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ARIC Arabic Class Notes

Part 8

Topics
Classification of Verbs

Pronoun Summary

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Revision History
Date

Ver Author

Revision Comments

Sep. 24, 2011

Zahid Naeem

Classification of Verbs

Jan. 14, 2012

Zahid Naeem


Added

Jan. 21, 2012

Zahid Naeem

Added more pages for

Jun. 4, 2012

Zahid Naeem

Added Pronoun summary and notes on

Jul. 15, 2012

Zahid Naeem

Added slides for Exception, Oath and Diptote

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ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 8 (ver. 5)

Classification of Verbs

...

II

III

IV

VI

VII

VIII

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)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 8 (ver. 5

An Intermediate Dictionary of Verb Conjugation - Numbering

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( ) Classification of Verbs Example

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( ) Classification of Verbs Example

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)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 8 (ver. 5

( ) Classification of Verbs Example

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)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 8 (ver. 5

( ) Classification of Verbs Example

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)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 8 (ver. 5

And when they hear ill speech, they turn away from it.
(28:55)

Answer to the
Condition
In this example

is



can be a nominal or
verbal sentence.
is ,
If
than
will become

...

is prefixed with a < >,

if it meets certain conditions. E.g., if


it is a nominal sentence or there is
in it. For a complete list, see

subsequent pages

If
is prefixed with a < >

is not made ,
is
even if the
the

Verb of the
Condition


In this example is
will always be


or

is ,
If
than
will become
)) (
)) (

)

Instrument of
the Condition


In this example is

signifies a

(conditional clause), and there are



many
( instruments of

condition)

Generally

belongs to one

of two categories:
o
: Ones, which change the


and
verb in


o
: Ones, which do not
and
change the verbs in

, to .
to

belongs to this group

changes the meaning of




and

to future,
even if the verbs are

See subsequent pages for more details

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 8 (ver. 5)

should be preceded with , if it meets certain conditions.



For example, if
is a , it will be preceded with a

And if My slave asks you


about Me, than surely I am
near (2:186)


Also, if

) , it will be preceded with a


contains a (


If I see Bilal, what should
I tell him


There are other conditions which require

to be preceded

with . These are described in subsequent pages.

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 8 (ver. 5)

10


Instruments of Condition -


Two categories of

When Our verses are


recited to him, he says,
"Legends of the former
peoples." (68:15)

If you go,
I (will) go

Whatever you
drink, I (will) drink

If, When

If

Whoever

Whichever

Whatever

Wherever

Whenever

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 8 (ver. 5)

Neither of the two verbs



or
(
) is
made


Both the verbs (

and

) are made

( It makes two
verbs )

Whatever

11


Instruments of Condition -

When Ramadan
comes, doors of the
Paradise are opened

if you support Allah, He will


support you and plant firmly
your feet (47:7) :

Whichever dictionary we find


in the bookshop, we will buy it

Whoever does an atoms weight of


good, shall see it (99:7):
And whatever good you do, Allah
knows it (2:197)
:



Whatever you say,
we believe you


ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 8 (ver. 5)

Whenever you travel,


I (will) travel


Wherever you stay, I
(will) stay (there)


12

should be preceded with , if it (


) meets one of the following conditions:
Whoever obeys Allah and His
messenger, has indeed achieved
a great success (33:71) :

If you travel, I will (also)


travel

Whatever the circumstances be, I do not


lie

Whoever puts on silk (dress) in this world, will not put it on in the
Hereafter

Whoever deceives us, is not


one of us

If you see Hamid, ask him


about the time of departure

If you find the patient sleeping, dont wake him up

is a verb having only one form, e.g.


. These have no or
ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 8 (ver. 5)

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Once

is

is preceded with , its verb will not be even if



If you travel, I will (also) travel


In this case, the whole
If, in the above example,
will result in the verb in

is said to be


was not used in the
, it will cause to be dropped, which

to be , as shown below:

If you travel, I (will also) travel

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 8 (ver. 5)

14

Classification of Verbs

II

III

IV

VI

VII

15

VIII

IX

( )
)
(
)
(

)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 8 (ver. 5

Pronouns Summary




[]
[]


[]
[]


[]



[]

[]


16

Only the letters highlighted


in red represent the

Please note a further


breakdown is often done at
advanced levels, but is not
shown here for brevity. For
only example, in
is the

is the sign of , and

plural. For simplicity,


however, we will consider
as
for now.

