination competitiveness that will enable comparisons between countries and between tourism sector industries. Coral Bleaching: Patterns and Processes." Current Issues in Tourism 6(5): 369‐413. marine finfish (predominantly Yellowtail Kingfish. DOI: 10. South Australia Edgar. oysters (predominantly Pacific Oyster and Native Oyster). coral reef ecosystems.1007/978‐3‐540‐69775‐6_4 http://www. and other aquaculture (predominantly algae Beta carotene and Dunaliella salina and Brine Shrimp). abalone (predominantly Greenlip Abalone). C." Biological Conservation 79(2‐3): 227‐240.com/science/article/pii/S000632079600095X KEYWORDS: marine. (2009).com/content/r21867725m1443w1/ Keywords: Coral reefs. These two areas were each divisible into four biogeographical regions (bioregions). freshwater finfish (predominantly Barramundi and Rainbow Trout). "From good to eat to good to watch: whale watching. et al. DOI: 10. rocky reef Einarsson. drivers of change. this systematic sampling programme has generated baseline data which can assess the impact of MPAs after they have been declared and monitor the long‐term effects of climate change. v. L. http://www. to highlight the advantages and limitations of the model. marron and yabbies.KEYWORDS: climate change. 2009/10. The authors use long‐term climatic datasets to document SST changes near coral reefs over the past 150 years. competitive indicators Eakin.1080/13683500308667962 KEYWORDS: tourism industry. Moverley. G. W. "Destination competitiveness: determinants and indicators.1080/13683500308667962 http://www. Estimates of the economic impact of aquaculture activity in South Australia in 2009/10 are provided for the following aquaculture sectors: tuna (Southern Bluefin Tuna).sa.1016/S0006‐3207(96)00095‐X http://www.

html KEYWORDS: Papua New Guinea. is fundamental to a system’s resilience. trout. Examples of response diversity across spatial and temporal scales are presented. marine mammals.polarresearch. The production of ecosystem service and function are dependent on the resilience of desirable ecosystem states. Iceland Eliason. "Losers and winners in coral reefs acclimatized to elevated carbon dioxide concentrations. DOI 10. population." Science 332(6025): 109‐112. physiology.php/polar/article/view/6098 KEYWORDS: whale watching industry. seed dispersal. (2011). "Towards climate adaptation and coastal governance in Ireland: Integrated architecture for effective management?" Marine Policy 35(6): 784‐793. abundance. resource. et al. K. D. This is particularly important following change. (2011).sciencemag. E. migration.esajournals. It also highlights the need to incorporate the response diversity concept when developing planning and management and restoration strategies since it is likely to contribute significantly to ecosystem resilience against disturbance. et al.net/index. resilience Fabricius.0. dynamics. Clark. sediments.. ecosystem change.00092. O'Mahony. variation Elmqvist. but few empirical or modeling studies have addressed the long‐term consequences of ocean acidification for marine ecosystems. and resilience." Polar Research 28(1): 129‐138. and how local inhabitants reconcile opposing views on whales. climate change.1890/1540‐9295%282003%29001%5B0488%3ARDECAR%5D2. mass mortality. C.0.org/doi/abs/10. demonstrating the adaptive capacity of this mechanism. J. temperature. The model suggests that ocean acidification. The authors discuss the role and variability of cardiorespiratory physiology of salmon at population‐based levels and relate this to historical climatic conditions that salmon encounter during migratory activities.1111/j." Nature Climate Change 1(3): 165‐169. DOI: 10. T.org/content/332/6025/109." Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 1(9): 488‐494.1126/science. use. Increased mortalities of adult sockeye salmon have been correlated with increased sea surface temperatures. whaling and the new cetacean tourism. acidification Falaleeva.full KEYWORDS: adaptation. Results from this investigation suggest that physiological adaptation by sockeye salmon can occur at very localised scales.CO%3B2?j ournalCode=fron KEYWORDS: coral‐reef. C. "Differences in Thermal Tolerance Among Sockeye Salmon Populations. scale. Response diversity – which is the array of responses to environmental change among species which contribute to the same function.CO. and is still the most important industry in the country.2 http://www. (2011). DOI: 10. Ocean acidification due to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations has deleterious effects on the performance of many marine organisms. This paper explores how Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 36 . This paper investigated coral reefs. will probably lead to severely reduced diversity. species richness. coral reefs. mismanagement and degradation. structural complexity and resilience of Indo‐Pacific coral reefs within this century. E. M.. seagrasses. Folke. T.com/nclimate/journal/v1/n3/full/nclimate1122. of which biological diversity is thought to enhance. carbon dioxide. The paper also discusses the conflict between fishermen and marine mammals in an area where marine mammals are seen as competitors or pests. together with temperature stress. salmon. mortality. population.1751‐8369. competition.x http://www.1038/nclimate1122 http://www. Langdon. Ireland’s coastal communities are particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change as Ireland’s population and industrial centres are concentrated in coastal locations.1890/1540‐9295(2003)001[0488:RDECAR]2. et al. Since the early 20th century fishing has been the backbone of the Icelandic economy.. tourism.fishing communities. seagrasses and sediments that are acclimatized to low pH at three cool and shallow volcanic carbon dioxide seeps in Papua New Guinea. "Response diversity.1199158 http://www. fisheries. et al. biodiversity.2008. C. localised. This paper provides a summary of the introduction of whale watching industry in a fishing village in north‐east Iceland.. DOI: 10. (2003).nature. conflict.

org/docrep/013/i1934e/i1934e00." Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 8(8): 414‐422. socio‐economy.org/docrep/013/i1820e/i1820e00. a growing and socio‐economically dynamic sector in great need of improved management. The paper identifies barriers and opportunities for science‐policy integration. exploitation. maintains a diversity of response options available for the future. G.esajournals. ISBN: 978‐92‐5‐106724‐6 http://www. risk Fazey. climate change.01. Key thematic areas were addressed to determine adequate governance practices. resilience FAO (2010). human rights. The second part addresses selected issues in fisheries and aquaculture (e. policy. policy. "Adaptation strategies for reducing vulnerability to future environmental change. Weller. P. The final section presents an outlook for the future of inland fisheries.g.marpol. Australia. Gamarra. they then inadvertently disregard the possibility that they may actually be increasing vulnerability to unanticipated future changes.sciencedirect. aquaculture. The rights of fishers were identified along with several key principles (e. (2010). FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific. adaptive capacity. A Marine Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Report Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 37 .fao. ecosystem services.1016/j. Rome.005 http://www. and. climate change.g. sustainability. 19. adaptation Feng. adaptation policies. development. food security. a review of the benefits of recent technological advancements in geographic information systems. The Leeuwin Current. Bangkok. I. biosecurity in aquaculture and transparency in the fisheries sector). resilience. poverty. management. management. Thailand.fao. biodiversity. skills and behaviours that are conducive to sustainable activities. Report of the APFIC/FAO Regional Consultative Workshop “Securing sustainable small‐scale fisheries: Bringing together responsible fisheries and social development”. State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture.. gender equality) used to determine critical goals that must be attained to support and secure small‐scale fisheries globally. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. ISBN: 9789251066751 http://www.1890/080215?journalCode=fron KEYWORDS: climate‐change. and fosters human capacities which allow the uptake of those response options. fish stocks.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X11000066 KEYWORDS: ICZM.org/doi/abs/10. small‐scale. vulnerability FAO (2010). transparency. adaptation. communities. With the aim of developing more effective long‐term strategies to cope with change. R. This report summarizes findings and discussions from a workshop held in Thailand in October 2010 on securing sustainable small‐scale fisheries. Long‐term adaptation relies also on emphasis on strategies that act to enhance human values. Italy: 197 pp. et al. (2009). including an overview of the implications of climate change for fisheries and aquaculture.1890/080215 http://www.2011. climate change. management. this paper presents a conceptual framework of adaptation. Ireland. J. sustainability. a section on the ecosystem approach to fisheries. et al.htm KEYWORDS: fisheries. This 2010 edition of the biannual report of the FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department provides a comprehensive overview of the state of world fisheries and aquaculture. E. Although management strategies focus on developing short‐term capacities to cope with environmental change.pdf KEYWORDS: fisheries. PUBLICATION. integration. DOI: 10.. flexibility. M. The first part of the document reviews the trends in production. uncertainty. The third part highlights special studies.experience gained from integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) implementation can be harnessed to inform the development and implementation of climate adaptation policies. systems. vulnerability. conservation. DOI: 10. The framework highlights the need to reduce the risk of further intensifying problems by ensuring that adaptation: addresses both human‐induced and biophysical drivers of change. utilization and trade of world fisheries resources. assistance needs and sustainable management procedures for small‐scale fisheries. with a particular focus on the coastal zone. mitigation.

This strategy examines the spatial distribution of ocean activities in order to better monitor and regulate patterns and areas of marine use. policy. M. M. social networks. whereby human impact drives a system to a less desirable state. ecology. "Guiding ecological principles for marine spatial planning. This paper reviews the origin of the resilience perspective.001 http://www.1016/j. assesses potential impacts using climate model projections. adaptive capacity. C. providing a synopsis of its development in understanding the dynamics of social‐ecological systems to date. adaptive capacity. stable states. This approach emphasizes non‐linear dynamics. Human activities such as pollution. DOI: 10. (2006). habitat and ecosystem‐based properties. Currently efforts are being made to integrate the social component.org. This article recommends four main ecological principles for guiding future ecosystem‐based marine spatial planning activities. uncertainty and surprise. coral‐reefs.Card for Australia 2009. agents and actor groups. social‐ecological systems. declining health of marine ecosystems is being recorded globally. poleward flowing ocean boundary current off the west and south coasts of Australia.1016/j. human impact. and are resulting in more frequent regime shifts. ecosystem management. C. The LC and its interannual variability have profound impacts on marine ecosystems off the west and south coasts of Australia. The Leeuwin Current (LC) is a warm. resource exploitation. This paper privides summary of observed impacts of climate change from both large‐scale and regional perspective.au/content/images/uploads/Leeuwin_Current. framework. Resilience is the capacity of a system to absorb perturbance and to maintain structure. A. B. These activities act to reduce Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 38 . adaptation responces. ISBN 978‐1‐921609‐03‐9.com/science/article/pii/S0959378006000379 KEYWORDS: resilience. "Resilience: The emergence of a perspective for social‐ecological systems analyses. thresholds.02. which include (i) maintaining and (ii) restoring a range of species. guide. vulnerability Folke. "Regime shifts. with the overarching aim of protecting ecosystem health and services and their continued sustained use. (2010). regime shifts. Despite recent and current efforts to govern and regulate human activities within marine ecosystems. Richardson: 1‐11.2010.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X10000436 KEYWORDS: climate change.. transformations. and climate impact all reduce ecosystem resilience. climate model. E. land‐use change. driven by large‐scale meridional (north‐south) pressure gradient. with recent advances including understanding social processes including social learning memory.sciencedirect. sustainability Folke.2006. marine spatial planning. resources. S.oceanclimatechange. and biodiversity in ecosystem management. marine ecosystems. and human use of marine resources. ecological principles. (2004). have consequences on humans.gloenvcha. Poloczanska. and accounting for (iii) context and (iv) uncertainty within these systems during the planning process. natural resource management. sustainability. how phases of gradual change interplay with periods of rapid change and how these dynamics interact across both temporal and spatial scales. climate change. Hobday and A.04. and identifies the knowledge gaps.002 http://www. et al.pdf KEYWORDS: Leeuwin Current. Foley. biodiversity." Global Environmental Change‐Human and Policy Dimensions 16(3): 253‐267. History of the resilience approach was dominated by empirical observations of ecosystem dynamics that were interpreted in mathematical models which then developed into adaptive management response. The use of ecosystem‐based marine spatial planning is one strategy which has been proposed to increase the sustainable use of marine environments by humans. et al. institutional and organizational inertia and change.. DOI: 10." Marine Policy 34(5): 955‐966. resilience. http://www. S. mental models and knowledge‐system integration. transformability and systems of adaptive governance strategies which permit for the management of vital ecosystem services. visioning and scenario building. adaptation responces.marpol. ecosystem." Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics 35(1): 557‐581. indicate a shift in ecosystem services and therefore. function and feedbacks mechanisms in the face of change.sciencedirect. The concept inspired social and environmental scientists to question the dominant stable equilibrium view. Australia. Halpern. Regime‐shifts. leadership. Carpenter.

This paper reviews the evidence of regime shifts in relation to resilience of complex adaptive systems and the associated roles of biological diversity.021103. A report supporting the development of Working Together: The National Fishing and Aquaculture RD&E Strategy: 1‐15. marinus range extension. H.021103. 2) To develop the scenario forecasts for the future business and operating environments for the fishing and aquaculture industries – including opportunities and threats. Overview of the Australian Fishing and Aquaculture Industry: Present and Future A report supporting the development of Working Together: The National Fishing and Aquaculture RD&E Strategy. species‐diversity.com. which all alters the degree.ecolsys. but at the higher temperatures the southern isolates exhibited higher proliferation rates than their northern counterparts. supporting the regional component of proliferation rate hypothesis of P. trophic cascades. fishing industry. response diversity. http://frdc. climate change. RD & E plans FRDC (2010). services. biodiversity Ford. frequency and duration of disturbance regimes. national RD&E plan Friedman. aquaculture industry. Chintala (2006). Palau. suggesting potential high‐temperature adaptation of strains that are routinely subjected to higher temperatures.annualreviews. KEYWORDS: strategic review. regime shifts. Tonga. ecosystem. marinus isolates from three southern sites was measured at seven temperatures to determine whether between‐ and within‐ geographic location differences existed in proliferation rate. whole trophic levels. aquaculture industry. emissions and climate change. A time‐series approach was used to investigate changes in sea cucumber populations in different Pacific Island countries (Samoa.1146/annurev. DOI: 10.35.com/science/article/pii/S0022098106004424 KEYWORDS: climate change. identify the R&D strategies to form the basis for a national RD&E plan. range extension. Australian Fishing Industry: Sector Overview. In vitro and in vivo experiments were used to test whether the northward range expansion of the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) parasite. and whether these were linked to temperature. or by impacting on ecosystems through pollution. This report presents the findings from a strategic review and analysis of the business environment for the fishing and aquaculture industry." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 339(2): 226‐235. shallow lakes. "Management of sea cucumber stocks: patterns of vulnerability and recovery of sea cucumber stocks impacted by fishing. complex adaptive. 3) Based on the forecasted scenarios. Results indicate the negative impacts of artisanal fishing Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 39 . in vivo.. E. El‐Nino. (2011). vegetation. fishing industry. marinus isolates. "Northward expansion of a marine parasite: Testing the role of temperature adaptation. alternative stable states. et al. resilience. which was undertaken to support the development of Working Together: the National Fishing and Aquaculture RD&E Strategy. Perkinsus marinus was associated with a low‐temperature adapted strain of the parasite.35. Crassostrea virginica.105711 http://www.1146/annurev. recreational and indigenous fishers and the seafood industry. This report undertakes a strategic review and analysis of the business environment for the fishing and aquaculture industries in Australia to support the establishment of a national RD&E framework. There was significant within‐location variation among isolates. The review covers commercial. phase‐shifts. in vitro. K. some of which have been subjected to a moratorium on exports for the last decade. pathogen. S. It also emphasizes the need for adaptive management strategies that incorporate resilience into sustainability planning. http://www. FRDC (2010).org/doi/full/10. An RD&E Overview Paper developed for the Fisheries R&D Corporation FRDC Project: 2009‐214 2009‐214: 1‐18. and M. These data support the hypothesis that resent warming in the north‐eastern US is a likely contributing factor to P.resilience by removing response diversity." Fish and Fisheries 12(1): 75‐93. whole functional groups. M. systems. In vitro proliferation of nine P. coral reefs. There was no evidence of low‐temperature adaptation. but the data tended to group by geographic location. Fiji and Papua New Guinea). Baltic sea.sciencedirect.au/research/Documents/Final_reports/2009‐214‐DLD.pdf KEYWORDS: strategic review.ecolsys.105711 KEYWORDS: alternate states. Eriksson. The objectives for this review are 1) To assess and analyse the current business and operating environments for the fishing and aquaculture industries.

" Ices Journal of Marine Science 68(6): 1329‐1342. D.com/doi/10. "Proxy indicators of sand temperature help project impacts of global warming on sea turtles in northern Australia. conservation planning framework. DOI:10.1467‐2979. "Lessons in modelling and management of marine ecosystems: the Atlantis experience. and provide a mechanism to ‘road test’ management strategies before implementing them in reality. DOI: 10.2011. "Interesting times: winners.00384.sciencedirect. Global warming poses serious threats to sea turtle populations since sex determination and hatching success are dependent on nest temperature.3354/esr00224. particularly in regard to when these tools are most effective and the likely form of best practices for ecosystem‐based management (EBM).org/content/68/6/1329... economic.." Endangered Species Research 9: 33‐40. identify major processes. The authors focus on a case study of the Arctic Coastal Plain in Alaska for demonstration of their conservation framework. http://www.00384. suggesting population dynamics constrained by the Allee effect.1016/j. DOI: 10. Great Barrier Reef Fuentes. The Atlantis modelling framework has been used in these roles for a decade and is regularly being modified and applied to new questions. global climate change. (2011).This paper discusses a very early attempt to consider how multiple drivers might simultaneously act to reshape Australian marine ecosystems.int‐res. biodiversity.1111/j.2008. vulnerability. J. Sex ratio.1111/j. Morton. (2008)." Biological Conservation 141(6): 1547‐1559. Fulton.1467‐2979.biocon. Fuller. Hatching success. Australia. P. regime shifts. A.00412. management. which arise from climate change‐driven distributional shifts in a species’ range. Link. et al. E. J. The projections presented here can inform the timely and targeted implementation of local‐scale management strategies to reduce the impacts of global warming on sea turtle populations.x 40 Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 . E. Sea turtles. fisheries. losers. This paper describes some common lessons learned from its implementation. Maynard.1111/j.2010. highlight major gaps in knowledge. et al. The effect of cumulative human action on the climate and biosphere of Earth has the potential of affecting significantly many critical marine ecosystem services. Torres Strait. drivers and responses. "Incorporating uncertainty about species' potential distributions under climate change into the selection of conservation areas with a case study from the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska. management. sea cucumber. DOI: 10.oxfordjournals. M. DOI: 10.1467‐2979. ecosystem models.03. Temperature . reserve Fulton. There is now a keen interest among resource management groups about what ecological. et al.2010.021 http://www.activities.com/abstracts/esr/v9/n1/p33‐40/ KEYWORDS: Global warming. This paper uses regression analyses to correlate air temperature (AT) and high‐resolution sea surface temperature (SST) to sand temperature at 5 rookeries in northern Australia in order to investigate the rates at which sand temperatures are likely to change. (2009)." Fish and Fisheries 12(2): 171‐188. (2011).1093/icesjms/fsr032 http://icesjms. T.short KEYWORDS: adaptive capacity. Some species did not show signs of recovery despite moratoriums. and system shifts under climate change around Australia. and social implications are associated with shifts in ecosystem structure and function induced by global change. and varying recovery rates after cessation of fishing. A. S. model. The planning framework utilises a two‐stage optimization model which (i) selects a nominal conservation area network followed by (ii) evaluation of its performance under climate scenarios. This article presents a conservation planning framework for decisions under uncertainty.x/abstract KEYWORDS: aquaculture. The authors suggest that current management strategies are ineffective and discuss new adaptive approaches that could be implemented.wiley.com/science/article/pii/S0006320708001262 KEYWORDS: Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Attempts to model exploited marine ecosystems can increase understanding of system dynamics.x http://onlinelibrary. recovery. climate change.

and without targeted policy intervention. (2008). T. Additionally. greenhouse gas emissions have accelerated recently.1467‐2979. adaptation. et al. the amplification of global warming due to biological and geological carbon‐cycle feedbacks. "Polycentric systems and interacting planetary boundaries ‐ Emerging governance of climate change‐ocean acidification‐marine biodiversity. increases in climate variability and risks to marine ecosystems from climate change and ocean acidification.sciencedirect.1111/j. then it was optimal to protect sites of low Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 41 . "Building resilience to climate change through development assistance: USAID's climate adaptation program. this paper defined the problem of deciding which habitat should be protected (those at greatest or lowest risk) mathematically for two alternate conservation objectives. climate change. ecosystem‐based management. H. Resilience. However. M.012 http://www." Ecological Economics 81: 21‐32. (2012). et al. aquaculture. It highlights a range of mechanisms of polycentric order operating at the international level through the interplay between individuals. The US Agency for International Development developed a methodology of working with stakeholders to identify sources of climate related vulnerability and approaches to reducing that vulnerability.x/abstract?deniedAccessCustomisedMessage =&userIsAuthenticated=false KEYWORDS: Atlantis. intensity.1016/j." Climatic Change 108(3): 411‐421. ice mass‐loss.1007/s10584‐009‐9648‐5 http://www. Atlantic. climate change Galaz. "An updated assessment of the risks from climate change based on research published since the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report. In recent years..springerlink. This was followed by analytically solving this problem for both and determining the conditions under which different protection strategies was optimal.00412. McDonald‐Madden. which was published in 2007. E. including sea‐level rise. The current assessment is based a comprehensive review of the relevant scientific literature which has been published since the AR4 was released. system. vulnerability assessment Fussel. and the associated challenges/vulnerabilities.com/content/h60688gw57221141/ KEYWORDS: USAID. (2009). will continue to do so." Climatic Change 97(3‐4): 469‐482. if the goal was to maximise the number of healthy sites.. "Should We Protect the Strong or the Weak? Risk.11. temperature. tropical cyclones. It is thought that marine reserves recover faster than unprotected habitats when uncontrolled disturbance occurs.2011. This paper provides an updated assessment of the status of scientific knowledge of climate change to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4). DOI: 10.springerlink.com/content/yj352w65g181016m/ KEYWORDS: sea‐level rise. policentric systems. B. exploited marine ecosystems. then the best approach was more complex. B. Scientific debate still remains around a number of topics including changes in tropical cyclone activity. This paper emphasizes the urgency for implementing mitigation policies as well as the development and implementation of comprehensive adaptation policies. international organizations and their collaboration patterns.com/doi/10. V. international organisation Game. J. E.ecolecon. In the goal was to maximise the potential of having at least one healthy site. fisheries. and the Selection of Marine Protected Areas. the development assistance community has recognized that climate change poses a stress on economic and social development in poor countries and has turned its attention to addressing climate stress. development assistance. CO2. ocean acidification. AR4 simulations.1007/s10584‐011‐0127‐4 http://www. If protected areas were likely to spend high amounts of time in a degraded condition.2011.com/science/article/pii/S0921800911004964 KEYWORDS: adaptive governance. (2011). J. Crona.. then the most effective strategy was to protect the site with the lowest risk.http://onlinelibrary. DOI: 10. Smith. et al." Conservation Biology 22(6): 1619‐1629. The paper explores the global governance challenge posed by planetary boundaries interactions. system dynamics Furlow. DOI: 10.wiley. future committed warming due to a strong aerosol mask. Many of the risks that were first identified in the AR4 are now considered much greater. ecosystem modelling.

oxygen limitation." Fisheries Research 99(1): 26‐37. J. local extinctions.com/doi/10. The goal was to maximize reserve benefits given the constraints of a population growth rate that would permit sustainability of resources. thermal tolerance.. Australia: 141. L. J.1111/j. The aims of the study are 1) to examine relationships Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 42 .pone. Great Barrier Reef. indicators.2008.x/abstract KEYWORDS: catastrophes. protected areas Gillson. larval. Great Barrier Reef Outlook Report 2009. This paper applies a decision‐theory framework to optimally allocate conservation resources between improving data on population status and establishing a reserve for species conservation.2007. cyclones. This paper analysed relationships between hydrological variation and fisheries catch rates from nine permanently open estuaries in eastern Australia.x http://onlinelibrary.1523‐1739. economics.pone.1111/j." Plos One 5(10): 13. response to increased temperatures will depend on the ability to keep up with increased oxygen demand.risk. The aim of this report is to provide information about:: the condition of the ecosystem of the Great Barrier Reef Region (including the ecosystem outside the Region where it affects the Region). et al. but if most areas were largely healthy then it was better to protect sites that were at higher risk. Marine Protected Areas.x/abstract KEYWORDS: adaptive management. P. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority. ISBN 978 1 876945 89 3 http://www. N.. Sea of Cortes.00824.1523‐1739. risk‐based assessment Gerber.wiley.01037. Geographic variation in respiratory performance was examined in tropical marine fishes by comparing thermal effects on resting and maximum rates of oxygen uptake in six species of reef fish from two locations on the Great Barrier Reef.01037. evolutionary significance. marine fishes GBRMPA (2009). Social and economic factors influencing the Great Barrier Reef ecosystem. leopard grouper. DOI: 10.2007. climate change.gbrmpa. L.1111/j. and that these populations will be less impacted by increasing ocean temperatures than low latitude populations.00824. High‐latitude populations performed better than those from low‐latitudes. species monitoring.gov.x http://onlinelibrary. DOI: 10. decision theory.pdf KEYWORDS: Great Barrier Reef.0013299 http://www. et al. habitat disturbance. et al. and the response of a species depends on how different populations are affected throughout its geographic range.com/doi/10. and phase shifts. R. The decision framework presented here may be used to identify the minimum number of years of data needed before a management decision about reserve establishment could be made that is reasonably likely to meet its management objectives.1111/j.1523‐1739. (2007). Latitudinal variation was driven by ~80% higher maximum rate of oxygen uptake for populations from higher latitudes.2008. J. management effectiveness of the Great Barrier Reef. DOI: 10. Since populations at different latitudes experience different thermal environments. M.plosone. Wielgus. coral reefs. and risk‐based assessment of the long‐term outlook for the Region. population collapses. T.1371%2Fjournal. "Estuarine gillnet fishery catch rates decline during drought in eastern Australia. This means that local adaptation to thermal gradients could result in populations within a species to respond to global warming differently.wiley. Strong counter‐gradient variation in aerobic scope was observed between locations in four species (from two families).1523‐1739..1371/journal. Munday. (2010). respiratory performance is likely to vary between populations. ecosystems. marine reserve. social. Scandol. These data suggest that compensatory mechanisms for populations in high‐latitudes may enhance their performance at high temperatures. For aquatic animals. "Counter‐Gradient Variation in Respiratory Performance of Coral Reef Fishes at Elevated Temperatures. marine reserves. reserve selection." Conservation Biology 21(6): 1594‐1602. The effect of increasing temperatures on species’ distribution and abundance includes range shifts.0013299 KEYWORDS: climate change.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10. resilience Gardiner. "A decision framework for the adaptive management of an exploited species with implications for marine reserves. hypoxia tolerance.au/ data/assets/pdf_file/0018/3843/OutlookReport_Full. (2009).

04. frequency and severity of recent bleaching disturbances are greater than ever before recorded.com/science/article/pii/S030437700800003X KEYWORDS: Adaptation. he article concludes that radical change will be needed to reconcile the holiday and business travel demands of a growing world population with the climate policy targets of the international community. (1993). light. Sea‐level rise Gilmour. bio‐erosion and substrate condition.sciencedirect. DOI: 10." Aquatic Botany 89(2): 237‐250. The increase in tourism‐induced greenhouse gas emissions caused by the global growth of tourism. This paper reviews the state of understanding of the effects of projected climate change on mangrove ecosystems. Great Barrier Reef.aquabot. M." Tourism Recreation Research 35(2): 119‐130. This paper explores factors contributing to variation in levels of self‐management in five Australian abalone fisheries. freshwater flow and fisheries catch rates from 1997 to 2007.1016/j. Current management procedures appear to be insufficient and radical changes in policies are needed to ensure a climatically sustainable global tourism. but there is not much definitive evidence for explaining large scale bleaching events in terms of potential climate change. (2013). Mangrove. specifically restricting anthropogenic global warming to less than 2 C. Catchability. "Threats to mangroves from climate change and adaptation options: A review. community structure. DOI: 10. co‐management. rainfall. (2008)." Marine Policy 37: 165‐175. adaptive capacity. salinity.between drought declaration.com/research/future‐tourism‐tourism‐growth‐climate‐policy‐reconciled‐climate‐change‐mi Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 43 . L.04. social‐ecological systems Glynn. predation. P. Climate change.mendeley. ultraviolet‐radiation.com/content/k12w48311274206n/ KEYWORDS: coral bleaching. et al. "Enhancing the agency of fishers: A conceptual model of self‐management in Australian abalone fisheries. Freshwater flow. DOI: 10. http://www. River regulation Gilman. Efforts must be directed at understanding impacts of bleaching on current reef community along with long‐term effects on competition.com/science/article/pii/S0165783609001003 KEYWORDS: Estuarine‐dependent fish. and. with data suggesting that scale. and develops a conceptual model of self‐management using data from interviews.2009. Consequences of bleaching of reef‐building scleractinian corals and hydrocorals are of particular concern. the increasing need for mitigation procedures to maintain the sustainability of the tourism industry are two opposing processes discussed in this study. adaptation. This is mostly the result of lack of standardised methods for assessing bleaching and lack of continuous long‐term baseline data. Ellison.1007/BF00303779 http://www. S. "The Future of Tourism: Can Tourism Growth and Climate Policy be Reconciled ? A Mitigation Perspective. sedimentation. "Coral‐Reef bleaching ‐ Ecological Perspectives.fishres. W.. symbioses.015 http://www.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X1200084X KEYWORDS: fisheries. J. which all have the ability to effect coral recruitment and recovery.007 http://www.sciencedirect. Mitigation. Hall. Dwyer. et al. Scleractinian corals Gössling.marpol. (2010). Stressors such as temperature.12. Drought. aerial exposure and pollutants often result in small scale bleaching. P.2012. E.2007. W. C. The paper then identifies adaptation options to avoid and minimize adverse outcomes from predicted mangrove responses to projected climate change.springerlink.. P. management workshops and surveys. Coral reef bleaching results from loss of symbiotic zooxanthellae and/or a reduction in photosynthetic pigment concentrations that occur in zooxanthellae. DOI: 10.009 http://www. including the state of knowledge for assessing mangrove resistance and resilience to relative sea‐level rise. D. It demonstrates the complexity of fisheries co‐management and highlights the diverse opportunities for policy makers and managers to improve fishery outcomes. Present evidence suggests that many corals will be unable to adapt to the rapid rates of ocean warming that are predicted for the near‐future. El Niño.sciencedirect.. et al.1016/j." Coral Reefs 12(1): 1‐17. and 2) to investigate aspects of the freshwater flow regime that were most important in determining fisheries catch rates.1016/j.

its optimum size.com/content/7128wq2p78625444/ KEYWORDS: fisheries management. provides inter‐temporal framework for assisting managers on when to adapt. management procedures Grafton.11. "Positioning fisheries in a changing world.006 http://www. stocks.2009.springerlink.1016/j. Overall. dynamics. conservation. "Adaptation to climate change in marine capture fisheries. Using a stochastic optimal control model with two forms of ecological uncertainty this paper demonstrates that reserves create a resilience effect that allows for the population to recover faster... et al.2004. transition costs. outlines a decision‐making process for assessment of vulnerability to climate change and adaptive‐management responses. fisheries.marpol. mitigation.sciencedirect. (2010). Marine capture fisheries face major and complex challenges: habitat degradation. "The bioeconomics of marine reserves: A selected review with policy Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 44 . there is no tradeoff between the economic payoff of fishers and ecological benefits when a reserve is established at equal to. governance. in many cases. DOI: 10. Q. Kompas (2005). (2005). metapopulation.sciencedirect. sustainability. The tradeoff of a larger reserve is a reduced harvest in the absence of a negative shock such that a reserve will never encompass the entire population if the goal is to maximize the economic returns from harvesting.2007. R. uncertainty. To mitigate these uncertainties.11. et al.marpol. R. presents a risk simulation approach outlining uncertainties of potential losses as a result of climate change and the benefits of adaptation. social‐ecological systems. R. Q. public and private benefits.." Marine Policy 34(3): 606‐615. Grafton. use and non‐use conflicts and capacity constraints.11. and presents a variety of potential ‘win‐win’ management tools. Using recent insights from the modelling of marine reserves. social hardships from depleted stocks.011 http://www. reserves. Unpredictable environmental fluctuations are a major problem in fisheries. and climate change. adaptive management. R.bulm. Using the experiences of fisheries successes and failures it is argued only through better governance and institutional change that encompasses the public good of the oceans and societal values will fisheries be made sustainable. resource. T." Bulletin of Mathematical Biology 67(5): 957‐971. The authors develop a dynamic bioeconomic model to ascertain whether marine reserves can generate positive economic returns to fishers in a deterministic and a stochastic environment when harvesting is optimal.2004.003 http://www.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X09001845 KEYWORDS: adaptation. Hilborn. the results show that. poor economic returns. tourism. reserves are advocated to help ensure population persistence. R. DOI: 10. illegal fishing. resilience. industry. fisheries management Grafton.sciencedirect. model Grafton.1016/j.1016/j.006 http://www.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X04000880 KEYWORDS: marine reserves. Q.07. marine reserve. provides an explanation of how adaptation capacity can be strengthened by adaptive co‐management. DOI: 10. and fishing is profitable. or less than.marpol. sustainability. Kompas. uncertainty. management. this paper proposes a six‐step process for establishing and adaptively managing reserves for fishery purposes." Marine Policy 29(5): 471‐479. "Marine reserves with ecological uncertainty. fisheries. greenhouse gas. This paper discusses the way in which management objectives and instruments influence system resilience and adaptation. Kompas. R. (2008). "Uncertainty and the active adaptive management of marine reserves.1016/j. DOI: 10. adaptation. (2005). provide a 'hedge' against management failures and increase resilience. Q. Q. climate change. protected areas. et al. T. The key factors that prevent the transition to sustainable fisheries are information failures. biodiversity." Marine Policy 32(4): 630‐634. reduce population and harvest variance. trends Grafton.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X07001327 KEYWORDS: governance. and T.tigation‐perspective/ KEYWORDS: climate change. stock assessment.

com/doi/10.1475‐4932. "Climate Warming. Ainsworth.00360. Existing no‐take marine protected areas continued to support high fish biomass. T. Bayesian meta‐analysis showed that changes in the size structure. DOI: 10. coral reefs. stakeholder cooperation and process. Insights from the review are used to provide management implications in terms of reserve design. the potential benefits of reserves. increase the larger is the magnitude of the negative shock. This paper analysed the economic payoffs from marine reserves using a stochastic optimal control model.0003039 KEYWORDS: climate change. fisheries. D. A. A. suggesting impacts and vulnerability are affected by geography." Plos One 3(8): 9. R.wiley. Marine Protected Areas and the Ocean‐Scale Integrity of Coral Reef Ecosystems. thermal tolerance Gruber." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A 369(1943): 1980‐1996. the early reserve literature.. with a jump‐diffusion process. The results show that even if the reserve and harvested populations face the same negative shocks. R. "The economic payoffs from marine reserves: Resource rents in a stochastic environment.1371%2Fjournal.0003039 http://www. protected areas. socioeconomic benefits. Q. Ocean scale integrity has been lost. T. N. deterministic. spatial economic models and models that include uncertainty and stochasticity. marine reserve. 66 sites and 26 degrees of latitude in the Indian Ocean. stochasticity. management. coral reefs. et al.1007/s10818‐005‐6885‐1 http://www.springerlink." Journal of Bioeconomics 7: 161‐178. reef structural complexity and reef fishes from 7 countries. M. N. ocean acidification and ocean deoxygenation are predicted to significantly alter Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 45 . N. harvesting is optimal. It provides a selected review of the traditional use of reserves. climate change. microbial communities Graham. (2008).2006. The study identified the lack of knowledge about the capacity of NTAs to provide socioeconomic benefits as a key scientific gap. and ecosystem approaches to managing fisheries. The paper 'bridges the divide' between the biological and economic literature on marine reserves. resilience. Marine Protected Areas. (2011). DOI: 10. a reserve can increase resource rents. This paper attempts to synthesize all potential costs and benefits of coral reef no‐take areas (NTAs) and critically examine evidence of their impacts on both ecosystems and societies.yimg.pdf KEYWORDS: no‐take marine areas.1111/j. fisheries management Grafton." The Economic Record 82(259): 469‐480. (2006). O. reserve‐fishery transfers. but they did not appear to have a positive effect on the ecosystem response to the large scale disturbance of coral decline. Increasing temperature. the greater its frequency and the larger its relative impact on the harvested population. the population is persistent and there is no uncertainty over current stock size. however effects were showed spatial variation at multiple scales. and develop resilience‐building policy and framework into management options for climate change.1475‐4932. (2011). turning sour. spatial models. and also optimum reserve size.com/kq/groups/23692934/735252035/name/Graham+et+al.pone. Future conservation and management efforts need to identify and subsequently protect regional refugia.x http://onlinelibrary. ecosystems Graham. ISSN: 0078‐3218 http://xa.1111/j.plosone.implications." Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review 49: 105‐135.x/abstract KEYWORDS: bioeconomic model. This work assesses the impacts of the mass bleaching event that occurred in 1998 affecting coral cover. et al. "From microbes to people: tractable benefits of no‐take areas for coral reefs. diversity and trophic composition of reef fish communities have all followed this decline in corals.pone.00360. T. Using fishery data it is shown that the payoffs from a reserve. The bioeconomics literature is examined from the perspectives of deterministic models. marine megafauna.. stochastic model. but not the management regime. J.. traditional management controls. DOI: 10.2006.+OMBAR+2011.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10. et al. Kompas.com/content/y1x4q13683888584/ KEYWORDS: reserve spill‐overs. losing breath: ocean biogeochemistry under global change. spillovers from reserves to harvested areas and bioeconomic models of marine reserves. McClanahan.1371/journal. "Warming up. J.

