# Course Syllabus Title: Mathematics as a Second Language Credits: 3 Instructor: Judi Laird 802-656-8186 Meeting dates

and times: Monday, July 14-Friday, July 18 8:00-500 Location: Votey 209 Course Description: This course lays the groundwork for all the Vermont Mathematics Initiative courses that follow. A major theme is understanding algebra and arithmetic through language. The objective is to provide a solid conceptual understanding of the operations of arithmetic, as well as the interrelationships among arithmetic, algebra, and geometry. Topics include arithmetic vs. algebra; solving equations; place value and the history of counting; inverse processes; the geometry of multiplication; the many faces of division; rational vs. irrational numbers and the one-dimensional geometry of numbers. All of the topics in this course are taught in the context of the mathematics curriculum in grades K-6. Goals: All VMI teachers should learn from this course: The intimate relationship between arithmetic, algebra, and geometry The history of counting: from tally marks to scientific notation and beyond Mathematics IS problem solving The concept of equality, parsing an equation, solving algebraic equations, translation between algebra and English, the importance of multiple representations and multiple solution strategies Numbers as adjectives, and its applications to addition, fractions, and place value Understanding addition through language Processes and inverse processes Subtraction as the art of un-adding Signed numbers and the one-dimensional geometry of addition Understanding multiplication and division through language The geometry of multiplication The Pythagorean theorem Multiplying signed numbers The many faces of division Rational numbers and the arithmetic of fractions Rates and the geometry of division Decimal expansions, estimation, commensurability in historical context, and rational and irrational numbers The real number system Learning Outcomes: Day 1 Objectives: The mathematical topics for the sessions on the opening day of the VMI include algebra vs. arithmetic, understanding addition via language, and history of counting and place value. Participants will: 1. Deepen their problem solving skills through examples which illustrate the importance of and relationship among different problem solving strategies.

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2. Understand the intimate relationship between arithmetic and algebra (opposite sides of the same coin). 3. Appreciate and utilize the parallel between constructs of English grammar and conceptual understanding of the number concept 4. Gain a deeper understanding of concepts such as numbers, numerals, literal symbols, variables, equality, equations, existence and uniqueness of solutions. 5. Understand the importance of the Fundamental Principle of Addition and use it to gain insight into and understanding of concepts such as addition and subtraction, place value, arithmetic of fractions, factoring algebraic expressions, and conversion of units During the course of the day, teachers will receive three sets of notes (modules) which will augment and elaborate upon the topics discussed during the day. The modules will serve both as a resource for the VMI participant's own learning, as well as the professional development undertaken by the VMI participant at a later time. Homework to help reinforce today's learning will be assigned at the end of the day. Day 2 Objectives: Participants will understand the importance of processes and inverse process, delineate direct from indirect problems, and apply the general concepts of processes to the operations of arithmetic In particular, the objective of the day is to develop a solid understanding of subtraction, including the multiple representations of subtraction as the inverse of addition, the missing addend formulation, subtraction as algebra, subtraction as modeling difference rather than take-away, the need for signed numbers, multiple representations for addition and subtraction of signed numbers, and the geometry of addition and subtraction as modeled by the number line. Day 3 Objectives: The topic the third day of the VMI course Mathematics as a Second Language is multiplication and division. Participants will: 1. Gain the same depth of understanding of multiplication and division that they now have of addition and subtraction. 2. Gain an appreciation of the intimate relationship between multiplication and geometry and apply that knowledge to problem solving. 3. Build their understanding of the Pythagorean Theorem and its role in calculating distance. 4. Begin to develop understanding of rates and apply that understanding to problem solving. 5. See that multiplication and division had the lion's share of the “inventory” problems and will increase their skill level in solving such problems. Day 4 Objectives: The objective of the day is to solidify our understanding of the mathematics studied to this point. The one new topic will be the arithmetic of fractions (the WHY behind the procedures), which will be based on the Fractions/Division skill problems sheet handed out with this schedule. Day 5 Objectives: Teachers will continue to build fluency in translating among the various representations of rational numbers, with special emphasis on repeating decimal expansions. Teachers will use decimal expansions to construct irrational numbers and to understand in what sense there are more irrational numbers than rational numbers. Emphasis will be placed on the representation of real numbers arithmetically as decimal expansions, geometrically as points on the number line, and the

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relationship between the two. Teachers will engage in consolidation of the knowledge of arithmetic gained in this course, with special emphasis on the nine “rules” of arithmetic.

