# Course Syllabus Title: Number Theory Credits: 3 Instructor: Judi Laird Meeting dates and times: Monday – Friday

, 8am-5pm, July 15-19 Location: Votey 207 Course Description: This course introduces teachers to the branch of mathematics known as number theory, in which one studies properties of positive integers with respect to the operations of multiplication and division. Emphasis in this course is placed on the mathematical content of number theory and on how number theory is taught in grades K-8. Particular attention is given to student learning of number theory in these grades. Topics include the division algorithm, properties of prime and composite numbers, the sieve of Eratosthenes as a way of understanding distributions of primes and composites, the infinitude of primes, the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, properties of the greatest common factor and methods of computing the greatest common factor including the Euclidean algorithm, properties of least common multiples, use of base ten and expanded notation, writing numbers and computing in different bases, and arithmetic progressions.

Goals: Teachers will:

Explore patterns and relationships among counting numbers Develop deeper understanding of our base ten number system Appreciate importance of “Number play”- getting friendly with numbers, patterns, how system works - as adult learners and as elementary teachers Investigate research on the challenges students encounter as they develop their understanding of our number system Enrich K - 6 learning opportunities and problem solving based on a deeper understanding of Number Theory

Learning Outcomes:

Content Skills, knowledge, attitudes Properties of positive integers with respect to multiplication & division • prime & composite numbers • factoring of integers • factor diagrams • the sieve of Eratosthenes • Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic • relatively prime numbers • greatest common factor • least common multiple • least common denominator Objectives Measurable outcomes Learning Processes Learning tasks and materials

• determine whether a positive integer is prime or composite • determine the prime factorization of a number through multiple representations such as factor diagrams, ordered pairs of factors, factor trees, division algorithm • generate and apply the fundamental theorem of arithmetic; express positive integers as the unique product of primes • determine whether two positive integers are relatively prime

Number Theory Survey (Day 1 AM) 6 Columns (Day 1 AM) LCMs/GCFs (Day 1 AM) Tests for Divisibility (Day 1 AM, Day 3 PM) Multiplication on Fingers (Day 1 AM) Factor Trees and Diagrams (Day 2 AM) Lockers at School (Day 2 PM) Common Factors & GCFs (Day 3 AM) Division Algorithm Statement and Examples

-2• Division algorithm • Euclidean algorithm • Divisibility rules • connections among prime numbers, GCF, & LCM and work with fractions • linear functions, slope & factorization • identify the factors & multiples of any positive integer • use multiple representations to determine the GCF & LCM of a pair of positive integers • relate the division algorithm and the existence of a unique quotient and remainder when dividing an integer by a positive integer • apply understanding of divisibility rules to real life situations • generate and informally prove rules for divisibility • compute with fractions using prime factorization (reduce to lowest terms) • relate GCF & LCM to functions & the graph of the function Number Systems • use of base 10 & expanded notation • scientific notation • writing & computing in different bases to strengthen understanding of base ten system • positional and non-positional systems; history of number systems • determine properties of integers that depend on expanded notation • compute in different bases (+ ─ ×) • translate numbers between bases • express numbers in other bases using pictorial models & exponential notation • differentiate between positional and nonpositional number systems Expanded notation (Day 1 PM) Base conversion (Day 1 PM) Base homework (Day 1 PM) Computing in different bases (Day 1 PM) Russian Peasants’ Multiplication (Day 1 PM) Numbers on the cards (Day 1 PM) (Day 2 PM) Clock Arithmetic (Day 2 PM) Number Bracelets (Day 2 PM) UPC Code and Check Digits (Day 2 PM) Calculations of GCF and Euclidean Algorithm (Day 3 AM) Orange Juice (Day 2 AM) Beefalo (Day 2 AM) Equivalent Fractions through Graphs (Day 2 AM) GCF through Functions (Day 2 AM) GCF through Functions and the Euclidean Algorithm (Day 3 AM) Sam & Etta (Day 3 AM) Addition of Fractions and LCMs (Day 3 AM) Adding Numbers (Day 3 AM)

Thousandaire (Day 3 PM) Broken Rock (Day 3 PM)

Attic Greek, Egyptian Hieroglyphics, and Mayan systems (Day 5 AM)

Counting Problems and Arithmetic Progressions • combinations & permutations • arithmetic progressions • Gauss’ formula

• recognize situations that are counting problems & arithmetic progressions • use a variety of representations & strategies to solve counting & arithmetic progression problems