Key properties of complex adaptive systems contributing to resilience are reviewed. P. global warming. ulcerative white spots (UWS). (2012). chemical and biological processes.2011. Island Press. and Social Science in Fisheries Research?" Ecology and Society 17(1).. fisheries. bleaching. but only at sites where bleaching occurred in 1998. and between types of knowledge.ocean function and ecosystem dynamics over the coming decades and centuries. Sites with high abundance of staghorn Acropora and Montipora had greatest disease. between disciplines. coral. Resilience and the behaviour of large‐scale systems.google.ecologyandsociety. L. South East Asia Gunderson. and social scientists grew from the need to better understand the complexity and uncertainty in the context of the Baltic salmon fisheries. baltic Haapkyla. taxa." PLoS ONE 7(3): 1‐8." Coral Reefs 29(4): 1035‐1045. self‐organization at multiple scales and order. complex adaptive systems. (2010).. These data Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 46 . and L. The paper analyses how and what kind of interdisciplinarity between natural scientists. Concepts of resilience and stability in large‐scale ecosystems are addressed in terms of theoretical concepts. regional scale Haapasaari.1371%2Fjournal. complexity. with lowest disease occurrence in Nov 2007 and highest in August 2008.1371/journal.org/vol17/iss1/art6/ KEYWORDS: fisheries. DOI: 10. J.royalsocietypublishing. et al. with this being the first recording of higher BrB in winter. offering understanding of how ecological resilience and human adaptability properties interact in complex and regional‐scale systems. Kulmala. Their data provide evidence in support of both hypotheses as they documented an unprecedented reversal in the susceptibility of coral genera.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10. Baird.html?id=r9CgJNV_6KAC KEYWORDS: resilience. The dominance of Gas and SEB was not seasonal. temporal variation. E. skeletal eroding band disease (SEB) and black band disease (BBD). WS was slightly higher in summer. J. Pritchard Jr. et al.pone. Evidence of seasonality was detected for two diseases: BrB and UW. This article discusses the impacts of warming.0033353 KEYWORDS: spatial variation.org/content/369/1943/1980 KEYWORDS: climate change. and presents information on the relationship between recovery times and resilience for perturbed systems. ocean acidification. temperature Guest. This work investigates temporal patterns in coral disease and potential drivers of this around Heron Island.0033353 http://www.0003 http://rsta. "Growing into Interdisciplinarity: How to Converge Biology. interdisciplinarity. although incidence of GA increased throughout the study duration. The authors examine the bleaching and mortality responses of corals at sites with contrasting thermal histories during a large‐scale bleaching event in 2010. (2012). along with the empirical application of those concepts.plosone. acidification. S. white syndrome (WS).. Surveys between 2007 and 2009 identified six diseases: brown band syndrome (BrB). J. learning. ocean biogeochemistry.pone. thermal tolerance. "Contrasting patterns of coral bleaching susceptibility in 2010 suggest an adaptive response to thermal stress. but overall prevalence was relatively low. growth anomalies (GA). DOI: 10. "Spatiotemporal patterns of coral disease prevalence on Heron Island.com. H. Practical implications of new theoretical approaches are discussed in terms of sustaining systems in light of human impacts. Economics. http://books.au/books/about/Resilience_and_the_Behavior_of_Large_Sca. (2002). and deoxygenation at regional and global scales and likely mitigation strategies for reducing the rate at which these factors are occurring globally. Furthermore the authors show that corals generally bleached less severely at locations where temperature variability has been greater and warming rates lower over the last 60 years. Great Barrier Reef. Melbourne‐Thomas. environmental economists. Australia. social‐ecological systems.1098/rsta. It suggests that interdisciplinarity is a learning process that takes place between individuals. deoxygentation. including aspects of physical. Washington DC. This book examines resilience and change theories. A.5751/Es‐04503‐170106 http://www. DOI: 10. et al. This book also uses case studies to explore the biophysical dimensions of resilience in different ecosystems. and include multiple equilibria.

El Niño Halsnaes.x/abstract KEYWORDS: adaptation. (2003).com/content/y3x0212l15286h70/ KEYWORDS: climate change. L.wiley. J. Cheal. red tides.emphasize the correlations between coral disease prevalence. The approach is based on the application of a limited set of indicators. but subsequently increased to pre‐disturbance levels except for two species. climate change. with both coral and fish assemblages demonstrating resilience to large‐scale natural disturbance. algal blooms. which was potentially the result of storm damage. brown band syndrome. resilience. The data revealed large‐scale resilience and predictable recovery of these species assemblages. and Harmful Algal Blooms: A Formidable Predictive Challenge " Journal of Phycology 46(2): 220‐235." Environmental Management 43(5): 765‐778. North‐Atlantic oscillation.1529‐8817. plankton recorder survey.1529‐8817. "Resilience to large‐scale disturbance in coral and fish assemblages on the Great Barrier Reef. ocean acidification. M. large scale. positive feedback. but the uncertainty is still remaining about some of the wider development impacts of implementing climate change adaptation measures. A.springerlink. K. dinoflagellate..1111/j. cysts. These data suggest that habitat may play an important role in modifying fish assemblages. This paper highlights the limitations in the understanding of marine ecosystem responses to multifactorial physicochemical climate drivers and emphasizes the lack of knowledge regarding genetic and phenotypic adaptation ability of marine microalgae to accelerating climate change.1007/s00267‐009‐9273‐0 http://www. DOI: 10. and allowed this quick response. The paper introduces the so‐called climate change mainstreaming approach. Biringer. which have rapid growth and competitive dominance. "Development and Climate Change: A Mainstreaming Approach for Assessing Economic. Halford.1111/j. Eds.1890/03‐4017 http://www. reef fish. marine plankton. temporal patterns. Indo‐Pacific. NAO.. A. disturbance. Hansen. and calls for increased vigilance in areas that are currently poorly monitored.2010. Phytoplankton community changes can also provide early warning systems for climate‐driven perturbances. The community was dominated by tabulate Acropora corals. (2004).2010. habitat structure. and a stepwise approach for addressing climate change impacts. sustainable development. DOI: 10. recovery. Hard coral cover increased at a slow rate from 1992‐94. range expansion. The conclusions of the paper confirm that climate risks can be reduced at relatively low costs. herbivorous fishes. assemblage. and Environmental Impacts of Adaptation Measures. J. Overall.springerlink. Phytoplankton Community Responses. atmospheric CO2. et al.com/content/b300236124w6h871/ KEYWORDS: coral disease. sea surface temperature. development linkages. mainstreaming. tropical cyclone. DOI: 10.1890/03‐4017 KEYWORDS: coral assemblage. This allowed comparison of fish and benthic communities prior to the disturbance and throughout the time of disturbance. social and environmental dimensions related to vulnerability and adaptation are introduced. These indicators are selected as representatives of focal development policy objectives. seasonally varying environmental parameters and coral community composition. et al. ENSO..org/doi/abs/10. Acanthaster planci. catastrophic predation.00815. climate change. resilience. Traerup (2009).1007/s00338‐010‐0660‐z http://www. DOI: 10. but accelerated in growth rate and was the same as pre‐disturbance by 1998.com/doi/10. (2010). dynamics.00815. "Ocean Climate Change. where vulnerability and adaptation measures are assessed in the context of general development policy objectives.x http://onlinelibrary. and S. continuous plankton recorder. Social. growth anomalies." Ecology 85(7): 1892‐1905. and the economic. Buying Time: A User’s Manual for Building Resistance and Resilience to Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 47 . 88% of fish species decreased in abundance post disturbance. recruitment Hallegraeff. communities. G. Gymnodinium catenatum. seasonality.esajournals. yet highlight for more work in these areas. Great Barrier Reef. Live coral cover decreased from >80% to <10% in some north‐eastern reefs during 1987‐89. This work stresses that lack of preparedness of human society in the face of increasing algal biotoxin problems.

et al.2005. climate change.00871. Washington. However. synergistic effects. G. The spatial managenent.org/sites/default/files/Globe%20Action%20Plan%20for%20Coral%20Reefs_08‐10‐2010. R. The authors review recent advances in our understanding of the physical and chemical nature of climate change in coastal oceans. pg 228. The aim of this manual is to provide support for natural resource and protected area managers as they begin to contemplate how to respond to climate change. for example. Extinction or rapid decline in population numbers can be the result of infectious diseases. (2010). Hobday.1016/j. marine ecosystems." Science 296(5576): 2158‐2162.Climate Change in Natural Systems.x/abstract KEYWORDS: Anthropogenic climate change. et al. community structure. et al. http://wwf.icriforum. (2011). Parmesan and Yohe (2003) analysed data from over 1700 species to demonstrate that climate change has already altered range boundaries and phenology. et al. ocean pH. This action plan provides international legislators and policymakers with clear and targeted actions to build resilience in tropical shallow‐water coral reef ecosystems and in the people that rely on them. rainfall and humidity. International. http://www. and understand the appropriate time scales in which systems will be able to respond DOI: 10. A key aim of the initiative is to promote ‘win‐win’ policies that increase the ecological resilience of coral reefs while boosting the social resilience of the communities and stakeholders that depend on them. temperature Hartog. with changes in chemistry likely to be more important for performance and survival in many organisms than temperature. distributional shifts.com/science/article/pii/S0967064510002122 KEYWORDS: Southern bluefintuna. Increases in global warming can amplify pathogen development and Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 48 . predict community‐level impacts of dominant species. legislators. "Habitat overlap between southern bluefin tuna and yellowfin tuna in the east coast longline fishery ‐ implications for present and future spatial management. D.1461‐0248. C. Clark.com/doi/10. Mitchell. Yellowfin tuna. where the core habitat is identified and then fishing activity in that habitat modified to protect the species of concern..1111/j. G.2010. GLOBE Action Plan for Coral Reefs. DC. and can create synergisms that could potentially affect biodiversity. anthropogenic degradation Harley. J. Bycatch reduction.sciencedirect. C. Spatial management. A. Many pathogens are susceptible to temperature.1111/j.. population dynamics.005 http://www. E. the effectiveness of such measure can be influenced by climate change as species distributions are likely to change.00871.dsr2. the paper uses future ocean predictions from the CSIRO Bluelink ocean model for the year 2064 to generate habitat predictions. action plan. DOI: 10. (2006). Conservation and management efforts will require enhancement of predictive frameworks. WWF. "Ecology ‐ Climate warming and disease risks for terrestrial and marine biota. Examples are provided showing specific climate‐driven ecosystem responses. "The impacts of climate change in coastal marine systems (vol 9. IPCC Harding. D.2005.. resilience.06.wiley.. involve adaptation ability.1461‐0248." Deep‐Sea Research Part Ii‐Topical Studies in Oceanography 58(5): 746‐752.panda. S. A. R. is an useful measure to minimize unwanted bycatch. and direction of future research should include identifying key demographic transitions that act to influence population dynamics. Habitat prediction. coastal oceanography.org/?8678/BUYING‐TIME‐A‐Users‐Manual‐for‐Building‐Resistance‐and‐Resilience‐to‐Climate‐Ch ange‐in‐Natural‐Systems KEYWORDS: climate change. Climate change Harvell. Hughes. resistance. E." Ecology Letters 9(4): 500‐500. resilience. (2003) showed that 80% of the 143 studies they used demonstrated trait characteristics conferring climate change predictions.x http://onlinelibrary. carbon dioxide (CO2). To consider the future change in distribution of Southern bluefin tuna (SBT) and yellowfin tuna (YFT) compared to the present and to explore the potential impact on fishers and managers of the future. Recent work suggests that the abiotic changes and biological responses will be substantially more complex than first anticipated. Root et al. C. 2006). J. The East Australia Current (EAC) is one of the fastest warming ocean regions in the southern hemisphere. (2002).pdf KEYWORDS: coral reefs. This study demonstrates a clear fingerprint of climate change.

ca 1000 ppm CO2. R.1126/science.1063699 http://www. There is evidence suggesting that warming around the British Isles has resulted in the highest sea surface temperatures ever recorded in this region. urchin.survival rates. Buttler. M. S. erythrogramma were subjected to CO2‐induced acidification (pH reduced by 0.abstract KEYWORDS: amphibian population declines. Indonesia. DOI: 10. however some pathogens may decline with increasing temperatures. This paper reviews the response of intertidal biodiversity from rocky shores in the British Isles to global climate change. which will alter the export and import of primary production. Climatic events such as El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) have influenced pathogens including coral disease and oyster pathogens. Gametes and larvae of the sea urchin H. Haemonchus contortus.1111/j.x/abstract Keywords: flood adaptation. fertilization. E. model. DOI: 10.1753‐318X. A. et al. et al.2011. climate change Harwitasari. Climate policy needs to address the multi‐decadal to centennial time scale of climate change.015 http://www. N." Science 302(5652): 1923‐1925. "The challenge of long‐term climate change. Perkinsus marinus. policy. (2003). to be effective climate policies need to be conceived as long‐term programs that will achieve a gradual transition to an essentially emission‐free economy on the time scale of a century. DOI: 10.1090858 http://www. Poleward movement on rocky shores is distinctive and dependent on life history characteristics. H. "Climate change adaptation in practice: people's responses to tidal flooding in Semarang.4. "Near‐future levels of ocean acidification reduce fertilization success in a sea urchin. dispersal ability and habitat requirements.com/doi/10. Global warming is predicted to increase frequency or severity of disease impacts for host‐parasite systems. gametes. Sugden. D.06." Current Biology 18(15): 651‐652. F. This requires a considerably broader spectrum of policy measures than the primarily market‐based instruments invoked for shorter term mitigation policies. Phytophthora cinnamomi. economics Havenhand. and releasing hosts from disease. These findings suggest that ocean acidification may drastically impact taxa with calcareous larval skeletons in the near future. In many places in the world the effects of common floods are increased by climate change. J. Culex quinquefasciatus. mass‐mortality.wiley.abstract KEYWORDS: climate change. The study provides relevant information about the way people in the affected areas perceive flood risks and adaptation opportunities.sciencemag. To improve effective epidemic predictions in wild populations. "Consequences of climate‐driven biodiversity changes for ecosystem functioning of North European rocky shores. This paper presents a case study on tidal flooding in Semarang.2008.. species or ecosystems at risk. climate change." Marine Ecology‐Progress Series 396: 245‐259.01104. coastal lowlands Hasselmann. van Ast (2011).x http://onlinelibrary.01104.1126/science. calcification. (2008). spread of disease and susceptibility of pathogen hosts. vector‐borne diseases." Journal of Flood Risk Management 4(3): 216‐233. emerging infectious‐diseases.1111/j.org/content/302/5652/1923. The authors predict that the balance of primary producers and secondary consumers may change along wave exposure gradients that match changes occurring with latitude.sciencemag. J. K.org/content/296/5576/2158. the upper limit of predictions for 2100) in tanks. fertilization success were significantly reduced in acidified water. and J. Although the realization of short‐term targets is an important first step. (2009). fertility Hawkins.cub. Increases in grazer and sessile invertebrate diversity will potentially be accompanied by a reduction in primary production by large canopy‐forming Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 49 . fossil‐fuel CO2. A successful climate policy must consist of a dual approach focusing on both short‐term targets and long‐term goals.1016/j.com/current‐biology/abstract/S0960‐9822%2808%2900735‐5 KEYWORDS: ocean acidification.1753‐318X.2011. DOI:10. putting entire populations. Sperm swimming speed.. et al. motility and hence. integrated water management. stewardship. we need to be able to separate both independent and interactive effects of various climate drivers on disease impact.cell.. along the coastline of the Indonesian island of Java. Latif. using long‐term data sets.

given present knowledge on the relationship between atmosphere and surface ocean. (ii) highlight how process knowledge gained on the selected fish stocks has been integrated into biophysical models. temperature. intermediate and marginal sites in terms of survival threshold limits of corals. This chapter discusses the important value of CO2 and temperature proxies for predictions of future climatic shifts. Chemical Evolution II: From the Origins of Life to Modern Society. Hemming. with emphasis on anchovy. Hennige.ecologyandsociety. institutional arrangements. J. Goniastrea aspera. DOI: 10.org/doi/abs/10. and accretion in terms of future climate change impacts. DOI: 10. governance Hinrichsen. Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 50 . Northeast Atlantic. and C. Smith. The Symbiodinium community changed along the gradient. symbiotic algae.2010. Using boron isotopes as a proxy for estimating ancient ocean pH may assist in our understanding of natural variations in atmospheric CO2 concentrations.1021/bk‐2009‐1025.ch009 KEYWORDS: climate change. E. South East Sulawesi." Ices Journal of Marine Science 68(7): 1478‐1487. Indonesia. massive growth form dominated.org/vol17/iss2/art8/ KEYWORDS: adaptation. management. et al. Symbiodinium." Ecology and Society 17(2). coral communities ranged from diverse. American Chemical Society. and how they build or erode institutional resilience. how they interact. and turbidity within the Wakatobi Marine National Park. and (iii) comment on the fisheries management utility of IBMs. global warming. marginal reefs. massive corals. suggesting the inability to consider all corals equal across environments. The aim is not to provide an exhaustive summary of the worldwide use of coupled biophysical models in marine systems. (2010). et al. M. Only one species of massive (Goniastrea aspera) was identified at most marginal and optimal sites. and recovery of fish stocks. Great Barrier Reef. S. from different clades on optimal (in branching and massive species) and marginal reefs (in massive species).algae. Series..5751/Es‐04565‐170208 http://www.06. Herrfahrdt‐Pahle. H. climate change. Across this gradient. and sprat in European waters.1021/bk‐2009‐1025. H.. This paper assessed the potential role of coupled biophysical models in enhancing the conservation. Massive coral species exhibited variability in both respiration and photosynthesis.ch009 http://pubs.3354/meps08378 http://www. ultraviolet radiation.acs. Boron. were selected to include ‘optimal’. Isotopes Illuminate Chemical Change: Boron Isotope pH Proxy. biodiversity.com/abstracts/meps/v396/p245‐259/ KEYWORDS: climate change. N. adaptive capacity. DOI: 10. pH proxy. but to focus on the development and application of individual‐based models (IBMs) for selected fish stocks.jembe. herring. isotope. function. The paper (i) evaluate the utility of biophysical IBMs for understanding the dynamics of early life stages of commercial fish.1016/j. environmental gradients. resilience. which are discussed here in relation to biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. (2011). A. shade‐adapted colonies. 1025: 157‐177. Pahl‐Wostl (2012). "Acclimation and adaptation of scleractinian coral communities along environmental gradients within an Indonesian reef system. The paper illustrates the tension between the concepts of continuity and change. G.int‐res.sciencedirect. ecosystem functioning.019 http://www.com/science/article/pii/S0022098110002248 KEYWORDS: acclimation. adaptation. intertidal. mixed growth form assemblages to specialised. cod. (2009). Stylophora pistillatal. "Continuity and Change in Social‐ecological Systems: the Role of Institutional Resilience. Multiple sites along a gradient of light. Elements of institutional continuity and change are discussed in the context of learning opportunities. This book chapter discusses methods relating to the indirect acquisition of climatic information that is otherwise directly unavailable. adaptaion and sustainable pathways. DOI: 10. "Evaluating the suitability of coupled biophysical models for fishery management. South Africa. J. Pocillopora damicornis." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 391(1‐2): 143‐152. range shifts. Information on present‐day marginal environments is important for understanding reef biodiversity. Dickey‐Collas. S. D. but branching species (Acropora formosa and Porites cylindrical) were only recorded at optimal sites.

DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/fsr056 http://icesjms.oxfordjournals.org/content/68/7/1478.short KEYWORDS: adaptive management strategies; applicability of biophysical models; collapsed fish stocks; early‐life‐stage survival; environmental variability. Hobday, A., B. Mapstone, et al. (2009). Enhancing species adaptation to climate change. A Marine Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Report Card for Australia 2009. E. Poloczanska, A. Hobday and A. Richardson, NCCARF Publication 05/09, ISBN 978‐1‐921609‐03‐9. This report card explains climate change adaptation in the context of marine species, autonomous (through natural physical and biological processes) and human induced (planned) adaptation, adaptation actions in practice, and options available. ISBN: 978‐1‐921609‐03‐9 http://eprints.jcu.edu.au/11300/1/Adaptation_to_climate_change.pdf KEYWORDS: adaptation options; adaptation actions; climate change. Hobday, A. J. (2010). "Ensemble analysis of the future distribution of large pelagic fishes off Australia." Progress In Oceanography 86(1‐2): 291‐301. Impacts of warming water on oceanic species are most likely to be detected as changes in distribution. Global climate models provide insight into possible future conditions, but there is also considerable uncertainty regarding future changes because of differences in model structure and future scenarios. To address some of this uncertainty, this paper considered output from multiple climate models through an ensemble analysis and examined potential changes in the distribution of large pelagic fishes captured by longline fisheries on the east and west coast of Australia by the year 2100. DOI: 10.1016/j.pocean.2010.04.023 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0079661110000571 KEYWORDS: global climate models; distribution changes; uncertainty; multiple climate models; fisheries Hobday, A. J. (2011). "Sliding baselines and shuffling species: implications of climate change for marine conservation." Marine Ecology‐an Evolutionary Perspective 32(3): 392‐403. This paper used projected changes in sea surface temperature (SST) for the period 2063–2065 from a downscaled ocean model to illustrate the similarity to, and movements of, present pelagic environments within conservation planning areas off Eastern Australia. Climate‐aware conservation planning should consider the use of mobile protected areas to afford protection to species’ changing their distribution. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439‐0485.2011.00459.x http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1439‐0485.2011.00459.x/abstract KEYWORDS: distribution change; sea surface temperature; downscaled ocean model; conservation planning; mobile protected area. Hobday, A. J., J. Dowdney, et al. (2007). Ecological Risk Assessment for the Effects of Fishing: Southern Bluefin Tuna Purse Seine Fishery. Report for the Australian Fisheries Management Authority. CSIRO, Canberra: 110 pp. The ERAEF method (Ecological Risk Assessment for Effect of Fishing, developed in a research program sponsored by CMAR and AFMA) is applied to assess the ecological impacts of the Southern Bluefin Tuna Purse Seine Fishery. This method follows a hierarchical framework to assess fishing impacts on five ecological components (target species; by‐product and by‐catch species; threatened, endangered and protected species; habitats; and ecological communities), using four analytical steps designed to sequentially eliminate fishing hazards of lesser importance. This cost‐efficient prioritization enables the implementation of appropriate management strategies targeted at high‐risk components. This document contains the three first steps of the process, namely, scoping, expert judgment‐based level 1 analysis and empirically‐based Level 2 analysis. http://www.environment.gov.au/coasts/fisheries/commonwealth/southern‐bluefin‐tuna/pubs/sbt‐attachmentb‐fi shery‐report.pdf KEYWORDS: fisheries; Southern Bluefin tuna; risk assessment; management; strategy. Hobday, A. J. and J. M. Lough (2011). "Projected climate change in Australian marine and freshwater environments." Marine and Freshwater Research 62(9): 1000‐1014.
Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013


Access to information on future climate is critical for many biologists and managers working to determine species and ecosystem impacts from climate change. This paper first explains how climate projections are obtained, discussing some of the associated caveats and limitations. The paper then provides a range of projections for Australia’s aquatic environments. DOI: 10.1071/mf10302 http://www.publish.csiro.au/paper/MF10302 KEYWORDS: climate‐change impacts; freshwater fishes; future climate scenarios; global climate model; marine fishes; impacts; management. Hobday, A. J. and E. S. Poloczanska (2010). Marine fisheries and aquaculture. Adapting agriculture to climate change: preparing Australian agriculture, forestry and fisheries for the future. C. Stokes and M. Howden. Collingwood, Australia, CSIRO Publishing: 205‐228. This is a chapter of book which describes the causes and consequences of climate change to providing options for people to work towards adaptation action. Climate change implications and adaptation options are given for the key Australian primary industries of in marine fisheries, and aquaculture resources. Case studies demonstrate the options for each industry. This chapter summarises updated climate change scenarios for Australia, the observed and predicted impacts on marine fisheries and aquaculture, and outlines adaptation options and priorities for the future. http://www.publish.csiro.au/pid/6170.htm KEYWORDS: fisheries; aquaculture; adaptation options; predictions. Hobday, A. J., E. S. Poloczanska, et al. (2008). Implications of climate change for Australian fisheries and aquaculture: a preliminary assessment. Implications of climate change for Australian fisheries and aquaculture: a preliminary assessment. A. J. P. Hobday, E. S.; Matear, R. J. . Canberra, Australia, Department of Climate Change, Commonwealth of Australia: ix + 74 pp. This report reviews the potential impacts of climate change on Australia’s fisheries and aquaculture, and provides a preliminary assessment of the state of knowledge of the implications of climate change for fisheries and aquaculture in Australia. The report also notes the need for fisheries and aquaculture management policies to better integrate the effects of climate variability and climate change in establishing harvest levels and developing future strategies. ISBN: 978‐1‐921298‐17‐2 http://www.cabdirect.org/abstracts/20103268711.html KEYWORDS: review; potential impacts; climate change; fisheries; aquaculture; assessment; managment policies; strategies. Hobday, A. J., A. D. M. Smith, et al. (2011). "Ecological risk assessment for the effects of fishing." Fisheries Research 108(2‐3): 372‐384. The ERAEF (Ecological Risk Assessment for the Effects of Fishing) framework is a tool used to assist in the implementation of ecosystem‐based fisheries management, which has been applied to 30 fisheries in Australia and elsewhere. This method follows a hierarchical framework, passing through different analytical steps designed to sequentially eliminate fishing hazards of lesser importance, while maximizing the use of available data. This cost‐efficient prioritization enables the implementation of appropriate management strategies targeted on high‐risk species. DOI:10.1016/j.fishres.2011.01.013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165783611000324 KEYWORDS: fisheries; Australia; ecological risk assessment; management; sustainability; adaptation. Hoegh‐Guldberg, O. (1999). "Climate change, coral bleaching and the future of the world's coral reefs." Marine and Freshwater Research 50(8): 839‐866. This work considers the biochemical, physiological and ecological perspectives of coral bleaching; as well as analyses outputs from three models of climate change simulating sea temperature change and how bleaching frequency and intensity will change over the next century. Results indicate that reef‐building thermal tolerances are expected to be exceeded annually over the coming decades, with events as severe as the 1998 bleaching likely to become common within 20 years. Information indicates that coral adaptive capacity may already be exceeded, and that adaptation will not be able to match the rate of climate
Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013


change, resulting in loss and degradation of coral reefs on a global scale. DOI: 1323‐1650/99/080839 http://www.publish.csiro.au/nid/126/paper/MF99078.htm KEYWORDS: global climate change; zooxanthellae; temperature; photoinhibition; coral bleaching; adaptation; acclimation. Hoegh‐Guldberg, O. (2001). Sizing the impact: Coral reef ecosystems as early casualties of climate change. Fingerprints of Climate Change: Adapted Behaviour and Shifting Species Ranges. New York, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publ: 203‐228. This conference paper summarises the impacts of climate change on coral reef ecosystems, describes climate projections, and provides evidence of the scale of impact expected in the future. http://www.springer.com/environment/global+change+‐+climate+change/book/978‐0‐306‐46716‐5 KEYWORDS: coral reef ecosystems; climate change; impacts. Hoegh‐Guldberg, O. (2004). "Coral reefs in a century of rapid environmental change." Symbiosis 37(1‐3): 1‐31. Characteristic symbioses of coral reefs have been used to explain their structure, biodiversity and existence, with complex inter‐relationships between hosts, habitats and symbionts belie combined nutrient and community dynamics that create this ‘something from nothing’ circumstance. The reverse side of these dynamics is a close dependency between species, which can result in non‐linear relationships as conditions change. There is more focus on these responses in light of increasing anthropogenic influences. Both Caribbean and Indo‐Pacific corals are now in severe decline which has resulted in substantial reorganisation of how coral reefs function. Mass coral bleaching has been brought about by rapid climate change, and has increased since the 1970s; with mass bleaching events triggered by small increases in water temperature, often during ENSO events. Loss of coral has flow‐on effects for other species, much of which is yet not fully known. Research must focus on understanding the extent of thermal tolerances of corals and their symbionts if bleaching and disease are linked; how coral loss will affect other species; and how coral loss will affect the people that depend on them. http://espace.library.uq.edu.au/view/UQ:73713 KEYWORDS:symbiosis; coral reefs; dinoflagellate; climate change; Gymnodinium microadriaticum freudenthal; Great Barrier Reef; Symbiodinium microadriaticum; Marine invertebrates; elevated temperature; Montastrea annularis; genetic variation; ultraviolet radiation; Seriatopora hystrix; Community structure Hoegh‐Guldberg, O. and J. F. Bruno (2010). "The Impact of Climate Change on the World's Marine Ecosystems." Science 328(5985): 1523‐1528. Understanding of how marine ecosystems are being affected by human‐induced climate change is fairly limited. Recent studies have predicted ocean systems being driven towards conditions not witnessed for millions of years, with substantial risks to fundamental and irreversibly ecological transformations a potential outcome. Current climate impacts of anthropogenic origin include decreased ocean productivity, altered food web dynamics, decreases in abundance of habitat‐forming species, changing distributions and greater disease occurrence. Although there is still considerable uncertainty about spatial and temporal aspects, it is clear that climate change will fundamentally alter marine systems, and will create vast challenges for societies globally, but particularly in developing countries. DOI: 10.1126/science.1189930 http://www.sciencemag.org/content/328/5985/1523.abstract KEYWORDS: ocean acidification; hydrogen‐sulfide; southern‐ocean; ice‐sheet; temperature; CO2; resilience; eruptions; anoxia; climate change Hoegh‐Guldberg, O., H. Hoegh‐Guldberg, et al. (2009). The Coral Triangle and Climate Change: Ecosystems, People and Societies at Risk. B. World Wildlife Fund, Australia. www.panda.org/coraltriangle. This report sets out the full extent of the threats and proposes solutions to the challenges facing the Coral Triangle and its people. Based on a thorough consideration of the climate, biology, economics and social characteristics of the region, it shows why these challenges are increasing, and how unchecked climate change will ultimately undermine and destroy ecosystems and livelihoods in the Coral Triangle. The report offers two possible scenarios for the future. In one world, the international community continues down a track towards catastrophic climate change and the Coral Triangle countries do little to protect coastal
Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013


conservation managers." Science 318(5857): 1737‐1742. climate change. and Systematics 41(1): 127‐147.ecosystems from the onslaught of local threats. and tourism. (2011). DOI: 10. calcification." Annual Review of Ecology.. growth strategies. early life‐history stages and interactions with synergistic stressors. dynamics. provide evidece of observed impacts. DOI: 10. J. coastal ecosystems. ISBN: 978‐1‐921031‐35‐9 http://wwf. phenotypic plasticity. Mumby. et al. Recent geophysical studies challenge the view that the speed of current and projected climate change is unprecedented. and identifies key knowledge gaps. P. dispersal. Additionally.panda. extinction.1146/annurev. et al.02418. and whether we fully understand this process.02418. The authors highlight that research needs to be expanded on the impacts of ocean acidification on fertilization. Poloczanska. adaptation options available for resource managers.e. future scenarios. Richardson: 25. recruitment. Predicted conditions suggest that climate change and global warming will include carbonate accretion resulting in further decline in coral reefs. Barry. J. Davidson.2011.sciencemag. (2010). This report is a summary of a comprehensive study involving over 20 experts and based on 300 peer‐reviewed scientific articles. potential impacts. Hobday and A. marine.110308. (2009). "The effect of ocean acidification on calcifying organisms in marine ecosystems: an organism‐to‐ecosystem perspective.120227 http://www. calcification). "Rethinking species' ability to cope with rapid climate change. ocean acidification.1111/j. diversity. intensity. "Coral reefs under rapid climate change and ocean acidification.1126/science. ocean acidification. disturbances. E. in order to grasp the long‐term implications of ocean acidification.abstract KEYWORDS: atmospheric co2. resilience. The fact that the documented abrupt climate changes do not coincide with any of the known major extinction events raises questions about species’ abilities to cope with climatic changes. This review addresses the impacts of anthropogenic‐driven ocean acidification on marine organisms spanning diverse marine ecosystems across the globe. coral reefs Hof. A Marine Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Report Card for Australia 2009. climate change intensifies stresses from declines in water quality and exploitation of key species. Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 54 . Levinsky. et al. Evolution. and that lessons must be learned for modelling future impacts of climate change on species. E.2011.. A. The authors review the current understanding of how anthropogenic climate change and increasing ocean acidity are affecting coral reefs and offer scenarios for how coral reefs will change over this century. G. C.x http://onlinelibrary. DOI: 10. This paper propose that the advances in geophysical research challenge current views about species’ ability to cope with climate change.wiley.annualreviews. coastal resources." Global Change Biology 17(9): 2987‐2990. Holbrook. which heightens the risk of functional collapse. The scenarios are intended to provide a framework for proactive responses to the changes that have begun in coral reef ecosystems and to provoke thinking about future management and policy challenges for coral reef protection.1152509 http://www.org/content/318/5857/1737. O. climate change. This is likely to decrease diversity of reef communities and the failure to maintain carbonate reef structures. stressors. marine ecosystem. Hoegh‐Guldberg..org/toc/ecolsys/41/1 KEYWORDS: acclimation.. habitat fragmentation. Coral Triangle. El Niño – Southern Oscillation. et al.x/abstract KEYWORDS: adaptation. P. (2007). J. glacial cycles.1365‐2486. This report card describes how El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) affects Australia’s Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) marine waters.org/what_we_do/where_we_work/coraltriangle/problems/climatechangecoraltriangle/ KEYWORDS: livelihoods. N. rapid climate change. . I.com/doi/10. thresholds. adaptation. ecology. CO2. biodiversity.1111/j.1365‐2486.ecolsys. Hofmann. The authors focus on reviewing literature concerned with the implications of ocean acidification on marine taxonomic groups that precipitate calcium carbonate from the ocean (i. coastal management.

S. This document is the preface of a scientific report from the PICES/ICES/FAO international symposium held in April 2010 in Sendai. providing some real‐life examples to illustrate and a synthesis of findings. L. (2003). This paper further explores resilience and stability as well as the interplay between the two. This paper summarizes recent and projected climate trends in Australia and discusses how species may respond to these changes in the context of the particular environmental characteristics and biogeographic history of the continent. DOI: 10. It is expected that reefs will change rather than disappear. and constitutes an assessment of the current knowledge of the impacts of climate change on fisheries. adaptation responses Hughes. climate trends. It also identifies particular regions and ecosystems likely to be most negatively affected in the short to medium term. Great Barrier Reef. assessing ecosystem responses. (1973). http://www.’s (2011) attribution of just three sources of acute mortality as the cause of long‐term loss of coral cover. Hughes. South‐west Western Australia. R. This paper examines 1) why does coral cover decline and question the focus and accuracy of Sweatman et al. AR4‐model. "Resilience and Stability of Ecological Systems. T. La Niña. climate change. biodiversity. et al. vulnerability. C. Barange. ecological systems. Hollowed. and evaluating management strategies Preface. biodiversity. and we refute Sweatman et al. diversity. (2011). (2011). DOI:10. climate change. ecosystems. ecosystems. evolution. El Niño. including human threats now and in the future.au/content/images/uploads/ENSO‐final. and the erosion of reef resilience: comment on Sweatman et al. B.1007/s10113‐010‐0158‐9 http://www. This paper deals with the theory of resilience and stability of ecological systems. "Effects of climate change on fish and fisheries: forecasting impacts. tropics. and discusses how this may manifest in ecological systems. The author surmises that traditional views of natural systems may therefore be less a meaningful reality than a perceptual convenience..org/stable/info/2096802 KEYWORDS: resilience." Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 4: 1‐23.com/content/v2173l67541t4277/ KEYWORDS: Australia.org.sciencemag. M. declining coral cover. El Niño‐like. model simulations. human impacts. A.. et al. giving rise to new directions for research which will support effective management of these resources. H. This paper reviews the current knowledge of status of current reefs. empirical ecology. Holling.pdf KEYWORDS: ENSO. disturbance.springerlink." Coral Reefs 30(3): 653‐660.1093/icesjms/fsr085 http://icesjms.abstract KEYWORDS: Great Barrier Reef. marine reserves. (2011).org/content/68/6/984 KEYWORDS: fisheries. and the resilience of coral reefs. "Climate change and Australia: key vulnerable regions..jstor. ecosystem response. http://www.1126/science. management strategies Hughes. perspectives. Bellwood. "Shifting base‐lines. et al. coral reefs." Ices Journal of Marine Science 68(6): 984‐985. T. P. A. stability.ISBN 978‐1‐921609‐03‐9. with species already exhibiting greater tolerance to climate change and bleaching. Baird.org/content/301/5635/929.oceanclimatechange. D. 2) the utility of older records of coral cover for correcting shifting base‐lines. P. Japan.oxfordjournals.1085046 http://www." Science 301(5635): 929‐933. This report covers a wide range of scientific. DOI: 10. Reef resilience strategies need to be developed and implemented along with policy decisions aimed at reducing the rate of global warming. social and economic themes. This work explores theoretical and empirical ecology in terms of traditional analysis pathways and shows the tendency to emphasize the importance of quantitative rather than qualitative analysis. "Climate change.’s (2011) claim that earlier studies reported losses of corals that were 3‐times higher than Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 55 . (2011)." Regional Environmental Change 11(S1): S189‐S195. mortality.

climate change. A.ncbi.1007/s00338‐011‐0787‐6 KEYWORDS: shifting base‐lines.2005.cub. Bellwood. recovery.03. fishery management. in the context of the state of Victoria.1016/j. (2005). governance structures and science based management. A. North‐Atlantic. DOI: 10. P. fishing communities Hurlimann. The authors argue that anticipating and preventing unwanted regime shifts in an SES context will require an improved understanding of the dynamic and complex processes that support or undermine resilience.049 http://www. The data highlight the management of fish stocks in preventing ecosystem phase shifts and managing reef resilience. P. Graham." Current Biology 17(4): 360‐365. "Rising to the challenge of sustaining coral reef resilience. regime shifts. N. monitoring. and to highlight that the solutions to coral reef degradation will depend on an overdue overhaul of policies.tree.1016/j. coral decline.com/trends/ecology‐evolution/abstract/S0169‐5347(05)00084‐4 KEYWORDS: kelp forest ecosystems." Trends in Ecology & Evolution 11: 633‐642. to be squandered. D. The results indicate substitution of centralised water supplies with alternatives occurs.07." Trends in Ecology & Evolution 20(7): 380‐386.. "Household use of and satisfaction with alternative water sources in Victoria Australia. The authors focus on reefs that have lost their capacity to remain in or return to a coral‐dominated state. The experiment was conducted in a no‐take marine reserve where coral abundance and diversity had been significantly reduced by the coral bleaching event. This is important given there has been limited research published about substitution of potable water sources in the context of developed nations.cell. human impacts. Hughes. (2007). economics and society. Garden watering has the highest rate of alternative water source use. DOI: 10. T.com/current‐biology/abstract/S0960‐9822%2807%2900882‐2 KEYWORDS: ecosystems.. resilience. "New paradigms for supporting the resilience of marine ecosystems. This article explores the informal and non‐centralised substitution of potable water with alternative water sources. Local stewardship of fishing effort is an achievable goal for reef conservation which may also provide some insurance against large‐scale disturbances which are impractical to manage.their more recent results. regime‐shifts or movement between alternate stable states or basins of attraction.gov/pubmed/20800316 KEYWORDS: phase shift. J. This paper draws attention to the emergence of a complex systems approach for sustaining and rebuilding marine ecosystems by linking ecological resilience to government.cell. (2011). Natural resources are too valuable. Rodrigues. coral reefs.springer. et al. diversity. management Hughes.022 http://www.1016/j. Their goals here are to address the controversies. Pacific Ocean. "Phase shifts. human impacts.12. M. DOI: 10. T. DOI: 10. Water previously used in the laundry is Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 56 . coral reefs. biodiversity.nih. climate change.2006. In conclusion. economically.2010. R.1007/s00338‐011‐0787‐6 http://link. herbivory. decline. resilience..nlm. coral cover.’s (2011) dismissal of runoff as a cause of ecosystem degradation is credible and conclude that it is not.tree. climate change.com/article/10. Great Barrier Reef. (2010). T. south‐eastern Australia. phase shift. a world‐wide phenomenon that is variously referred to as phase‐shifts. and the resilience of coral reefs to climate change. conservation. and 3)whether Sweatman et al. et al. clarify the theoretical framework of phaseshifts and ecosystem resilience. provide an outline of gaps in knowledge and novel areas of research that are in most urgent need of attention. Hughes." Journal of Environmental Management 92(10): 2691‐2697. et al. and of the socio‐economic drivers and governance systems that shape the use of living marine resources.011 http://www. J. P. This study manipulated the density of large herbivorous fishes on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) to examine their influence on the resilience of coral reef assemblages following large scale coral‐bleaching that occurred in 1998. culturally and aesthetically. the key element in SES resilience‐based management is the recognition of the linkages between the environment and people.

