Second Moment of Iinertia and Ssection mModulus
In the preceding section, we defined the first moment as
S = ∫ y ⋅ dA
where y is the distance between an infinitesimal section dA and the neutral axis as shown in (Fig. 42-1). In this section, we wishall define the second moment (or the moment of inertia) b replacing y with y2! in "#. 4.1.1!
I = ∫ y 2 ⋅ dA
b d y d A y h d A d y y d A d y y d y y
m a x d Ay
( a ) R e c t a n g l e
( b ) H ( v e r t i c a l )
( c ) H ( h o r i z o n t a l )
( d ) G e n e r a l s h a p e
Fig. 4-2-1 $arious sections and infinitesimal segments
In %ection 2-4&, we learned that the bending moment is the integral of the axial force of the infinitesimal section, σ.dA, multiplied b the distance from the neutral axis, y!
M = − ⋅σ ⋅d A ∫y
(his e#uation applies to all )inds of sections. In %ection 2-4*, we learned that the stress is proportional to the cur+ature, φ, and the distance from the neutral axis, y, as expressed in "#. 2.&*.'.
σ = − E φ y
%ubstituting this into "#. (2.&4.'),
2. we can state the contribution of these three s#uares to the moment of inertia as
∆I ≈ y 2 ⋅ dA = 1& 2 × ( '2 ×12 ) = *3. b.')
as we learned in %ection 2-&*.2
y 2 ⋅ b ⋅ dy =
(4.! Ffor example. (he digits in the right-hand column show the contribution of each row to the moment of inertia./01-I. For a the rectangular section in Fig.dy and
I = ∫ y 2 ⋅ dA = ∫
−h . dA .2 M = E φ y ⋅ d A = E I φ ∫
(4.2.& ×12 ' mm 4
where y is the distance from the neutral axis to the centroid of these s#uares. 1s was stated earlier.
. 32 7 12 7 12 7 32 .4. the moment of inertia pla s an important role relating the bending moment to the cur+ature (cur+ature is a measure of how or at what rate the beam bends).2.
Figure 4-2-2 shows the initial window of the software. 4-2-1a. 1*2 x 12' mm4).2. the contribution of the uppermost row is
∆I = ∫ y 2 × '2 × dy = 32 ×12' mm4
as indicated listed in the column of numbers that appear in Fig. If we are interested in obtaining an approximate and simpl arithmeticnumerical 456 +alue.2)
(hus. . (he total moment of inertia is shown at the bottom of the column (I . each s#uare measures 12 x 12 mm.
! For the section in Fig. 2222 mm2. 4-2-'). For the section of Fig. In these windows. 4-2-'d will ha+e a smaller cur+ature and. A .
Fig.EI into σ . I.
.EI indicates that the beam with the section in Fig.Fig. 4-2-' =oment of inertia (unit! 12' mm4)
= − E φ y %ubstituting φ = M .
therefore. the a+erage distance to the extreme rows (or s#uares) is large but the area dA is small. 1ll the sections ha+e the same area./01-I
9ress :trl 7 . ranging from <2 to 1<23 x 12 ' mm4. whereas but for the section in Fig. 4-2-'. (he large differences are caused primaril b the different contributions of the extreme rows ( ∆I ≈ y 2 ⋅ dA in Fig. 4-2'a the a+erage distance to the extreme rows is as small as y =1& mm . smaller deflection for a gi+en load o+er a gi+en span than the other sections. draw the four sections shown in Fig. but +er different moments of inertia. )e three times to create four windows. 4-2-'c. (he expression
φ = M . 4-2-2 8indow of . 4-2-'d the a+erage distance is as large as y = '& mm .
Z is indicated at the bottom of the window. the maximum stress in the section σmax is
σ max =
y max M I
as we learned in %ection 2-4&. it will fail at a bending moment of
Mf = I y max
(4.ow. (he section modulus of a rectangle is
Z= I y max = bh ' 12 h bh 2 = 2 *
9ress the >bending stress? button in the windows showing the sections in Fig.2. . .2.*)
8e call the coefficient
Z = I y max
(4. 4-2-' and obtain the stress distributions shown in Fig. If we define the distance between the edge of the section and the neutral axis ymax as shown in Fig. we can rewrite "#. y.2./01-I. the strength of a beam is proportional to the section modulus.2.*) as
M f = Zσ f
the >section modulus.σ =−
y M I
If the beam is made of brittle material with a strength σf.? In .ote that the stresses +ar linearl with the distance from the neutral axis.<)
In other words. Aecause the section modulus of the section in Fig.2. 4-2-4c. 4-2-4d is much larger than that of the section in Fig. 4-2-4.2. I-shaped section should be in the +ertical direction if it is used as a beam.