Letter Arrangements and Counting Problems (Day 4 AM) Arithmetic progressions (Day 4 PM, Day 5 AM) Gauss’ formula extended to 3 dimensions (Day 5 AM)

General Course Information Course Policies: As in all VMI courses, attention will be given to effective K-6 mathematics practice. This includes ongoing classroom observation by a VMI field mentor, conducting a systemic inquiry into practice in

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collaboration with the VMI mentor, demonstrating willingness to receive and use feedback about instructional practices, developing lesson plans in the context of overall curriculum, and sharing work with and critiquing work of other VMI teachers. Attendance Expectations: Full attendance is required. In the event of an emergency requiring an absence, the participant will arrange with the instructor to make up all work that was missed on the day of the absence. No grade will be issued until submission of completed assignments. Religious Observance:

The official policy for excused absences for religious holidays: Students have the right to practice the religion of their choice. Each semester students should submit in writing to their instructors by the end of the second full week of classes their documented religious holiday schedule for the semester. Faculty must permit students who miss work for the purpose of religious observance to make up this work.

Contributions in Class: All participants are expected to contribute to class discussions, to share ideas and questions, to help other participants when possible and to share solutions to class and homework problems.

**Academic Honesty & Professionalism:
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All students are required to be familiar with and adhere to the “Academic Honesty Policy Procedures” delineated in the most recent edition of “The Cat’s Tale”. (http://www.uvm.edu/~dosa/handbook/).

Accommodations:

Accommodations will be provided to eligible students with disabilities. Please obtain an accommodation letter from the ACCESS office and see one of the instructors early in the course to discuss what accommodations will be necessary. If you are unfamiliar with ACCESS, visit their website at http://www.uvm.edu/access to learn more about the services they provide. ACESS: A-170 Living Learning Center, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405. PH: 802-656-7753, TTY: call 711 (relay), Fax: 802-656-0739, Email: access@uvm.edu, Instant Messenger: UVMaccess. General office hours: 8:30am – 4:30pm Monday through Friday. Call to make an appointment.

**Required and/or recommended readings:
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Course text and notes Number Theory for Teachers by Ted Marsden

● Modules and notes from Math as a Second Language and Functions courses. ● NCTM Principles and Standards for School Mathematics (2000 edition) Electronic Submissions/Internet Use: N/A

Student Evaluation/Assessment

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**Grading: Grading will be based upon:
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Completion, correction, and revision of math problems and practice sets Completed required readings, responses and preparation for discussions Problem presentation and class notes Attendance, class participation and helpfulness to colleagues

Format for Expected Work: All homework assignments should be neat, organized, and should show all work. All homework assignments should be photocopied before submitting the original copies to the instructor. Homework assignments should be revised and rewritten as necessary and retained for the participant’s portfolio. Scoring Rubrics: N/A Percentage Contribution of Each Assignment:

Completion, correction, and revision of math problems and practice sets Completed required readings, responses and preparation for discussions Problem presentation and class notes Attendance, class participation and helpfulness to colleagues

Instructional Sequence: Date 7/21 Topic Number Theory Pre-Inventory Prime and composite numbers LCD & GCF Factor trees Trading Coins and Introduction to Bases Assignment LCD and GCF problems Blocks of rocks II Harvest Festival Computations in base conversations and computations Primes and composites

1. 2. 3. 4.

5. Base problem and Venn diagram discussion Factor diagrams The Numbers on the Cards Division algorithm into modular arithmetic Working Together problem Modular arithmetic continued Modular Arithmetic Working together Numbers on the cards Universal Product code The Matrix XX

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Due Date: 7/22 1. Working Together 2. Modular Arithmetic 3. Who Wants to be a Thousandaire? 4. Base problems Due Date: 7/23 1. Matrix XX 2. Number Bracelets 3. UPC 4. GCD through Functions 5. Thousandaire

7/23

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GCF through functions Number Bracelet Game Sam and Etta Lottery/Letter Arrangements Applications to counting problems Counting Problem solutions Divisibility rules Caesar Cipher Broken Rock Problem Slopes and Equivalent Fractions Problem Solving (Thousandaire) Number Theory in the Elementary Classroom Ancient number systems

Due Date: 7/24

1. Letter Arrangements, Counting Problems 2. Cypher 3. Divisibility Problems 4. Problem Solving Due Date: 7/25 End of Course Homework Packet due August 15th

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