It incorporates the impacts of climate change into conservation planning without Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 57 . Scandol. long‐term perspectives and developing flexible livelihoods and governance strategies.1071/mf07110 http://www..2011. T. Methods for incorporating climate change into conservation planning have been developed for regional scale planning.. The commercial catch of school prawns (Metapenaeus macleayi) has been shown to be positively correlated with the rates of river discharge in northern New South Wales. The alternative water source used varies depending on the purpose of the water use. biodiversity loss." Marine Policy 34(4): 739‐741. climate change.jenvman. experimentation.01.1016/j. vulnerability." PLoS One 5(11). projections Ives.most commonly used for this purpose. J. and intensive exploitation of natural resources is having significant impacts on the world's oceans.marpol. utility of conservation prioritization based on future species ranges remains constrained by our ability to compile and analyse these data for thousands of species over large spatial scales. DOI: 10.ncbi.1016/j. DOI: 10. This paper introduces this topic.nih. R. stock assessment Iwamura.025 http://www.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X10000266 KEYWORDS: Social‐ecological systems.gov/pubmed/21715083 Keywords: Alternative water sources.06. A. and modeling approaches required for their study. M. An international symposium on Coping with global change in marine social‐ecological systems was held in attempt to bridge these gaps as well as to explore the conceptual. (2009).. and future responses to physical and anthropogenic forcing. Australia.publish. The majority of these approaches are based on the prediction of species range shifts and use correlative species distribution models which predict species ranges using occurrence or abundance data and environmental variables. comparative and governance issues concerning marine social‐ecological systems. Adaptation. global change scenarios. Community. B. Ian Perry. Wilson.sciencedirect.007 http://www. climate variability. ecosystems. Ommer (2010). DOI: 10. fishing communities. management strategy evaluation. This handbook advances knowledge of the structure and functioning of marine ecosystems. The approach focuses on the climatic stability of ecological regions for terrestrial endemic vertebrates and identifies priority areas predicted to be robust to the impacts of climate change.au/nid/126/paper/MF07110.nlm.ucsd. E.edu/miller/download/GLOBEC_Book_Ch10/GLOBEC_Book_Ch10.2010. C. Marine Ecosystems and Global Change. and their past. P. Rose.." Marine and Freshwater Research 60(12): 1211‐1222. e. In this study. Oxford University Press.htm KEYWORDS:Bayesian modeling. this paper presents an approach to developing a resource allocation algorithm for conservation investment that incorporates the ecological stability of ecoregions under climate change. As an alternative. Domestic. Ocean ecosystem responses to future global change scenarios: a way forward. It illustrates how climate and humans impact marine ecosystems. ecosystem response. S. K. K.csiro. "Modelling the possible effects of climate change on an Australian multi‐fleet prawn fishery. present. http://horizon. (2010). Progress is being made towards the study of marine social and ecological systems as combined systems. et al. but that a number of challenges remain including incorporation of multi‐stakeholder involvement. Ito. global change. a simulation model was developed to analyse the dynamics of the stock for 10 years under alternative river discharge scenarios. al. However. and R. providing a comprehensive review of the physical and ecological processes that structure marine ecosystems as well as the observation. "A climatic stability approach to prioritizing global conservation investments. changes in hydrological and biogeochemical cycles. Australia.pdf KEYWORDS: ocean. "Introduction: Coping with global change in marine social‐ecological systems. GLOBEC. briefly describing the nine papers that arose from it (making up a special issue of Marine Policy). et al. Global environmental change including climate change. Drought. et al. (2010). and the effectiveness of a series of management strategies under these scenarios was examined.

1016/j. P. A modeling approach is used to predict the effects of climate change on the structure and function of marine communities. phenology." Journal of Plankton Research 32(10): 1355‐1368.1016/j.. to predictions of primary production. population biology.2012.marpol. and this paper summarises recent work on phytoplankton and zooplankton phenology. "Marine plankton phenology and life history in a changing climate: current research and future directions. evolutionary adaptation of timing). genetic adaptation. climate change Jacob.0015103 http://www.x/abstract KEYWORDS:climate change. The impact which climate change has on the range of this variability is important. spring phytoplankton bloom. Brander (2010). According to the authors. fixed vs. and improved deliberation of spatio‐temporal scales and the Lagrangian nature of plankton assemblages in being able to separate temporal and spatial changes." Journal of Marine Systems 79(3‐4): 418‐426. DOI: 10. S. (2013). labriform.1111/j.2011. "Increasing ocean temperature reduces the metabolic performance and swimming ability of coral reef damselfishes. Pseudocalanus sp Johansen. Calanus finmarchicus.g.jmarsys.x http://onlinelibrary. and G. The paper develops social indicators of vulnerability and resilience for fishing‐reliant communities in the Gulf of Mexico. J. DOI:10.016 http://www. evaluation Jennings.com/doi/10.1371/journal.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X12000759 KEYWORDS: social indicators." Global Change Biology 17(9): 2971‐2979.1365‐2486. DOI: 10. Pomacentridae) and tested how temperature increases similar to those predicted by the IPCC for global warming may affect the capacity of reef fishes to maintain metabolic performance and swimming performance. the model does not discriminate fishable from non‐fishable species) but provides valid 'null' outputs used as baseline results for model comparisons and evaluations. (2010). resilience. In situ and satellite data from biological time series data has revealed significant phonological variability in marine phytoplankton. B. Weeks. robust. metabolism. impacts.org/content/early/2010/06/06/plankt. This model focuses on the size‐structure of communities and does not require information about the dynamics of the component populations.1365‐2486.1111/j. M. energy. L. R. et al. conservation planning. primary production Ji. and K.12. krill. life history. DOI: 10.pone.04. North‐Atlantic ocean. S. et al. Both qualitative and quantitative indicators are proposed based on secondary data and ethnographic research. climate change.wiley. This approach has weaknesses (since taxas are not explicitly represented. marine communities. This study examined the effect of increased water temperature to on the aerobic metabolism and swimming ability of coral reef fishes (10 species of damselfishes.plosone.sciencedirect.0015103 KEYWORDS: climatic stability approach.1093/plankt/fbq062 http://plankt..oxfordjournals. oxygen. Tropical coral reef teleosts are exclusively ectotherms and their capacity for physical and physiological performance is therefore directly influenced by ambient temperature.fbq062.1371%2Fjournal.com/science/article/pii/S0924796309000955 KEYWORDS: fisheries. including advancing statistical metrics for indexing timing and trophic synchrony. resource allocation algorithm. predator‐prey interactions and energy transfer in food webs. P. fisheries. broader understanding of phenology at species and community levels. global warming. This work then suggests 4 ways in which to better direct phytoplankton phenology shifts: examination of the primary mode of predicted future changes (e.2008. size‐structure may be predicted by combining metabolic scaling.depending on predicting species’ future ranges. interannual variations. Euphausia superba.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10. climate change. Jones (2011).02436. Edwards.02436.abstract KEYWORDS: plankton. "Predicting the effects of climate change on marine communities and the consequences for fisheries.2011. Antarctic krill. thermal Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 58 . DOI: 10.014 http://www. size." Marine Policy 37: 86‐95. "Development and evaluation of social indicators of vulnerability and resiliency for fishing communities in the Gulf of Mexico.sciencedirect. resilience.pone.

Martin (2011). larval dispersal. This paper synthesizes change in the physical ocean climate in eastern Tasmania and parallel shifts in species' distributions and ecological processes. Marine reserves can protect fish from exploitation. climate change. J. both in marine reserves and in areas open to fishing. coral‐reefs.au/publications/synthesis_products. . (2004). performance.org. and capture fisheries supply this source of protein at a global scale. C. and 50% declined to less than half of their original numbers. t. "Climate change cascades: Shifts in oceanography. Over 75% of reef fish species declined in abundance. recruitment. and K. sea level rise. Great Barrier Reef. G.org. This report provides a synthesis of the key findings of research conducted under the Australian Government’s Marine and Tropical Sciences Research Facility (MTSRF) relevant to understanding interactions between water quality and climate change.informaworld. range expansion.. J. adaptive capacity). Coastal and oceanic fish are a rich source of essential fatty acids. P. M. http://www.. Many fisheries are currently already experiencing a number of these changes. trophic cascades. adaptation.com/smpp/content~content=a918752429~db=all~jumptype=rss KEYWORDS: vulnerability. and D. This information is essential for being able to provide direction to research and to be able to effectively review current fisheries management and develop management aimed at securing future sustainability. Fish stock sensitivity will determine impact on life cycle." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101(21): 8251‐8253. population‐dynamics. marine ecosystems.sciencedirect. R.au/publications/gbrresilience_waterquality. R. R. C. DOI: 10. fish biodiversity may be threatened wherever permanent reef degradation occurs and warn that marine reserves will not always be sufficient to ensure their survival.g. species' ranges and subtidal marine community dynamics in eastern Tasmania. I. E. the sea urchin Centrostephanus rodgersii. fisheries. but are under serious decline. Centrostephanus rodgersii Johnson. Water quality and climate change: Managing for resilience. http://www. rockly reef. and how best to manage for resilience. Over‐grazing of seaweed beds by one recently established species. These impacts will affect target fisheries species through a range of direct and indirect mechanisms. McCormick. Banks.rrrc. EasternTasmania. S. Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 59 .acclimation Johnson. ocean acidification. C. et al. This paper assesses the vulnerability of marine fisheries to climate change using a vulnerability framework which includes examination of factors that will influence vulnerability (e. The report summarises the findings of projects supported by the MTSRF. marine ecosystems. invasive species and the access to marine resources by fishers. Northeast Atlantic. is causing a fundamental shift in the structure and dynamics of Tasmanian rocky reef systems by the formation of sea urchin ‘barrens’ habitat." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 400(1‐2): 17‐32. In conclusion. barrens. resilience.1080/10641260903434557 http://www. L. "Marine fisheries management in a changing climate: A review of vulnerability and future options. and provides evidence that the direct effects of changing physical conditions have precipitated cascading effects of ecological change in benthic (rocky reef) and pelagic systems. R. "Coral decline threatens fish biodiversity in marine reserves." Reviews in Fisheries Science 18(1): 106‐124. C. J. P. seaweed beds. et al. altered ocean circulation and rainfall patterns. community structure. tropical Johnson. including increasing sea surface temperatures. Synthesis Report prepared for the Marine and Tropical Sciences Research Facility (MTSRF). ocean acidification. climate change. but do they protect fish biodiversity in degrading environments? This paper suggests that a devastating decline in coral cover caused a parallel decline in fish biodiversity. sea urchin. with increasing threat coming from the effects of climate change. Welch (2010). (2011).html KEYWORDS: water quality.html. increasing storm intensity. community Jones. distribution.com/science/article/pii/S0022098111000803 KEYWORDS: dascading effects. climate change.rrrc. vitamins and minerals. b. productivity. connectivity. Climate change will exert a number of pressures on fisheries. MTSRF. Fisheries also support economies and social structures in many nations. http://www.

R. suggesting that for this species and event. This work evaluates an environmental risk assessment/management framework which assesses climate change impacts on individual exposure units that have been identified as vulnerable. This work highlights a problem in the adaptive bleaching hypothesis. Australia. . The framework is intended to manage systematic uncertainties which accompany the proliferation of climate change scenarios through biophysical and socio‐economic climate impacts. seasonal fluctuations. Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 60 .pdf KEYWORDS: climate impacts.DOI: 10. This step is followed by assessment of the conditional probabilities of exceeding these thresholds. risk assessment.. Extensive involvement of stakeholders and scientifically‐based risk analysis occurs within a flexible structure broadly set within social decision‐making. bleaching‐induced mortality. bleaching and mortality were directly linked – implying a pathological phenomenon at work. R. Risk is treated by adapting to anticipated changes and the mitigation of climate change." Marine Biology 154(1): 65‐80. NSW. communities.1023/A:1011148019213 http://www. Knowing the chronology of bleaching mortality occurs is central for understanding molecular mechanisms and adaptive significance of the response. J. not an extreme low‐point in the seasonal fluctuation of symbiotic algae density).e. thermal tolerance. and for A. Although coral bleaching events are often linked with coral mortality. isolated. mesenterina colonies typically paled changing to a light brown colour. both acting to reduce the likelihood of critical thresholds being exceeded. In a study of coral bleaching on the Great Barrier Reef. "Coral bleaching. climate change.11." Natural Hazards 23(2‐3): 197‐230. ISBN 978‐1‐74128‐186‐6 (hardcopy) 978‐1‐74128‐187‐3. A. coral decline Jones. where mortality can occur in a bleaching event before any chance for successive recombination of the host‐symbiont unit.1073/pnas. assessment as well as the implementation of adaptation measures. (2008). integrated assessment. it is not fully understood when this occurs in the timeline of individual bleaching events. data show that bleaching of three species (Acropora latistella. et al. Adaptive Bleaching Hypothesis. The window of adaptation is defined as the time between the identification of acceptable risk level and its exceedance (of a critical threshold). protected areas. adaptation. (2001). "An environmental risk assessment/management framework for climate change impact assessments. New South Wales (NSW). French Polynesia Jones. water‐resources. indicators Joyce. Risk analysis methods which comply with the IPCC are set within a larger framework.1007/s00227‐007‐0900‐0 http://www. bleaching was clearly a sudden. FRDC Report Project 2009/328. bleaching‐induced and ‐related mortality need to be fully understood. Rubio. climate change. In order to further evaluate the significance of bleaching as a potentially adaptive mechanism.springerlink. DOI: 10. subulata and Turbinaria mesenterina) was an acute and rapid response which occurred within days of a peak temperature event which exceeded previously known thresholds. This framework is then discussed in terms of its ability to address the requirements of the United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change. Environmental and Socio‐Economic Considerations for Aquaculture in Jervis Bay. This involves stakeholders in the identification. uncertainty. and the adaptive significance of the bleaching response. risk management. Great Barrier Reef. whilst the T. known as the Adaptive Bleaching Hypothesis. A. Scleractinian corals. latistella as little as 1 week after bleaching was first noted.org/content/101/21/8251. Risk analysis links important climatic variables (projected ranges of climate change) with impact thresholds (as identified by researchers and stakeholders). recruitment.abstract KEYWORDS: Great Barrier Reef. Bleached corals were associated with increased levels of partial and whole‐colony mortality. DOI: 10. water temperature. Full and partial bleaching was observed in the Acropora spp.com/content/k778787311482411/fulltext. A. Algal densities in bleached corals were 10‐30% of normally pigmented corals and for this. This report was proposed to assist in the preparation of a future Environmental Impact Study (EIS) towards the development of sustainable aquaculture in Jervis Bay.springerlink. conservation.0401277101 http://www.com/content/9j48141j525193g8/ KEYWORDS: coral bleaching. degradation. N. but mortality was limited to only the two Acropora spp. Significantly. stress event (i. most mortality was recorded 1 ‐ 2 weeks after bleaching was first observed. (2010).pnas.

V. and/or a range of anthropogenic influences such as pollutants. ISBN: 978‐1‐74128‐186‐6 (hardcopy) ISBN: 978‐1‐74128‐187‐3 (online) http://trove. global. (2011). M.09. resilience. M. co‐management. both in Jervis Bay and other locations in Australia. considerations. Support of comanagement recognises that sustainable and resilient fisheries management is not possible without the combined support of fishers and government.summary KEYWORDS: acidification hot spots.com/chapter/10. DOI: 10.1007%2F978‐3‐642‐12194‐4_4#page‐2 KEYWORDS: fisheries.1203815 http://www.1126/science. This requires 61 Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 . P. These can be caused by a range of non‐atmospheric stressors including non‐uniform changes in circulation and biological processes." Ocean & Coastal Management 54(11): 807‐820. if comanagement becomes too conventional. Foley. The focus of this work is to examine how robust self‐organisations can be formed in fisheries co‐management systems. conservation. international and donor organisations have been catalysing projects for implementing comanagement of fisheries. S.. runoff and land‐use patterns (through zoning and permitting).springer. (2011). tools Kelly. for which comprehensive EIS studies have already been conducted (e. This work discusses the ability to use an ecosystem‐based management approach to include knowledge of climate regime influences on ecosystem productivity to be able to manage fishery resources. which is correlated with increasing CO2 concentrations in the ocean. precipitation runoff. fail and are then faced with backlashes regarding participatory approaches to management. Springer Series on Environmental Management.The report provides an overview of the potential for extensive aquaculture in Jervis Bay by considering a range of biophysical and socio‐economic factors. marine management.2011. "Ecosystem‐based marine spatial management: Review of concepts." Science 332(6033): 1036‐1037. C. which have been increasingly advocated as a solution for small‐scale fisheries crisis. However. D. DOI: 10. management. It also reflects on the nature and scope of EB‐MSM and associated challenges. tools.au/work/151685814?selectedversion=NBD47981260 KEYWORDS: socio. R. Adaptive Capacity and Environmental Governance.1016/j." Fisheries Management and Ecology 13(2): 93‐102. Ocean acidification can also occur at more localized scales and these areas are often referred to as acidification ‘hot spots’. Armitage and R.. conservation. Plummer. A. The hazard here is the proliferation of widespread ill‐conceived comanagement systems which do not account for core values. as opposed to federal and international levels.com/science/article/pii/S0964569111001426 KEYWORDS: ecosystem‐based management.sciencemag. The paper reviews the tools supporting the implementation of ecosystem‐based marine spatial management (EB‐MSM).gov. policy. McFarlane (2006). Springer: 69‐88. Allison (2010).1007/978‐3‐642‐12194‐4_4 http://link. atmospheric CO2. soil erosion and freshwater inputs. et al. CO2.org/content/332/6033/1036.sciencedirect. environmental. in order to reduce local and regional ‘hot spot’ ocean acidification areas. and G. J. stressor King. Twofold Bay). overfishing and habitat modification. Policy recommendations are based on US policies currently implemented and include the control of emissions. climate change. NGO. Learning and Adaptation: The Role of Fisheries Comanagement in Building Resilient Social–Ecological Systems. social‐ecological Katsanevakis.nla. aquaculture. et al. and E. Jervis Bay Kalikoski. A number of government. and critical issues. R. it risks being viewed as straightforward and states may then dissolve rights and responsibilities of resource conservation and livelihood improvement. These impacts can be magnified in the presence of other environmental stressors including temperature increases.002 http://www. D. Ocean acidification is occurring on a global scale as a result of increasing levels of an atmospheric stressor. "A framework for incorporating climate regime shifts into the management of marine resources. policies. spatial planning.ocecoaman. "Mitigating Local Causes of Ocean Acidification with Existing Laws. economic. ocean acidification. pH. H. regional. DOI: DOI 10. policy. This article outlines policy options which could be implemented at the local and state government level. Stelzenmuller.g.

et al. global warming. et al." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 98(10): 5419‐5425.1007/s10021‐009‐9241‐9 http://www. they hold distinct features that warrant mention. Ban. adaptive management and reference points." Ecosystems 12(4): 548‐561.0012431 KEYWORDS: climate change. and looks at cost‐effectively reducing the impacts of both land‐ and sea‐derived threats to coral reef ecosystems.2006. trophic cascade." PLoS ONE 5(8): e12431. fisheries management. trophic cascades.e.pone. This implies that fisheries management policies will have to be fully integrated with the ecological consequences of climate change to prevent a similar collapse in an exploited marine ecosystem elsewhere. regime shift. (2001). a high conservation priority area.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10. Beaugrand. The framework assumes that detection can occur soon after a regime shift has happened. conservation.1371%2Fjournal. spatially extensive biological (plankton and cod) and physical (sea surface temperature) dataset suggests that synchronous changes in cod numbers and sea temperature have established an extensive trophic cascade favouring lower trophic level groups over economic fisheries. long term changes.pone.x http://onlinelibrary. with flow‐on effects expected to continue for the foreseeable future. and have been shown to increase the resilience of coral reefs to atmospheric stressors including warming water and ocean acidification.springerlink.00480. (2009). These include that many dominant reef‐building corals spawn into the water column as are thus vulnerable to Allee effects including potential extinction linked with chronic reproductive failure. temperature. "The future of coral reefs.1365‐2400. ecology Klein.the development of a rational framework that can be constructed using current stock assessment and management activities: ecosystem assessment. age of maturity or recruitment. J. This paper reports that climate change and overfishing are likely to be responsible for a rapid restructuring of a highly productive marine ecosystem. R.0012431 http://www. overfishing. cod.00480. "Prioritizing Land and Sea Conservation Investments to Protect Coral Reefs.x/abstract KEYWORDS: ecosystem assessment. Analysis of a long‐term. management. cod Gadus morhua.. ecosystem. DOI: 10. i. C. continuous plankton recorder..1111/j. risk analyses. Atlantic cod. those more resistant to habitat Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 62 . The extent of the ecosystem restructuring that has occurred in the North Sea suggests that it is unlikely to reverse current climate and human‐induced effects through ecosystem resource management in the short term. Although reefs are exposed to many of the processes that also impact other ecosystems. marine conservation priorities. As conservation efforts and resources are often limited at both regional and global scales. N.1111/j.com/doi/10. DOI:10. . (2010). Anthropogenic influences have profoundly changes coral reef ecosystems. Coral Triangle. ocean acidification Knowlton. regime shifts. N. Conservation efforts to protect and preserve marine coral reef ecosystems have been effective in some instances.wiley. R. The authors apply their methodologies to the Coral Triangle. Fisheries scientists should deliver harvest recommendations which reflect an array of risk levels to the stock under different productivity assumptions. G. there is a need to efficiently prioritize conservation‐based efforts in order to sustain coral reef ecosystems. coral reefs.plosone. food webs. adaptive management Kirby.1371/journal. "Synergistic Effects of Climate and Fishing in a Marine Ecosystem. C.com/content/k728373270681u57/ KEYWORDS: climate change. ecosystem‐based management. recruitment. This work forms such a framework and uses two Population Simulations to demonstrate the benefits and tradeoffs of variable regime‐specific harvest rates. This modified North Sea ecology may provide a clear indication of the synergistic consequences of coincident climate change and overfishing. which means that decisions do not need to be parallel to regime shifts. but can be deferred by an appropriate period of time that is related to a species' life history.1365‐2400.2006. DOI: 10. North Sea. plankton. Coupling ecosystem assessment with ecosystem‐based management will permit managers to choose appropriate regime‐specific harvest rates. This article addresses the issue by developing the first explicit method for priority‐based conservation actions and locations.

and conservation of biodiversity by comparing the current policy response of the three sectors. Globally." Marine and Freshwater Research 62(9): 1148‐1164. Australia.csiro. C.htm KEYWORDS: climate change.g. B. biodiversity. there remain localized and regional areas which appear to be Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 63 . The objectives of the present paper are five‐fold: 1) provide a brief overview of the effects of climate change on aquatic systems. fisheries. "Shifting baselines. shorter‐lived ones with limited larval dispersal. 2) document the major environmental changes that have been observed and are projected to occur. These include identifying the extent that overfishing and eutrophication increase coral reef vulnerability to bleaching. considering their vulnerability to both direct and indirect effects." Marine Policy 35(6): 800‐809. J.abstract KEYWORDS: coral reefs.1371/journal. A. coastal sectors. and C. thorns starfish. resistance.au/nid/126/paper/MF11139. estuarine and marine fishes and fisheries. A. (2011). marine fishes. "Preparedness of key coastal and marine sectors in Ireland to adapt to climate change. determining the physiological or ecological mechanisms if local protection decreases coral their vulnerability to climate change. and identifying thresholds in abundance and composition of marine consumers below which corals will decline or fail to recover from. adaptation. coral bleaching.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X11000091 KEYWORDS: adaptation. especially in Australia.pnas.. "About coupled regional modelling system: The Black Sea‐atmosphere.org/article/info:doi/10. adaptive capacity. fisheries. 3) consider the impacts to Australian freshwater. environmental changes. disease. management Kopke. fishing and nutrient input).publish. management. conservation. This paper assessed the preparedness to adapt to the impacts of climate change for three important sectors of activity within the Irish coastal and marine environment.degradation are the smaller. assessing whether protection from overfishing and eutrophication increases coral recruitment rate. "Climate change and Australian marine and freshwater environments. estuaries. evolutionary history. climate change. namely tourism. phase‐shifts. climate change. and global change on coral reefs. and J. ecosystems. Indo Pacific.1371/journal.0060054 KEYWORDS: Marine Protected Areas.0060054 http://www. trophic. A. multiple stressors. estuarine. multiple stable states. Jackson (2008). http://www. and D.org/content/98/10/5419. fishes and fisheries: synthesis and options for adaptation. self fertilization. While there is a general consensus within the scientific community that the earth is experiencing rising global temperatures. assessment Kordzadze. local impacts. impacts. http://www. Diadema antillarium. K. This work highlights the need for baseline data in understanding how a system functioned prior to disturbance – which is essential if management is focussed on introducing strategies that attempt to return it to its natural state. combinations of stress appear to be linked with threshold responses. DOI: 10. J. growth and reproduction.plosbiology. that human activities increase near reefs (e. O'Mahony (2011).pbio. DOI: 10. the past decade has seen an adaptation of human activity to significantly modified climatic conditions. favouring rapid growing competitors and explosions if predator populations. and the fossil record suggests corals are more likely to suffer extinctions than some of the groups that acquaint with them." Plos Biology 6(2): 215‐220. freshwater. A modified version of the National Adaptive Capacity (NAC) framework developed by the World Resources Institute was used to assess the activities of the three sectors. et al. D. Caribbean corals. aquatic systems.pbio. and acidification." Journal of Environmental Protection and Ecology 12(1): 317‐326. habitat destruction Knowlton. and 5) explore adaptations to climate change. small increases in ocean temperature can cause changes in coral symbiont communities as well as coral death. environmental change. phase‐shifts. 4) consider the socioeconomic dimensions of fish and people. I. spawning corals. which are crucial to recovery following disturbance. climate change. resilience Koehn.091092998 http://www. Demetrashvili (2011). N. Hobday. cascades.1073/pnas. This work outlines the major questions for local management of coral reefs in the face of climate change. marine environment. including major research needs and required management actions.

but the impact on temporal on and temporal responses of the biota in relation to change are not as well understood – but appear to involve both climate and non‐climate influences as well as human impacts.1111/j.google. south‐eastern Australia. meta‐analysis. http://search. global warming. temperate fishes.info/vol‐12‐no‐1 KEYWORDS: atmosphere.res=IELHSS KEYWORDS: climate change. "Long‐term shifts in abundance and distribution of a temperate fish fauna: a response to climate change and fishing practices.info/viewer?a=v&pid=sites&srcid=amVwZS1qb3VybmFsLmluZm98amVwZ S1qb3VybmFsfGd4OjRhZDNiMjkwMzJjMDg5M2Q http://www.x/abstract KEYWORDS: Climate change.wiley. model. et al. J.cooling.au/documentSummary.1461‐0248.x/abstract KEYWORDS: adaptation. growth.00575. [But see Technical Comment by Andersson and Mackenzie (2011) for further interpretation of these findings.dn=708568352029860. Recent collaborative efforts addressing water quality issues in Queensland's Great Barrier Reef region are discussed to better understand the challenges inherent to integration procedures. CO2.1461‐0248.01518.2010. coupled model. environmental management. et al.x http://onlinelibrary. The authors present methodology for the development of a regional modeling system and apply this to the Black Sea atmosphere. "Institutional complexity and environmental management: the challenge of integration and the promise of large‐scale collaboration. White. This article focuses on one such region.01518. Kordas. mitigation. The growth and survival of Holoturia scabra juveniles were measured in two pond configurations: with and without a greenhouse system (plastic sheath stretched on a frame) placed over the pond during the winter season. P.1111/j. Findings suggest that generally. R.. climate change. numerical solutions Kroeker. T. Marine organisms are often sensitive to changes in carbonate chemistry. photosynthesis. while their responses can vary broadly for a variety of reasons. with cautious attribution of potential causal factors. Black Sea atmosphere.com. While mortality remained unchanged. ecosystem responses. (2010). and the importance of a clearly defined management context in the establishment of such collaborative partnerships.1466‐8238. L. is expected to increase with increasing CO2 emissions. and there was taxonomically‐derived variation in the sensitivities of different developmental stages to ocean acidification. spatial shift. "Effect of water temperature on the survival and growth of endobenthic Holothuria scabra (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) juveniles reared in outdoor ponds. (2010). "Meta‐analysis reveals negative yet variable effects of ocean acidification on marine organisms. adaptation Last. W." Global Ecology and Biogeography 20: 58‐72. growth was significantly higher in the 'heated' 64 Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 .com/doi/10. N. South‐eastern Australia is a well‐known climate change hotspot.informit. Ocean acidification. J. K.2010. which plays an important role in the formation of regional weather and climatic conditions.1466‐8238. DOI: 10. reproduction Lane." Ecology Letters 13(11): 1419‐1434.com/a/jepe‐journal. R. temporal shift Lavitra.1111/j. pH.1111/j. ocean acidification. Fohy.2010. This work examines major temporal and distributional shifts that have occurred in fish fauna. calcifying organisms experienced larger negative responses than non‐calcifying organisms. et al. (2010).x http://onlinelibrary.. The evaluation of the current efforts indicates the value of 'scaling‐up' collaborations in integration procedures. collaboration. calcification. with the aim of providing more detailed and accurate predictions for climatic conditions in the region. integration. This article discusses the results from a meta‐analysis that the authors have run on the biological responses of a range of taxa to ocean acidification. T. hydro‐thermodynamic equations. climate change." Secretariat of the Pacific Community Bêche‐de‐mer Information Bulletin 30: 25‐28.com/doi/10.jepe‐journal. B.2010. the Black Sea. https://docs.. Tasmania.] DOI: 10.wiley.00575. M. resulting from rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations which alter seawater carbonate chemistry and pH levels. Robinson (2009)." Australasian Journal of Environmental Management 16(1): 16‐24. fishing. and C.

trophic pathways. South Australia (SA) and Tasmania (TAS).04147. the different themes addressed in the special issue are summarized.05.2010. mesoscale processes.1749‐6632. in addition to a shading system during summer (the benefits of which are demonstrated in a previous study). scenario planning. The fourth section focuses on management strategies and their socio‐economic implications.com/science/article/pii/S0079661110000832 KEYWORDS: climate change. physiology. This document is the introduction to the special issue from the international workshop 'Climate Impacts on Oceanic TOp Predators' held in December 2007 in La Paz. phenology. conservation planning. The report focuses on the three main oyster growing states: New South Wales (NSW). yield. Most approaches are based on general principles. B.pocean. species distributions. including avenues for preserving and enhancing the evolutionary capacity of species and how to implement adaptive management in new systems.com/doi/10. Climate change has altered ecosystems globally.int/DigitalLibrary/Doc/FAME/InfoBull/BDM/30/BDM30_25_Lavitra. Haward (2010). which are needed to act on the changes that are occurring over a range of spatial and temporal scales. and M. and is followed by a section on the importance of mesoscale oceanic processes. Particularly important is identifying situations and systems where adaption strategies have worked and how they can be further applied. stable isotope analysis or modeling experiments. survival.095 g/d). adaptation Lawler. After a brief history of CLIOTOP meetings. The final section addresses several aspects of the effects of climate change and variability on top predators. New strategies are adopting more agile management perspectives.001 http://www. range shifts.1111/j. distribution. interspecific interactions and disturbance regimes.ponds (0. P.wiley. behavior and distribution of top predators through tagging and laboratory experiments. J. Mexico. and to define adaptation options within the Australian edible oyster industry. temperature and transports investigated for different species and systems.1111/j. Holoturia. DOI:10. U. the potential to build adaptive capacity and resilience.1749‐6632. behavior.x http://onlinelibrary. management.1016/j. Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 65 . and details the development and application of a rigorous social research methodology to integrate knowledge from diverse stakeholders in order to find pathways for adaptation in policy and practice. P." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1162: 79‐98. A better understanding of species that are likely to be most affected by climate change is still required.2009.254 vs 0. New approaches must be implemented to account for this uncertainty. The third section reviews trophic pathways and prey‐predator relationships. The report is a review and synthesis of knowledge about climate impacts. with links to changes in physiology.04147. "Climate Impacts on Oceanic Top Predators (CLIOTOP): Introduction to the Special Issue of the CLIOTOP International Symposium. Tasmania.2009. Climate Change Adaptation in the Australian Edible Oyster Industry: an analysis of policy and practice. The authors recommend the use of such greenhouse system in Holoturia mariculture during winter. tuna. http://www. and others specify tools that managers may already have in place. Mexico. Maury (2010). top predators. adaptive management.pdf KEYWORDS: Aquaculture. La Paz. This report identifies key collective actions and opportunities for adaptation for edible oyster aquaculture in Australia. prey‐predator. Focus will need to be placed on potential future ecosystem services and active adaptive management that is based on future impact scenarios will need to become commonplace management strategies.sciencedirect.spc. J. and O. Triage may also need to become a management option. growth. The first section discusses research on early life history of top predators such as billfish and tuna. (2009). using stomach content analysis. early life history. and this paper reviews a number of adaptation management strategies. The second section sheds light on the physiology. 3‐7 December 2007 Preface. temperature. climate variability Leith.x/abstract KEYWORDS: adaptation. with the effect of mesoscale processes. habitat fragmentation Lehodey. DOI: 10. which presents challenges to resource management and conservation planning." Progress In Oceanography 86(1‐2): 1‐7. Predicted changes with are for more dramatic shifts. o. "Climate Change Adaptation Strategies for Resource Management and Conservation Planning. management strategies. climate change.

the impacts of ocean‐use sectors and also considers humans as part of the ecosystem. DOI: 10. "Modeling responses of coupled social‐ecological systems of the Gulf of California to anthropogenic and natural perturbations.pbio. social‐ecological system. and take into account interactions among ecosystem components and management sectors. Australia. We then recommend ways in which natural and social scientists can advance implementation of ecosystem‐based approaches in the oceans by addressing key research needs. M. and redundancy. Even small changes within these systems can magnify through non‐linear interactions and result in regime shifts and ecosystem collapse. Marine ecosystems are complex adaptive systems. adaptation.1007/s11284‐009‐0603‐8 http://www. Management is challenged with increasing incentives to individuals and tightening reward loops in ways that will increase the resilience of these systems for the future. McLeod (2007).springerlink.com/content/43v7888543026127/ KEYWORDS: trade‐offs. modularity. and by the industrial shrimp fleet as bycatch. despite the reliance of humans on these systems for important services. S." Ecological Research 24(3): 505‐519. et al.org/article/info:doi/10.. tightening feedback loops is needed to maintain the adaptive capacity of the system and also to provide incentives for stewardship. et al. and marine ecosystem‐based management.access. marine. DOI: 10. (2009). The results suggest that vital components of coupled systems may well respond differently to climate variability or other perturbations. DOI: 10. It focuses on the spotted rose snapper.pdf KEYWORDS: edible oyster. and K. S. ecosystem‐based management. managers.1371/journal. aquaculture. Anthropogenic exploitation of marine resources threatens the robustness and resilience of marine ecosystems. M. robustness. Schluter." Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 5(10): 540‐548. building interdisciplinary scientific capacity. The balance among heterogeneity.. and other stakeholders. marine ecosystem services. L. management.1371/journal. ecological‐economics. H. This paper investigates the impacts of multiple economic sectors on the marine ecosystem and dependent human community in the Gulf of California with an ecological‐economic model." PLoS Biol 7(1): e1000014.pbio.1641/B580107 http://www. policies. H. "Integrated Ecosystem Assessments: Developing the Scientific Basis for Ecosystem‐Based Management of the Ocean. They are composed of individual agents interacting with others and integrating a range of scales from individual behaviours to whole system dynamics.plosbiology. M. "Confronting the challenges of implementing marine ecosystem‐based management. implementation Leslie.http://arnmbr. This paper discusses some overarching principles of marine ecosystem based management (EBM) and highlight key challenges facing implementation. opportunities. DOI: 10. services Levin.org/content/images/uploads/OYSTER_REPORT_FINAL_web. management. marine ecosystem. P.1890/060093 http://www. The authors identify that the implementation of ecosystem‐based management remains a significant hurdle in marine ecosystems. Lubchenco (2008). human impact. A. and that management strategies should be developed with this in mind. modelling. the sportfishing fleet. (2009).1000014 KEYWORDS: adaptation. integrated ecosystem assessments. "Resilience.1000014 http://www. ecosystem‐base. J. an economically important species targeted concurrently by the nearshore artisanal fleet. fisheries Levin.org/doi/abs/10." Bioscience 58(1): 27‐32. and propose integrated ecosystem assessments (IEAs) as a framework to assist ecosystem‐based management decisions across multiple scales and sectors.esajournals.1890/060093 KEYWORDS: ecosystem based approach. M. and J. Ecosystem‐based management aims to devise management strategies that deal with entire ecosystems rather than the individual components that ecosystems are comprised of. rapid collaborative vulnerability assessment Leslie.aibs. and synthesizing and communicating scientific knowledge to policy makers. Fogarty.org/?page=BioScienceindex Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 66 .