= ] [

)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 8 (ver. 5

The Absolute Object


Bilal beat me
a beating

is a of the verb occurring in the sentence used along with the


verb, for the sake of emphasis. It is always


Four Uses of

The book was printed
twice




Here the

is

a substitute for
the verb

which is omitted
In this case, only the

To specify the
number

To emphasize the
meaning

I thank
you



As a substitute for
its verb


To specify the type
of action

And Allah spoke to Ms


directly :

He died the death of


martyrs

is used and the verb is omitted

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 8 (ver. 5)

17

Deputies of the Masdar



The following words deputize for and are therefore
, and are grammatically

regarded as

Flog them eighty stripes

I know him fully well

A number with the


as its

spoke to me harsh
Hewords

Do you accord me this kind of


reception?

A demonstrative pronoun
with the as its

A synonym of
the

I lived a happy life

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 8 (ver. 5)


with the as their


Words

This is for

I understood the
lesson very well

And you love wealth with an


abounding love :

An adjective of
the , which
itself is omitted

The cognate

I worked hard in a way nobody else did

See subsequent pages for more on these topics

A pronoun referring
to the

18

**
The Cognate Masdar
***

A cognate masdar is one which is not the masdar of the verb used in the sentence, instead it is
related to the verb in its common root. Following two situations apply:

From two different forms


And devote yourself to Him with
complete devotion

And you love wealth with an


abounding love :

Form II
Masdar
Masdar:

Root:

Form V
Ma
Masdar:

Root:

) ( Form IV
Ma
Masdar:

Ma
Masdar:



Root:
Root:

Common root
*

cog-nate - \kg-nt\ : word related to another by common root

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 8 (ver. 5)

Common root
**

***

( Form III): To meet : Derivation


19


It is a word, which has the same meaning as the masdar but has less letters than the masdar. Every
verb has a masdar. But in the derived forms of verbs, i.e.
, there could be along
with the regular masdar. Mostly Form II has

regular masdar on the pattern of


.


:
:
Number of letters in each word:

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 8 (ver. 5)

on the pattern of along with its

Form II

Form V

5
20


The Exception
The
excepted

The tool of
exception

The one from which the


exception is made

All the students have


passed except Hamid



is a particle used as an instrument of exception. There are
many other instruments of exception, including the following
important ones.


ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 8 (ver. 5)

21


Types of Exception

is

not mentioned

is
mentioned

All students came except Hamid

No one came except


Hamid

The guests have arrived


except their luggage

is of a
different kind

than

Does anyone fail except the


lazy?

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 8 (ver. 5)

is of the

The sentence
is an
affirmative
sentence

I have visited all European countries,


except Greece

The sentence is a
negative, prohibitive
or interrogative
sentence?


Open the windows except
the last one

same kind as

22

Declension of Exception with illa




When is used as the instrument of exception, the declension of depends on
the type of exception, as shown below

is

not mentioned

is of a
different kind

than



As required by the
sentence, as if

is not mentioned

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 8 (ver. 5)



OR
Same as

is
mentioned

is of the
same kind as

The sentence is a
negative, prohibitive
or interrogative
sentence?

The sentence
is an
affirmative
sentence

Declension


with

of

23

Examples for illa


Allah forgives all
sins except shirk



, which is , is mentioned

is

not mentioned

is of a
different kind

than



As required by the
sentence, as if

is not mentioned

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 8 (ver. 5)



OR
Same as

is
mentioned

is a kind of

is of the
same kind as

The sentence is a
negative, prohibitive
or interrogative
sentence?

The sentence is an
affirmative sentence
The sentence
is an
affirmative
sentence

Declension


with

of

24

Examples for illa


/

No students were
present except
Hamid
Declension of

is the same as

OR

is

, which is , is mentioned
is

not mentioned

mentioned

is of a
different kind

than

is a student

is of the
same kind as

The sentence is a negative sentence



As required by the
sentence, as if

is not mentioned

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 8 (ver. 5)



OR
Same as

The sentence is a
negative, prohibitive
or interrogative
sentence?

The sentence
is an
affirmative
sentence

Declension


with

of

25

Examples for illa


Every sickness has a
medicine except death


, which is , is mentioned

is

not mentioned

Death is
not a
sickness

is of a
different kind

than



As required by the
sentence, as if

is not mentioned

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 8 (ver. 5)



OR
Same as

is
mentioned

is of the
same kind as

The sentence is a
negative, prohibitive
or interrogative
sentence?

