Pressure vessel - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Pressure vessel
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A pressure vessel is a closed container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure substantially different from the ambient pressure. The pressure differential is dangerous and fatal accidents have occurred in the history of pressure vessel development and operation. Consequently, pressure vessel design, manufacture, and operation are regulated by engineering authorities backed by legislation. For these reasons, the definition of a pressure vessel varies from country to country, but involves parameters such as maximum safe operating pressure and temperature.

Vertical pressure vessels installed in a structure

1 Uses 2 Pressure vessel features 2.1 Shape of a pressure vessel 2.2 Construction materials 2.3 Scaling 2.3.1 Scaling of stress in walls of vessel 2.3.2 Spherical vessel 2.3.3 Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends 2.3.4 2:1 Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends 2.3.5 Gas storage 2.4 Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels 2.5 Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels 3 Design and operation standards 3.1 List of standards 4 Design Features 4.1 Leak before burst 4.2 Safety valves 5 Pressure vessel closures 6 Alternatives to pressure vessels 7 History of pressure vessels 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Pressure vessels are used in a variety of applications in both industry and the private sector. They appear in these sectors as industrial compressed air receivers and domestic hot water storage tanks. Other examples of

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4 millimetres (36 in) and a width of 1. Head shapes are frequently either hemispherical or dished (torispherical). In addition to adequate mechanical strength. could be adversely affected by welding. To manufacture a cylindrical or spherical pressure vessel. and storage vessels for liquified gases such as ammonia. butane. unless special precautions are taken. it is possible to use seamless pipe for the shell. A common design is a cylinder with end caps called heads. pneumatic reservoirs. The outer skin carries both the aircraft maneuvering loads and the cabin pressurization loads. A unique application of a pressure vessel is the passenger cabin of an airliner. autoclaves. However. road vehicle airbrake reservoirs. but shapes made of sections of spheres. pressure vessel design codes and application standards (ASME BPVC Section II.Wikipedia. achieved by rolling or forging. recompression chambers. so that for example the most economic shape of a 1. here vessels are cylindrical with 2:1 semi-elliptical heads or end caps on each end. nuclear reactor vessels. submarine and space ship habitats. and cones are usually employed.Pressure vessel . rail vehicle airbrake reservoirs.000 litres (35 cu ft). EN 13445-2 etc. A pressure tank connected to a water well and domestic hot water system Theoretically. hydraulic reservoirs under pressure. and therefore more expensive.8 millimetres (67 in) including the 2:1 semi-elliptical domed end caps. thus avoiding many inspection and testing issues. Some mechanical properties of steel. cylinders.[1] However. Pressure vessel features Shape of a pressure vessel Pressure vessels can theoretically be almost any shape. the free encyclopedia http://en. a spherical pressure vessel has approximately twice the strength of a cylindrical pressure vessel with the same wall thickness.701.) contain long lists of approved materials with associated limitations in temperature range. and many other vessels in mining operations.600 psi) pressure vessel might be a breadth of 914. Steel pressure vessel 2 of 9 3/6/2014 12:36 AM . In applications where carbon steel would suffer corrosion. 250 bars (3. A disadvantage of these vessels is that greater breadths are more expensive. Many pressure vessels are made of steel. For cylindrical vessels with a diameter up to 600 mm. especially for vessels used in low temperatures. special corrosion resistant material should also be used. so most pressure A few pressure tanks. oil refineries and petrochemical plants. used to hold propane Smaller pressure vessels are assembled from a pipe and two covers. a spherical shape is difficult to manufacture. propane. More complicated shapes have historically been much harder to analyze for safe operation and are usually far more difficult to construct.wikipedia. pressure reactors. rolled and possibly forged parts would have to be welded together. current standards dictate the use of steel with a high impact resistance. distillation pressure vessels are diving cylinders. Construction materials Theoretically almost any material with good tensile properties that is chemically stable in the chosen application could be employed. and LPG. chlorine.