Y. J. Qin.x/abstract KEYWORDS: Centrostephanus rodgersii. reproduction.library.sciencedirect. Morefield (2011). B.1111/j. temperate rocky reef. Exploring correlations between spawning mediated response and summer mortality in Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. temperature threshold. R. This chapter focuses on the correlations between spawning mediated response and summer mortality in Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.2008. mass mortality. Ecological Distribution and Mortality. Oysters: Physiology. antibacterial activity. it is important to understand the natural variability in their condition and any factors that may influence their health across the year. poleward range shift. D. rodgersii in eastern Tasmania by examining evidence for the existence of a reproductive cycle. larval development.1365‐2486.1016/j. immunosuppression. Johnson. management Ling.com/science/article/pii/S0044848608006704 KEYWORDS: Oyster growth. Nova publishing. S. gonad index. robustness.gov/pubmed/21638079 KEYWORDS: multi‐dimensional framework. macroalgae. Y. DOI: 10.This paper assesses the reproductive capability of C. "Monthly variation of condition index.. with research advancements in oyster farming technology. (2009). et al. Crassostrea gigas. physiological response to pollution. Stansbury was one of the earliest places for oyster farming in South Australia. The diversity and abundance of information available for vulnerability assessments can present a challenge to decision‐makers. This paper proposes a framework to aggregate and present socioeconomic and environmental data in a visual vulnerability assessment that will help prioritize management options for communities vulnerable to environmental change. non‐native species invasion.004 http://www.1111/j.2008. For effective management of Pacificoyster productivity on aquaculture leases. DOI: 10. At present. in Stansbury (South Australia).uq. E.au/view/UQ:273741 Keywords: Oyster spawning. and other technical advance in oyster research. K. scale.09. C. "Reproductive potential of a marine ecosystem engineer at the edge of a newly expanded range. et al. Benkendorff. environmental monitoring and disease control. climate change.nlm. resilience. vulnerability assessment." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106(52): Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 67 . The introduction of Pacificoysters has resulted in significant expansion in production by increasing feasible farming areas in South Australia. sustainability.01543.01543.ncbi. C.1007/s00267‐011‐9690‐8 http://www. Q. This paper investigates the temporal responses of 2‐year old Crassostrea gigas to environmental changes in Stansbury. disease control. its ability to produce functional gametes and to undergo successful larval development. Johnson. there is a need to understand the population dynamics of this ecologically important species in the Tasmanian environment. "Overfishing reduces resilience of kelp beds to climate‐driven catastrophic phase shift.. services Li. ecological distribution and management.KEYWORDS: complex adaptive systems. (2009).2008. South Australia from September 2005 to October 2006. R.. the Pacific oyster has become one of the most important edible oysters in world aquaculture. http://espace. energy reserves. ecosystem. reproductive phenology." Aquaculture 286: 64‐71.x http://onlinelibrary.aquaculture. environmental. energy reserves and antibacterial activity in Pacific oysters. aquaculture management Lin. Oysters have a competitive advantage and dominate other molluscan species with respect to global distribution and aquaculture production. D. urchin barrens Ling. (2008). et al. and is also known as Oyster Bay.edu. "The Vulnerability Cube: A Multi‐Dimensional Framework for Assessing Relative Vulnerability. energy depletion. This book presents the latest research development in oyster reproduction. B. J. new findings and outcomes have emerged. and P..com/doi/10. Recently." Environmental Management 48(3): 631‐643. S." Global Change Biology 14(4): 907‐915.. summer mortality. DOI:10. management. food webs.nih. global warming Li.1365‐2486.wiley. (2011). et al. socioeconomic. biodiversity. Given recent poleward range extension of the barrens‐forming sea urchin Centrostephanus rodgersii (Diadematidae) from mainland Australia to Tasmania.

survival.x/abstract KEYWORDS: climate change. east Australian current.02355. temperate reefs. M.02355.1365‐2486. increasing the risk of catastrophic shift to urchin barrens.01734. Centrostephanus rodgersii. Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 68 . C. benthic communities Loring.x http://onlinelibrary. Coastal waters are warming in eastern Tasmania at four times the average global ocean warming rate.0°C SST anomaly. These trends are driven by the ENSO cycle and suggest a potential negative impact of global warming on reef ecosystems. (2011).22341‐22345.1073/pnas. limiting their adaptive capacities. A.php/arctic/article/view/4081 KEYWORDS: institutional arrangements. DOI:10. The climate‐driven geographical extension of the sea urchin C.. et al.pnas.1365‐2486. sea urchin. This sea urchin has commenced catastrophic overgrazing of kelp beds in Tasmania. "Climate‐driven range extension of a sea urchin: inferring future trends by analysis of recent population dynamics. A. leading to significant biodiversity loss and loss of rocky reef ecosystem services.1365‐2486. A strong pattern of decreasing age with increasing latitude on the eastern coast of Tasmania confirms the suggested poleward shift of sea urchin related to the Eastern Australian Current (EAC). co‐management Lo‐Yat. Climate change and overfishing are two of the greatest impacts affecting marine ecosystems. et al.01734. adaptive capacity. Experimental manipulation within and outside Marine Protected Areas demonstrate that removal of large predators has reduced ecosystem resilience against the climate‐driven expansion of the sea urchin. "Ways to Help and Ways to Hinder: Governance for Effective Adaptation to an Uncertain Climate. (2011). rodgersii is investigated by combining abundance observations with a growth model designed to estimate the age of individuals. surface current flows and chlorophyll‐a concentrations were compared to observed patterns of larval fish supply in the Rangiroa Atoll (French Polynesia) from 1996 to 2000. overgrazing.wiley.abstract KEYWORDS: climate change. This work emphasizes the need for management to focus on reducing the risk of catastrophic phase shifts.5°C SST anomaly. larval fish.org/content/early/2009/12/11/0907529106. larval growth. et al.x/abstract KEYWORDS: climate change. P.1111/j. Graham..2008. Findings demonstrate the usefulness of the diagnostic framework to facilitating comparative analyses of natural resource management. ENSO MacNeil. S. "Transitional states in marine fisheries: adapting to predicted global change. et al." Global Change Biology 15(3): 719‐731. coral reef.2010. DOI: 10. shallow subtidal reefs. This demonstrates that interaction between multiple anthropogenic stressors can intensify nonlinear responses to climate change. Arctic. N." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 365(1558): 3753‐3763.com/doi/10.ca/arctic/index. This period was characterized by an intense El Niño event (+3. biodiversity." Arctic 64(1): 73‐88. thermal tolerance. R..wiley. low chlorophyll concentrations and ‐51% in larval supply) between two periods of La Niña conditions (‐2. driving the range‐extension of the ecologically‐important long‐spined sea urchin (Centrostephanus rodgersii).1111/j.2008. DOI: not available http://arctic. J. D. "Extreme climatic events reduce ocean productivity and larval supply in a tropical reef ecosystem. strong surface currents.x http://onlinelibrary. El Nino. The paper identifies how (centralised and decentralised) governance arrangements and management strategies enhance or limit people's ability to respond effectively to changing climatic and environmental conditions. S. including the spiny lobster (Jasus edwardsii).synergiesprairies. Simpson. +150% chlorophyll concentration and +249% larval supply). S. larval dispersal. governance. D. density Ling. decreased surface current towards the reef. A. C. range. global warming. (2009).1111/j. The predicted intensification of the EAC is expected to result in an increased poleward expansion of this species of sea urchin in the future.2010.com/doi/10. A.1111/j. trophic interactions. (2010). Trends in remote sensing data of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. Coincident with this overgrazing is increased fishing of its predators. Gerlach. with severe repercussions for benthic communities.." Global Change Biology 17(4): 1695‐1702. Johnson.1365‐2486.0907529106 http://www. DOI: 10.

DOI: 10. metabolic rate of the marine gastropod was often negatively correlated with temperature. fisheries. fisheries. thus creating yield and species losses.1093/icesjms/fss098 http://icesjms. management Makino. range shift. should be incorporated into the cross‐sector coordination system and Integrated Management Plan.2011. DOI: 10. Japan. N. as well we research results. temperature and an organisms metabolic rate.gloenvcha. climate change.com/science/article/pii/S0959378011001610 KEYWORDS: Climate change. "Adaptation to climate‐change effects on fisheries in the Shiretoko World Natural Heritage area. This article discusses the policy and research needs for adapting to the observed and anticipated effects of climate change in the region. This study summarises the effects of climate change on fisheries in the Shiretoko World Natural Heritage area and discusses policy and research needs for adapting to these changes. E. UNESCO World Natural Heritage Makino. M.2010. and Y. and the invasion of southern species into Arctic marine ecosystems leading to increased diversity and yield in Arctic fisheries. Sakurai (2012). "Socio‐economic and management implications of range‐shifting species in marine systems. present a forward‐looking analysis of observed and potential future socio‐economic and managerial implications of climate‐induced range shifts in marine taxa. Society responses to such changes will depend on their capacity to adapt to a changing environment. and Y.10. "Adaptation to climate‐change effects on fisheries in the Shiretoko World Natural Heritage area. M. Socio‐ecological aspects as well as cultural aspects will need to be considered." Global Environmental Change‐Human and Policy Dimensions 22(1): 137‐146. D.org/content/365/1558/3753. Sakurai (2012). Observed and anticipated effects of climate change on fisheries in the region will require research and monitoring on a large scale and subsequent policy measures in order to adapt to these changes. community composition. world heritage area Marshall. the dominance of warm water species in temperate fisheries. distribution. Japan. marine ecosystems.0289 http://rstb. DOI: 10. "Warming reduces metabolic rate in marine snails: adaptation to fluctuating high temperatures challenges the metabolic theory of ecology. Decreases in seasonal sea ice. McQuaid (2011).org/content/69/7/1134 KEYWORDS: fisheries.sciencedirect. D. Australia. J. socio‐economic. climate change impacts. established to manage the World Heritage area.abstract KEYWORDS: adaptation. North Sea and Bering Sea to examine the direct and indirect effects that climate change is having on production and biodiversity in these systems. P. and C. and use case studies from the Indian Ocean." Ices Journal of Marine Science 69(7): 1134‐1140.1016/j. The authors examined thermal scaling of metabolic rate in a marine gastropod which inhabits a rocky‐shore environment and experiences fluctuating high temperatures when emerged. C." Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 278(1703): 281‐288. based on these examples and others from the global literature.. and these aspects.008 http://www.org/content/69/7/1134 Keywords: Adaptation. Japan. and this relationship was driven by aspects Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 69 . species distributions." Ices Journal of Marine Science 69(7): 1134‐1140.oxfordjournals. The authors found that in contrast to the theoretical predictions.1093/icesjms/fss098 http://icesjms. global warming.This review discusses the predicted impacts that global climatic shifts will have on the production and structure of marine fisheries. This article tests applications of. DOI10.oxfordjournals. which proposes a universal relationship between body mass.royalsocietypublishing. climate change. (2012). et al. and controversies surrounding theoretical aspects of the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE). The aim of this paper is to summarise the known examples of Australian range‐shifting marine species and. M. The authors predict that global warming will lead to habitat loss in tropical reef fisheries. changes in fishing grounds and the appearance of non‐local species in the Shiretoko World Heritage area in Japan indicate that the effects of climate are impacting ecosystems. review Madin.1098/rstb. The authors discuss the fact that species distributional and community compositional shifts are already being observed in some marine ecosystems. Ban.

DOI: 10. (2010). the consequences of altering the relationship (social resilience) and perceptions of conservation initiatives (institutional perception). It suggests that for policy perception to be positive and resilience to be enhanced. This guide can be used to encourage policy debate and inspire managers and other decision‐makers to take on the challenge of supporting climate adaptation activities. response. This article highlights the need for increased research efforts into the adaptive ability of marine ectothermic organisms to heat sources. degree of metabolic depression and shell dynamics... climate change Marshall.royalsocietypublishing.1098/rspb.1080/09640560903180982 KEYWORDS:marine protected areas. which would be expected to improve the conservation of energy in a high temperature environment. (2009). such that they may be able to buffer the effects of increasing global temperatures. et al. in order to tease apart the effects of climatically relevant and non‐climate heat sources. D. The paper investigates whether policy perception can erode or enhance the ability of commercial fishers to be resilient to changes in fisheries policy.1098/rsbl.2010. Sustaining Tropical Coastal Communities and Industries. et al. ectotherm. A.2010. N. temperature. DOI: 10. as an example of a community living with threatened marine resources and a setting where an marine protected area (MPA) may provide a suitable approach for management of these resources.org/content/early/2010/08/03/rspb.short KEYWORDS: adaptation. a result which challenges previous theoretical predictions.org/about/work/programmes/marine/marine_resources/?4943/A‐Framework‐for‐Social‐Adaptat ion‐to‐Climate‐Change KEYWORDS: framework. solar heat." Biology Letters 6(5): 669‐673. Egypt. J. social impact assessment. Gland.2010. fisheries. climate change. sea surface temperature. temperature Marshall.royalsocietypublishing. DOI: 10. N. IUCN: 36 pp. (2010). thermal adaptation.. S. The framework focuses on the relationship between people and the marine resource (resource dependency). This paper provides resource managers with a framework to achieve conservation goals whilst sustaining social and economic benefits from the marine environment. P. The concepts and tools that presented here are derived from current thinking and approaches in the scientific literature. McQuaid. A Framework for Social Adaptation to Climate Change. gastropod. fishers need to be meaningfully involved in the decision‐making process. This report presents a framework to practically assist adaptation of social systems that depend in some way on tropical marine ecosystems.0233 http://rsbl. and conclude that non‐climatic thermal adaptation is likely to occur widely across ectothermic organisms which may enable species to tolerate climatic rises in air temperature.org/content/6/5/669. P. metabolic rate. ecology. "Can policy perception influence social resilience to policy change?" Fisheries Research 86(2‐3): 216‐227.1414 KEYWORDS: adaptation." Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 52(7): 901‐918. human dimension. Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 70 . climate change. The authors demonstrate that a marine intertidal snail showed thermal resistance adaptation to solar heating. Marshall.of temperature range. in the Mediterranean. geothermal) and climatic (air or sea surface temperature) varieties. barriers to change. gastropod. Marshall. et al. fishing Marshall.com/doi/abs/10. including non‐climatic (solar.1414 http://rspb. thermal scaling Marshall. C. radiation. Egypt. ISBN: 978‐2‐8317‐1200‐0 http://www. N. social adaptation. The study looks towards Salum. . (2007). The gastropod demonstrated a reduced metabolic rate in response to increasing temperatures.iucn. "Using social resilience and resource dependency to increase the effectiveness of marine conservation initiatives in Salum.1080/09640560903180982 http://www. D. "Non‐climatic thermal adaptation: implications for species' responses to climate warming. Ectothermic organisms have the ability to physiologically and behaviourally adapt to biotic and abiotic factors.tandfonline.

com/science/article/pii/S0165783607001294 KEYWORDS: resilience. Baird. in particular to rising sea surface temperatures.iucn. (2008). stakeholder perception.. et al.1526/003601107781799254/abstract KEYWORDS: resource dependency. fisheries. corals cannot adapt/acclimatize to rapid changes.change needs to be implemented at an appropriate rate. While general resilience principles are influencing the way practitioners approach coral reef management and conservation. A. The first step in practical application of resilience principles is to define resilience in operational terms: resilience of what to what? This workshop deals with coral reef vulnerability to climate change.com/article/10.wiley. Once scores are summed.1007/s00338‐008‐0432‐1 http://link. Australia Maynard. The greatest long‐term threat on coral reefs is climate change. Focus must therefore turn to promoting the natural resilience of reefs. and that coral loss leads to widespread fisheries collapse. This model and its effect on social resilience are (quantitatively and qualitatively) tested and explored using the commercial fishing industry in North Queensland. coral reefs. (vii) financial situation. A.. vulnerability Marshall. A. (v) business size. Fenton. "How resource dependency can influence social resilience within a primary resource industry. D." Rural Sociology 72(3): 359‐390. This work develops a framework for assessing resilience. or known to. DOI: 10. Why monitor resilience and what are the challenges in developing a protocol? Coral Reefs.This generates a resilience score for a site based on differentially weighted indicators that are either thought to. (2009). sea surface temperatures. It is argued that the coral reef crisis has been effectively communicated and efforts should focus also on addressing knowledge gaps. coral reefs.008 http://www. N. The paper questions the popularisation of predictions based on essentially untested assumptions regarding reefs and their capacity to cope with future climate change. Such assumptions include that: all corals live close to their thermal limits. This study develops a conceptual model of resource dependency which considers factors such as (i) occupational attachment. (ii) attachment to place.. the changing climate of coral reef research. October 6‐9 2008. Grimsditch. climate change Maynard. ( vi) business approach. fisheries management.2007. anticipated impacts and conservation effectiveness are positively interpreted. Marshall. et al. despite mitigation efforts.1016/j.com/doi/10. et al.springer. Australia Marshall. ISBN: 978‐2‐8317‐1158‐4 http://data.sciencedirect. Both resilience and management influence Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 71 . climate change." Coral Reefs 27(4): 745‐749.1007%2Fs00338‐008‐0432‐1 KEYWORDS: adaptation. J. (2007). with testing applied to target management responses to climate change on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). which has a history of known disturbance and recovery regimes. P. DOI: 10.fishres. policy. These results can be used to identify vulnerability to institutional change and guide policy development processes. (2010). Climate Change and Resilience. fisheries. (iv) family attitude to change. and (x) interest in and knowledge of the environment. D. A.06. This framework was applied to 31 sites in the southern region of the GBR. Results show that occupational attachment and employability were important influences as were business size and approach. ocean acidification will lead to reduced fecundity. Australia. DOI: 10. confer resilience. 44 pages: 18‐19. (ix) time spent harvesting. Obura and G. vulnerability. (viii) level of specialisation.pdf KEYWORDS: resilience. there remains an urgent need for protocols for assessing and mapping resilience in coral reef ecosystems. M.1526/003601107781799254 http://onlinelibrary. "Building resilience into practical conservation: identifying local management responses to global climate change in the southern Great Barrier Reef. An agenda for action from the IUCN World Conservation Congress. A. H. J. One of the major challenges for progressing resilience‐based management lies in the application of resilience principles. (iii) employability. "Revisiting the Cassandra syndrome.org/dbtw‐wpd/edocs/2009‐022." Coral Reefs 29(2): 381‐391. sites within a region are ranked in terms of relative resilience (to other sites) and extent to which resilience can be influenced by management response. P. and effort is required to ensure that equity.

It supports the concept that. McCook. the appropriate actions will require a mix of the following strategies: large‐scale ecosystem protection. J. social‐ecological systems.1111/j. climate change. estimated reef pristineness.2008. bleaching." PLoS ONE 7(8). (2008). Donner. "Prioritizing Key Resilience Indicators to Support Coral Reef Management in a Changing Climate. et al.01154. "Conservation action in a changing climate.1523‐1739. global change McClanahan. which informs on site selection as being important for the staged implementation of reliance management.00008_1. recovery. as well as reduce costs.x http://onlinelibrary. phase shifts. resistance. G. et al. indicating lack of preparedness for climate change. weather patterns and extreme events brought on by climate change pose challenges to effective conservation of ecosystems. marine protected areas. R. control and the formation of no‐take areas. This framework informs management of operational means for resilience management.pone.pone. Almany.potential varied among sites. The authors direct vision for conservation policy which considers the ability of adaptive capacity to cope with the complexities of climate change as being better that only relying on singular emphasis on governmental. resilience. conservation. et al.x http://onlinelibrary. as well as being easy to teach and implement management response to climate change for local communities and stakeholders. Cinner.1111/j. T. (2009). communities.1371%2Fjournal.1523‐1739.wiley.1111/j. J.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10. DOI: 10. coral bleaching. T. L. Current conservation strategies are found to not reflect adaptive capacity. T.com/doi/10. D..00008." Conservation Letters 1(2): 53‐59. Changes in temperature. et al. S. DOI: 10. marine. coral reefs. E. despite high ecological complexity. It will also identify the capacity of societies to cope with and adapt to climate change. DOI: 10. Depending on the environmental susceptibility and social adaptive capacity of a location. Analytical framework examines conservation actions in five west Indian Ocean countries – each differing in climate‐driven coral disturbance and adaptive capacity.1371/journal. diversity.2008. The paper explores multiple physical and biological factors that affect the ability of coral reefs to resist and recover from climate disturbance.1755‐263X.. connectivity.1755‐263X.2008.pdf KEYWORDS: climate change. DOI: 10.x/abstract KEYWORDS: adaptive management. (2012). ecological. socioecological systems McClanahan.wiley..01154. This paper studied 24 human communities and adjacent coral reef ecosystems in 5 countries of the southwestern Indian Ocean by useing ecological measures of abundance and diversity of fishes and corals. R. marine protected areas.2008. Caribbean coral‐reefs." Conservation Biology 23(3): 662‐671.1111/j.plosone. herbivory McClanahan. environmental susceptibility.springerlink. Great Barrier Reef. R.0042884 KEYWORDS: Adaptation. (2009). Addressing these challenges will require practical conservation actions that are informed by site‐specific understanding of susceptibility to climate change. R. global climate change. Socioeconomic household surveys were conducted to determine the AC of communities adjacent to selected coral reefs. relatively few strong variables can be important in influencing ecosystem dynamics.. "Identifying reefs of hope and hopeful actions: Contextualizing environmental. E. J. environmental management. mortality. active transformation and adaption of social‐ecological systems.1007/s00338‐010‐0603‐8 http://www. Cinner.0042884 http://www. The methods presented are suggested to increase the feasibility and defensibility of including key resilience metrics in evaluations of coral reefs.com/content/b441632345777x07/fulltext.x/abstract KEYWORDS: Adaptive capacity. coral reefs. capacity‐building of communities to cope with change. priority setting.com/doi/10. resilience. and government assistance focused on distancing communities from dependence on natural resources. social‐ecological systems. and social parameters to respond effectively to climate change. "Management under uncertainty: guide‐lines for incorporating Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 72 . socioeconomic.

fish stocks.marpol. ocean fisheries. DOI: 10. The Western Pacific Ocean area is used as a case study to illustrate components of both the biophysical and economic impacts that should be considered in any policy development. margin of error. reef management.springerlink." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107(43): 18278‐18285. economic and Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 73 . A. DOI: 10. Hanna. "Adaptive management of the Great Barrier Reef: A globally significant demonstration of the benefits of networks of marine reserves.0909335107 http://www.1007/s00338‐008‐0463‐7 http://www. habitats. indirect effects on corals. These 'rules of thumb' are based on current knowledge and expert opinion. direct effects. risk spreading. with an emphasis on the 2004 Zoning Plan and in the context of adaptive management of the GBR Marine Park.2009. and reef food webs.04. mid and high latitude regions including eastern Australia. climate change McIlgorm.. Western Pacific Ocean. DOI: 10. fish. impacts. (2010). S. J.pnas. (2010).com/science/article/pii/S0308597X0900092X KEYWORDS: adaptation. climate change.com/content/j7584gq847263222/ KEYWORDS: ecological connectivity. crown‐of‐thorns starfish. et al." Coral Reefs 28(2): 353‐366. This article examines the implications of climate change on the governance of fisheries across multiple international fisheries in low.1016/j. resilience.1016/j. international. fisheries." Marine Policy 34(1): 170‐177. sharks.connectivity into the protection of coral reefs. E. Three case studies illustrating the application of these principles to coral reef management are described.pocean. DOI: 10.sciencedirect.2010. and on the philosophy that it is better to act with incomplete knowledge than to wait for detailed understanding that may come too late. T. The guidelines include: (1) allow margins of error in extent and nature of protection as insurance against unforeseen or incompletely understood threats or critical processes. Pacific Ocean McLeod. The authors caution that fishery governance needs to address the uncertainty arising from climate change.. This paper examines long‐term economic implications of climate change on ocean fisheries. fishery governance. and in those areas where fishery governance is less developed the fisheries will be less adaptable to the impacts of climate change.com/science/article/pii/S0079661110000583 Keywords: long‐term economic. conservation McIlgorm. Salm. (2009).abstract KEYWORDS: Great Barrier Reef.1073/pnas. and effects for nonreef habitats and species of conservation concern. This article provides a set of practical guidelines that can be applied to protect connectivity. The paper examines direct effects of the zoning on target fish and sharks on notake and no‐entry coral reefs. zoning. Ayling. (4) protect entire biological units where possible. "Designing marine protected area networks to address the impacts of climate change. adaptive management. marine. L.024 http://www.. including but not limited to MPAs. (3) aim for networks of MPAs. R. (2) spread risks among areas. This review synthesizes available information." Progress In Oceanography 86(1‐2): 187‐191. Great Barrier Reef McCook. et al. (2010). The impacts of climate change on marine ecosystem productivity and community structure is expected to impact heavily on marine fisheries. et al.004 http://www. and (6) use a portfolio of approaches. fishing patterns and the management of both fish stocks and fishing nations. (5) provide for connectivity at a wide range of dispersal distances.org/content/early/2010/02/18/0909335107. coral reefs. including extensive previously unpublished results and gray literature. on the effects of zoning and spatial management on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR).sciencedirect. Design principles for Marine Protected Area (MPAs) networks which deal with social. A. no‐take. "How will climate change alter fishery governance? Insights from seven international case studies.06. "Economic impacts of climate change on sustainable tuna and billfish management: Insights from the Western Pacific." Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7(7): 362‐370.

connectivity and maintaining ecosystem function.envsoft.globalrestorationnetwork. Despite these principles being developed specifically to address coral reefs and increases in sea temperature. sea level rise Melbourne‐Thomas. and synergistic effects between bleaching and reduced water quality. ecosystem model. climate change McLeod. connectivity. ecosystems. Switzerland. Gland. and R. critical areas.org/uploads/files/LiteratureAttachments/197_managing‐mangroves‐for‐res ilience‐to‐climate‐change. V. reserves. discussing the benefits to people. climate change 74 Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 . management. conservation. This model is validates for coral reefs in the Philippines region of the South China Sea. and identifies both the human and global threats that compromise mangrove ecosystems. ecological criteria. This work provides an overview of mangrove ecosystems. South China Sea. This builds upon the concept of resilience as developed by West and Salm (2003) to address coral bleaching. spacing.esajournals. Eds. Johnson. and. identifying which factors help them survive these changes. ISBN‐10: 2‐8317‐0953‐9 ISBN‐13: 978‐2‐8317‐0953‐6 http://www.pdf KEYWORDS: resilience. It is hoped that this information will help MPA planners and managers design MPA networks that are more robust to climate change. et al. regional scale. propagule.033 http://www. decision support. (2006).1016/j.sciencedirect. Direction is given on aspects such as size. combining dynamics from local to regional scales.1890/070211 KEYWORDS: Great Barrier Reef. recommending these be incorporated into marine protected areas. This work defines resilience and then reviews previous work to outline strategies in helping managers identifying reef areas that are resistant to bleaching and areas where maximum recovery following disturbance is likely. Climate change poses a significant new threat to marine systems. International Union for the Conservation of Nature.1890/070211 http://www. This work emphasizes the importance of incorporating multiple stressors to reef health and patterns of larval connectivity in regional‐scale management decisions. Models are useful tools for dealing with the inherently complex coral reef systems and can inform management for reef management. Building resilience into mangrove conservation plans necessitates an understanding of the way in which mangroves will respond to climate changes. but few studies have focused on designing MPAs to be resilient to this threat. Global coral health and function is in decline as a result of anthropogenic‐induced stress. R. where the authors demonstrate the usefulness of the model as a decision support tool. mangrove. dispersal. resilience. E.. conservation. Managing Mangroves for Resilience to Climate Change. consequently which mangroves are most likely to then survive these changes. and integrating larval connectivity patterns that are derived from larval dispersal models. management. coral reef. "A multi‐scale biophysical model to inform regional management of coral reefs in the western Philippines and South China Sea.03. Although this work dealt with coral reefs.2010. management.biological criteria are well studied in scientific literature. Regional‐scale mitigation is essential since reef systems are highly connected across regions by ocean transport of larval stages and pollutants. C. shape. Spatially explicit biophysical models are developed for a general coral reef system.com/science/article/pii/S1364815210000927 KEYWORDS: corset. DOI: 10. This impacts of climate change on mangroves are discussed and tools and strategies that enhance mangrove resilience are further outlined. the ideas are transferable to mangrove systems and sea‐level rise. J. coral reefs.org/doi/abs/10. Philippines. This work provides some areas for consideration that are aimed at conservation practitioners as they are designing conservation strategies for mangroves. Marine Protected Areas. This paper compiles information on MPA network design and provides specific recommendations for resilience‐building into these networks. risk spreading. Salm. DOI: 10. similar ideas of resilience can be applied to mangroves and sea‐level rise. populations. climate change. with the rate of this decline set to accelerate further. (2011)." Environmental Modelling & Software 26(1): 66‐82. This is done by presenting two regional‐scale scenario projections that relate to management issues in this region: marine reserve design and fish stock recovery.

http://www. A. R. and adaptation are reviewed. Latin America. (2009). and/or awareness of. "Shellfish face uncertain future in high CO(2) world: Influence of acidification on oyster larvae calcification and growth in estuaries.1007/s00267‐008‐9259‐3 http://www." Environmental Management 43(5): 743‐752. Africa. O. climate. There is widespread concern that reduced pH (acidification) as a result of increased anthropogenic atmospheric CO2 will produce irreversible ecological regime shifts in marine habitats.springerlink. Y.au/publications/downloads/25i4‐CQU‐Miles‐R‐et‐al‐2009‐January‐Milestone‐and‐Synthesis‐R eport. "Adaptation to Climate Change in Developing Countries. climate change.com/content/f3162k37t61305rt/ KEYWORDS: adaptation. Assessing the socio‐economic implications of climate change (coral bleaching) in the Great Barrier Reef catchment: Synthesis Report. C. while little attention has been devoted to lower salinity estuaries and temperate nearshore ecosystems. climate change. J. vulnerability.rrrc.pdf KEYWORDS: integrated assessment. Queensland. Lee (2011). and recent literature on impacts. Australia.com/science/article/pii/S0165783611001937 KEYWORDS: Southern Oscillation Index. Queensland Miles. Adaptation to climate change is given increasing international attention as the confidence in climate change projections is getting higher. coastal fisheries. Reef and Rainforest Research Centre Limited: 147pp. reef‐based ecosystems Miller.The paper analysed relationships between key climate variables and fisheries catch rates from eight coastal regions in Queensland.. small island states. mainstreaming.fishres.The socio‐economic characterisation of the target regions in the GBR provided information regarding the vulnerability of each area with regard to social and economic factors. the Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica). including the emerging focus on mainstreaming of climate change and adaptation in development plans and programs. This report provides an integrated assessment of the potential socio‐economic impacts of climate change (specifically coral bleaching) on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) in Queensland. coastal sea surface temperature (SST). such as massive reductions in coral reef habitats and their associated biodiversity as well as reduced availability of carbonate ions for calcifying biota.004 http://www. socioeconomic impacts." Fisheries Research 110(2): 365‐376. and how to mainstream climate into general development policies. W. climate impacts.sciencedirect. (2009). climate change.05.Mertz. The literature review highlighted wide gaps in published information about the impact of climate change (and subsequent changes in reef productivity) on reef‐based ecosystems. eastern Australia. et al. Australia. Report to the Marine and Tropical Sciences Research Facility. O. An overview of observed and projected climate change is given. but quantification of the influence of multiple climatic indices on a range of coastal fisheries species in the form of regional comparisons along precipitation and temperature gradients has not been undertaken to date. much work still remains to fully understand the drivers of past adaptation efforts.org. It concludes that although many useful steps have been taken in the direction of ensuring adequate adaptation in developing countries. C. and S. Fish catch data." PLoS One 4(5). rainfall and the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) from 1988 to 2004 for eight distinct climatic regions along the coast of Queensland were used to investigate the relationships between catch and climate parameters and variation between regions. Kinnear. DOI: 10. veliger larvae of two oyster species. Previous studies showed that rainfall and associated freshwater runoff influence the catch of coastal fish species. geographic variability. Reynolds. development policy. "Climate‐coastal fisheries relationships and their spatial variation in Queensland.. and the Suminoe oyster (Crassostrea ariakensis) were grown in estuarine water under four pCO2 regimes to simulate atmospheric conditions in the Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 75 . The survey and focus group findings showed that businesses operating in the GBR region have a limited interest in. Great Barrier Reef. developing countries. A. Halsnaes. climatic indices. climate. K.2011. the need for future adaptation. S. Asia. To date most research has focused on CO2‐induced acidification in fully marine waters.. vulnerability Meynecke. DOI: 10. et al. To address CO2‐induced changes to estuarine calcification.1016/j. This article provides a status of climate change adaptation in developing countries. . et al. projections. (2009).