The sentence
is an
affirmative
sentence

Declension


with

of

26

Examples for illa


No one failed except Bilal

To get the correct declension for

is not mentioned

is

not mentioned

is of a
different kind

than



As required by the
sentence, as if

is not mentioned

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 8 (ver. 5)



OR
Same as

is
mentioned

in the case of , remove


from the sentence. )
( In
so it is . Of
this case,
is
course, removing will make the
meaning opposite of what the original
sentence means. This is done only to
establish the declension.

is of the
same kind as

The sentence is a
negative, prohibitive
or interrogative
sentence?

The sentence
is an
affirmative
sentence

Declension


with

of

27

The Oath

One of the important things in Arabic is the Qasam
or a statement etc. It has its own rules.

: taking an oath to emphasize a point, a matter,

The following are the instruments of Qasam used to commence an oath

is not used frequently.


Instead
, which is its is
The word

used more often.

/



:

These 3 particles are also used to commence an oath and


act as
, so the noun after them is
. They

deputize for the verb

, which itself is not mentioned


This particle is only used with and


:
:

...

is used to negate any idea, notion,


This is not related to the
. is by itself. The before the

thought or an opinion in the minds of the listener(s) being addressed. The person initiating an oath uses
before the instrument of oath to spell out that the matter is not as you think, but rather it is what he will
) . In the Quran,
has been used 8 times. Even in
state after taking the
. ( /
everyday conversations, one may hear
ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 8 (ver. 5)

28



The
or
.
requires
, which may be
as a rule, requires emphasis.
There are instruments of emphasis, which one must understand to fully appreciate the power & force of

. Insha Allah we will study the instruments of emphasis on the next few pages.

negative

positive

negative

positive

No
emphasis
required

Requires
emphasis

No
emphasis
required

Requires
emphasis

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 8 (ver. 5)

The sentence in

negative

positive

No
emphasis
required

Requires
emphasis

can be either

( positive) or

2.
( negative) . The negative sentence
has particles like
1.

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Instruments of Emphasis in


when it is



, it is emphasized using one of the following

When

is
three instruments of emphasis

Examples

Instrument of Emphasis

being used in the

positive
Requires
emphasis

negative
No
emphasis
required

There is no example of

Quran as

It is used in the Quran but less frequently

...


:

:


They are used most frequently in the ... :
Quran for

. The combination of
:

brings greater and
stronger emphasis than either of 1 and 2, :
above, used by itself



:

30

When

is a
no emphasis is required
)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 8 (ver. 5

Instruments of Emphasis in
when it is



, it is emphasized
is

Instrument of

Emphasis

:


:

When

using

Examples


...

:

positive
negative
, it means Please remember when a sentence commences with
Requires
No
that it is
(present but
invisible). Here

is latent and
emphasis
emphasis
are some examples from the Quran:
required




:



:
as In such cases, i.e. when qasam is latent, we will analyze
:

:

positive

negative

positive

negative

Requires
emphasis

No
emphasis
required

Requires
emphasis

No
emphasis
required



:



:


, no emphasis is required
is a
31

When

)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 8 (ver. 5

Instruments of Emphasis in
when it is

When


is
following instruments of emphasis
Examples

negative
No
emphasis
required

positive

positive

Requires
emphasis

By Allah, I
Requires
.No
love you a
emphasis
emphasis
lot
required

is a
, no
When

emphasis is required

Instrument of Emphasis

...


, it is emphasized using one of

negative

...
)


:

+ +
The lm is prefixed to a present tense verb and the nn is
of emphasis
are used
suffixed to it. These two instruments
together when:
positive
negative
1. The present tense verb denotes futurity and
2.The lm is not separatedRequires
from the verb No
emphasis
This lm is called
of receiving the
( the lmemphasis
required

qasam) and the nn is called
Only the lm (

) , prefixed to a present tense

verb, is used for emphasis when:


1. Either the present tense verb does not denote futurity or
2.The lm is separated from the verb
In both of these cases
is not used.

Please remember if the mode of expression,


+

+ e.g. , appears alone

and the is latent (present but invisible).


Here is an example from the Quran:
:

then for sure it is


ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 8 (ver. 5)

32

( combining the qasam with the shart) is another important grammatical element of the qasam.

Now let us join the

to this sentence; by adding

However, is not commonly used. Instead

( the letter lm))


is used and it denotes . Together and are written as

or - The lm that paves the way for the qasam.