**General Course Information
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Course Policies: As in all VMI courses, attention will be given to effective K-6 mathematics practice. This includes ongoing classroom observation by a VMI field mentor, conducting a systemic inquiry into practice in collaboration with the VMI mentor, demonstrating willingness to receive and use feedback about instructional practices, developing lesson plans in the context of overall curriculum, and sharing work with and critiquing work of other VMI teachers. Attendance Expectations Full attendance is required. In the event of an emergency requiring an absence, the participant will arrange with the instructor to make up all work that was missed on the day of the absence. No grade will be issued until submission of completed assignments. Religious Observance:

The official policy for excused absences for religious holidays: Students have the right to practice the religion of their choice. Each semester students should submit in writing to their instructors by the end of the second full week of classes their documented religious holiday schedule for the semester. Faculty must permit students who miss work for the purpose of religious observance to make up this work.

Contributions in Class: All participants are expected to contribute to class discussions, to share ideas and questions, to help other participants when possible and to share solutions to class and homework problems. Academic Honesty & Professionalism:

All students are required to be familiar with and adhere to the “Academic Honesty Policy Procedures” delineated in the most recent edition of “The Cat’s Tale”. (http://www.uvm.edu/~dosa/handbook/).

Accommodations:

Accommodations will be provided to eligible students with disabilities. Please obtain an accommodation letter from the ACCESS office and see one of the instructors early in the course to discuss what accommodations will be necessary. If you are unfamiliar with ACCESS, visit their website at http://www.uvm.edu/access to learn more about the services they provide. ACESS: A-170 Living Learning Center, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405. PH: 802-656-7753, TTY: call 711 (relay), Fax: 802-656-0739, Email: access@uvm.edu, Instant Messenger: UVMaccess. General office hours: 8:30am – 4:30pm Monday through Friday. Call to make an appointment.

Required and/or recommended readings: Math as a Second Language: A Course for Elementary and Middle School Teachers by Hebert and Kenneth Gross NCTM Principles and Standards for School Mathematics (2000 edition) Electronic Submissions/Internet Use: N/A

**Student Evaluation/Assessment
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Grading:

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Completion, correction, and revision of math problems and practice sets Completed required readings, responses and preparation for discussions Homework completed by next course Problem presentation and class notes Attendance, class participation and helpfulness to colleagues

Format for Expected Work: All homework assignments should be neat and organized with all work shown. All homework assignments should be photocopied before submitting the original copies to the instructor. Homework assignments should be revised and rewritten as necessary and retained for the participant’s portfolio. Scoring Rubrics: N/A Percentage Contribution of Each Assignment: Homework: 75% Problem presentation and class notes: 10% Attendance, class participation and helpfulness to colleagues: 15% Instructional Sequence

Date 7/14 Topic

7/15

The film problem Arithmetic vs. algebra Understanding arithmetic through language Arithmetic inventory, work on problems when Due Date: 7/15 inventory is completed 1. Read Modules 3-4 Subtraction 2. Alternative Subtraction Signed numbers Algorithm Discussion of portfolio/homework 3. Potato Race, Tally Marks, Signed Numbers Problem solving related to subtraction & Solving Equations Reporting out on the CD problem

Due Date: 7/16 1. Read Modules 5-6 2. Problem Solving Due Date: 7/17 1. Read Modules 7-8 2. Division Problems 3. Processes and Inverse Processes II Due Date: 7/17 1. Take home problems Due Date:8/15

Assignment 1. Read Modules 1-2 2. Homework Problems 1-4, optional 5-7

7/16

7/17

Potato Race and Oil Tank problems Multiplication and related problem solving The Pythagorean Theorem Problem solving related to the Pythagorean Theorem Rates, ratios, and geometry, and related problem solving Problem solving session on rates and conversion Arithmetic of Fractions Continuation of Arithmetic of Fractions Problem solving session on real numbers Presentations on real number problems Presentations on signed numbers

7/18

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