J." Climatic Change 45(1): 37‐61." Ecology and Society 17(1). and their surroundings.com/science/article/pii/S0079661110001266 KEYWORDS: climate change. (2010).springerlink. broader planning perspectives and the development of adequate strategies that act to build resilience. (2011). climate change. adaptation Moerlein. dysfunctional breakdowns in management rather than efficient adaptation may ensue. K.org/vol17/iss1/art10/ KEYWORDS: climate change.com/content/q43052461317260v/ KEYWORDS: North Pacific.2010. The paper details environmental changes observed over the past twenty to thirty years and their impacts on subsistence‐based lifestyles of the Inupiaq communities in Alaska.014 http://www. management. calcification. Climate change intermingles with fishery systems.. K." Biology Letters 7(4): 484‐486. The rocky history of attempts by the United States and Canada to cooperatively manage their respective salmon harvests suggests that such shared resources may present difficult challenges for effective adaptation to climate change. adaptive management. and resilient fisheries: Institutional responses through integrative science. Regime shifts have been increasingly reported for exploited marine ecosystems around the world from the North Pacific to the North Atlantic. in addition.09.plosone. Understanding the drivers and mechanisms leading to marine ecosystem shifts is crucial in developing adaptive management strategies to achieve sustainable exploitation of marine ecosystems. uncertainty.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.1016/j. their incentives to cooperate are disrupted by the impacts of the climatic variation. present. anthropogenic change Miller. et al. climate change regime shifts) and also allow better understanding of behavioural assessments of fish. requires considering the total environment of change that is dramatically shaping the relationship between people. estuary. A. It argues that properly assessing and understanding the impacts of climate change on the subsistence practices. This work explores the significance of attention on resilience and adaptive capacity goals found in the governance of uncertain fishery systems.g. management Miller. vulnerability Mollmann.pone. treaty. A.pocean. This work focuses on placing more importance on integrative science methods and process to support institutional responses. Charles. Adaptation is difficult when a resource is exploited by multiple competing users who possess incomplete information.pone. Carothers (2012). This work explores how the development of more effective fishery approaches can be facilitated by the synergies between institutional change and integrative science. If. variability.1023/A:1005684815698 http://www.ecologyandsociety. et al. An international workshop was held on 1–3 November 2010 in Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 76 . This highlights the need for robust and adaptive management approaches in order to enhance ecosystem resilience.1371/journal. DOI: 10. and C. resilience. impacts.0005661 http://www. DOI: 10. Pacific salmon are anadromous fish that cross state and international boundaries in their oceanic migrations.5751/Es‐04543‐170110 http://www. and projected future concentrations in 50 and 100 years respectively. humans and institutions. "Comparative analysis of European wide marine ecosystem shifts: a large‐scale approach for developing the basis for ecosystem‐based management. which adds to the uncertainty that already exists in these systems.pre‐industrial era. information and adaptation in a conflict‐ridden context. "Pacific Salmon fisheries: Climate.sciencedirect. C." Progress in Oceanography 87(1‐4): 338‐346. including climate change. "Total Environment of Change: Impacts of Climate Change and Social Transitions on Subsistence Fisheries in Northwest Alaska.0005661 KEYWORDS: CO2. Synergies between institutional change and integrative silence can enable the development of effective fisheries policy strategies. Alaska. DOI: e566110. subsistence. communities. DOI: 10. oyster. Institutional factors will determine the extent to which the management of such resources can adapt effectively to climate variability or long‐term climate change. (2000). fisheries. A. "Climate change. Understanding these aspects facilitates the move toward implementing integrative science for improved fishery governance. Conversi. K.. Inupiaq. oscillation. Integrative science provides an avenue for examining policy options in respect to their robustness against uncertainty (e.

a second is to tackle the critical unanswered ecological questions. (2) identification of activity and hazard sub‐systems. including (1) system analysis. and H.esajournals. S.1 http://www. impacts. Germany and was attended by 27 invited scientists from 14 countries. resilience. This paper presents a five‐step vulnerability assessment methodology for tourism in coastal areas. ecology. This work categorizes the climate‐driven impacts for ice‐obligate species relying on platforms. DOI: 10. R.1890/06‐0571. sea‐ice cover. evolution. et al." Proceedings of the Royal Society B‐Biological Sciences 278(1717): 2401‐2411. traditional knowledge. ice‐associated species that are adapted to these ecosystems and seasonal migratory species where ice can act as a barrier. then use the interaction between ecological and evolutionary dynamics to predict patterns of future habitat occupation. (2011). An understanding of the impacts that future climate change will have on all of these species will be determined by the role of sea ice as a platform. interaction between ecological and evolutionary dynamics Morton. Fiji Morris. O. "A climate change vulnerability assessment methodology for coastal tourism. Becken (2009). DOI: 10. (4) integration for the destination as a whole and scenario analysis and (5) communication. Hoegh‐Guldberg.tandfonline. D.org/content/278/1717/2401. W. S.royalsocietypublishing. managers and policy‐makers will be called on to use the present state of scientific knowledge to supply reasonable inferences for action based on imperfect knowledge. with an emphasis on comparing changes on multiple trophic as opposed to single trophic levels. adaptation.org/doi/abs/10.royalsocietypublishing. The paper assesses the scale and dynamics of habitat selection.0604 http://rspb.Hamburg.1213 http://rsbl. marine mammals. Huntington (2008). The report summarises the outcomes of the workshop.1080/09669580802651681 KEYWORDS: vulnerability assessment methodology. E. and S. fisheries. climate change. one challenge is to use existing ecological knowledge more effectively.2010. A resilience assessment is speculative since it can be based on any number of scenarios involving trophic cascades and human disturbance.1890/06‐0571.." Journal of Sustainable Tourism 17(4): 473‐488.1 KEYWORDS: Arctic." Austral Ecology 34(1): 1‐9. P. (2009). Increasingly." Ecological Applications 18(2): S157‐S165. ecosystem regime shifts. DOI: 10. This work thus offers a framework for scientific investigation of the impacts of climate change as well as highlighting the need for responsible resource management.1098/rspb.short KEYWORDS:climate change. a marine ecosystem function and a barrier (to both humans and non‐ice adapted species).1098/rsbl. mammals. The resilience scenarios presented have implications for marine mammal survival in relation to sea ice. "The big ecological questions inhibiting effective environmental management in Australia. (3) vulnerability assessments for the different sub‐systems at risk. The goal of the workshop was to compare ecosystem regime shifts in a multitude of different marine ecosystems from various regional areas in the North Atlantic. This paper identifies areas of environmental management that are profoundly hindered by an inability of science to answer basic questions. eutrophication. habitat selection. The paper concludes with a short reflection on the utility of this approach to our understanding of habitat selection and adaptive evolution. natural selection.org/content/7/4/484. trophic cascades Moore.com/doi/abs/10. climate change. A.1080/09669580802651681 http://www.2011. The framework is illustrated by an example of how it might be applied to Fiji. DOI: 10. "Adaptation and habitat selection in the eco‐evolutionary process. "Arctic marine mammals and climate change: Impacts and resilience. coastal tourism. This paper first provides a short review of theories outlining the mechanics of habitat selection. in contrast to those areas where knowledge is not the Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 77 . Hence. ecosystem. sea ice. cetacean Moreno. ice‐associated species finding suitable feeding opportunities within sea‐ice refugia and benefiting from foraging in new areas (previously covered by ice) and that competition with migratory species infiltrating Arctic regions may increase.short KEYWORDS: adaptation.

This information may enable the development of coral reef reserve regions which are spatially connected through species’ dispersal patterns. Additionally. coral reef. fisheries productivity and resilience of reefs. temperature Mumby. Edwards. (2011). et al. adaptation. They map proxies of varying levels of thermal stress and provide predictions of coral reef responses to thermal stressor level. This work demonstrates that mangroves are important as an intermediate fish nursery habitat which may increase survival.wiley. in an attempt to minimize overall stress in the system and maximize resilience." Nature 427(6974): 533‐536.01938. "Reserve design for uncertain responses of coral reefs to climate change.x/abstract KEYWORDS: acclimation. Marine reserves have been shown to reduce biological stress in some situations. et al. adaptive management. R.2010. decision‐making.1111/j. "Trophic cascade facilitates coral recruitment in a marine reserve. Coral bleaching events have been attributed to increasing sea temperatures and these events are predicted to increase in their frequency as global sea temperatures continue to rise. seagrass beds and coral reefs. adaptation. which suggests strongly that conservation efforts should aim to protect connected corridors of mangroves. ecosystems Moser.1111/j. resilience.org/content/107/51/22026 KEYWORDS: climate change.2008. P. Juvenile coral reef fish often inhabit mangrove forests.wiley. et al. biomass.nature.. ocean acidification. J. (2007). "A framework to diagnose barriers to climate change adaptation. I. connectivity. and that ecologists will increasingly be engaging a wide range of other disciplines to help identify pathways towards a sustainable future. Each step is designed to understand the causes.1007887107 http://www. DOI: 10. Harborne.1111/j.1073/pnas. "Mangroves enhance the biomass of coral reef fish communities in the Caribbean.1442‐9993. A.major barrier to policy development and management.. (2004).com/doi/10." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107(51): 22026‐22031.1442‐9993. P. DOI: 10.com/doi/10." Ecology Letters 14(2): 132‐140.01562. Both the phenotypic and genetic adaptation capacity of corals are expected to play a critical role in influencing reserve design. C.pnas. Of the 22 big questions identified herein. and J. A three‐step framework designed to identify barriers to the process of adaptation to climate change is presented..1461‐0248.x/abstract KEYWORDS: Australian ecology. more than half are directly related to climate change. habitats. A.com/nature/journal/v427/n6974/abs/nature02286. consequences and solution to factors limiting the adaptation process in social‐ecological systems. biodiversity Mumby. Present rates of mangrove deforestation are expected to have severe deleterious effects om ecosystem function. J.01562. Ekstrom (2010).01938. climate change.1461‐0248. plant invasions.x http://onlinelibrary.2008. climate change. although reserves are unable to protect coral reefs from physical stress. biomass of a number of commercially important species significantly increases when adult habitat is connected to mangrove forests. and relate this to spatial predictions of larval connectivity within the Bahamas coral reef system.1038/nature02286 http://www. DOI: 10. thus creating a marine reserve network. Elliott. J. marine reserve. The paper goes onto the say that there is enough information already available to develop effective policy and management to address several significant ecological issues." Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 78 . The authors propose that reserve placement be concentrated in areas of low physical stress. knowledge gaps. DOI: 10. but the significance of these nurseries to reef fish population dynamics has not yet been quantified. biodiversity. S. Caribbean mangroves influence fish community structure on neighbouring reefs. J. A. environmental management.html KEYWORDS: seagrass beds. P. social‐ecological system Mumby. A.1111/j. Mangrove forests represent one of the world's most threatened tropical ecosystems with global losses exceeding 35%. This framework provides answers at all levels of decision‐making regarding climate change adaptation procedures.x http://onlinelibrary.2010.

weak increases in grazing on deeper reefs had important consequences. Mortality increased with temperature and 33°C was determined to be close to the thermal limit of these species.1111/j. "Ocean acidification impairs olfactory discrimination and homing ability of a marine fish. climate change Munday. aerobic scope. however no influence was found on the overall size‐frequency distribution. This work reveals that the impacts of marine reserves ranges outside trophic cascades and increases coral recruitment. Decreases in fishing pressure and weak predator‐prey interactions that occur within marine reserves can produce trophic cascades which increase the number of grazing fishes and subsequently reduce the coverage of macroalgae on coral reefs.int‐res.1365‐2664. cyanosoma) was measured experimentally. et al. with the consequence of increased grazing then investigated using spatial simulation of reef dynamics in shallow and mid‐shelf reefs.01459. predation. Such a loss of homing ability may Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 79 . D. resulting in a 2‐fold increase in the density of coral recruits. Although the greatest increase in grazing was in shallow reefs. fishing Mumby. P. ontogenetic. resilience. L. P. The absence of pattern in the adult coral community is thought to be symptomatic of the influence of a recent disturbance event that hides the recovery trajectories of individual reefs. et al. DOI: 10. grazing. P." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106(6): 1848‐1852. These results suggest that these species are vulnerable to the projected global warming and ocean acidification.com/doi/10. The effect of pH and temperature on the respiration of two coral reef fish (O. Increased fish grazing in a Bahamian reef system was driven by reduced fishing pressure and was negatively correlated with macroalgal cover. a crucial process during settlement. mangroves. Reefs exhibit multiple stable equilibria and mangrove enhancement of grazing in mid‐shelf systems overlaps with a zone of system instability. "The impact of ecosystem connectivity on coral reef resilience..x http://onlinelibrary. Hastings (2008).1111/j. with a minimum reached in warm (32°C) and acidified conditions. greatly enhancing resilience.x/abstract KEYWORDS: resilience.1365‐2664.2008. DOI: 10. or cover of corals. metabolism. (2009). small increases in grazing moved the reef beyond a bifurcation point. great barrier reef Munday. Alternative hypotheses that may generate a false correlation between grazing and coral recruitment were tested and rejected. L. doedeleini and O. Marine reserves can facilitate the recovery of corals following disturbance events and may help sustain biodiversity dependent on a complex three‐dimensional coral habitat. Crawley. Therefore. model. Acidification significantly increased the mortality of O.0702602104 http://www. (2009). community structure." Marine Ecology Progress Series 388: 235‐242.6. it was found to have insignificant consequences for coral population dynamics. was tested.org/content/104/20/8362.01459. reef fish.2008. trophic cascade. This work shows that ontogenetic mechanisms of ecosystem connectivity involving parrotfish may increase coral populations recovery potential from climate‐induced changes of disturbance. "Interacting effects of elevated temperature and ocean acidification on the aerobic performance of coral reef fishes. The ability of larvae was modified under the pH conditions predicted to occur in 2100 (pH 7. L. acidification. DOI:10. J. coral reef.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104(20): 8362‐8367. marine reserves. reefs close to mangroves experienced recovery under intense extreme weather events due unlike those without connectivity.com/abstracts/meps/v388/p235‐242/ KEYWORDS: global warming. Empirical data was used to calculate mangrove‐driven enhancement of parrotfish grazing on two reef habitats. Large increases in shallow reef grazing had little consequence since the grazing levels concerned were over twice that needed to exceed the corresponding bifurcation point for this particular habitat. N.8) and completely disrupted at pH 7. equivalent to 1000 ppm CO2).abstract KEYWORDS: biodiversity.wiley. and A." Journal of Applied Ecology 45(3): 854‐862. Contrastingly. Dixson. grazing. doederleini.3354/Meps08137 http://www. The effect of CO2‐induced acidification on the ability of larval clownfish to detect olfactory cues. Grazing seems to influence the density and community structure of coral recruits. The aerobic scope of these fish was reduced at higher temperatures and low pH (pH 7..1073/pnas. E.pnas.8.

population connectivity and a range of other ecosystem processes.1467‐2979. Despite small temperature increases potentially favouring larval development. habitat specialization. dispersal. evolutionary responses. population connectivity. phase‐shifts. coral reefs. DOI:10. "Climate change and the future for coral reef fishes.x/abstract KEYWORDS: climate change. Immediate impacts will include diversity loss and changes in fish community composition due to coral bleaching. A number of critical gaps exist in knowledge pertaining to climate change impacts on marine tropical fishes. "Effects of ocean acidification on the early life history of a tropical marine fish. using fishes as a model group.com/content/r7101j726524g567/ KEYWORDS: climate change.ncbi.nlm. Great Barrier Reef. DOI: 10.nih.0784 http://www. with implications for increasing extinction‐risk of species with small ranges near reef margins. egg survival and size at hatching. particularly during their early life stages. larval settlement Munday. including information on species with characteristics that are conducive to acclimation or local adaptation and perhaps will be resilient to change. This review assesses and predicts the impacts that rapid climate change will have on population connectivity in coral reef ecosystems.x http://onlinelibrary. L. These results suggest that future ocean acidification might not negatively impact the early life stages of this fish.. G." Fish and Fisheries 9(3): 261‐285. P.nlm. (2009). coral reef fish.00281. S. Coral reef fisheries will be impacted by climate change through effects on individual performance. Ocean warming will influence the physiological performance of coral reef fishes..nih. Plectropomus leopardus Munday.gov/pubmed/19188596 KEYWORDS: acidification. global warming. Increased ocean temperatures are expected to accelerate larval development. J. with predictions often based on temperate examples.0809996106 http://www. potentially leading to reduced pelagic durations and earlier reef‐seeking behaviour. Changes to the spatial and temporal scales of connectivity have implications for the management of coral reef ecosystems. Depending on the spatial arrangement of reefs. P. coral reef fish. many other species will undergo long‐term declines as a result of loss of settlement habitat and erosion of habitat structural complexity. but unexpectedly enhanced individual growth. adaptation.1111/j. especially the design and placement of MPAs. (2009).. "Climate change and coral reef connectivity. population connectivity.com/doi/10. M. L. El Niño southern‐oscillation. Improved predictions of ocean current and primary productivity will change are required to more accurately forecast how reef fish population dynamics and connectivity will change in light of climate‐driven impacts. P. this may be counteracted by negative effects on adult reproduction. global warming. population dynamics.00281.springerlink.2008.1073/pnas. life‐history.1467‐2979." Proc Biol Sci 276(1671): 3275‐3283.have dramatic effects on clownfish populations in an acidified ocean.wiley. DOI: 10. et al. (2011). habitat. et al. (2008).2008. "Summing up Sendai: progress integrating climate change science and fisheries. the expectation would be a reduction in dispersal distances and the spatial scale of connectivity. making optimal harvest strategies difficult to determine and populations more susceptible to overfishing. et al. larval growth Munday. P. recruitment dynamics. M. trophic linkages. marine protected areas Murawski. percula) was tested experimentally in tanks. Acidification did not significantly impact embryonic duration. habitat fragmentation. larval duration. Jones. clownfish. which suffer rapid population declines in relation to coral loss. Donelson. Leis.1098/rspb.gov/pubmed/19556256 KEYWORDS: ocean acidification. Additionally. A number of species could undergo range shifts. DOI:10.2009. The effect of CO2‐induced acidification on eggs and larvae of the orange clownfish (A.1007/s00338‐008‐0461‐9 http://www.1111/j. L. Additionally. range shifts." Coral Reefs 28(2): 379‐395. The size and spacing of protected areas may need to be strategically adjusted if reserve networks are to retain their efficacy in the future. this work highlights the need to pay more attention to adaptation to climate change. community structure. olfaction. A. larval.ncbi. The variability which already exists in recruitment will be further exacerbated." Ices Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 80 . J.

population dynamics.1093/icesjms/fsr086 http://icesjms.1038/NCLIMATE1084 http://www. sustainability. E.html KEYWORDS: climate change. One of the primary threats to coral reef diversity. Ambrose (2009). and R. G. R. M. coral cover. K. disturbance. impacts. function and resilience is overexploitation.cub.2007. DOI: 10. B. Data demonstrates that increasing water temperatures has exceeded the point where warming is beneficial to growth. fisheries Myers. This paper provides evidence consistent with this prediction for a marine fish in the southwest Pacific Ocean. et al. Consequently the area of coral reef which is appropriated by these fisheries exceeds the available effective area by 75000km2. Differences in benthic cover inside and outside MPAs were assessed at 15 pairs of Protected and General Use reefs on the GBR using annual monitoring data from the Australian Institute of Marine Science’s Long‐Term Monitoring Programme.sciencedirect. but a decreased growth rate with increasing temperatures was observed in the warmer water New Zealand populations.com/science/article/pii/S0960982207010639 KEYWORDS: ecosystems.oxfordjournals. "Current and future sustainability of island coral reef fisheries. M. This paper summarises the discussion and conclusions at the Sendai conference on climate change and fisheries. In this study. (2007).1053 http://onlinelibrary. catch. (2009).1002/aqc. E. resilience.. Thresher. benthos.abstract KEYWORDS: Sendai conference. DOI: 10. temperature Newton.1053/abstract KEYWORDS: marine protected areas. range shifts. Australian Institute of Marine Science Long‐term Monitoring. with estimated current landings an estimated 64% higher than can be sustained. cascades. otolith. The authors analyzed long‐term changes in the growth rate of banded morwong from the Tasman Sea and compared these changes to temperature trends across the species distribution.com/doi/10.Journal of Marine Science 68(6): 1368‐1372. F. and suggest mechanisms for range contraction as a result of this temperature increase." Current Biology 17(7): 655‐658.1016/j. "Elevated temperature reduces the respiratory scope of coral reef fishes. DOI: 10.054 http://www. et al. climate change. overfishing Nilsson. the influence of marine protected area (MPA) protection on coral reef benthic organisms on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) was investigated. impacts. Increasing global temperatures are predicted to affect the reactive. (2011). Cote.nature. "Differences in benthic cover inside and outside marine protected areas on the Great Barrier Reef: influence of protection or disturbance history?" Aquatic Conservation‐Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 19(7): 736‐747. temperatures that exceed the growth rate benefit may have important repercussions for the population’s recruitment success and productivity. ecosystems. DOI: 10.com/nclimate/journal/v1/n2/full/nclimate1084.org/content/68/6/1368. but large temperature increases may become deleterious to growth. Great Barrier Reef. Ecological footprints and a review of exploitation status lead to reporting of widespread unsustainability for island coral reef fisheries." Nature Climate Change. growth and metabolic rates of ectotherms (cold‐blooded animals) such that slight increases in temperature are likely to benefit growth rates. dispersal.. R. Tasman Sea." Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 81 . The authors propose that populations living at the warm‐edge of their distribution. I. Crawley.02. resilience. an area that is one of the fastest warming in the Southern Hemisphere ocean. coral reefs. there is little known of the scale of this impact..wiley. Programme.1002/aqc. Over half of the 49 countries included are unsustainably exploiting their fisheries. "Tolerance limit for fish growth exceeded by warming waters. cascades. An increased growth rate with increasing temperature was observed for the cooler water Australian populations. A. fisheries. et al. The extreme imbalance between current and sustainable catches implies the urgent need for management methods to reduce social and economic dependence on these fisheries if they are able to prevent their collapse. Although coral reef fisheries are generally considered unsustainable. N. substrate condition Neuheimer. global warming. including which reefs are overfished. structure.

The authors discuss adaptive capacity for coping with change over time.11. with different intensities according to the species. development. Complexity theory for a sustainable future.009 http://www. governance Norström. climate change. Diversity and resilience of social‐ecological systems. An overview of alternative states observed in coral reefs is presented and discussed to clarify the current debate on coral reef phase shifts.5. climate change. J. diversity. complementing the commonly reported coral–macroalgae shift." Ecological Economics 69(6): 1219‐1227. fish. (2008).1365‐2486..sciencedirect. but cautions that ecological.01767. These different thermal tolerances among species suggest that ocean warming might cause significant changes of reef community structure in the future. New York. to the benefit of thermally tolerant species. the global economy and nature. ecosystem services. Norberg J. G." Climate Research 40(2‐3): 211‐231.stockholmresilience. The scientific assessment of ecosystem change has stemmed from this framework. aerobic scope.com/science/article/pii/S0921800909004583 KEYWORDS: assessment. et al. community structure Norberg.1016/j. warming. A.org/publications/artiklar/diversityandresilienceofsocialecologicalsystems.1111/j.com/abstracts/meps/v376/p295‐306/ KEYWORDS: coral reef. economic and political complexities will present additional challenges to the solutions sought. Development of the ecological system services approach has enabled the exploration and communication of a framework which determines the relationship between humans. "Alternative states on coral reefs: beyond coral–macroalgal phase shifts.2008. R. P. J. This scientific framework seeks an innovative approach to reduce environmental degradation in developing countries. The aerobic scope (capacity to perform aerobically. R.ecolecon.3354/meps07815 http://www. DOI:10.01767. Nyström. and curbing excessive energy and material consumption by wealthy nations. Pacific Island nations face further challenges in relation to their small size. remoteness and archipelagic character.1111/j. "Responding to the challenges of climate change in the Pacific Islands: management and technological imperatives. (2009).edu/book/978‐0‐231‐13460‐6/complexity‐theory‐for‐a‐sustainable‐future http://lowres. tolerance. et al.html Norgaard. Despite being faced with similar impacts of climate change. along with the development of theoretical and empirical documentation of the nature and value of ecosystem services.Global Change Biology 15(6): 1405‐1412.columbia. This book chapter discusses the notion that diversity is an essential component for sustainable functioning of both biological and social systems.fb3e e2f125e9da349a80001841. DOI: 10. temperature. "Ecosystem services: From eye‐opening metaphor to complexity blinder." Marine Ecology Progress Series 376: 295‐306.. (2009). resilience http://cup. D. which controls thermal tolerance). Climate change solutions for Pacific Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 82 . C. B. Phase shifts result from coral mass mortality events induced by pulse disturbances. V.2008. demonstrating fundamentally significant reasons as to the importance of diversity. (2010). Management procedures could benefit from a better understanding of the drivers and controls of phase shifts in coral reefs. Columbia University Press: 46‐79. and review the importance of understanding and being able to maintain diversity for the purpose of creating sustainable social‐ecological systems. DOI: 10. framework. Wilson. M. Several phase shifts are discussed.1365‐2486. environmental management.int‐res. phase shift. was measured on five common coral reef fish species at different temperatures. reef. reef management Nunn.x http://onlinelibrary. the design and implementation of environmental management programs. The aerobic scope (calculated as a percent of increase between resting and maximum oxygen consumption) was reduced for all species with increasing temperatures. and may lead to a stable state due to positive feedback mechanisms.wiley. general equilibrium analysis. sustainability.x/abstract KEYWORDS: ecosystem.com/doi/10. KEYWORDS: social‐ecological. This article discusses the challenges faced by continued economic growth and posits that the ecosystem services approach can be a part of a larger solution. economic growth.2009.

tandfonline. Folke (2001). M." Marine Policy 36(3): 753‐759.1080/17565529. adaptation. forge networks and contribute to achieving social/institutional.Islands are often uncritically imposed from elsewhere and have proven unsuited both environmentally and culturally. and shifts in distribution induced by changes in ocean currents. Policy makers must understand and incorporate cultural influences as well as the ways in which climate change adaptation can be sustained." Climate and Development 3(3): 228‐241. reduced abundance and diversity. technology. as well as introducing new stressors and modifying background conditions of these reefs. community‐level decision‐makers) is questionable. Inundation and salinization of economically critical lowland and coral reef degradation should be incorporated into management objectives. It suggests that improving acceptance of climate change and thus ability to adapt will require the development of communications that are culturally appropriate and palatable to fishers. and support areas) and functional diversity in Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 83 .g.10.htm?articleid=1896523&show=abstract KEYWORDS: curriculum development.. adaptation. The effectiveness of top‐down (donor funder policy) rather than bottom‐up involvement (e. to be able to consequently reorganise and to adapt to change. training and achieving social and political outcomes. rather than primarily focussing only on sea level rise. DOI: 10. DOI: 10. highlighting the relationship between disturbance and ecosystem resilience. the dynamic capacity of a reef matrix to reorganize and maintain ecosystem function after disturbance. followed by exemplification and discussion of the relation between ‘ecological memory’ (biological legacies.2011.1108/17568691011089918 http://www. "Climate change adaptation in Australia: Education. Tasmania.int‐res.com/doi/abs/10. Pacific Islands.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X11001655 KEYWORDS: climate adaptation. The paper examines the development of climate change adaptation curricula and its challenges. Ecosystem resilience is the capacity of complex systems comprising multiple stable states to absorb disturbance.1080/17565529. "Communicating climate change: Climate change risk perceptions and rock lobster fishers. This work focuses on spatial resilience. tasmania.2011.3354/cr00806 http://www. Effects of climate change in the region include habitat alteration and loss. M. T. et al. community Nurse. The paper considers the efficacy of risk perception as a tool to inform how to communicate the science of climate change and provides suggestions for management in relation to development of adaptation strategies for fisheries. G. mobile link species. M. environmental management. These relate to the ability of coral reefs to be able to cope with human impacts.sciencedirect. governance.2011. "Spatial resilience of coral reefs. and also the raw materials which are available to support adaptation. fisheries. with external assistance only if necessary. (2012). communication Nystrom. DOI: 10. (2010). Identification of spatial sources of resilience in dynamic seascapes is the first step in this study. Pacific Island‐specific climate change solutions should acknowledge their distinctive environmental characteristics including insularity. The paper examines the implications of global climate change for fisheries management in the Caribbean. (2011). political and economic outcomes for adaptation to climate change. Caribbean. their topographic and geological diversity.marpol.com/journals.015 http://www. i.emeraldinsight.e. with emphasis on Pacific Island governments to take ownership of the climate change adaptation process. australia. impacts Nursey‐Bray. climate change.603195 KEYWORDS: climate change.1016/j. Human impacts alter the natural disturbance regimes experienced by coral reef ecosystems. fisheries. L. sea‐level rise. It also examines the utility of educational initiatives to build community resilience. The paper proposes that appropriate responses may include more effective implementation of existing arrangements. A. education and training Nursey‐Bray. Pecl.com/abstracts/cr/v40/n2‐3/p211‐231/ KEYWORDS: climate change. and C. "The implications of global climate change for fisheries management in the Caribbean.603195 http://www." International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management 2(4): 393‐402. DOI: 10." Ecosystems 4(5): 406‐417.

resilience. M. scale. diversity. and has become important in the development of coral reef management strategies. socio‐ecological systems. (2008). V." Progress in Human Geography 36(5): 667‐676. "Confronting Feedbacks of Degraded Marine Ecosystems.com/article/10." Coral Reefs 27(4): 795‐809. Operationalizing theory to be able to observe resilience is therefore an important assignment. and estimates of possible space availability against grazing capacity. disturbance. management.springer. measurements of spatial heterogeneity.com/science/article/pii/S0169534700019480 KEYWORDS: phase shifts. ecosystems. (2012). "Global environmental change II: From adaptation to deliberate transformation.. M.1007/s10021‐012‐9530‐6 http://link. N. thresholds. ratios of good and bad colonizers of space. phase shifts. "Capturing the cornerstones of coral reef resilience: linking theory to practice. requiring empirical assessments of resilience. as can occur in coral reef ecosystems. human impact Nystrom. coral reefs. A. ecological." Trends in Ecology & Evolution 15(10): 413‐417. J. Great Barrier Reef.1007/s00338‐008‐0426‐z http://www." Ecosystems 15(5): 695‐710. Indicators include functional group approaches. There are substantial implications for the changes for reef‐associated human activities including fishing and tourism. The papers offers a synthesis of feedbacks' interactions in the context of degraded states form distinct coastal/marine biomes. Human impacts are also changing the capacity of reefs to cope with stress. Phase shifts refer to unexpected and dramatic changes in community composition. DOI: 10. spatial heterogeneity.springer. C. feedback. Graham. DOI: 10. Conservation of coral reefs is enhanced by managing for ecosystem resilience.com/content/y736137635618158/ KEYWORDS: diversity.. "Coral reef disturbance and resilience in a human‐dominated environment. et al. resilience O'Brien. It examines how such feedbacks are addressed by management and suggests strategies to overcome the resilience of degraded ecosystem states DOI: 10. Biodiversity. mobile links. (2012).1016/S0169‐5347(00)01948‐0 http://www. which are discussed here. communities.com/article/10. mass mortality. The paper calls for the development of a critical body of research on deliberate transformation as a response to global environmental change. management. M.1007%2Fs10021‐012‐9530‐6 KEYWORDS: marine biomes.terms of seascape ecosystem resilience. resilience. community structure.springerlink. DOI: 10. functional groups. spatial resilience. degraded states. (2000). coral reefs. which also aids in providing sustainability of ecosystem services which are vital for humans. removing or suppressing disturbance. and connectivity have been proposed as key foundations of resilience since they may provide insurance against ecological uncertainty. memory. This paper provides a synopsis of the divergent uses of the concept of resilience as well as proposing empirical indicators of the key foundations of this concept. Norstrom. biodiversity Nystrom. or by introducing.1007/s10021‐001‐0019‐y http://link. A.sciencedirect. management. disturbance. K. The ambiguity of the term resilience presents a number of problems. Folke. adaptation. phase shifts. recruitment. which then further intensifies the effects of altered disturbance regimes. with significant consequences for ecosystem services on which humans depend. et al. It explores emerging questions about individual and collective capacities to deliberately transform systems and structures in a manner that is both ethical and Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 84 .. with concern regarding its practical applicability of major focus. Ecosystem resilience is thought to confer insurance against unexpected responses in the face of climate change. et al. Human‐driven activities alter the natural disturbance regimes of coral reefs by changing pulse events into persistent disturbance or chronic stress. resilience Nystrom. The crux of these operational indicators of resilience is to use them as predictive tools to identify vulnerability that may lead to unexpected phase shifts before the disturbance occurs.1007%2Fs10021‐001‐0019‐y KEYWORDS: coral reefs.

Degree heating weeks. Climate Change and Resilience ‐ An Agenda for Action from the IUCN World Conservation Congress in Barcelona. Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 85 .1007/s00338‐011‐0741‐7 http://www. B. Inter‐annual variability Obura. drivers." Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 63(3): 353‐372.com/science/article/pii/S0272771404003191 KEYWORDS: coral bleaching. Moreover.1016/j. This paper investigates the spatial differences in coral mortality in the Phoenix Islands during the El Nin˜o‐related thermal stress event from 2002 to 2003. The term ‘resilience to bleaching’ is a particular case of ecological resistance." Coral Reefs 30(3): 607‐619. resistance. and G. Spain. It suggests that resilience thinking provides valuable insights on the characteristics of a new social contract.: 1‐48. DOI: not available http://www.2004. The paper considers how a resilience approach can contribute to new social contracts ‐ social arrangements that enhance the well‐being and security of both present and future generations ‐ in the face of uncertainty and change. The results highlight the high degree of acclimation and/or adaptation of the corals in the Phoenix Islands to their local temperature regime.sciencedirect. thermal stress. resilience Obura. Central Pacific. theory Obura.. and S.sagepub. transformation. adaptation.com/content/36/5/667 KEYWORDS: adaptation. and their consequent vulnerability to anomalous events. "Rethinking Social Contracts: Building Resilience in a Changing Climate. Sea surface temperature. and appropriate management needs to link science and management when dealing with these larger‐scale impacts of climate change. "Resilience and climate change: lessons from coral reefs and bleaching in the Western Indian Ocean. and highlights new themes and priorities for action regarding resilience‐based management of coral reefs and other marine organisms.010 http://www. and enhancing resilience‐based management.sustainable. Coral Reefs. D. Thermal resistance and tolerance have genetic basis and may interact with environmental protection properties that result in phenotypic variation in coral bleaching. Thermal stress." Ecology and Society 14(2). et al. and identified three concepts which affect coral‐zooxanthellae holobiont and reef vulnerability to thermal stress previously termed 'resistance to bleaching'.ecss.1177/0309132511425767 http://phg. social‐ecological systems. Grimsditch (2009). protection. DOI: 10. 2002‐2005. K. This paper presents evidence for the West Indian Ocean supporting recent hypotheses on coral reef vulnerability to thermal stress that have been termed 'resistance and resilience to bleaching'. where coral recovery following large‐scale bleaching may vary according to ecological and other processes. O.ecologyandsociety.springerlink. DOI: 10. O. tolerance.com/content/71131h216633216r/ KEYWORDS: Coral bleaching. ‘thermal resistance’ has referred to when individual corals bleach differently to the same thermal stress. indicators and monitoring of resilience.org/vol14/iss2/art12/ KEYWORDS: resilience. This report is derived from workshop proceedings held at the IUCN Conservation Congress in October 2008. These are: ‘thermal protection’ which has been used where some reefs are protected from thermal conditions including bleaching. "Coral mortality associated with thermal fluctuations in the Phoenix Islands. Mangubhai (2011). the results suggest the need to adjust thermal stress calculations to reflect local temperature variation. social contracts. and ‘thermal tolerance’ where individual corals experience differing levels of mortality when subjected to the same thermal stress. (2005). Great Barrier Reef. Western Indian Ocean. climate change. This report covers aspects of assessing reef resilience. spatial resilience.11. Hayward. DOI: 10. climate change O'Brien. (2009). environmental change. and social contract theory provides some insights on creating resilience and human security. The author argues for more explicit terminology. Human threats and varying levels of management may alter these aspects in respect to resilience. D. D.

This work suggests that the self‐organizing process of adaptive comanagement development. fisheries. climate change. co‐management. policy. Australia.com/content/mlg2g9dphj4b1a20/ KEYWORDS: adaptive management. C. ecosystem protection. involving a range of stakeholders and manoeuvring the political system for support at critical times. This management agency was also crucial in the subsequent transformation of the governance regime by providing effective leadership through the process. "Adaptive comanagement for building resilience in social‐ecological systems. D. a. P. Korea. social‐ecological systems. and reef resilience to climate change ‐ which is likely to be determined by the rate and extent of climate change. ecosystem management Olsson. and the focus of governance shifted to stewardship of large‐scale seascapes over protection of individual reefs.org/downloads/resilience_assessment_final.org/downloads/resilience_barcelona. This document discusses policy and economic aspects of fisheries adaptations to climate change. "Navigating the transition to ecosystem‐based management of the Great Barrier Reef. Resilience Assessment of coral reefs – Assessment protocol for coral reefs.oecd‐ilibrary. coral reefs. DOI: 10.1787/9789264090415‐en http://www. thermal stress OECD (2010). coral bleaching. P.springerlink. This book summarises results from a workshop on the Economics of Adapting Fisheries to Climate Change held in June 2010 in Busan. focusing on coral bleaching and thermal stress. Folke. sustainability. The results indicate that the institutional and organizational landscapes should be approached carefully as should the ecological in order to clarify factors that contribute to the resilience of social‐ecological systems.iucn. http://cmsdata..org/agriculture‐and‐food/the‐economics‐of‐adapting‐fisheries‐to‐climate‐change_97892 64090415‐en KEYWORDS: climate change. This study shows the development of adaptive comanagement systems. management. a particular emphasis on aquaculture management. management.iucn. O. OECD Publishing. and actively adapt to and shape change with social networks that bond institutions and organizations across levels and scales and that make information flow possible. Folke. has the potential to develop advantageous stability domains of a region and make social‐ecological systems more robust to change." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105(28): 9489‐9494. Climate change is now recognized as one of the most significant threats to coral reefs globally. Switzerland: 1‐71. economy Olsson. coral reefs. DOI: 10.ISBN: 978‐2‐8317‐1158‐4 http://cmsdata. France. and. the ability of reefs to cope with change. including ecosystem protection. facilitated by rules and incentives of higher levels. G. policy.1007/s00267‐003‐0101‐7 http://www. Gland. (2009). et al. their role in terms of resources and services. organisations and institutions involved. additional anthropogenic stressors and management actions taken. The strategies and decisions which facilitate ecosystem‐based management are analysed using the recent governance changes of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Marine Park as a case study. The Economics of Adapting Fisheries to Climate Change. resilience. et al. demonstrating how local groups self‐organize. an attention to the increased demand for sustainably‐caugh seafood. coral bleaching.pdf KEYWORDS: climate change.pdf KEYWORDS: adaptive management. Paris.. (2008). G. self‐organization. learn. adaptation. resource. C. The strategies incorporate here included internal reorganisation and management innovation. .. which were important in coordinating the research community. increasing public awareness. governance. The flexibility of the GBR Marine Park Authority was crucial for initiating the transition to ecosystem‐based management among the various individuals. resilience Obura. the strengthening of the global governance system. (2004). This study demonstrates how new forms of management and governance can be influenced significantly Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 86 . This report discusses coral reefs." Environmental Management 34(1): 75‐90. The increased pressure on the GBR helped to trigger the sense of urgency required to address these challenges. A range of adaptation strategies to be applied by policy makers are discussed.

adaptive governance. DOI: 10. self‐organisation. (2012).abstract KEYWORDS: adaptive governance.ploscompbiol. stewardship.pnas. Until recently. et al. diagnostic framework. transformation. L.org/content/104/39/15181 KEYWORDS: social‐ecological systems. Saccostrea glomerata to ocean acidification during reproductive conditioning and measured the development. The proposed framework organizes many variables that have been identified by researchers as affecting the patterns of interactions and outcomes observed in empirical studies of SESs.sciencemag. ocean governance. a key stress response gene. theoretical framework. (2009).org/content/105/28/9489. Research in multiple disciplines.0706905105 http://www.1371/journal. This paper proposes a framework to analysing the likelihood of self‐organization in efforts to achieve a sustainable social‐ecological system (SES). et al. Understanding of the processes that lead to improvements in or deterioration of natural resources is limited. Keywords: carbon dioxide. climate change. carry‐over.." Science 325(5939): 419‐422. E. biodiversity. ecosystem‐based management. "A General Framework for Analyzing Sustainability of Social‐Ecological Systems.pcbi. Stress tolerance mechanisms of sessile organisms can offer important insights into responses and adaptations to a range of environmental stressors. This paper proposes a framework to moving beyond universal solutions. E. marine. M.1073/pnas. stress tolerance Parker.1000847 KEYWORDS: adaptation. Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 87 . (2010). because scientific disciplines use different concepts and languages to describe and explain complex SESs. sustainability Pantzartzi. to problems of overuse or destruction of resources and potentialities of linked social‐ecological systems (SESs). Great Barrier Reef. The proposed framework help understand how individuals sef‐organize to use and management resources in SESs. climate change. adaptation. DOI: 10. governance Ostrom. It is intended to facilitate devising governance arrangement that match particular problems in SESs. Isolated knowledge can only cumulate with a common framework to organize findings. The authors exposed adults of wild and selectively bred Sydney rock oysters. panaceas. whereas some resource users invested their time and energy to achieve sustainability. has found that some government policies accelerated resource destruction. marine ecosystems.1000847 http://www." PLoS Comput Biol 6(7): e1000847.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10. and suggest future research directions for the investigation of a biosensor system using the heat shock process. conservation. (2007).pnas. C. "A diagnostic approach for going beyond panaceas. This study suggests that sensitive marine organisms may have the capacity to acclimate or adapt to elevated Pco2 over the next century and a change in energy turnover indicated by SMR may be a key process involved.1172133 http://www. molluscs.." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104(39): 15181‐15187. "Promoter Complexity and Tissue‐Specific Expression of Stress Response Components in Mytilus galloprovincialis.1371%2Fjournal. DOI: 10. sessile. DOI: 10. Ross PM. environment. Results indicate that the heat shock response in Mytilus is regulated by a complex upstream region of Mytilus Hsp90 gene. "Adult exposure influences offspring response to ocean acidification in oysters." Global Change Biology 18: 82‐92. however.by stewardship. ocean acidification. Saccostrea glomerata.1073/pnas. ecosystem services. E.1126/science. social‐ecological systems. climate change Ostrom.0702288104 http://www. and is crucial for adaptive comanagement of complex marine ecosystems.pcbi. a Sessile Marine Invertebrate Species. accepted theory has assumed that resource users would never self‐organize to maintain their resources and that governments should impose solutions. Drosopoulou. This article examines heat shock response in a sessile marine invertebrate within the Mytilus genus using comparative genomics and network inference.org/content/325/5939/419 KEYWORDS: social‐ecological system. growth and survival response of their larvae. sustainability.