Wikipedia. the free encyclopedia http://en. is volume. Because (for a given pressure) the thickness of the walls scales with the radius of the tank. provides the necessary tension to resist the internal pressure. Pressure vessels may be lined with various metals. Such vessels can be assembled from modular pieces and so have "no inherent size limitations". is the pressure difference from ambient (the gauge pressure). but are much more difficult to manufacture. Scaling No matter what shape it takes.[4] There is also a high order of redundancy thanks to the large number of individual cables resisting the internal pressure. (See below for the exact equations for the stress in the walls.[2][3] Pressure Vessels may also be constructed from concrete (PCV) or other materials which are weak in tension. and maximum allowable stress σ of the material in addition to the pressure P and volume V of the Some pressure vessels are made of composite materials. The normal (tensile) stress in the walls of the container is proportional to the pressure and radius of the vessel and inversely proportional to the thickness of the walls. where is mass. Scaling of stress in walls of vessel Pressure vessels are held together against the gas pressure due to tensile forces within the walls of the container. A "leakproof steel thin membrane" lines the internal wall of the vessel. wrapped around the vessel or within the wall or the vessel itself. forming a composite overwrapped pressure vessel. the mass of a pressure vessel is . the minimum mass of a pressure vessel scales with the pressure and volume it contains and is inversely proportional to the strength to weight ratio of the construction material (minimum mass decreases as strength increases[5]). or polymers to prevent leaking and protect the structure of the vessel from the contained medium. Other very common materials include polymers such as PET in carbonated beverage containers and copper in plumbing.Pressure vessel . The exact formula varies with the tank shape but depends on the density. 3 of 9 3/6/2014 12:36 AM .) Spherical vessel For a sphere. Due to the very high tensile strength of carbon fibre these vessels can be very light.[6] Therefore pressure vessels are designed to have a thickness proportional to the radius of tank and the pressure of the tank and inversely proportional to the maximum allowed normal stress of the particular material used in the walls of the container. ceramics. The composite material may be wound around a metal liner. such as filament wound composite using carbon fibre held in place with a polymer. the mass of a tank (which scales as the length times radius times thickness of the wall for a cylindrical tank) scales with the volume of the gas held (which scales as length times radius squared).wikipedia. ρ. Cabling. This liner may also carry a significant portion of the pressure load.

although in geometric terms it is a capsule. "tankage efficiency" is independent of pressure. Gas storage In looking at the first equation. Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a sphere is . or of pressure vessel mass to stored gas mass. thus . in SI units. For a stored gas. So we can see that there is no theoretical "efficiency of scale". and the overall width is W + 2R 2:1 Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends In a vessel with an aspect ratio of middle cylinder width to radius of 2:1. the factor PV . in terms of the ratio of pressure vessel mass to pressurization energy. the free encyclopedia http://en. . where R is the radius W is the middle cylinder width only. for example. (see gas law) The other factors are constant for a given vessel shape and material. Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends This is sometimes called a "bullet" for its shape. is the maximum working stress that material can is the density of the pressure vessel material. at least for the same temperature. . For storing gases.Pressure vessel .Wikipedia. although some tanks. So. PV is proportional to the mass of gas at a given temperature. is in units of (pressurization) energy. For a cylinder with hemispherical ends. and very cold helium for best possible . such as non-spherical wound composite tanks can approach this. carbon fiber for best possible . 4 of 9 3/6/2014 12:36 AM .[7] Other shapes besides a sphere have constants larger than 3/2 (infinite cylinders take 2). a typical design for a minimum mass tank to hold helium (as a pressurant gas) on a rocket would use a spherical chamber for a minimum shape constant.

p is internal gauge pressure.Wikipedia. the Pressure Equipment Directive of the EU (PED).org/wiki/Pressure_vessel where is hoop stress. as this gives the necessary twice the strength in the circumferential direction to the longitudinal. Det 5 of 9 3/6/2014 12:36 AM . where is hoop stress. p is internal gauge pressure.Pressure vessel . in the case of the ASME BPVC this term is included in the material stress value when solving for Pressure or Thickness. technically referred to as the "Design Pressure" and "Design Temperature". A vessel that is inadequately designed to handle a high pressure constitutes a very significant safety hazard. the free encyclopedia http://en. Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels Wound infinite cylindrical shapes optimally take a winding angle of 54. The Factor of safety is often included in these formulas as well. Because of that. and all others variables as stated above. For example. and t is thickness of the cylinder wall. Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS).7 degrees. is stress in the longitudinal direction. the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) (UG-27) formulas are:[9] Spherical shells: Cylindrical shells: where E is the joint efficient. quality control of welds and in-service corrosion allowances. Australian Standards in Australia and other international standards like Lloyd's. r is the inner radius of the sphere.[8] Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a cylinder is . Almost all pressure vessel design standards contain variations of these two formulas with additional empirical terms to account for wall thickness tolerances. or stress in the circumferential direction. is stress in the longitudinal direction. Germanischer Lloyd. A vessel can be considered "shallow-walled" if the diameter is at least 10 times (sometimes cited as 20 times) greater than the wall depth. r is the inner radius of the cylinder. or stress in the circumferential direction. .[10] Design and operation standards Pressure vessels are designed to operate safely at a specific pressure and temperature. and t is thickness of the cylinder wall. the design and certification of pressure vessels is governed by design codes such as the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code in North America. CSA B51 in Canada.wikipedia.