This lm is called

It is not qasam itself, but it is an indication of the qasam.
Verb

Meaning

Type/Form


Form II
:

To trample under the foot


To trample continuously (intensive action ;) walking on ground so that a walk
able path is paved. The masdar

Form IV

has come to mean introduction


Same meaning as in Form II

When the qasam is introduced to the shart sentence, the jawab should conform to the qasam and not to the
shart Now the
shart.
will become
. Hence the that was in the
will no longer be there
in the

ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 8 (ver. 5)

33

in
Examples of

- The lm that paves the way for the qasam.

, it means is used , as in
It is not qasam itself, but it is an indication of the qasam. So wherever

there is an implicit qasam there.
If the statement is from anyone other than Allah, e.g. from the believers, the qasam can be estimated to be:

If the statement is from Allah, the qasam can be estimated to be:

(about 60 times). Following are some examples of this lm in

is

:
34

is frequently used in the Quran



the Quran, grouped by the type of


When




:

)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 8 (ver. 5

in
Examples of

is

When

=
:
to go off course, to deviate

i.e. it is sister of is , while


:
)
:
(

Note that this verb is



...:

is

When




:

:

35

is

When



:




:


:

:
:

Note, if the sentence is negative, there is no need


for emphasis in the


)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 8 (ver. 5

in
Examples of

) (Its use in the Quran is prolific


is


:
:

www.tanzil.net is an excellent search engine for the Quran,


where you can search using Arabic text. For example, If you were
it would find 61 places in the Quran where it is used. to type

36

When


This last nn is

:

) =



:

Please ponder over the following examples. Identify the
qasam and the jawab-ul-qasam.


:



:
)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 8 (ver. 5


The Diptote

Diptote is a

noun is the one that declines, i.e. dhun, dhan, dhin; Noun that

noun, which:

changes the final vowel to indicate its function in the sentence.

1. Does not accept the tanwin, and


2. Does not decline fully, i.e. it takes fathah instead of kasrah when it is majrr

Reasons for a noun being diptote


For one reason
1. Nouns which end in

This alif is either written as a dot-less ya ( )or a long alif (). In both cases, the pronunciation is Aa. While is
used most often as in:

, but if it is preceded by a proper ya ( with two dots), then it changes to a



2. Nouns which end in
Please note if the hamza is the third radical and is not extra,
:
then the word is not diptote. Refer to Book 3 Key, Lesson 34
Alif followed by hamza ().

for more detail and examples




and
.
3. Nouns on the patterns of

These are called
/
( The ultimate plural).




) (

long alif ( )as in

For two reasons (see next page)


ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 8 (ver. 5)

37


The Diptote

Reasons for a noun being diptote
For one reason (see previous page)
For two reasons
Proper Nouns -

:


2. Foreign Proper Nouns -
:



3. Altered (modified) Proper Nouns -
:
These are on the pattern of
. The verb means to do
1. Feminine Proper Nouns -

justice, to put things in proper place, to change or alter.


means something which is changed or altered. The name


is the altered form of ( a triptote), which is the
of ( to flourish/thrive/prosper, live long)
4. Proper nouns ending with extra
:

5. Proper nouns resembling verbs:
like , like

6. Compound Proper Nouns


ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 8 (ver. 5)

Adjectives -

1. Adjectives on the patterns of


:


2. Adjectives on the patterns of
:

:
3. Altered form of adjective -
a) Numbers on the pattern of
or :

b)

for ( three at a time)


for ( two at a time)
The word
( plural of )

:
38


The Diptote

In one of the following two conditions, a diptote will become a triptote, i.e. it will decline fully:

1
If it is decorated with the definite article

I stayed in these hotels

If it becomes

Diptote
Write with a red pen


-
ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 8 (ver. 5)

I gave the loaf to the hungry boy

I taught in the schools of Madinah

I contacted Bilals friends

Triptote (declines fully)


Write with the red pen


-
39

Examples of Grammatical Analysis for

is a non-Arabic

Please remember the proper noun


name and therefore it is diptote

40



( )


)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 8 (ver. 5

Examples of Grammatical Analysis for




41



( )

.

.

.

)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 8 (ver. 5

of Examples of Grammatical Analysis for

.







.

42

, is on the , which is the plural of


The word

(

/
The
ultimate plural),
as plural and at the same time it is
). Other examples include: ( its 3rd radical is ya
of the . These are called the

, and they are treated just as the
in


pattern of








)ARIC Arabic Class Notes Part 8 (ver. 5