750 and 1000 ppm) in tank experiments. et al.html KEYWORDS: climate change. Sustainability 2009: The Next Horizon. "How will fish that evolved at constant sub‐zero temperatures cope with global warming? Notothenioids as a case study. inundate coastal marshes and make coastal property more susceptible to erosion and flooding. Verde. climate change. adaptation Parmesan. Global meta‐analysis revealed significant poleward range shifts averaging 6.1038/nature01286 http://www. yet debates within the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) expose that there are multiple definitions for the term ‘systematic trend’. Ross. abnormal development and increased mortality. and applies various analyses to over 1700 species showing how recent biological trends reflect climate change predictions.. 22. responses. which will erode beaches.. M. ocean acidification. C. Species that have evolved to live in narrow ranges of cold temperatures (i.wiley." Nature 421(6918): 37‐42. T. calcification Parkinson.1111/j. L.edu/sealevelriselibrary/documents/doc_mgr/449/Florida_SLR_Adaptation_‐_Parkinson_2009. The optimum temperature for fertilization and embryonic development was determined to be at 26°C.x http://onlinelibrary.01895. DOI: 10. Amer Inst Physics. DOI: 10. and G. stenothermal Antarctic Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 88 .2009.x/abstract KEYWORDS: carbon dioxide. temperature. DOI: 10. Sydney rock oyster Parker.p df KEYWORDS: climate change. Melville. with higher temperatures causing reductions in both processes. "A globally coherent fingerprint of climate change impacts across natural systems. IPCC Patarnello.1365‐2486. abundance. British butterflies.2011.wiley. C.1365‐2486. Non‐climatic influences can complicate accurate attribution of biological trends to climate change. cause saltwater intrusion into water supplies. since these also dominate local. "The effect of ocean acidification and temperature on the fertilization and embryonic development of the Sydney rock oyster Saccostrea glomerata (Gould 1850). The fertilization and embryonic development of Sydney rock oysters (S. (2009). M. This work defined a diagnostic fingerprint of temporal and spatial ‘sign‐switching’ responses predicted by climate trends. carry‐over. short‐term biological changes. sea‐level rise.1111/j. phenology. glomerata) were measured under different temperatures (18. P. Florida. management. R.e. higher CO2 ocean. The synergistic effect of elevated temperatures and CO2 concentrations caused reduced fertilization and growth. Analyses which examine systematic trends across diverse species and geographic ranges are likely to detect any underlying signals from climate change. Saccostrea glomerata. temperature. (2011). fertilization.x/abstract KEYWORDS: ocean acidification. G. 1157: 19‐25. Yohe (2003).3208022 http://research. 600. Additionally.1365‐2486.01895. This paper explores these different definitions. Researchers must direct effort to assessing coastal vulnerability for short‐term management.2009. Florida’s coastal and marine ecosystems are being impacted by global climate change and associated sea level rise.02520.3 days per decade.nature.02520.com/doi/10.1111/j. Hronszky. embryonic development. biological trends. managers and officials to accurately drive informed decision‐making. (2009). L.1 km per decade as well as significant mean advancement of spring events by 2. model future change and develop sustainable plans for long‐term planning and management.DOI: 10.x http://onlinelibrary.1063/1. predictions. Adapting to Rising Sea Level: A Florida Perspective.1365‐2486." Global Change Biology 15(9): 2123‐2136. and for which was found for 279 species.com/nature/journal/v421/n6918/abs/nature01286. W. oyster. Nelson and I. vulnerability. Adaptation.com/doi/10.fit. The threat of sea‐level rise and climate‐driven extreme weather events requires planning management and resources to reduce risks to humans. These results suggest severe implications for both the aquaculture industry and ecosystem structure in a warmer. coastal management and planning documents must be revised in light of climate‐driven impacts.1111/j.2011. 26 and 30°C) and CO2 concentrations (375. et al. this information must then be efficiently conveyed to appropriate planners. indicating that climate change is already affecting living systems." BioEssays 33(4): 260‐268.

marine fauna) are thought to have limited abilities to respond to global warming events.climatechange. Laternula elliptica. aquaculture adaptation. genetic diversity. Only one species (Marseniopsis mollis) increased its acute upper limit to acclimate. although more research is required into the phenotypic plasticity of these species. fishery management. Report to the Department of Climate Change Australia. marine ecosystems Pecl. Ward. Risk Assessment of Impacts of Climate Change for Key Marine Species in South Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 89 . "Poor acclimation capacities in Antarctic marine ectotherms. Response to temperature can include a number of mechanisms employed by animals..201000124 http://onlinelibrary. Risk Assessment of Impacts of Climate Change for Key Marine Species in South Eastern Australia. including physiological flexibility (e. (2011).1007/s00227‐010‐1473‐x http://www. oxygen. notothenioids. The impact of climate change is likely to depend upon the rate of temperature changes and species’ adaptive abilities. et al. fisheries adaptation. (2011). rock lobster. This work suggests that Antarctic marine species have low abilities to adjust to increased environmental temperatures.. and effective education and communication with the industry ISBN: 978‐1‐921298‐69‐1 http://www.gov. climate change. A. This work builds on the preliminary risk assessments recently conducted in most of the involved jurisdictions and forms a key component of SEAP Program Work Area 1. DOI: 10.utas. adaptation Pecl. S. acclimation Pecl. et al. G. Doubleday. DOI: 10.edu. ISBN: 978‐1‐86295‐618‐6 http://www. research priorities. leads the authors to conclude that Antarctic fish may have a limited potential to adapt to the impacts of rising global temperatures. based on the relative sensitivities of species to climate change drivers and recognition that limited resources will be available to support further work.1002/bies.imas. Fisheries and Aquaculture Risk Assessment. 1‐2°C above maximum summer temperatures). Notothenioid fishes. coupled with proposed shallow genetic diversity and distinct genetic structure of the taxa. Z. (2009).com/content/34684858ll351425/ KEYWORDS: thermal tolerance.1 ‘Understanding the biophysical implications of climate change’..com/doi/10. better risk assessment. adaptation.au/ data/assets/pdf_file/0017/222092/Risk‐assessment‐report_Part2‐Species‐profiles ‐02. G. evolution. Part 2: Species profiles. et al. sea urchin. While they possess unique phenotypic modifications for adaptation to cold Antarctic conditions. or migration. elevated temperatures. risk assessment. temperature Peck. This article focuses on the taxonomic group Notothenioidei which dominates Antarctic fish. P.g. This feature.wiley..au/publications/coastline/east‐coast‐rock‐lobster. with the major mechanism used by marine groups thought to be acclimation. and analysis of oxygen consumption by the sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeri and the amphipod Paraceradocus gibber revealed that their metabolic rates were also not compensated over the trial period. L. Frusher.e. Antarctic. warm acclimation." Marine Biology 157(9): 2051‐2059. Six species of Antarctic invertebrate were subjected to acclimation experiments for 60 days at 3°C. Pagothenia borchgrevinki. T. acclimation). (2010).pdf KEYWORDS: Climate change impacts. The results thus show that 5 out of 6 species did not acclimate to temperatures 3°C above annual averages (i. this has come at the price of genomic losses or gene amplifications which are thought to be irreversible. The authors found that the rock lobster fishery is reasonably well placed to adapt to the challenges of climate change but identified several possible measures that will assist with this adaptation including improved catch modeling.201000124/abstract KEYWORDS: adaptation. long‐term monitoring.aspx KEYWORDS: climate change. This case study examines the potential impacts of climate change on the Tasmanian rock lobster fishery. G.springerlink. et al. The east coast Tasmanian rock lobster fishery – vulnerability to climate change impacts and adaptation response options. fish. S. Fisheries Research and Development Corporation. and identifies several options and opportunities for adaptation. S. This report provides an objective framework for prioritising future research.1002/bies. adaptation. Morley. climate change. global warming.

P. (2010). DOI: 10. fishing communities. A combination of historical. climate change.1 ‘Understanding the biophysical implications of climate change’. "The challenge of adapting marine social–ecological systems to the additional stress of climate change. algae. Further.10. Part 1: Fisheries and Aquaculture Risk Assessment. This work raises concerns for policymakers that measuring economic impacts of climate change without considering its flow‐on effect through tourism activities will significantly underestimate the total impact of climate change for destination regions.au/ data/assets/pdf_file/0019/221923/Risk‐assessment‐report_Part1‐Fisheries‐and‐A quaculture‐Risk‐Assessment. DOI: 10. and that management of incremental habitat changes and attributes facilitating recovery can help mitigate the loss of complex marine habitats. social‐ecological. This work builds on the preliminary risk assessments recently conducted in most of the involved jurisdictions and forms a key component of SEAP Program Work Area 1. D..cosust. human impact. Pham. based on the relative sensitivities of species to climate change drivers and recognition that limited resources will be available to support further work. Management must seek to enhance the adaptive capacities of these systems in the light of uncertainty and change. marine ecosystems Perkol‐Finkel. Airoldi (2010). ecology. Lack of nearby adult canopy did not appear to restrict the recovery potential. Prediction of and then reduction of natural habitat is a major challenge in science. Experiments on clearing and transplantation revealed that at such degraded levels.. I. et al. kelp forests.004 http://www. et al. canopy‐forming. and developing flexible institutions that can adjust rapidly to new circumstances are all important components of integrating observing and modeling systems for the full social‐ecological system.Eastern Australia. Hypotheses regarding triggers for decline and recovery potential were tested in subtidal canopy‐forming algae (Genus Cystoseira). R.1371/journal. Sudden habitat loss can be facilitated by long‐term biotic and abiotic conditions which act to erode ecosystem resilience. fisheries adaptation. with specific challenges involving addressing non‐climate related stressors such as fishing. community. policy. Simmons. This paper addresses the supplementary impacts that climate change places on social‐ecological systems that focus on fishing. This work further demonstrates that restoring environmental conditions (if possible) may still not be efficient to allow full ecosystem recovery." Journal of Sustainable Tourism 18(3): 449‐473. Cystoseira barbata. S.nlm. although still not sufficient to recover the loss. Recognising changes. and that removal of the new dominant space occupiers would also be necessary. aquaculture adaptation.utas. "Climate change‐induced economic impacts on tourism destinations: the case of Australia. the flow‐on economic impact of climate change could be significant for the Australian economy as a whole. stakeholders.sciencedirect.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2875393/ KEYWORDS: disturbance." Plos One 5(5): 11." Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 2(5‐6): 356‐363. quantitative and in situ data and observations of natural recruitment patterns revealed the trigger of recent declines in north Adriatic Sea algal forests were increasing cumulative impacts of natural and human‐driven habitat instability as well as extreme weather events. when all tourism destinations are taken into account.com/science/article/pii/S1877343510001107 KEYWORDS: climate change.1080/09669581003668532 Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 90 . resilience Perry.2010. D. R.pone.1016/j. Ommer. T. This report provides an objective framework for prioritising future research. E.imas. (2010). Fisheries Research and Development Corporation. increased substratum stability would be essential. management. G.ncbi. "Loss and Recovery Potential of Marine Habitats: An Experimental Study of Factors Maintaining Resilience in Subtidal Algal Forests at the Adriatic Sea. ecosystems.edu. and how this can interact with climate change.pdf KEYWORDS: Climate change impacts. and L.nih. research priorities. risk assessment. ISBN: 978‐1‐86295‐618‐6 http://www. DOI: 10. . conservation and management. enhancing communication with stakeholders.0010791 http://www. This paper examines the economic flow‐on effects of climate change on five selected Australian tourism destinations.

which may represent the only real hope for future fisheries existence and the essential ecosystem services they allow. fisheries management and sustainability.org/doi/abs/10. http://www.esajournals.jsessionid=91170E2CC70571D7B3 D67E637547520A. DOI: 10.1111/j. and the reintroduction of high‐value species that were previously endemic. historical.1002/aqc.1071/MF09225 http://www.http://www. Calosi.1035/abstract KEYWORDS: coral reef fisheries.1600‐0706. reproductive investment and sex ratio across populations of a bryozoan species. N. remote islands Pitcher. fisheries closures. reproductive investment. A microcosm system was used to examine the effects of temperature and CO2 on colony growth rate. "Will variation among genetic individuals influence species responses to global climate change?" Oikos 120(5): 675‐689. CO2. "Climate‐driven range changes in Tasmanian intertidal fauna. R. while an increase in the male sex ratio was observed with decreasing pH levels. distribution change. pH. This work provides first evidence of similar patterns in intertidal invertebrates.com/doi/10. "Declining catch rates of reef fish in Aldabra's marine protected area. ocean acidification. E. (2011). environmental change. termed "Back to the Future. (2010).1002/aqc.au/nid/126/paper/MF09225. with one species of barnacle not recorded during the 1950s.2010. which parallel recent developments in terrestrial reconstruction ecology. fisheries policy. Pistorius.d03t01 KEYWORDS: bryozoan.CO%3B2 KEYWORDS: biodiversity. genetic variation. Archaeological.publish. (2001).1890/1051‐0761%282001%29011%5B0601:FMTRER%5D2." Aquatic Conservation‐Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 19(S1): S2‐S9. a rebuilding policy goal is distinguished from sustaining current catches and biomass.x/abstract.1035 http://onlinelibrary. ecosystem rebuilding.com/doi/abs/10. English channel.1600‐0706. The author also outlines a novel methodology. resulting in several subtidal species exhibiting poleward range expansion.1111/j. Barnacles and gastropods exhibited the greatest range extensions. This paper provides the case for adopting ecosystem rebuilding as the goal of fisheries management. with 55% of species examined detected further south than recorded in the 1950s. Indian Ocean. Reduced growth rates and increased reproductive investments were recorded with decreasing pH and increasing temperature treatments. tourism activities.19470. sea surface temperature." that can put into practice a goal of ecosystem rebuilding. the implementation of no‐take marine reserves. Global warming in south‐eastern Australia over the past 50 years has exceeded the global average.wiley.1080/09669581003668532 KEYWORDS: economic impacts. poleward movement. P. Taylor (2009). S. Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 91 . restoration ecology. E. and recent evidence are reviewed. P." Ecological Applications 11(2): 601‐617.x http://onlinelibrary. et al. The authors conclude that levels of individual genetic variation within a species may enable future adaptation to changes in climatic conditions including pH and temperature levels. J.2010. grouper. A. J. DOI: 10. DOI: 10.19470. "Fisheries managed to rebuild ecosystems? Reconstructing the past to salvage the future..." Marine and Freshwater Research 61(9): 963‐970. latitudinal range. Poloczanska.htm KEYWORDS: climate change. et al. Australian economy Pistevos. mass‐balance models. before discussing two practical management measures. and F. climate change. The authors monitored the fish landing in Seychelles in order to describe the predominants species caught. This article investigates the potential influence of individual genetic variation within a species on population‐ and species‐level responses to variable and changing oceanic conditions.com/doi/10. Distances moved were not related to qualitative dispersal potential index. The authors argue that changing catch rates are likely to have been independent of direct anthropogenic influences but a result of reef degradation following the 1998 bleaching event. but now being quite common along the east coast. and the ecological effects of overfishing on aquatic ecosystems are examined. growth rate.csiro.wiley.tandfonline. global warming. T. marine reserves Pitt. This work predicts the local extinction of some north‐eastern species in the future.0. A. C. climate change. Here.

except for uncertainty in parameter estimates. DOI: 10. (2011). with explanation of methods and uncertainties. and management options should include autonomous and planned adaptations. "Uncertainties in projecting spatial distributions of marine populations. E. D. El Niño southern oscillation. what kinds of models are useful in what context." Ices Journal of Marine Science 68(6): 1045‐1050. end‐to‐end models. climate change. Pacific Island countries. unless uncertainty can be better accounted for..1093/icb/39.10 http://icb. B. Bellier. In the present paper. J. "How does fishing alter marine populations and ecosystems sensitivity Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 92 .org/content/39/1/10. DOI 1323‐1650/11/091132 http://www. S. dispersal. dynamics. management procedure. temperate. (2011).org/content/68/6/1305." Marine and Freshwater Research 62(9): 1132‐1147.oxfordjournals. from individual to population responses. They found that little attention is given to most sources of uncertainty. scales. DOI: doi:10. detailing best estimates of future changes. A. et al." Ices Journal of Marine Science 68(6): 1305‐1317. qualitative models. human disturbance. Climate change related stressors to coral reefs include sea‐level rise. E.org/content/68/6/1045. pollution. statistical. with a focus on selected Australian and tropical Pacific ecosystems. and tropical fisheries. From the 75 publications selected. or even risky to use for management purposes. et al. Planque. M. qualitative risk assessment. et al. Plaganyi.short KEYWORDS: complex adaptive systems. Concern of climate change and sea‐level rise is discussed in context of past changes.. ocean currents. such projections may be of limited use.csiro. Pittock. (2010). B.short KEYWORDS: adaptive management. Australian fisheries.1093/icesjms/fsr049 http://icesjms. J.oxfordjournals. as polar. "Modelling climate‐change effects on Australian and Pacific aquatic ecosystems: a review of analytical tools and management implications. sustainability assessment. management. conceptual models.. temperature. J. This study highlights the need for assessments of adaptation in terms of risk and probability. impacts. "Coral reefs and environmental change: Adaptation to what?" American Zoologist 39(1): 10‐29. ecosystem models. they calculated how frequently each type of uncertainty was considered.au/nid/126/paper/MF10279. adaptation. strategy evaluation Plaganyi. and multispecies assessment models as future management tools to cope with likely climate‐related changes.htm KEYWORDS: adaptive management. (1999). B. (2011). E. the autors evaluate the ability of a range of modeling approaches to increase understanding of the effects of climate change in the context of maintaining food resources and economic development. The authors reviewed and analyzed published literature during the period 2005–2009. The work evaluates the effectiveness of current single‐species assessment models. modeling. The authors use several southern hemisphere fisheries to highlight the likely impacts of climate change at a range of levels. These stressors may be further be intensified by reduced calcification rates in corals due to changes in ocean chemistry. They finish with a discussion on the current state‐of‐the‐art in modeling. extension. Planque.abstract KEYWORDS: climate change. As a result.1093/icesjms/fsr007 http://icesjms. management strategy evaluation approaches. et al.biodiversity. Bell. E. salinity. fisheries economics.1. community structure. model evaluation. The conclusion is that.. Great Barrier Reef. and some challenges facing the use of models as decision‐support tools in a climate change context. multiple hypotheses. spatial distribution. as well as ecosystem ramifications. E. DOI: 10. Fromentin.publish. most current projections are expected to be far less reliable than usually assumed. fisheries management. ENSO and extreme weather events.oxfordjournals. range expansion. Weeks. "Assessing the adequacy of current fisheries management under changing climate: a southern synopsis.

Noumea. at the population level there will be observed changes in survival.mendeley. and the management actions required to reduce the vulnerability of coastal fisheries in the tropical Pacific to Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 93 . Bell JD. (2011). review.com/research/climate‐change‐effects‐on‐fishes‐and‐fisheries‐towards‐a‐causeandeffect‐un derstanding/ KEYWORDS: climate change. resilience. It characterises the state of the ACM literature. Vulnerability of tropical Pacific Fisheries and Aquaculture to Climate Change. a given species or a sub‐population unit) appears as a major destabilizing factor causing the reduction of ecosystem resilience to perturbations. The author reviews aspects of oxygen‐ and capacity‐limited thermal tolerance.018 http://www. marine ecosystem. oxygen.com/science/article/pii/S0924796309000943 KEYWORDS: fisheries.12. ocean acidification. growth and reproductive output. The selectivity of fisheries (e. B.sciencedirect.." Ecology and Society 17(3).to climate?" Journal of Marine Systems 79(3‐4): 403‐417. stressors. modelling.5751/Es‐04952‐170311 http://www. The paper discusses a series of challenges for ACM scholarship. and at the ecosystem level there will be observed changes in productivity and interactions. Peck (2010).x http://www. fisheries targeting large‐old fish. This study highlights the importance of diversity in resilience processes. thermal tolerance Pörtner. "Oxygen‐ and capacity‐limitation of thermal tolerance: a matrix for integrating climate‐related stressor effects in marine ecosystems " Journal of Experimental Biology 213(6): 881‐893. Crona. adaptation. AJ. Pratchett. Johnson JE and H. climate variability.1242/jeb.jmarsys. at the individual level there will be observed behavioural changes. DOI: 10. A.g. but lack of physiological studies in marine organisms in response to climate‐induced environmental changes. biodiversity. H. overfishing Plummer. H.1016/j. The authors propose that the implications of climate change on populations of marine fish will be observed across four interlinked biological levels – at the organism level there will be observed physiological changes.1097‐8649.037523 http://jeb. et al.org/content/213/6/881. adaptation. and suggests a need for more attention to ecosystem structure and functioning in management procedures." Journal of Fish Biology 77(8): 1745‐1779. (2010). O. DOI: 10.02783..2010. and confusion with the concept. inconsistency.2008. the research needed to fill these gaps. and examine relationships among aspects of ACM. thermal tolerance.abstract KEYWORDS: climate change.biologists. M. The authors conclude with the gaps in knowledge that currently limit confidence in vulnerability assessments for coastal fisheries. acclimatization capacities and CO2 tolerance in marine organisms and the effects this has on ecosystem‐level processes within the marine environment. et al. The findings show imprecision. The alteration of marine ecosystem structure by exploitation and its effects on the ecosystem's response to climate variability are discussed. social‐ecological systems Pörtner. Investigations into the thermal tolerance of marine ectotherms have provided an important indicator of the effects of rising temperatures on species abundances in marine environments. and M. P. unpack the construct of ACM. O.org/vol17/iss3/art11/ KEYWORDS: adaptive co‐management. "Climate change effects on fishes and fisheries: towards a cause‐and‐effect understanding. This article discusses the relevance. The paper reviews the literature on adaptive comanagement (ACM). conservation. fisheries. These predicted changes are expected to impact global fisheries and their associated economies. DOI: 10. ecophysiology. ecosystem structure. global warming. Vulnerability of coastal fisheries in the tropical Pacific to climate change. (2012). New Caledonia.ecologyandsociety. Secretariat for the Pacific Community. "Adaptive Comanagement: a Systematic Review and Analysis. R.1111/j. The purpose of this chapter is to assess the vulnerability of coastal fisheries in the tropical Pacific to projected climate change. DOI: 10. Munday.

economic consequences. reef organisms. and risks. http://www. Growth. mapping. L. Pratchett. The authors review climate change vulnerability mapping in the context of four key questions that are fundamental to assessment design. DOI:10. bleaching. ISBN: 978‐3‐540‐69774‐9 http://link.com/content/m4780g88g6377566/ KEYWORDS: Vulnerability assessment. J. M. tidal wetlands.springer. by sequentially assessing the effects in the short‐term (up to 3 years). They present that there are very limited data available with which to assess the effects of climate change on aquatic ecosystems in Australia. species composition. Berlin. coral bleaching." Sustainability Science 6(2): 177‐202. H. K.. Great Barrier Reef. Finally. Bay. http://www. (2011). Wilson. coral reef. coastal communities. K. S. Wilson. et al.1007/978‐3‐540‐69775‐6_9 http://www. S. Coral Bleaching and Consequences for Motile Reef Organisms: Past. they conclude the projected effects of climate change will also be considered to assess their likely impacts in coming decades.spc. v. E. Coral Bleaching. disturbance. Murray–Darling Basin. Lough. Springer: 139–158. management. benefits. In the short term. and Reproduction: Effects of Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 94 . et al.1007/978‐3‐540‐69775‐6_9 KEYWORDS: Global climate change. coastal fisheries resources. tropical coral reefs and temperate rocky reefs. B.csiro. Van Oppen and J. Pratchett. indicating the need for improved management procedures. 205: 139‐158.. Patterns. diversity and composition of coral‐reef fishes are considered. DOI: 10. Furthermore. "Red Mangrove Seedling Survival. comparing the major drivers of climatic impacts across freshwater ecosystems. et al. M. More than one quarter of known fish species are strongly associated with coral reefs and will be increasingly affected by ongoing degradation of coral reef habitats caused or exacerbated by climate‐induced coral bleaching.com/content/w027010hn767k860/ KEYWORDS: fisheries.climate change. et al. The authors conclude that the economic consequences of expected changes in the abundance. Heidelberg. (2011). fishes. Yuen. the mortality of fish and motile invertebrates is expected to increase due to the loss of food and shelter. seagrass beds. resulting in shifts in species composition. S. In the medium‐term. The purpose of the present review is to consider effects of climate change on critical fish habitats in Australia. "Putting vulnerability to climate change on the map: a review of approaches. mitigation Preston.int/climate‐change/fisheries/assessment/chapters/9‐Chapter9. adaptation. M. economic costs. This book chapter reviews the consequences of coral bleaching on motile reef organisms. S. tropical Pacific Ocean. climate change. in terms of both their economic value and ecological function. M." Marine and Freshwater Research 62(9): 1062‐1081. Present and Uncertain Future Effects. J. causes and consequences. This work considers the effects of climate‐induced coral bleaching on coral‐reef fishes. M.pdf KEYWORDS: alternative livelihoods. Proffitt. medium‐term (3‐10 years) and long‐term (> 10 years). especially compared with Europe and North America.au/?paper=MF10303 KEYWORDS: biodiversity. Germany. C. Lough. Coral Bleaching: Patterns and Processes. which are an important component of coral‐reef ecosystems. management.springerlink. with a view to adopting management strategies that will minimise economic costs of climate‐induced coral bleaching.1007/s11625‐011‐0129‐1 http://www. Coral bleaching and consequences for motile reef organisms: past. (2009).springerlink. coral erosion and reef collapse are expected to amplify this phenomenon.publish. Springer. Travis (2010). L. "Contribution of climate change to degradation and loss of critical fish habitats in Australian marine and freshwater environments. present and uncertain future effects. this review seeks to identify potential strengths and weaknesses associated with particular applications.. Oppen and J. and S. Causes and Consequences. The long‐term effects are expected to severely impact fisheries.. The goal is to highlight both the diversity of approaches to vulnerability mapping that have been applied to date in different contexts as well as common conventions.com/chapter/10. Pratchett. M. (2009).

D.wiley. The authors conclude that mangrove seedlings of different maternal genotypes can perform differently under different environmental conditions. and in governing their survival rate in marine environments.wiley. (2011). Conservation plans that aim to preserve key ecological and evolutionary processes. to environmental stressors by investigating the variation among plant genotype and the genotype by environment effect at varying intertidal treatments. elevation and a genotype by elevation interaction." Estuaries and Coasts 33(4): 890‐901. and D. and demography are linked in the context of climate change. genotype.x/abstract KEYWORDS: climate change. rather than status quo phenotypes. and assess whether the alterations observed during the last two decades originate from regional phenomena. This article examined the site‐specific environmental impacts on sockeye salmon juvenile migration timing.springerlink.02711. ecological and evolutionary dynamics.com/content/5318604xgg01368r/ KEYWORDS: adaptation.2010.2010. oceanic warming Reed. T." Journal of Fish Biology 77(3): 692‐705." Conservation Biology 25(1): 56‐63. E. extinction. They concluded that most current projections of extinction probability as climate changes do not account for adaptation.1111/j. "Abrupt warming of the Red Sea. G. seedling.1029/2011GL047984. stressor Raitsos. DOI: 10. E. migration timing and survival of juvenile sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka: separating environmental from genetic influences.01552.01552. less productive sites.. T. Environmental factors including temperature played an important role in the life‐history variation in sockeye salmon. et al. survival. The authors looked at a range of environmental impacts including temperature differences and found that juvenile salmon that were raised at sites with higher temperatures and greater productivity were larger and had a greater survival probability in marine environments than those individuals raised in cooler. thus. more careful specification of the exact measure Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 95 . The autors conclude that oceanic warming may have a direct or indirect impact on marine entities and ecosystems.wiley.x http://onlinelibrary. DOI: 10. J. "Lake‐specific variation in growth. climate projections. salmon. The goal of this study is to report the satellite derived spatiotemporal changes of the Red Sea temperatures.1095‐8649. This article examines the response of a marine foundation plant species.2010.x/abstract KEYWORDS: adaptation.1523‐1739.1095‐8649. climate.1111/j. potentially showing adaptation to local differences or differences in plasticity among genotypes. DOI:10. DOI: 10. I." Climatic Change 45(1): 253‐278.com/doi/10. phenotypic variation.1111/j. (2011). phenotypic plasticity Reilly. coral reef ecosystem. Schindler. environment. E. "Irreversibility. marine temperature. there is a need to assess further available past biological data for potential responses to the new thermal state.x http://onlinelibrary. (2010). plasticity.1111/j. and learning: Portraits of adaptation to long‐term climate change.com/doi/10. "Interacting effects of phenotypic plasticity and evolution on population persistence in a changing climate.1523‐1739. http://onlinelibrary.1029/2011GL047984/abstract KEYWORDS: SST.1007/s12237‐010‐9265‐6 http://www. Schimmelpfennig (2000).Environment and Maternal Genotype.com/doi/10. It concludes that if empirical research is to resolve questions of adaptability. Red Sea. Hoteit. uncertainty. This paper identifies a set of fundamental characteristics of natural systems and social systems that help to make underlying assumptions in climate change adaptation studies explicit. et al. The authors attempt to clarify how evolution. environmental factors Reed.2010. This work brings a step closer toward reporting and understanding a temperature abrupt change seen in the Red Sea. The factors that explained survival and growth of mangroves were maternal genotype. salmon migration. individual size and survival rates. D. et al... the red mangrove. Martinek. mangrove. will at least ensure that species have a fighting chance against climate change.02711. E. phenotypic plasticity." Geophysical Research Letters 38(14): 5. or they are in part driven by global climate change trends.

05. Although we focus here on short‐term processes within one generation of a long‐lived clonal plant. able to test implicit assumptions in much of the existing empirical research. such as efficient appliances and renewable. genetic diversity. which is largely driven by gill surface area and the binding ability of red blood cells. Z.047951 Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 96 . (2005).2011. Richards. Modeling and simulations Reusch. H. G. Chen.1023/A:1005669807945 http://www. eelgrass Zostera marina.abstract KEYWORDS: global change. as well as how those requirements are met by fish on a regional basis. et al. It also reviews statistics on nutritional protein requirements. agriculture. both assuming constant climate and taking account of climate‐related changes in growing conditions.1016/j. (2011). DOI: 10. ecosystem functioning. productivity.sciencedirect. On‐site solar PV is currently more cost‐effective instead in heating and cooling balanced regions. (2011). adaptation can be fulfilled by energy efficient building envelop. fisheries. Carbon emissions. The focal organisms consist of marine fishes from the family Cottidae (the sculpins) and the authors discuss their variation in hypoxia tolerance. and biodiversity: characteristics of the sector and perspectives on emerging issues.com/science/article/pii/S0360132311001703 KEYWORDS: Climate change adaptation.short KEYWORDS: climate change. This work emphasizes that there is a need for the two communities of experts and policy‐makers to collaborate in finding a single compatible suite of policies and management measures. biodiversity. behavioral and biochemical adaptations of intertidal fishes to hypoxia. DOI: 10. DOI: 10. seagrass." Ices Journal of Marine Science 68(6): 1343‐1353. and S.0500008102 http://www. J. Z. The authors studied the role of genotypic diversity for ecosystem functioning in a coastal ecosystem dominated by eelgrass Zostera marina. In heating dominated climates. B. to allow coherent action on these crucial and difficult problems. C. climate change Rice. timber Ren. This study identified cost‐effective climate change adaptation pathways for Australian housing. rocky intertidal community. "Fisheries.of impact and far richer models of the process of adaptation. "Ecosystem recovery after climatic extremes enhanced by genotypic diversity.1242/jeb. Garcia (2011). T." Building and Environment 46(11): 2398‐2412. More should be used in cooling dominated climates. "Physiological. Improving building thermal envelope efficiency is cost‐effective in cooling dominated regions." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102(8): 2826‐2831." Journal of Experimental Biology 214(2): 191‐199.oxfordjournals. J.pnas. Residential buildings. Total energy consumption.org/content/102/8/2826. food security. DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/fsr041 http://icesjms.. The authors posit that the degree of metabolic rate suppression and the quality of stored energy is strongly selected for in hypoxia‐tolerant fish. This article provides a review of the use of phylogenetically corrected comparative methods which can be used to investigate the physiological and behavioural adaptations of organisms to hypoxia. This paper reviews global projections to 2050 for human population growth and food production. "Climate change adaptation pathways for Australian residential buildings. M. climate change.022 http://www. the most abundant seagrass species of the northern hemisphere. Their results suggest that conserving genetic and genotypic diversity in species‐poor ecosystems that have no redundancy at the species level may be just as important for strengthening the resilience of dependent communities in the face of global change and increasing climatic extremes. Ehlers. marine biodiversity. Adaptive capacity. evolutionary responses of seagrass populations are likely given the striking differences in clonal performance.org/content/68/6/1343. ecological resilience.com/content/t76622511466kwk2/ KEYWORDS: adaptation.buildenv.1073/pnas. DOI: 10. et al. This study shows that climatic extremes can have immediate effects on coastal communities. variability. are needed. food security. impact. and that genetic diversity may enhance recovery after such perturbations. A..springerlink. policy coherence.

biochemical adaptation. hypoxia. A.http://jeb. population dynamics. threatening this stability and having potentially catastrophic consequences.pnas.1038/461472a http://www. marine carbon cycle. Richardson. A. ocean warming. Poloczanska. fish. dissolved organic‐carbon. The mechanisms behind this are uncertain but evidence suggest climate‐driven changes in recruitment success may be an important factor. the safe operating space for humanity with respect to the Earth system. DOI: 10." Ices Journal of Marine Science 66(7): 1570‐1583. Riebesell.org. Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 97 . intertidal. K. highlighting that many responses have feedback potential to the climate system. Peck. ecosystem. A. but Boreal species have decreased at the southern limits of their distribution while increasing at the northern ranges. "A safe operating space for humanity. individual‐based models. D. DOI: 10. Ocean gyres." Nature 461(7263): 472‐475.abstract KEYWORDS: climate change.nature. Cottidae. eco‐physiology.oceanclimatechange. http://www. ecology and available observations. Data on north‐Atlantic fish species are reviewed in relation to different biogeographic affinities.au/content/images/uploads/EAC. Hill (2009). habitats and body size which lend support to hypothesized shifts in abundance and distribution as a result of global warming. Lusitanian species have recently increased.org/content/66/7/1570. (2009). This changes are forced by an intensification of the wind stress curl arising from a poleward shift in the circumpolar westerly winds due to the trend in the Southern Annular Mode. et al. regime shifts Rockstrom. (2009). acidification and carbonation.org/content/106/49/20602. J. trophic cascades. climate. Hobday and A. perspective. E. cycle feedbacks Rijnsdorp. NCCARF Publication 05/09. et al. This work assesses the response of the seawater carbonate system and the ocean’s physical and biological carbon pumps in ocean warming. calcium‐carbonate. U.abstract KEYWORDS: climate change.abstract KEYWORDS: adaptations. Pelagic fish species show changes in migration patterns that correlate with climate‐driven changes in zooplankton productivity. Accurate prediction of future climate change will depend on understanding these processes and their susceptibility to global change.biologists. They discuss that the south Tasman Sea region has become both warmer and saltier.1093/icesjms/fsp056 http://icesjms. physiology Ridgway. A. fish.. A Marine Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Report Card for Australia 2009.pdf KEYWORDS: EAC. ISBN 978‐1‐921609‐03‐9. Physical. Kortzinger.1073/pnas. Steffen. ecosystems. The stability of the Earth’s ecosystem was relatively stable throughout the Holocene. marine ecosystems.html KEYWORDS: social‐ecological systems. ocean acidification. M.org/content/214/2/191. (2009). these changes in the wind patterns are at least in part attributable to ozone depletion and increases in atmospheric CO2 over the past decades ISBN 978‐1‐921609‐03‐9. A framework is developed for studying climate change on fish populations that is based on first principles of physiology. particularly in northern limits.e. DOI: 10. Also.. W. Tasman sea region. resilience. This work contains observations from a long‐term coastal station show that the EAC (The East Australian Current) has strengthened and extended further southward over the past 60 years." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106(49): 20602‐20609.. but humans have since become dominant drivers in global environmental change.0813291106 http://www. and K. associated with the planet’s biophysical subsystems or processes) have already been overstepped. et al. emphasizes that crossing certain biophysical thresholds could have disastrous consequences for humanity and reveals that three of nine interlinked planetary boundaries (i.com/nature/journal/v461/n7263/full/461472a. behaviour. This work highlights a new approach for defining preconditions for human development. ocean circulation. atmospheric CO2.oxfordjournals. "Sensitivities of marine carbon fluxes to ocean change. human impact. "Resolving the effect of climate change on fish populations. biodiversity. partial‐pressure. chemical and biological processes of the ocean act to drive climatic variability on a range of scales. phytoplankton growth. The East Australian Current.