Metallic Pressure Vessels. harmonized with the Pressure Equipment Directive (97/23/EC). AS/NZS 1200: Pressure equipment. FRP tanks and vessels. allowing the contained fluid to escape and reducing the pressure.[14] Safety valves 6 of 9 3/6/2014 12:36 AM . AIAA S-080-1998: AIAA Standard for Space Systems . AIAA S-081A-2006: AIAA Standard for Space Systems . the free encyclopedia http://en. Stoomwezen Norske Veritas. Design Features Leak before burst Leak before burst describes a pressure vessel designed such that a crack in the vessel will grow through the wall. EN 286 (Parts 1 to 4): European standard for simple pressure vessels (air tanks). CODAP: French Code for Construction of Unfired Pressure Vessel. Many pressure vessel standards.wikipedia. prior to growing so large as to cause fracture at the operating pressure. Société Générale de Surveillance (SGS S. or require pressure vessels to meet more stringent requirements for fatigue and fracture if they are not shown to be leak before burst. Stoomwezen: Former pressure vessels code in the Netherlands.In-service inspection API 510. harmonized with Council Directive 87/404/EEC. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII: Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels. so only the volume of the compressible part such as gas is used. Extensively used in Europe. pressure vessel. ASME PVHO: US standard for Pressure Vessels for Human Occupancy.A. including the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code and the AIAA metallic pressure vessel standard. and pressure piping code.). List of standards EN 13445: The current European Standard. and Pressure Components. HSE guidelines for pressure systems. any incompressible liquid in the vessel can be excluded as it does not contribute to the potential energy stored in the vessel. Pressurized Structures. B51-09 Canadian Boiler.Wikipedia. either require pressure vessel designs to be leak before burst. BS 4994: Specification for design and construction of vessels and tanks in reinforced plastics. AD Merkblätter: German standard. replaced in the UK by BS EN 13445 but retained under the name PD 5500 for the design and construction of export equipment.[11] AS 3788 Pressure equipment .Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs). BS 5500: Former British Standard. also known as RToD: Regels voor Toestellen onder Druk (Dutch Rules for Pressure Vessels).[12] ISO 11439: Compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders[13] IS 2825-1969 (RE1977)_code_unfired_Pressure_vessels. Note that where the pressure-volume product is part of a safety standard. harmonized with the Pressure Equipment Directive.Pressure vessel .

Pressure at the point of use is the result of the hydrostatic pressure caused by the elevation difference. where the following may be used: Gravity controlled systems[16] which typically consist of an unpressurized water tank at an elevation higher than the point of use.Pressure vessel . to be used as boilers for making steam to drive steam engines.0 kPa) per foot of water head (elevation difference). A municipal water supply or pumped water is typically around 90 pounds per square inch (620 kPa). Gravity systems produce 0.wikipedia. the free encyclopedia http://en. wrapped with high tensile steel banding and steel rods to secure the end caps.000 psi (69 MPa) pressure vessel from 1919. Examples can be seen in domestic water collection systems. filters and filtration systems. pig traps. pressure vessels.000 psi (69 MPa). particularly in Great Britain. Typically pressure vessel closures allow maintenance personnel to load a sphere or pig into a pig trap for pipeline cleaning purposes. See also American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Bottled gas Composite overwrapped pressure vessel Compressed natural gas Demister Fire-tube boiler Gas cylinder 7 of 9 3/6/2014 12:36 AM .Wikipedia. a 6-inch (150 mm) diameter tank was developed in 1919 that was spirally-wound with two layers of high tensile strength steel wire to prevent sidewall rupture.[15] Alternatives to pressure vessels Natural gas storage Gas holder Depending on the application and local circumstances. and the end caps longitudinally reinforced with lengthwise high-tensile rods. Pressure vessel closures Pressure vessel closures are pressure retaining structures designed to provide quick access to pipelines. alternatives to pressure vessels As the pressure vessel is designed to a pressure. In an early effort to design a tank capable of withstanding pressures up to 10. there is typically a safety valve or relief valve to ensure that this pressure is not exceeded in operation.[17] History of pressure vessels Large pressure vessels were invented during the industrial revolution.[18] A 10. Inline pump controllers or pressure-sensitive pumps.43 pounds per square inch (3. Design and testing standards and a system of certification came about as the result of fatal boiler explosions.