Data shows effects that include increases in oxygen consumption for fishes. M. temperature. This work demonstrates that some corals have adapted to higher temperatures.1093/plankt/fbq062 http://plankt.x http://onlinelibrary. The authors tested whether forecasted global‐scale change and local stressors can combine to accelerate the expansion of filamentous turfs at the expense of calcifying algae.oxfordjournals. (2009). They provides a better understanding of demography of copepod populations in an advective system and facilitates estimating the scales of spatial heterogeneity related to an observed phenological signal from a single‐station time series. with one appearing more temperature‐tolerant." Nature 430(7001): 742‐742. marine protected area boundaries. low‐lying island countries that depend on coastal economies. sea level rise Rowan.com/nature/journal/v430/n7001/full/430742a. DOI: 10. "Synergistic effects of climate change and local stressors: CO(2) and nutrient‐driven change in subtidal rocky habitats. and disease incidence are also affected by relatively small increases in temperature and sea level.short KEYWORDS: plankton. Observed differences observed are regarded as intrinsic symbiont adaptations which appear to contribute significantly to whole‐coral physiology.wiley. (2004). J. D. coralline algae.html KEYWORDS: climate change." Ocean & Coastal Management Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 98 . B. they revised recent research results on phenology of both phytoplankton and zooplankton.01886. in part. Russell. they may be able to adapt to warmer temperatures easier. Predictions of future conditions foreshadow additional impacts on fish distribution and abundance that are a result of relatively small changes in temperature. M.phosphorus shifts.. et al. including coastal‐based harvesters (subsistence." Global Change Biology 15(9): 2153‐2162.1365‐2486. E. I.springerlink.1038/430742a http://www. Thompson. photoinhibition. habitat resilience. F.1365‐2486.2009. changes in foraging and migration in polar seas. M. commercial and recreational). There is increasing need to research the physiology and ecology of marine and estuarine fishes. Roessig. C. turf‐forming algae Sales. The results suggest that global and local stressors need to be assessed in meaningful combinations so that the anticipated effects of climate change do not create the false impression that. This work tested whether this was able by comparing photosynthetic response of the taxa. "Coral bleaching ‐ Thermal adaptation in reef coral symbionts.1007/s11160‐004‐6749‐0 http://www.. Woodley. CO2. R. Additionally. J. R. Martin. "Marine plankton phenology and life history in a changing climate: current research and future directions. life history. Pocillopora corals associate with at least two Symbiodinium taxa. Throughout Guam. and fish community changes in bleached reefs." Journal of Plankton Research 32(10): 1355‐1368.1111/j. Philippines. These observations indicate that symbiosis recombination may be a possible mechanism through which corals adapt. climate change will produce smaller effects than reality. phenology. fisheries. climate change. partly by hosting specific Symbiodinium (symbiotic algae). photosynthesis. "Vulnerability and adaptation of coastal communities to climate variability and sea‐level rise: Their implications for integrated coastal management in Cavite City. coral bleaching. DOI: 10. adaptation. to global climate change.x/abstract KEYWORDS: carbon dioxide. and if other corals can follow this.nature.01886. The purpose of this paper was to summarize the recent results and interpretations and to consider and propose directions for future study. "Effects of global climate change on marine and estuarine fishes and fisheries. (2010). zooplankton. adaptation Rubao. however complex..org/content/32/10/1355. (2004).1111/j.com/content/v25138090n302030/ KEYWORDS: climate change. DOI: 10. DOI: 10. et al. et al.‐A." Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 14(2): 251‐275.2009. global climate change. copepods.com/doi/10. (2009). Climate change is and will continue to influence marine and estuarine fish and fisheries on a global scale. Changes in distribution and abundance of fish communities will have flow‐on effects for humans who rely on harvest of these stocks. J. climate change.

et al. grazing systems. invertebrate. Isotherms are shifting poleward as a result of climate‐driven oceanic warming. Specifically. A. A decline in the Pacific white‐sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens) has occurred in the southwest Gulf of California (GOC) believed to be due to long‐term changes in the local climate.nature.. climate change Schwarz. In this study the authors worked with communities living in rural coastal areas in Solomon Islands. marine ecosystem.int‐res." Endangered Species Research 11: 13‐19. but nature typically responds to these small changes in a smooth manner. This paper examines the current and future vulnerability to climate variability and change and SLR as well as the adaptive capacity of coastal communities to address climate hazards. management. This article highlights a range of recent experimental studies which demonstrate that adaptive differentiation is occurring in many marine invertebrate species in response to selection which is imposed by strong environmental gradients. with the objective of integrating appropriate adaptation strategies and actions into the existing local/community development plans of Cavite City within the context of sustainable coastal management. climate." Global Environmental Change‐Human and Policy Dimensions 21(3): 1128‐1140. Scheffer.2009.sciencedirect. "Catastrophic shifts in ecosystems. recover and adapt to current CVEs and SLR and how they will likely be affected by long‐term climate change. (2010). adaptation strategy. (2011). environmental gradient. J. phase‐shifts.com/nature/journal/v413/n6856/abs/413591a0. management Salvadeo. it suggests ways by which adaptation measures can be mainstreamed into integrated coastal management planning..3354/esr00252 http://www.1038/35098000 http://www. Recent work shows that loss of ecosystem resilience can provide the basis for a switch to an alternative state. Lagenorhynchus obliquidens.com/science/article/pii/S0964569109000246 KEYWORDS: climate change. "Vulnerability and resilience of remote rural communities to shocks and global changes: Empirical analysis from Solomon Islands.html KEYWORDS: multiple stable states.007 http://www. nutrient loading. pole‐ward. Béné.1146/annurev‐marine‐120709‐142756 http://www. Current knowledge is summarised and analysed in relations to Pacific white‐sided dolphins in the GOC and sea surface temperature variability at regional scales.com/abstracts/esr/v11/n1/p13‐19/ KEYWORDS: climate change. D.org/doi/abs/10. C. DOI: 10.annualreviews. marine mammals. et al. It also explores how these vulnerable groups cope. policy. habitat fragmentation and exploitation are experienced by all ecosystems.ocecoaman. the study seeks to identify which socioeconomic groups in the coastal population are vulnerable to the impacts of CVEs and SLR and why they are vulnerable." Annual Review of Marine Science 3(1): 509‐535. M. Carpenter.1146/annurev‐marine‐120709‐142756 KEYWORDS: adaptive differentiation. and this work suggests focus on maintaining ecosystem resilience for sustainable management. et al. Finally. and M. These findings offer important insights into adaptive divergence among populations occurring over a range of spatial scales. "Local Adaptation in Marine Invertebrates. local adaptation. DOI: 10. California. The authors examined the occurrence of Pacific white‐sided dolphins in the GOC between 1980 and 2009 based on data from 2 separate sources.04. dispersal rates. DOI: 10. Northeastern Pacific. C. Studies on a variety of ecosystems indicate that smooth change can be interrupted by abrupt and drastic changes to a contrasting state. and knowledge can be inputted into management strategies for conserving marine ecosystems. Kelly (2011). The Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 99 .‐M. Poleward shift .52(7): 395‐404.. which may cause shifts in species range limits that are found in specific thermal ranges. (2001). selection. S. dynamics. Lluch‐Belda." Nature 413(6856): 591‐596. socioeconomic. DOI: 10. Gulf of California Sanford. W.1016/j. "Climate change and a poleward shift in the distribution of the Pacific white‐sided dolphin in the northeastern Pacific. E. Gradual climatic change. resilience. distribution change. conservation. sea‐level rise.

pone. DOI: 10.gloenvcha. under contract from Geoscience Australia and for the Department of Climate Change. o. such as the erosion of social values and fear of climate change. The authors review the development. "Adapting to climate change and climate policy: progress. R. The authors compiled a global coral cover database to determine whether changes in benthic coverage by corals differed within MPAs compared to unprotected reefs.1080/09669581003668540 KEYWORDS: adaptive management. The paper argues that while growing engagement with the challenge of climate change is evident across the tourism industry.. with case studies from temperate Western Australia.pdf KEYWORDS: coastal vulnerability. Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 100 100 .com/doi/abs/10.1371%2Fjournal. D. influence of location Sharples.ncbi.ozcoasts. Becken (2010).. School of Geography and Environmental Studies. They found that coral cover within MPAs remained constant. Social cohesion. Climate change. air travel.04. D. A." Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 21(3): 311‐337.au/pdf/SmartlineProjectReport_2009_v1.org. The analysis suggests a growing concern for a combination of local (internal) and more global (external) contingencies and shocks. so that indicators and monitoring programmes must be designed to be flexible and be able to detect change over a range of scales. J. and S.1080/09669581003668540 http://www. Report to the Department of Climate Change. U. benthic invertebrates and fish to achieve these goals. This work presents both highlight key challenges that tourism faces in its attempts to better understand and manage the problem of climate change.gov/pubmed/20174644 KEYWORDS: Marine Protected Areas. benthic coverage. this is still limited and not widespread. climate change. Perception. "From fronds to fish: the use of indicators for ecological monitoring in marine benthic ecosystems.main objective is to develop and field‐test methods that enable the identification of the different sources of vulnerability affecting a specific community.com/science/article/pii/S0959378011000719 KEYWORDS: Adaptation. C. E. Langlois.tandfonline. "A global analysis of the effectiveness of marine protected areas in preventing coral loss. (2011). tourism development Selig. utilisation and analysis of indicators for monitoring in marine benthic habitats. This report describes a project undertaken by the authors during 2007 – 2009.sciencedirect. The authors present the process and methods used to produce the map. DOI: 10. policymaking. Governance.0009278 http://www. problems and potentials." PLoS One 5(2): e9278.1371/journal. using a GIS line format referred to here as the ‘Smartline’ format.2011. Bruno (2010)." Journal of Sustainable Tourism 18(3): 283‐295. recommended future upgrades to the mapping. and identify some of its potential future applications. The results suggest that older MPAs were generally more effective in preventing coral loss. et al. F.0009278 http://www. The authors used an integrated assessment map to systematically scan the communities’ multiple dimensions of vulnerability and to identify factors affecting households’ perception about their capacity to cope with shocks. The Australian Coastal Smartline Geomorphic and Stability Map Version 1: Project Report.nlm. This paper discusses tourism’s role in relation to climate change mitigation and adaptation. They conclude that the key drivers of change—climate change and its associated perturbations and resource extraction—will operate on different spatial and temporal scales.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10. and outline important advances made in recent years. T. et al. (2009). Smale. geo‐processing techniques. http://www. They examined indicators derived from benthic primary producers. T.011 http://www. and suggest valuable ways forward. and J. geomorphic mapping. Fishing community Scott. DOI: 10. to produce a nationally‐consistent geomorphic and landform stability map of the entire Australian coastline. R.plosone. Mount. coral cover. while coral cover on unprotected reefs declined.nih. They also examined the potential influence of location (ocean basin) and years since MPA ( Marine Protected Areas) implementation on the mitigation of coral loss by MPAs.pone.1016/j.

It proposes that perceived resilience to changing climatic conditions is influenced by the individuals' social networks and social‐psychological dependencies on the local environment.springerlink. direct observations or specific predictions of such occurrences are. reef communities. Climate change Smit.00082.com/science/article/pii/S0959378006000410 KEYWORDS: climate adaptation. This assessment shares with most reef‐oriented research an inherent bias for negative effects and stresses. V.2012. Benthic communities. J.2012.1007/s11160‐010‐9173‐7 http://www. The method focuses on determining probable futures for various communities of place and interest within sea change areas and aims to build the capacity for dynamic on‐going learning to achieve those futures. (2012). resilience. review Smith. This paper proposes a participatory and transformative method to work with communities in responding to climate change and variability within rapidly urbanising coastal locations. (2008).03. W. T.008 http://www. Biodiversity surrogates. adaptive capacity. coral reefs. F. providing a dimension of interaction between community and environment that is not present in most other ecosystems. Great Barrier Reef Smith." Futures 43(7): 673‐679. The paper undertakes a review of the concept of adaptation to global changes. resilience. Anderson. Wandel (2006). This paper reviews coral reef ecosystem response to global change. especially climate change. This study assessed the impact of increased water temperatures at an isolated system of reefs by quantifying the benthic community changes over almost 10 years. S. when they are isolated from other reef systems and yet not exposed to some of the stressors that affect many reefs worldwide." Global Environmental Change‐Human and Policy Dimensions 16(3): 282‐292. DOI: 10. The paper outlines distinctive features of adaptation analyses and describes common elements of this approach. ecosystem response." Rural Sociology 77(3): 380‐407. both within and between the communities. DOI: 10. http://www.com/content/v6u179u087062710/ KEYWORDS: Monitoring.1111/j. This work offers insights into the degree to which coral communities are resilient to catastrophic disturbances..gloenvcha.springerlink.DOI: 10. (2011). et al.x/abstract KEYWORDS: adaptation. P.wiley. Buddemeier (1992).2006.1016/j.x http://onlinelibrary. "Adaptation. climate change. social networks. "A method for building community resilience to climate change in emerging coastal cities. This work also centers on expected changes within the next century.1549‐0831.jstor. "Global Change and Coral Reef Ecosystems." Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 23: 89‐118. D. resource dependency. Smith. D. P. instead of longer‐term or less predictable effects. Bioindicators. Daffara. and J. and Perceived Resilience to Climate Change. "Social Capital. climate change. B. Although future reef communities may spread to and flourish at sites not presently classified as coral reefs. Gilmour. H. social‐ecological systems Smith. et al. vulnerability.1007/s00338‐007‐0311‐1 http://www.00082.com/content/260580034763w573/ KEYWORDS: coral bleaching.sciencedirect. in the context of adaptive capacity and vulnerability.1549‐0831. This paper focuses mainly on the nature and directions of current or reliably anticipated environmental change‐warming and sea level rise rather than the onset of an ice age. L. Through this process community members may be empowered with dynamic Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 101 101 . "Resilience of coral communities on an isolated system of reefs following catastrophic mass‐bleaching. W. limited. and seem likely to remain.org/stable/info/2097283#abstract KEYWORDS: global change. adaptive capacity and vulnerability. DOI: 10. disturbance. The paper examines individuals' perceived resilience to changing environmental conditions.com/doi/10.1111/j. etc. et al. increases rather than decreases in ultraviolet light.. adaptive capacity. Coral reefs are unique in that communities are supported by biogenic geologic structures of their own creation. and R. J. Place Meanings." Coral Reefs 27(1): 197‐205..

DOI: 10. and R. More challenging to adaptive evolution are lesions in genomes of stenotherms like Antarctic marine ectotherms.1242/jeb. in order to propose a conceptual model of the response of mangrove forests to a possible increase in relative mean sea level induced by global warming.x http://onlinelibrary. This work explores some kind of coral that might adapt or acclimate to warming seas. Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 102 102 . L. (2009). diversity.x/abstract KEYWORDS: Climate change. intertidal zone. along with warm‐adapted eurytherms living near their thermal limits. impacts. Considering there are ecological similarities between shifting and introduced species. range shift. which have lost protein‐coding genes and gene regulatory mechanisms needed for coping with rising temperature.fcsh. thermal adaptation. and direction of community effects were mostly negative and magnitude similar between shifting and introduced species. B. this work examined how understanding range shifts may be informed by the (more‐established) study of introduced species.wiley. in extreme cases. non‐indigenous species.com/doi/10. ISSN: 0749‐0258 http://www. mangrove migration. N.L. but these genotypes may provide less energy for growth when thermal stress are reduced.pt/ICS2009/_docs/ICS2009_Volume_I/267. S. (2010). DOI: 10. These data revealed that 75% of these range shifts were poleward.00519.org/cgi/content/abstract/213/6/912 KEYWORDS: acclimation.008 http://www. M. for projecting when – and why – extinctions will occur.1111/j. resilience.1466‐8238.1111/j. Resilience of coral reefs depends on whether phenotypic and genotypic changes in coral‐algal associations can match predicted increases in thermal stress.Soares_ICS2009.unl.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1076:a‐conceptual‐model‐for‐the‐resp onses‐of‐mangrove‐forests‐to‐sea‐level‐rise‐mlg‐soares‐&catid=32:ics‐2009‐proceedingsportugal&Itemid =91 http://e‐geo. E. spread rates were lower than for introduced species. heat‐shock proteins Sorte.1466‐8238.2009. et al. genome. Thacker (2005).. introduced species. C.futures. variability." Global Ecology and Biogeography 19(3): 303‐316. Molecular‐level studies contribute to this analysis by revealing how much change in sequence is required to adapt proteins to warmer temperatures.037473 http://jeb. Spread rates and impacts on recipient communities for 129 marine species experiencing range shifts were determined by meta‐analysis." Journal of Experimental Biology 213(6): 912‐920. the author analyzes existing knowledge about mangroves with respect to their behavior under environmental changes. "The physiology of climate change: how potentials for acclimatization and genetic adaptation will determine 'winners' and 'losers'. patters of response to sea‐level changes cannot be extrapolated from one location to another.2011. E. may be the major 'losers' from climate change. W. although data were limited in this comparison.1016/j.biologists. change communities. innovation. shifting species spread significantly faster in marine systems compared to terrestrial. global warming. invasion. There is evidence that proposes some corals may be able to resist future thermal stress by associating with particular genotypes.pdf KEYWORDS: global change. G. G. adaptation. adaptation Somero. (2010). as well as continuing efforts to lessen human impacts.com/science/article/pii/S0016328711001157 KEYWORDS: sea change. "Marine range shifts and species introductions: comparative spread rates and community impacts.05. "A Conceptual Model for the Responses of Mangrove Forests to Sea Level Rise." Journal of Coastal Research Special Issue(56): 267‐271. This review focuses on a sets of closely related questions whose answers may provide us with a strong basis for predicting shifts in species distribution patterns in a warming world and. Soares.00519. "Do some corals like it hot?" Trends in Ecology & Evolution 20(2): 59‐62. acclimatization. L.cerf‐jcr. biodiversity Sotka. marine systems. biogeography.sciencedirect.G.2009. J. DOI: 10.and future‐orientated learning skills that build upon community knowledge. spread rate. and resilience. exotic species.271_M. thermal tolerance limits. These extreme stenotherms.org/index. In this study. The author concludes that because the development of mangroves is associated with a range of environmental condition. extinction. climate change. Williams. This provides insight into the rate of adaptive evolution.

such as forest regeneration.1023/A:1020364409616 http://www. resilience Soto.1016/j. species distribution. et al. Coastal zones require integration of land and sea management while open oceans are essential for climate prediction and therefore eventual management. salmon Stange. DOI: 10. networks Steele.2011. marine ecology. P. marine governance.org/stable/info/2641361 http://www. and investigates whether and how static notions of protected area designation.marpol. "Regime shifts in marine ecosystems." Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 11(3): 181‐195. North America. G. or even on land. sustainability. biodiversity. Finally.1016/j. Marine Protected Areas. The paper examines organizational reforms in the context of the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. J. C. regime shifts. B. migration.jstor. C. The authors discovered a strong latitudinal gradient in migration patterns and identified three major population groupings which correlated with major coastal marine locations in the northern Pacific Ocean.org/stable/2641361 KEYWORDS: ecological fungibility. "The potential impacts of global climate change on marine protected areas. duration and variation in timing of salmon migrations between the Californian and Alaskan regions. Hall (2010).tree. but are complementary. management. (2001). "Spatiotemporal patterns in migration timing of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) smolts in North America. Salmon demonstrated adaptation to differences in timing and predictability in favourable conditions within the marine regions that they enter. algal symbionts. planning. The problem is how to assimilate the different research and assessment approaches into a single scientific program and management protocol. This article examined the peak timing." Marine Policy 36(3): 681‐688.jstor." Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 67(8): 1316‐1334. J.10.. conservation. decadal scale Steele. H. climate change." Progress in Oceanography Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 103 103 . ISSN: 1051‐0761 http://www.013 http://www. Pacific Ocean.com/trends/ecology‐evolution/abstract/S0169‐5347(04)00345‐3 KEYWORDS: adaptive bleaching hypothesis.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X11001631 KEYWORDS: organizational reform. "Managing organizational change in an international scientific network: A study of ICES reform processes. which can take decades to centuries. (2004). a conceptual framework is presented which serves as a basis for discussion of some of the likely impacts of global climate change on pelagic biodiversity. This paper reviews some of the relevant and current thinking on protected areas.cell. global warming.2004. DOI: 10. DOI: 10.springerlink. and J.nrcresearchpress.11. D. climate change. ecosystem‐approach. California current.015 http://www." Ecological Applications 8(1): S33‐S36. This review focuses mainly on bottom‐up oceanographic processes as controls or drivers of species’ distribution and abundance in the pelagic marine environment. which originated in the terrestrial environment. "Regime shifts in the ocean: reconciling observations and theory. This time scale is short compared with many terrestrial ecological processes. Olsson. conservation biology. (2012). policy entrepreneurs.com/doi/abs/10. The author' focus fo focuses has been on decadal time scales as the relevant measure for sustainability in our human context.1139/F10‐060 KEYWORDS: adaptation. marine environment.sciencedirect. The main conclusion is that annual and decadal perspectives are not alternatives. reef ecosystems.DOI: 10. susceptibility. It suggests that major drivers included the need to improve efficiency and integration between different components of the organization and the action of individuals capable of navigating between the opportunities and constrains. H. (1998). and climate change literature. K. regime shift. ecosystems Spence. are appropriate for the marine environment.com/content/xm6h8825695451q3/ KEYWORDS: climate change.1139/F10‐060 http://www. given the anticipated impacts of global climate change over the next 100 years. fisheries.

Stokes. Overfishing in different marine regimes was the primary focus of this Workshop.pdf KEYWORDS: Australian Government. Head of the Government Economic Service and former World Bank Chief Economist. "Kelp forest ecosystems: biodiversity. Adapting Agriculture to Climate Change summarises updated climate change scenarios for Australia with Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 104 104 .cambridge. and M.pocean. impacts on growth.publish. C. Collingwood. herbivory. N. CSIRO Publishing. http://www. costs of action. Sea urchin harvesting has lead to kelp forests returning in some areas. Management direction should be on reduction of fishing impacts along with restoration of functionally important species populations within these ecosystems. as well as consideration of the societal (governmental. Although climate change does impact on kelp forest ecosystems. (2009)." Environmental Conservation 29(4): 436‐459. et al. macroalgal assemblages.1017/s0376892902000322 http://journals. social activity. Comparisons between oceanic systems subject to a variety of perturbations or stress are needed to identify the causal connections. DOI: 10. Adapting agriculture to climate change: preparing Australian agriculture. overfishing of key predators appears to be the largest manageable threat to these ecosystems. Australia CSIRO Publishing: viii + 286 pp. resilience Stern. although it is still difficult to define the trophic pathways that produce the correspondence between climatic indices and population abundance. and can lead to widespread kelp deforestation. resilience.2004. A. stability.. stable states. alternative stable states. This paper reviews global kelp forests. forestry and fisheries for the future. (2002). Cambridge University Press. Graham.1016/j.com/science/article/pii/S0079661104000242 KEYWORDS: regime shifts.au/samples/Australia%27s%20Biodiversity%20Online%20Sample. with respect to the various aspects of their decline. This work considered aspects such as the associated benefits of maximising ecosystem resilience. Adapting agriculture to climate change: preparing Australian agriculture. resilience and future. Collingwood. sea‐urchins. nutrients.sciencedirect. since the consequences of these large‐scale community structure changes provide valuable case studies. climate change. Climate Change Action Plan Steneck. http://www. human interactions. forestry and fisheries for the future. temperature and other macrophytes. stability. (2007).. Howden (2010). Ed. Australian Natural Resource Management. S. and the second half of the examines the national and international policy challenges of moving to a low‐carbon global economy. and discussed the consequences of these. and on the costs and opportunities associated with action to tackle it. The Economics of Climate Change: the Stern Review. it has relevance to all three pillars. W. community structure. This review of the economic effects of climate change was carried out by Sir Nicholas Stern.org/gb/knowledge/isbn/item1164284/?site_locale=en_GB KEYWORDS: climate change. M. development. H.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=142451 KEYWORDS: apex predators.02. Whilst focused on actions under the third pillar. H. biodiversity. biodiversity.csiro. The term ‘regime’ shift’ was first restricted to spatial or temporal links between climatic indices and population abundance. Australia’s biodiversity and climate change.. Burbidge. Global distribution is constrained by latitude. institutional) changes that might sustain Australia’s biodiversity in a climate changing world. et al. Evidence for physical‐biological relations has allowed a better understanding of the decadal scale variability in marine ecosystems. policy. DOI: 10. the Aleutian Islands and the western North Atlantic.60(2‐4): 135‐141. This book assesses the vulnerability and potential for adaptation of Australia’s biodiversity. The first half focuses on the impacts and risks arising from uncontrolled climate change. Case studies are included primarily from southern California. country’s biodiversity. Howden. trophic cascades. but these systems are still devoid of apex predators. with threats coming from overgrazing by sea urchins which are often caused by overfishing and local extinction of urchin primary predators. fish stocks Steffen. R. kelp.cambridge. C. adaptation.004 http://www. This paper reviews issues discussed at the Villefranche Workshop in 2003. which can change community dynamics. Stokes and M.

(2009). although some species may exhibit responses symptomatic of ocean warming including fish species only detected in recent surveys (indicative of range expansion) and species with warmer‐water affinities appearing to extend distributions further south." Deep‐Sea Research Part II ‐Topical Studies in Oceanography 58(5): 538‐546.. "The strengthening East Australian Current. (2009). Reef communities appeared relatively stable. I.2009. biodiversity. climate change. rocky reef. (2011).2009. range expansion Summerhayes.x/abstract KEYWORDS: climate change. eddy formation and structure. Saccostrea glomerata. et al. step‐like trajectories. understanding of physical and biological processes driven by the EAC. decadal scale. spatial distribution.wiley. J. Barrett. The authors assess the distribution and abundance of wild oyster populations in the highly modified Hawkesbury River. In this special issue of 16 papers on the EAC.sciencedirect. as well as risks and priorities for the future. P. the authors compared epifaunal communities occupying 100% oystershell cover among 5 sites along the estuary.1111/j. "Effects of oyster death and shell disarticulation on associated communities of epibiota.1111/j. This current parallels the portion of the coast where Australia’s population is concentrated and has along history of scientific research. Results demonstrate that death and degradation of oysters alter the structure of associated communities. greenhouse gas emissions sources and sinks. A. These results have important ramifications for management strategies and retaining estuarine biodiversity in the event that disease such as QX causes local oyster extinctions. Bishop.1365‐2486.htm KEYWORDS: primary industries. ISBN: 9780643095953 http://www.au/nid/21/pid/6170. Suthers. Everett. S." Global Change Biology 16(1): 122‐134.jembe." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 379(1‐2): 60‐67. "Stability in temperate reef communities over a decadal time scale despite concurrent ocean warming. "Spatial patterns of wild oysters in the Hawkesbury River. with changes on the east coast greater than on the west and north coasts due to greater warming in the east." Journal of Shellfish Research 28(3): 447‐451. D. This work suggests a time of relative stability following a more abrupt change and proposes that community responses to ocean warming may follow non‐linear. oyster. fine scale connectivity and larval retention. Australia.the latest climate science..2983/035. New South Wales.org/doi/abs/10.bioone. with multivariate and univariate metrics of biotic communities revealing few changes with time. S. against which future change can be assessed and managed. DOI: 10. A. They provide an important baseline of wild oyster resources currently present in this heavily impacted estuary. particularly in linking circulation to ecosystems. species‐level response. To ascertain effects of this oyster mortality on associated epibiota.01955.x http://onlinelibrary. This section describes the causes and consequences of climate change to providing options for people to work towards adaptation action. B.csiro.2983/035.028. et al. The authors tested the following hypotheses to assess whether this environmental change has directly altered Tasmanian subtidal reef communities between the early to mid 1990s and 2006/2007: Hypothesis 1: Tasmanian subtidal reef communities have substantially changed over the past decade. (2010).1365‐2486.1016/j. its eddies and biological effects ‐ an introduction and overview. M. S. et al.006 http://www.com/science/article/pii/S0022098109003402 KEYWORDS: Degradation. from ENSO to multi‐decadal time scales.01955. rocky shore.028. Australia.. Kelaher. M.0304 KEYWORDS: Crassostrea gigas. DOI: 10.08. R. Stuart‐Smith. Habitat structure. is limited.2009. Oysters. However. mangrove.0304 http://www..com/doi/10. Epibiota. even where 100% cover of shell matrix is maintained. DOI: 10. It includes chapters on socio‐economic and institutional considerations for adapting to climate change. the authors examine the effects of climatic wind‐stress forced ocean dynamics on EAC transport variability and coastal sea level. J. et al. risk assessment. The impact of a strengthening EAC and how it influences the Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 105 105 . D. NSW. stability. N.publish. Saccostrea glomerata Summerhayes.

metamorphosis into juvenile stages. social‐ecological systems. Separation zone.029 http://www.5751/Es‐04953‐170320 http://www. adaptation. J. S. DOI:10. DOI: 10. J. societies manipulate their social‐ecological contexts rather than adapt to them." Ecology and Society 17(3).4319/lo. It suggests that manipulation (as opposed to adaptation) tends to disregard the integrity of social‐ecological systems and focuses on external change or manipulating the broader system with the aim of making self‐regulation unnecessary." Ecology and Society 17(3). vulnerability. Mesoscale variation. DOI: 10. clams. bay scallops (Argopecten irradians). C. Leeuwin Current. in many cases.5751/Es‐04966‐170306 http://www. Ecosystem.. Integrated Marine Observing System. Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 106 106 . S. F. E.6. Smith. Hewitt.. There is little work focusing on the resilience that provides resistance against ecosystem regime shifts to undesirable states. oysters. resilience. ecosystem Thomsen. The authors review recent studies to gain insight into the ecological mechanisms that underpin resilience. Hobart and Melbourne.ecologyandsociety. The impact of acidification on the larval stages of these shellfish species raise concerns about the future of the industries and ecosystems depending on them. scallops. Eddy.2010. size. DOI: 10.2072 http://www. "Forecasting the limits of resilience: integrating empirical research with theory. "Adaptation or Manipulation? Unpacking Climate Change Response Strategies. et al. from Brisbane to Sydney. The authors conducted a series of experiments to determine how CO2 levels estimated to occur this century and through the year 2250 would affect larval survival. larval growth.org/lo/toc/vol_54/issue_6/2072.2009. manipulation. It argues that. survival. great barrier reef.aslo. and survival of larval hard clams (Mercenaria mercenaria). The paper suggests that managing for social resilience would aid in the design and implementation of policies that minimise the impacts on resource users and lead to more inclusive and sustainable management.org/vol17/iss3/art20/ KEYWORDS: climate adaptation. development. Australia Talmage. and R.dsr2. It shows that fishers with higher resilience were more likely to be supportive of the rezoning. industry. S. and C. shellfish." Limnology and Oceanography 54(6): 2072‐2080.livelihoods of over half the Australian population. The paper investigates how social resilience influences resource users' responses to policy change in the context of the 2004 rezoning of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Marine Park.09.ecologyandsociety. vulnerability. and the sustainability of social‐ecological systems. social‐ecological systems.html KEYWORDS: ocean acidification. whereas manipulation represents short‐term strategies with uncertain consequences for resilience. Reduced growth and delayed development were observed in all species. The paper provides a closer examination into the meaning of adaptation and its relationship to concepts of resilience. C. G." Proceedings of the Royal Society B‐Biological Sciences 276(1671): 3209‐3217. "The effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentrations on the metamorphosis. (2012). Tobin (2012). and Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica). and more likely to have adapted to the rezoning than those with lower social resilience.org/vol17/iss3/art6/ KEYWORDS: resilience. T. growth. vulnerability. (2009). The paper argues that adaptation represents long‐term strategies for building resilience.com/science/article/pii/S0967064510002766 KEYWORDS: East Australian Current. while survival was differently affected among species. and sustainability. Finding Nemo.54. C. and suggest designs for field experiments that can help us understand and identify the feedback processes that hold the system in a particular state and thus characterize resilience. et al. fisheries. Bluelink. "Social Resilience and Commercial Fishers' Responses to Management Changes in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park.sciencedirect. D. Gobler (2009). is just being realised. Tasman Front. aquaculture.1016/j. F. Climatology Sutton. adaptive capacity Thrush. This study investigated the effects of increasing CO2 levels on the growth and survival of the larvae of three species of CaCO3‐synthesizing bivalves .

M.07. http://www.informaworld.1257/jep.com/science/article/pii/S0963996910002231 KEYWORDS: adaptation. Tobin.1080/08920753.2010.sciencedirect. risk assessment.edu. F. industry. However. the impacts are expected to be more pronounced in poor countries. "Practicing Coastal Adaptation to Climate Change: Lessons from Integrated Coastal Management. Great Barrier Reef World. This article provides a review on the proposed impacts of climate change on food contamination and global food safety issues across multiple stages of the food chain. Clarke. P.foodres. This article begins with an overview of the dramatic and wide‐ranging challenges facing the world’s coastal regions as a consequence of climate change. resilience. Schlaff A. and its overlay onto existing threats to coastal and marine ecosystems. management. marine ecosystems. as the monitoring used for these reports focuses initially on corals and secondarily small‐bodied fish communities. Best practices for coastal adaptation processes drawn from the USAID Guidebook on Adapting to Coastal Climate Change are then described.1098/rspb. ISBN: 978‐0‐9808178‐5‐0 http://eprints.com/smpp/content~content=a922680468~db=all~jumptype=rss KEYWORDS: adaptation. coastal adaptation.2009. coral coverage. The influence of these types of systems on reef structure (coral coverage and diversity) and associated small‐bodied reef fish communities has been well documented. and future research directions which aim to address global climate change‐induced food safety issues.abstract KEYWORDS: regime shift.org/content/276/1671/3209. surveillance Tobey. fisheries. when the temperature increase reaches +2°C. This study reviews the current knowledge of the economic costs of climate change. global warming. DOI: 10. coastal ecosystems.. based on the 14 published estimates of welfare impact (%GDP) as a function of global warming. Results indicate an initial increase in welfare with increasing temperature.0661 http://rspb. and eventually negative trend. With the last two decades. (2009).483169 http://www. contamination.Although field‐based research exists for understanding resilience. DOI: 10. experimental studies are lagging behind theory. Furthermore. habitat loss." Food Research International 43(7): 1745‐1765. Heritage Area. some of the unique coastal adaptation challenges posed by climate change are identified. community structure.php?doi=10. climate change. DOI: 10. most tropical cyclones impacting the GBRWHA have been low intensity systems (category 1 or 2). These best practices draw from decades of global experience in the practice of ICM.1016/j.. Tol. although welfare loss may appear moderated on a global scale. biodiversity. carbon tax. costs. (2010). R.jcu. the ability to measure changes in large‐bodied reef fish communities is either not attempted. R." Journal of Economic Perspectives 23(2): 29‐51. climate change.2. J. developing nations. regime shifts. (2010)." Coastal Management 38(3): 317 ‐ 335. et al.au/16005/ KEYWORDS: Tropical cyclones.003 http://www. monitoring. global warming. disturbance. food safety. The need for more estimates of the costs of climate change to improve policy management procedures is discussed. "The Economic Effects of Climate Change. A. "Climate change and food safety: A review. ecological‐systems. intrinsic dynamics. R. Finally. economic development Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 107 107 . et al.aeaweb.2010.29 KEYWORDS: climate change. (2010). or compromised. P.org/articles. This report develops the subject of the cyclones and the impacts on the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA). Rubinoff. C. climate divide. S. welfare. et al. Ecological resilience needs understanding in terms of community dynamics and the potential for shifts in environmental force to break the feedbacks that maintain resilience.23. 2008/103. J. diversity Tirado..royalsocietypublishing. Adapting to change: minimising uncertainty about the effects of rapidly‐changing environmental conditions on the Queensland Coral Reef Fin Fish Fishery. The authors identify adaptation strategies that need to be adopted. followed by a decreasing. management and policy requirements.

"More than information: what coastal managers need to plan for climate change. regional. risk.1 We also examine how the science–coastal management interactions could be improved to increase the likelihood that global change‐related information effectively informs state and local decision‐making. response capacity Trebilco. and W. DOI: 10. N.1016/j. especially in the context of adaptation to global climate change impacts. DOI: 10. E.biocon.sciencedirect. Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 108 108 . The authors conclude that regional‐based conservation efforts which aim to protect areas of high species diversity may be possible with minimal effects to fishing effort in these areas.1016/j. management." Environmental Science & Policy 8(6): 562‐571. This article examines relationships between pelagic biodiversity. tuna Tribbia. sustainability.024 http://www. climate change. J.. E. "Defining response capacity to enhance climate change policy.com/science/article/pii/S146290110500105X KEYWORDS: adaptation. ISSN: 1195‐5449 http://www. are central to concepts of sustainable development. marine. social change. Adger (2004).01. At the individual level however. adaptation and mitigation activities are undertaken together as part of the management of risk and resources. Halpern. collective action.2005. sea surface temperature. coastal zone.com/science/journal/00063207/144/5 http://sd. sea‐level rise. B. fishing pressure and increases in sea surface temperature in tropical to temperate ocean regions in order to identify the top 50 hotspot areas for species richness and the two impact drivers. or international scales. L. The authors focus on the rol of networks and institutions in building resilience in both social and ecological systems. vulnerability. Climate change adaptation and mitigation decisions made by governments are usually taken in different policy domains. R. fisheries. conservation.envsci. They conclude that the reduction of social vulnerability through the extension and consolidation of social networks." Biological Conservation 144(5): 1758‐1766. adaptation.1016/j.2008. "Does adaptive management of natural resources enhance resilience to climate change?" Ecology and Society 9(2): 14.org/vol9/iss2/art10 KEYWORDS: resilience. In this paper. we explore coastal managers’ information use and needs to begin to address climate change in their management decisions. It illustrates the strong need for boundary organizations to serve various intermediary functions between science and practice. technology. greater fishing pressure positively correlates with species richness in several regions across the Indian and Pacific Oceans.012 http://www.06. and W. The ability of society to respond to climate change and the need for technological change for both decarbonisation and for dealing with surprise in general. and species richness is higher in areas which have experienced minimal changes in sea surface temperature.ecologyandsociety. management. community. both locally and at national. and S.com/science/article/pii/S1462901108000130 KEYWORDS: climate change. hotspots.sciencedirect. climate change policy. Results demonstrate that the impact drivers correlate with high species richness. coastal impacts. This paper explores the potential benefits of present‐day co‐management in building resilience to cope with climate change through a case study of a coastal community in Trinidad and Tobago that relies on coastal resources. (2011). C. coral reefs. pelagic." Environmental Science & Policy 11(4): 315‐328. can contribute to increases in ecosystem resilience. policy. DOI: 10. S. Moser (2008).003 http://www. Neil Adger (2005). impacts.envsci.ddns.2011. "Mapping species richness and human impact drivers to inform global pelagic conservation prioritisation. adaptive management.sciencedirect. et al. information needs. climate change Tompkins. The authors argue that the ability to respond to climate change is both enabled and constrained by social and technological conditions. L. This paper proposes that a useful starting point to develop a national climate policy is to understand what societal response might mean in practice.Tompkins. mitigation.us/science/article/pii/S0006320711000942 KEYWORDS: billfish.02. conservation.

climate change acts to enhance exiting priorities of environment and fisheries management and aquaculture development.. fisheries. toolkit." Coral Reefs 26(4): 997‐1008. and consumption of fresh fish had declined over the past decade.org/vol15/iss2/art11/ KEYWORDS: learning. P. related to environmental degradation at 5 fishing grounds in Fiji.1080/09669581003639814 http://www.com/doi/abs/10. climate change. (2000). R. and power. T. The present paper focuses on adaptive opportunities in the field of fisheries.com/content/x170j1281t534823/ KEYWORDS: climate change.springerlink.. P. The framework also focuses on memory. adaptive capacity Turner. adaptation. "Declining reliance on marine resources in remote South Pacific societies: ecological versus socio‐economic drivers. J. et al. coral reefs. and reduction of current resource constraint by aquaculture development and better utilization of fishery and aquaculture harvests. resilience. socio‐economic drivers.. Dietrich (2010). et al. It approaches learning processes from a dynamic systems perspective. scenarios. and approaches to. Adaptation strategies should target enhancing resilience of marine renewable resources and their uses as well as the current capacity to respond to unexpected events. The paper presents a methodological framework to facilitate iterative learning processes and adaptive decision‐making. management Tschakert. management Turton. climate change adaptation and to explore the potential for building a self‐assessment toolkit that can be exported to other tourism destinations. Gold Coast. (2010). S. Changes in fish consumption and exploitation of resources appear connected to socio‐economic features rather than a consequence of recent environmental degradation. Cakacaka. DOI: not available http://www. and measuring anticipatory capacity as key elements.springerlink. spaces for learning. scenario planning. This paper reports on an interdisciplinary. "Developing an approach for tourism climate change assessment: evidence from four contrasting Australian case studies. climate adaptation. Dickson. environmental change. Interviews with fishers and senior household members showed that the importance of fishing was low compared to other professions. A. "Adaptation opportunities to climate variability and change in the exploitation and utilisation of marine living resources. 109 109 Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 . S. critical reflection. In light of this work. and K." Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 61(1): 101‐112. DOI: 10. monitoring of key drivers of change. This work investigates socio‐economic changes. Low reliance on marine resources might grant greater flexibility to adapt to future ecological change in the marine environment. Eds.ecologyandsociety. W. A. DOI: 10. Hadwen.. particularly in fresh fish consumption and fishing activities.1007/s00338‐007‐0238‐6 http://www. (2009). DOI: 10. fishing practices. The impacts of climate change on Australian tourism destinations: Developing adaptation and response strategies. aquaculture and other uses of marine renewable resources. (2007). adaptation." Journal of Sustainable Tourism 18(3): 429‐447. "Anticipatory Learning for Climate Change Adaptation and Resilience. Two complementary strategies for adaptation exist. multi‐case study approach to assess tourism stakeholders' knowledge of. Sustainable Tourism Cooperative Research Centre. highlighting the importance of learning loops (cycles). et al.1080/09669581003639814 KEYWORDS: Australia.tandfonline. interdisciplinary.com/content/y4610q408326414q/ KEYWORDS: Fiji.boundary organization Troadec." Ecology and Society 15(2). social‐ecological systems. A. Reduced fishing and choice of fresh fish is loosely attributable to an amplified need to derive income as well as novel income‐generating prospects. adjusting conventional management systems to resource scarcity. tourism Turton.1023/A:1006322303247 http://www. A key finding is that the tourism sector is not yet ready to invest in climate change adaptation because of the perceived incertainties. adaptation.

since it provides alternative routes to Panama or Suez Canal shipping. Gross Regional Product. and natural resource use. O. Hoegh‐Guldberg. and resilience science to practice: Pathways. (2007). bleaching. et al. through primary research. eventually leading to most transportation between the North Atlantic and the North Pacific passing through the Arctic Ocean. The greatest impact on global marine transportation arises as all‐year shipping develops in the Arctic. non‐economic impacts . Valsson (2009).jsessionid=ECCA80D41417484389A38CA09E76FACF KEYWORDS: Enormous Regional Model.org/abstracts/20093217097. This has consequences for transportation. with a reduced biodiversity. Acidification. vulnerability. DOI: 10. S. "Payments for Ecosystem Services in the Context of Adaptation to Climate Change." Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 2139(‐1): 117‐124.cabdirect. El Nino. These include enhancing the provision of ecosystem services. This paper discusses economic activity and habitation in relation to the new spatial structure of the Earth and the impacts that human‐induced polar ice retreat present for resource development and shipping routes.ncbi. 2050 and 2070. F. It establishes the main conceptual links between PES and adaptation. mass extinction. adaptation. Australian tourism.. domino effect Vogel. "The coral reef crisis: the critical importance of <350 ppm CO2.09. security. Ulfarsson. adaptive capacity. and providing incentives to climate adaptation. spatial structure. adaptive capacity Veron. the economic impacts of climate change across the five destinations. and then estimated likely economic consequences.009 http://www. players. The causes and consequences of global coral bleaching are reviewed.html." Ecology and Society 17(1).3141/2139‐14 http://pubsindex. risk‐bearers. and socio‐ecological systems." Global Environmental Change 17(3‐4): 349‐364. "Adaptation and Change with Global Warming Emerging Spatial World Structure and Transportation Impacts. recommendations from the study for future research in the area of climate change and adaptation in tourism destinations.nlm. water quality decrease and severe weather events are among the main causes identified. (2012). and T. Blue Mountains and Barossa Valley. enhancing adaptive capacity in the way PES is designed and implemented. marine transport. I. contested knowledge Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 110 110 . polar ice retreat van de Sand. ISBN: 9781921658501 http://www. and partnerships. gauged the expected adaptive approaches of destination communities and the tourism sector to these changes for 2020. based on The Enormous Regional Model (TERM). human impact. The paper investigates potential ways in which the concept of payments for ecosystem services (PES) can contribute to climate adaptation. negative impacts on early stages of organisms using coral reefs as nursery grounds. et al. E. C.1016/j. Moser. J. C. "Linking vulnerability.2009.aspx?id=880897 KEYWORDS: climate change.ecologyandsociety. Mass bleaching events related to El Nino phases. It suggests ways of making PES pro‐poor and pro‐adaptation by drawing on concepts of vulnerability.This research project examined existing knowledge on anticipated biophysical changes and. It also holds geopolitical significance.5751/Es‐04561‐170111 http://www. The consequences for reef ecosystems are expected to be dramatic. This technical report develops some themes as the methodology applied to ascertain the non‐economic impacts of climate change at four of the five case study regions. DOI: 10. biodiversity loss. climate adaptation.nih.org/view. mitigation and adaptation. The authors suggest that anthropogenic CO2 may be responsible for the Earth's sixth mass extinction.org/vol17/iss1/art11/ KEYWORDS: ecosystem services. G. Such approach involves different experts. DOI: 10. social‐ecological systems.gov/pubmed/19782832 KEYWORDS: coral reef..marpolbul. (2009). CO2‐induced acidification. and a domino effect expected to impact other marine ecosystems. Cairns. local communities. the discussion and integration across the Kakadu." Mar Pollut Bull 58(10): 1428‐1436.trb. The paper suggests an alternative approach to the traditional one‐way interaction between science and practice. climate change.

and their implications for our future well‐being.org/vol9/iss2/art5/ KEYWORDS: resilience. "Community and ecosystem responses to recent climate change." and "shocks" might be employed in the context of social‐ecological systems. It attempts to minimise the confusion generated by different uses of such terms in the literature." Reviews in Aquaculture 1(2): 125‐154. There are 3 related attributes thought to determine future trajectories of social‐ecological systems (SES): resilience. It suggests that more detailed investigations by both producers and users of such knowledge are required. how they interact. social‐ecological." Ecology and Society 9(2): 9. DOI: 10. multi‐scalar SESs.05." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B‐Biological Sciences 365(1549): 2019‐2024. (2012).. Holling. G. knowledge systems Walker.sciencedirect. what they mean. and C.01007.1753‐5131.x/abstract KEYWORDS: aquaculture industry.01007. G. the authors provide an interpretation and an explanation of how these concepts are reflected in the adaptive cycles of complex. R.5751/Es‐05063‐170330 http://www. H. seasonality Walther. (1998).002 http://www.com/content/n01r097418x83x24/ KEYWORDS: marinas. "Slow" Variables. "Drivers. DOI: 10. This paper reviews the causes and consequences of viral disease in global shrimp aquaculture.com/science/article/pii/S0959378007000374 KEYWORDS: vulnerability. The paper also highlights factors that hinder the use of vulnerability and resilience 'knowledge'. V. resilience. natural areas. transformability. This study further reviews pre‐existing disease management strategies. tourism. drivers. Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 111 111 . In marine coasts. and indicates potential improvements facilitated by recent technological advancements. P. This review highlights the ‘knowns’ but also ‘unknowns’ resulting from recent climate impact studies and reveals limitations of (linear) extrapolations from recent climate‐induced responses of species to expected trends and magnitudes of future climate change. impact and the effectiveness of health management strategies.. "Fast" Variables. S.gloenvcha. adaptability and transformability in social‐ecological systems.1023/A:1005493625658 http://www. science‐practice interface. "Resilience. Inadequate management in this industry has resulted in the increased virulence of existing infections and the emergence of new pathogens. shocks Walker.springerlink. mitigation. wetland recreations may be threatened by rising sea levels but recreation in inland water bodies may be affected more by deficiencies rather than superabundance of water. The authors conclude by discussing the need for a change of attitude from all stakeholders. The paper offers interpretation of how the terms "drivers. Carpenter. but nonetheless the ecological impacts are already evident.1016/j. disturbance. B. adaptive cycles Walker. DOI:10. In what follows. et al. Mohan (2009). adaptation. R. et al.1753‐5131. and co‐production of knowledge.2007. Shocks.x http://onlinelibrary. The purpose of this paper is to examine these three attributes. C. This article explores the concepts of tourism and recreational activities. The author concludes that the warming we have experienced so far is only minor compared with what is expected by the end of the century. and Resilience. Wall. adaptation. (2010). small‐scale farmers." "variables. viral disease. "Implications of global climate change for tourism and recreation in wetland areas.ecologyandsociety. from farmers to policy makers. S." Climatic Change 40(2): 371‐389.wiley. B. discusses their effectiveness." Ecology and Society 17(3).and practice. adaptation.org/vol17/iss3/art30/ KEYWORDS: social‐ecological systems. shrimp.1111/j. (2004). health management.com/doi/10. "Viral disease emergence in shrimp aquaculture: origins. adaptability and transformability.ecologyandsociety.1111/j. putting at risk the livelihood of poor shrimp farming communities in Asia.2009. J. variables. DOI: 10. disease emergence. stakeholders.2009. http://www.

Results suggest the need for focused studies on several uncertain geographical regions. dissolution.0905620106 http://www.org/content/365/1549/2019. About half of the models were found able to reproduce large‐scale variations of the historical observations.128 observations around the world covering the time period 1879–2006. DOI:10.pnas.jcu. J.royalsocietypublishing. Their results demonstrates that. J. model prediction Watson. tolerance Waycott. C. along with the predictions from a subset of selected models for the 21st century under the A1B IPCC emission scenario.com/science/article/pii/S0924796309000839 KEYWORDS: model validation. M. "Climate projections for selected large marine ecosystems.. Chapter 6: Vulnerability of mangrove. (2009).028. These results indicate that the Sydney rock oyster industry. Duarte.edu. S. "Can sustainable tourism survive climate change?" Journal of Sustainable Tourism 19(1): 5‐15.2008." Journal of Marine Systems 79(3‐4): 258‐266. The larval growth and survival of the Sydney rock oyster (Saccostrea glomerata) were measured in tanks under different pH conditions.0021 http://rstb. Pacific Island.2010. larval growth. since the earliest records in 1879. L. tropical Pacific Weaver. seagrass and intertidal sand and mud flat habitats in the tropical Pacific to climate change.short KEYWORDS: global warming.sciencedirect. 210028. D. This exposure to change is used in the framework described to assess the vulnerability of the habitats under representative low and high emissions scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) for 2035 and 2100. seagrass meadows have declined in all areas of the globe where quantitative data are available. is expected to be severely impacted by 2100. larval survival. et al.028. seagrass and intertidal flat habitats in the tropical Pacific that support coastal fisheries. model uncertainty. et al. creating the most comprehensive data set compiled to date. McKenzie.028 http://www.. oyster industry. climate change." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106(30): 12377‐12381.0302 http://www. J. global change scenarios Wang. ISBN: 978‐982‐00‐0471‐9 http://eprints. Johnson and A. including both high and low latitudes.org/doi/abs/10.jmarsys. M. The ability of 23 coupled atmosphere‐ocean general circulation models to reproduce observations of variables relevant to selected large marine ecosystems was evaluated.1073/pnas. (2009). et al. M. C. Acidified conditions resulted in developmental abnormalities and increased shell dissolution.2983/035. E. climate change. DOI: 10. while the remainder were characterized by a high degree of uncertainty. and increased global modeling efforts in the future. phenology. calcification. Vulnerability of tropical Pacific fisheries and aquaculture to climate change. DOI: 10. oyster.5 million in annual sales.org/content/106/30/12377. The authors synthesized quantitative data from 215 sites with a total of 1.. They do this by examining the effects that changes to surface climate and the tropical Pacific Ocean are expected to have on the plants that define these habitats.‐A. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. GCM.1098/rstb. Hobday. mangrove. "Early larval development of the Sydney rock oyster Saccostrea Glomerata under near‐future predictions of CO2‐driven ocean acidification." Journal of Shellfish Research 28(3): 431‐437.au/19648/ KEYWORDS: Climate Change. with $34. M. Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 112 112 . habitat loss.bioone. range shift. IPCC. global trajectories. Secretariat of the Pacific Community. "Accelerating loss of seagrasses across the globe threatens coastal ecosystems. et al. (2010). Overland.. P. seagrasses. (2010). (2011). ecology.11. Bell.1016/j.0302 KEYWORDS: ocean acidification. The authors assess the vulnerability of the mangrove.short KEYWORDS: ecosystem decline.DOI: 10.2983/035. marine habitat Waycott. Southgate.

projections.2010. pearl industry." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 400(1‐2): 7‐16. superficial environmentalism Webster..1080/09669582. climate change. range extensions and reduced recruitment on some key marine species in temperate Australia.htm KEYWORDS: Pearl oyster.001 http://www. Russell. and emphasises a better understanding of the science‐society nexus as well as the conditions for translating research‐based knowledge into practice.tandfonline." Molluscan Research 30(3): 125‐130. ISSN: 1323‐5818 http://www. C. "Impacts of climate change in a global hotspot for temperate marine biodiversity and ocean warming. M. H. model.edu/globalchange/www/MITJPSPGC_Rpt95. and C.mapress.1). should not be regarded as an essential parameter of environmentally and socioculturally constructed sustainable tourism. Compared to individuals kept in control tanks (pH 8. D.2°C. as it is currently unfolding. It suggests that more attention should be paid to synthesising existing local knowledge and resources from non‐scientific sources. Weichselgartner.1080/09669582.. climate adaptation.0000004564. under his point of view.com/science/article/pii/S1877343512000565 KEYWORDS: science‐policy interface.2012. Adaptation. J. et al. mitigation.This article is a opinion of the author. The paper identifies the context for using knowledge and turning it into sustainable actions as one of the greatest challenges. climate change.536242 KEYWORDS: climate change. sensitivity. acidification. M. fisheries Welladsen. Southgate. The results show that in the absence of greenhouse gas emissions restrictions. there is a one in forty chance that global mean surface temperature change will exceed 4. DOI: 10. .9f http://web. nacre deposition. DOI: 10. Adult pearl oysters (P.05. Wernberg. Furthermore. he does not regard grandiose proclamations to become “carbon neutral” (whatever that means) by 2020 or beyond to be particularly helpful or useful given the diabolical policy context and examples of apparent retreat (or possible insincerity) outlined earlier in this paper. A policy case with aggressive emissions reductions over time lowers the temperature change to a one in forty chance of exceeding 3. This study aimed to determine the effects of predicted near‐future levels of ocean acidification on the shell and nacre characteristics of the Akoya pearl oyster.com/mr/content/v30/2010f/n3p130.1016/j. B.09961. and resources intended for the latter therefore should not be allocated to the former. This review presents the observed impacts of climate stressors and non‐climate stressors on Australian subtidal temperate coasts and likely system responses to these impacts. C. suggesting that the shells' structural integrity was compromised by dissolution. sustainable tourism.pdf KEYWORDS: sea‐level rise. is not necessarily conducive to the interests of tourism sustainability.1023/B:CLIM. "Uncertainty analysis of climate change and policy response. (2010). thus reducing but not eliminating the chance of substantial warming.6) in tanks for 28 days. hypercapnia. calcification.cosust. Forest. climate parameter. marine environments.mit.com/doi/abs/10.. While there appears to be less observed climate‐induced change on other coastlines around Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 113 113 . The paper highlights challenges to assessing and managing global environmenal processes. et al." Climatic Change 61(3): 295‐320. emissions. This paper applies an earth systems model to describe the uncertainty in climate projections under two different policy scenarios. T.9°C by the year 2100. vulnerability." Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 4(3): 323‐330. The sensitivity of pearl oyster shells to such small reduction in pH indicates the potentially devastating impacts of ocean acidification on pearl aquaculture by the end of 2100. that intends to stimulate discussion by contending that the growing engagement with climate change. A. (2011). P. tropical mollusc.2010. the shell of individuals were ca 25% weaker. "The effects of exposure to near‐future levels of ocean acidification on shell characteristics of Pinctada fucata (Bivalvia: Pteriidae). shell strength. The authors show data on range contractions. adaptation. fucata) were subjected to acidified water (pH 7. Marandino (2012). It argues that fundamental barriers in the science‐policy‐practice interface have hindered progress. "Priority knowledge for marine environments: challenges at the science‐society nexus.536242 http://www. (2003). et al.sciencedirect. DOI: 10.

1523‐1739. Hovelsrud (2010).1046/j. DOI: 10.02055.x http://onlinelibrary. range contraction. on both the Indian and Pacific Oceans sides of the Australian continent. reef areas.synergiesprairies.9° latitude poleward. The authors develop estimates of the economic effects of sea level rise on marine recreational shore fishing in North Carolina. management.2003. T.jembe.com/doi/10. Northern Norway. J. the authors posit that this is likely due to a lack of data rather than a lack of change.wordpress. USA. They find that reductions in beach width negatively affect the quality and number of fishing trips even as anglers adapt by using piers and bridges." Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 14(8): 777‐792. ecosystems. Temperate species have experienced median shifts of 0. "Measuring the economic effects of sea level rise on shore fishing. coral mortality. Impacts are consistent with observed warming in both the Indian and Pacific Oceans. (2011). Recent experiments suggest that the impacts of both climate and non‐climate stressors will lower the resilience of temperate marine communities to stresses including storms. biological conservation. "Cross‐scale Adaptation Challenges in the Coastal Fisheries: Findings from Lebesby.09. and R. This information has important implications for coral reef conservation and management as a tool for identifying reef areas that are likely to be most robust in the face of continuing climate change and for determining priority areas for reducing direct anthropogenic impacts." Arctic 63(3): 338‐354. local communities. J.x/abstract. sea surface temperatures. reef conservation. Given future warming.d02t03?deniedAccessCustomisedMessage=&userIsAuthenticated=false KEYWORDS: El Niño. J.jsessionid=0193E93B254D8147166 0CBAEA162FCE0. DOI: 10.sciencedirect.1007/s11027‐009‐9198‐1 Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 114 114 . coastal fisheries. (2009). range extension Wernberg. This paper identifies likely environmental correlates of resistance and resilience to coral bleaching correlate with physiological tolerance.cub.2011." Conservation Biology 17(4): 956‐967. V. multiple stressors. phase shift. Norway West. global warming. DOI: 10.2003. DOI: not available http://arctic.2011. up to 25% of species might retract toward extinction.021 http://oceanacidification. J. macroalgal communities in the southern part of the tropical‐temperate transition progressively came to resemble past macroalgal communities farther norths..php/arctic/article/view/1497 KEYWORDS: cross‐scale adaptation. K..028 http://www.02055.1016/j. Russell. community ecology. and the authors highlight the importance of management approaches at local and regional‐scale levels in an attempt to increase the resilience of temperate marine communities to climate stressors. C. West. anthropogenic impacts. Whitehead. D. the authors propose one strategy which might be to identify (1) specific reef areas where natural environmental conditions are likely to result in low or negligible temperature‐related bleaching and mortality and (2) reef areas where environmental conditions are likely to result in maximum recovery of reef communities after bleaching mortality has occurred. DOI: 10. et al.1046/j. B.Australia. and provide physical or biological enhancement of recovery potential. M.5° to 1. coral bleaching. adaptation arenas. and G.1523‐1739.com/2011/03/14/impacts‐of‐climate‐change‐in‐a‐global‐hotspot‐for‐tempera te‐marine‐biodiversity‐and‐ocean‐warming/ KEYWORDS: climate change. diseases and introduces species. "Resistance and resilience to coral bleaching: Implications for coral reef conservation and management. global extinctions. Salm (2003). In response to the temperature‐induced coral mortality. The study suggests a need for close attention to the cross‐scale adaptation challenges facing local communities that depend on natural resources. Poulter.com/science/article/pii/S096098221101030X KEYWORDS: global climate change. It identifies adaptation arenas across geographic scales that create challenges and opportunities for local adaptation. The paper analyses cross‐scale adaptation challenges in the coastal fisheries in a municipality in Norway.02.ca/arctic/index.1016/j. The authors found that. macroalgae. et al." Current Biology 21(21): 1828‐1832. B.wiley. "Seaweed communities in retreat from ocean warming.

travel cost method. N. coastal environment. and K. Wilkinson. In temperature climates.. Vaughan (2011). Climate change.019 http://www. C. et al. myosin. acid‐base balance. modeling Wilby. providing important information on each species’ ability for physiological adaptation in order to maintain function in response to global temperature increases. (1997). climate change.1747‐6593. DOI: 10. M.1111/j. W.x http://onlinelibrary. An adaptive management scheme could provide a way to incorporate newly available information into management decisions for the no‐take reserve. (2008). "Latitudinal variations in the physiology of marine gammarid amphipods.1747‐6593.com/science/article/pii/S0306456597000612 KEYWORDS: Crustacean. Brodie (2011). temperature.1111/j.ecolecon. variation Whiteley. with an increase in levels of expression as temperature increases in temperate and Antarctic species.The authors discuss the potential role of heat shock proteins as an additional strategy in the response of temperate crustaceans to thermal stress DOI: 10. physiology. P. This paper used available biological and economic data for an overexploited population of the leopard grouper to study if closing parts of the population to fishing would allow sustainable use and maximum economic benefits. The authors suggest that recognising that adaptation is highly context and scale dependent.sciencedirect." Water and Environment Journal 25(2): 271‐281. distribution. heat shock protein Wielgus.00220. The physiological and biochemical adaptations of ectothermic species to latitudinal temperature change have been shown to influence their distribution patterns.sciencedirect. marked physiological differences have been observed between summer and winter crayfish with seasonal changes in haemocyanin oxygen affinity and changes in the relationship between pH and temperature. gulf of California. amphipod. climate change. High non‐consumptive benefits would be achieved with large closures because the abundance of the leopard groupers would increase.1016/j. oxygen consumption. The results suggest that fishing should be closed in all spawning areas and in at least 50% of the adjacent areas. biochemical. et al. S.com/doi/10. "Assessing the ecological and economic benefits of a no‐take marine reserve.04.http://www. including actin and myosin heavy chain (MHC). fisheries.wiley. marine. Catchment Management and Coral Reef Conservation: a practical guide for Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 115 115 . (2011). M. muscle. et al. actin. This study investigated the physiological capabilities of amphipod distributions along a natural thermal gradient in the Atlantic and Arctic Oceans. DOI: 10. Temperature‐adaptive responses of metabolic rates and muscle contractibility were examined across molecular and whole animal levels. "Hallmarks of organisations that are adapting to climate change. their inventory provides a practical basis for reviewing the priorities and progress on adaptation capacity building within public and private sector organisations alike.00220.02.x/abstract KEYWORDS: adaptation. marine protected areas. gene regulation. N.com/science/article/pii/S0921800908002073 KEYWORDS: adaptive management. L. "Seasonal and latitudinal adaptation to temperature in crustaceans..2011. This paper explores the question as to 'what do organisations that are adapting to climate change look like?. organisation.1016/j. groupers. latitude.1016/s0306‐4565(97)00061‐2 http://www. S.2010.com/science/article/pii/S002209811100075X KEYWORDS: adaptations.2010. J. Rastrick. Taylor.. Marine recreational fishing." Journal of Thermal Biology 22(6): 419‐427. protein synthesis. bioeconomics. R. Results demonstrated species‐specific physiological variation as a function of latitude. E.027 http://www. Sala.sciencedirect. Sea level rise Whiteley.com/content/u68018m324363037/ KEYWORDS: Economic benefits." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 400(1‐2): 70‐77. an organisation might not necessarily exhibit all these features. DOI: 10.2008." Ecological Economics 67(1): 32‐40. Temperature also has an effect on rates of transcription of several proteins in the muscle. water sector. E. strategy.springerlink. and J.jembe. marine reserves. However.

nih. fisheries.coastal resource managers to reduce damage from catchment areas based on best practice case studies. Evidence reveals rapid community turnover. physiology. migration. K. would improve our understanding of climate change effects on coral reef fishes. physiology. global Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 116 116 . "4° C and beyond: what did this mean for biodiversity in the past?" Systematics and Biodiversity 8(1): 3‐9.html KEYWORDS: biodiversity.1242/jeb. thresholds. Townsville.net/html_bura/ficha/params/id/52412857. the authors outline what information this knowledge can provide to climate‐change integrated conservation strategies in order to enable long‐term persistence of biodiversity. however there is little evidence for broad‐scale extinctions due to climate warming.org/cgi/content/abstract/213/6/894 KEYWORDS: ecosystem management. Other questions concerned fish demographics. physiology. and (iv) priority.1242/jeb. "Crucial knowledge gaps in current understanding of climate change impacts on coral reef fishes. S. climate change. resilience. K. Scientists that had published three or more papers on the effects of climate and environmental factors on reef fishes were invited to submit five questions that. with a focus on the problem of catchment areas neighboring zones under management. if addressed.nlm. Catchment areas are locations channeling freshwater of terrestrial and atmospheric origin and are characterized by their inputs of sediments and nutrients to a given ecosystem. Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network and Reef and Rainforest Research Centre. (ii) achievability. all of which could be affected by climate change. behaviour. global warming. K.aspx?refid=77359&referrer=GCRMN KEYWORDS: climate change.ncbi.short http://www.037895 http://jeb. suggesting limited prejudice and identified the need for increased interdisciplinary and collaborative research. This book reviews and discusses management procedures for coral reefs and coastal ecosystems.. Irrespective of their individual expertise and background. scientists scored questions from diverse topics similarly. reef ecosystem. (2010).universia. The increase in anthropogenic sediments. Recommendations for future climate‐change integrated conservation strategies are presented here. The item were (i) identifying a gap in knowledge. M. historical records. ocean acidification..biologists. Irrespective of their expertise and background. DOI: 10. conservation. Adjeroud. The highest scoring questions are presented and should act as a guide for directing future research. DOI: 10. Australia. behaviour and management. climate change Wilson. nutrients. would improve understanding of climate change on reef fishes. coastal ecosystem.reefbase. conservation. ISBN: 0 642 322228 7 http://www. increasing CO2. D. fossil records. et al. DOI: 10. fisheries. (2010). K." Journal of Experimental Biology 213(6): 894‐900. Adjeroud.org/content/213/6/894. coral reef ecology. M. scientists scored questions from different topics similarly.037895 http://jeb. through 11 specific recommendations to managers based on the analysis of 33 case studies.gov/pubmed/20190114 KEYWORDS: ecosystem management.org/resource_center/publication/main. "Crucial knowledge gaps in current understanding of climate change impacts on coral reef fishes. coral reef ecology.. conservation. et al. Relevant scientists were asked to propose 5 questions that.1080/14772000903495833 http://biblioteca. J." Journal of Experimental Biology 213(6): 894‐900. if addressed.biologists. persistence. suggesting limited bias and recognition of a need for greater interdisciplinary and collaborative research. migrations. This article focuses on intervals of time in the fossil and long‐term ecological record that display similar magnitudes and rates of climate change to those predicted for the next century. providing a foundation for better evaluation and management of climate change impacts on coral reefs and associated fish communities. climate warming. community turnover. pollutants and freshwater inputs are threatening coastal ecosystems. coral bleaching. Given the knowledge of these biotic responses. et al. behaviour. management procedures Willis. S. Bennett. This book highlights the need for better management procedures of catchment areas. (iii) applicability to a broad spectrum of species and reef habitats. (2010). adaptation Wilson. catchment area. development of novel ecosystems and thresholds from one stable ecosystem state to another.

community relations. This work investigates the benefit of successful management interventions on coral reefs during the climate change associated warming that is predicted to occur in the near future.1890/08‐0963.1890/08‐0963. and closed areas.com/wps/find/bookdescription.com/journals.warming.org/doi/abs/10. "Community engagement and climate change: learning from recent Australian experience. Australia.emeraldinsight. A.1 http://www. called 'ReefState' was developed to aid this task. et al. Hilborn. Local‐scale management of ecological factors will be of critical importance in shaping the future trajectories of coral reef ecosystems. climate. The paper also summarises a number of factors believed to be important to effective climate change community engagement strategies DOI: 10. zooanthellae species Worm. Australia Woerdman. with worst case scenarios predicting that reefs will become devoid of coral cover and associated biodiversity by 2050. The paper explores the effectiveness of community engagement strategies in improving climate mitigation and adaptation outcomes. The approach is that of institutional economics. Under lower rates of warming." Marine Ecology‐Progress Series 295: 157‐169. S. with special emphasis on political transaction costs and path dependence. J. CO2 limitation. the authors investigate geographic patterns of coral bleaching in 1998 and 2002 and outline a synergism between heat stress and nutrient flux as a major causative mechanism for those patterns. (2004).. economics. coral reef. E. The central Great Barrier Reef.htm?articleid=1863635&show=abstract KEYWORDS: environmental management." International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management 2(2): 134‐147. Wooldridge.elsevier. B. T. is used as a case study. et al. Australia. including catch restrictions.int‐res." Ecological Applications 19(6): 1492‐1499. S. dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN). The study provides evidence for the oft‐expressed belief that improved coral reef management will increase the regional‐scale survival prospects of coral reefs to global climate change. Ed. uncertainty. depending on local context. et al.esajournals.. Wiseman. Elsevier. coral bleaching.1108/17568691011040399 http://www.1 KEYWORDS: bleaching threshold.com/abstracts/meps/v295/p157‐169/ KEYWORDS: belief network. ocean acidification. global warming. Australia. citizen participation. Great Barrier Reef Wooldridge. decision support. and T. community composition. ISBN: 0‐44‐51573‐9 http://www. Great Barrier Reef. Done (2009). "Improved water quality can ameliorate effects of climate change on corals. as well as to provide some opportunities to overcome them. coral damage and recovery. DOI: 10. resilience. Done. despite global warming impacts. (2010). This tool integrates management intervention outcomes within a 'belief network' of linked variables that describe future warming.. It highlights the importance of explicitly planning community engagement as critical components in facilitating effective climate mitigation and adaptation strategies. "Rebuilding global fisheries.print/703606/description#description KEYWORDS: policy." Science 325(5940): 578‐585. "Precursors for resilience in coral communities in a warming climate: a belief network approach. The objective of this book is to analyse the institutional barriers to implementing market‐based climate policy. Williamson. L. J. the persistence of hard coral dominated reefs beyond 2050 will still rely on the ability of corals to adapt thermal tolerance and management that produces local condition constraining excessive algal biomass during inter‐disturbance intervals.. A prototype decision‐support tool. Using major data sets from the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). The authors analyze current trends from a fisheries and conservation perspective. adaptation. R. http://www. (2009). gear modification. (2005). Impacts of international fleets and the lack of alternatives to fishing complicate prospects for rebuilding fisheries in many poorer Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 117 117 . Combined fisheries and conservation objectives can be achieved by merging diverse management actions. The institutional economics of market‐based climate policy. coral bleaching.

impacts of climate change.springerlink. mussels. management actions. Nicastro.short KEYWORDS: fisheries assessment. "The combination of selection and dispersal helps explain genetic structure in intertidal mussels. DOI: 10. South Africa. (2011). I. This paper: (i) proposes the IFRAME framework as a tool for assessing and forecasting fishery and ecosystem risks and identifies management objectives.1007/s00442‐010‐1788‐9 http://www. this study used regional oceanographic data and lineage‐specific responses of mussels to environmental conditions to examine gene flow and local selection processes within the two populations. which consist of two distinct genetic lineages in South Africa. Barriers to dispersal and environmental gradients can result in observed patterns of genetic differentiation among adjoining coastal populations. et al." Ices Journal of Marine Science 68(6): 1318‐1328.oxfordjournals. C. "An IFRAME approach for assessing impacts of climate change on fisheries. G. whereby physiological tolerances may explain the exclusion of western lineage mussels from the east coast of South Africa.1093/icesjms/fsr073 http://icesjms.1126/science. Hollowed. I. tolerance Zhang. biogeographic region. and risk indices for assessing fisheries affected by climate changes. R. B. indicators. (2011). DOI: 10.. management.com/content/1316l126593x2v20/ KEYWORDS: adaptation. highlighting the need for a global perspective on rebuilding marine resources.sciencemag. DOI: 10. It was discovered that mussels from the eastern lineage were more tolerant to sand accumulation and increased temperatures compared with mussels from the western lineage. A.. ocean dynamics. Zardi.org/content/325/5940/578.short KEYWORDS: restore marine ecosystems. dispersal. gene flow.1173146 http://www. This is most likely attributed to naturally higher body temperatures experienced by mussels from the eastern lineage." Oecologia 165(4): 947‐958. K. physiology. forecasting. In order to explain the phylogeographic structure of the intertidal mussel Perna perna. and (ii) discusses current fisheries management systems and suggests implications for management under changing climate conditions. rebuilding marine resources. macro‐ecology. vulnerable species. IFRAME. climate change. evolutionary divergence. et al.org/content/68/6/1318. The authors propose a new assessment framework for evaluating the performance of management strategies relative to the goals of an ecosystem approach to management (EAM) under different climate change scenarios. 118 118 Marine Adaptation Network Annotated Bibliography Climate change adaptation in the marine environment Updated 15/05/2013 .regions. reference points.

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