The equations for the other geometries are derived in a similar manner 8. The Americal Society of Mechanical Engineers.High pressure cylinders for the on-board storage of natural gas as a fuel for automotive vehicles" (http://www. Repair.asp) 16. Scanned by Google Books: http://books. Strengthened Glass for Pipleine Systems (http://www. §5. The mass is determined by multiplying by the density of the material that makes up the walls of the spherical vessel. ^ Pressure Vessel Closure (http://www. ^ Pushard. Retrieved 2009-04-17. Paul (2009-05-01).com / ^ . ^ ANSI/AIAA Harvey. "Maintenance and Repair of Glass-Lined Equipment". ^ Hearn. Doug. ^ Richard Budynas. p. 6. Retrieved 2009-04-17. "Alternatives to pressure vessels in domestic water systems" ( /pumps_or_tanks. the free encyclopedia http://en.asme.Pressure vessel . SAI ^ Frietas. Shigley's Mechanical Engineering Design. and John T.aspx?ProductID=356464). and Pressure Components. 199– Combining these equations give the above results.. Jr. ISBN 978-0-07-312193-2. Popular Science monthly. McGraw-Hill..Metallic Pressure Vessels.iso. ^ An International Code 2007 ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code (http://www. Mechanics of Materials (fourth /Student%20Contest%20Entries/2007%20Contest%20Entries /26-Paul%20Puskarich%20-%20Glass%20for%20Pipeline%20Systems. Retrieved 14 November 2011. 12.Wikipedia. pp. "Domestic water collection systems also sometimes able to function on gravity" (http://www. 2007.pdf) 11. Pressurized Structures. API.cfm?item_s_key=00010564). ^ "AS 1200 Pressure Vessels" ( 17. 1 Jul 2007. (1997). June New York:McGraw-Hill. Space Systems .com/store2/Details. ISBN 0-7506-3265-8. pg 108 9.shtml).1 Gasket Head (vessel) Minimum Design Metal Temperature (MDMT) Pressure bomb . The volume of the spherical surface then is 4πr2 d = 4πr3 P/2σ.Third Edition. Chemical Engineering.harvesth2o.saiglobal. ^ "High Pressure Vessels". Mechanics of Materials 1. 3.wikipedia. Harvesth2o. Rating. ^ Ferdinand P. ^ For a sphere the thickness d = rP/2σ. ^ Pushard.ihs.J. January 1919. ^ MIT pressure vessel lecture (http://web.shtml). 13. 2006-07-18. 1998 5. Russel Johnston.gmic. 1 Mar 2005. 10. ^ "Pressure Vessel Inspection Code: In-Service 8 of 9 3/6/2014 12:36 AM . Nisbett. ISBN [[Special:BookSources/780073659350|780073659350 [[Category:Articles with invalid ISBNs]]]] Check |isbn= value (help).harvesth2o.9". MIT. ^ Puskarich. 18. Doug (2005). "Making a Metal-Lined Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel" (http://www.a device for measuring leaf water potentials Rainwater harvesting Relief valve Safety valve Shell and tube heat exchanger Vapor-Liquid Separator or Knock-Out Drum Vortex breaker Water well Water-tube boiler Notes 1. and Alteration" (http://global. 463. Retrieved 2009-04-17. Beer."Gas cylinders . J. Chapter 9: Butterworth-Heinemann. 8th ed. Harvesth2o. DeWolf.. 14. Freyer and J. ^ NASA Tech Briefs.pdf) (PDF). An Introduction to the Mechanics of Elastic and Plastic Deformation of Solids and Structural Materials . E.11/www/modules/pv. E. O. 4. Further the volume of the gas is (4πr3 )/3. "7. ^ Ingenious Coal-Gas Motor Tank. page 27. Retrieved 2009-04-17.techbriefs. where r is the radius of the tank. ISO.

1st ed. Fenster. (2008. Ugural.htm) EU Classification (http://ec. Megyesy.europa.europa. 9 of 9 3/6/2014 12:36 AM .org/w/index. External links Use of pressure vessels in oil and gas industry (http://articles.cfm) Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology ( /ASME/DesignTools/DesignTools.wikipedia.) Pressure Vessel Handbook. OK Further reading Megyesy.pressurevesselhandbook. By using this /International_Boiler_Pressure.wikipedia.html) Retrieved from "http://en. www. Basic formulas for thin walled pressure vessels. shell and nozzle designs (http://www. EU Pressure Equipment Directive website (http://ec.Wikipedia.: Oklahoma /spv_sector/index. the free encyclopedia http://en. Oklahoma City.europa. 4th ed.html) EU Pressure Equipment Directive 97/23/EC categorization software (http://www. PV /ped/index_en. Design handbook for pressure vessels based on the ASME code.aspx) EU Simple Pressure Vessel Directive (http://ec. Popov. Eugene F. a non-profit organization.hrs-heatexchangers. 14th Edition. E. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. additional terms may apply. "Pressure Vessel Handbook." PV Publishing. Eugene F.Pressure vessel . Inc.K.php) ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel website (http://www.C.mathalino. Engineering Mechanics of References A. Advanced Strength and Applied /guideline2-13_en. USA. /mechanics-and-strength-of-materials/thin-walled-pressure-vessels) Educational Excel spreadsheets for ASME head.asmedl. 14th ed.php?title=Pressure_vessel&oldid=595192120" Categories: Pressure vessels Gas technologies This page was last modified on 12 February 2014 at 20:29.asme. you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation.compressionjobs. with examples ( /en/resources/ped-calculations/ped-data.

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