4-2-4 %tress distribution
------------------(echnical terms! flanges and web------------------Figure & shows the t pical section of a steel I-beam.
. %:i+il 4structural56 engineers call the strips in the top and bottom >flanges? and the +ertical plate a >web. 4-2-& %teel I-beam -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Example 4-2-21! :alculate the section modulus of the section shown in Fig. 4-2-*.
a 3a X 3a a 2a a 2a
3 Fig.Fig. Flanges are t picall thic)er than web as shown in the figure to resist bending moment effecti+el . ? which ma loo) li)e the s)in (web) that Boins the toes of swans.
we should not use this techni#ue for calculating the section modulus. 4-2-3! a rectangular section of @ a x &a minus two sections of *a x 2a. Cecalling I = bh ' . we can shorten the calculation process b partitioning the section as shown in Fig. because ymax of the outer rectangle (4a) is different from that of the inner ones ('a). we e+aluate the moment of inertia as the total of three parts (top.12 for rectangular section. we obtain the same result. 4a.
( &a ) × ( @a ) 2 − 2 × ( 2a ) × ( *a ) 2
1*2 ' 32 ' @@ ' 12* ' a − a = a < a ! NGF ' ' ' '
Fig.oting ymax . we ha+e
I y max 424 4 a 12*a ' = ' = 4a '
Aecause the section considered is s mmetrical about its neutral axis. middle and bottom)!
I = ∫ y 2 ⋅ dA = ∫ y 2 ⋅ &a ⋅ dy + ∫
'a 4a 'a −' a
y 2 ⋅ a ⋅ dy + ∫
y 2 ⋅ &a ⋅ dy
1@& 4 &4 4 1@& 4 424 4 a + a + a = a ' ' ' '
( &a ) × ( @a ) ' − 2 × ( 2a ) × ( *a ) '
*42 4 21* 4 424 4 a − a = a ! /D ' ' '
Eowe+er. 4-2-3 9artitioning of the section (not for section modulus)
4-2-<). 4= tendenc Hand failureIas a purist ma)es me thin) it is not the horiGontal axis. 8hat ou sa would be correct if ou turn thr section b <2 deg..
' ( 'a ) × ( 4a ) I= ' ( a ) × ( 'a ) − 2×
= 1*a 4 − 4.& a
−2. 4-2-@). ou will get an incorrect answer. 4-2-@ is
−2.2&a 4 + &. (his techni#ue is onl +alid onl for the moment of inertia of a section s mmetrical about the bending horiGontal axis.&a 4 = 11.or can we use this short-cut for calculating the moment of inertia of a section not s mmetrical about the horiGontal axis (Fig. 8e should correct it in 4-16
Example 4-2-12! :alculate the moment of inertia and the section modulus of a triangular section (Fig.&a 4 ! NGF
If ou use the short-cut. %hould we call it the axis x or the bending axis56 (he correct moment of inertia of the section in Fig. because the neutral axes of the partitioned sections are different from each other.e+er do this because neutral axes are different 4(oshi! I remembered what this section is usuall called! 1n in+erted (-section.& a
−1.&a 4 > @.& a
y 2 ⋅ 'a ⋅ dy + ∫
2. 4-2-@ .2&a 4 = @.& a
y 2 ⋅ a ⋅ dy = '.
(4. 4-2-12a. (he width of the slice dA is+aries as
f ( y ) = 2 R cos θ
Figure 4-2-12b shows the segment defined b dθ.2. (hat does not surprise us.2.Fig. 4-2-<.
Example 4-2-3! :alculate the moment of inertia of a circular section with a radius of R. 2h-'. (he dimension f(y) can be expressed as
2 y 2 h − y ! f ( y ) = h ! b or f ( y ) = − × b ' ' h
Aecause the area of the slice is f(y) dy. θ. we obtain
I y max bh ' bh 2 = '* = 2h .11)
Aoth the moment of inertia and the section modulus for the triangular section are smaller than those of rectangular section of b x h.oting that dθ is so small that the arc length R dθ
. we ha+e
I = ∫ y 2 ⋅ dA = ∫ bh ' 2 y y 2 ⋅ − ⋅ b ⋅ dy = −h .oting ymax .12)
. 4-2-< (riangular section
Solution! :onsider an infinitesimal slice of thic)ness of dy and width of f(y) as shown in Fig.' 24
(4. . as shown in Fig.' '* ' h
Solution! 8e define the angle between the neutral axis and the edge 4circumference56edge of the slice.
h 2 = πR 2
where h denotes the side dimension of the s#uare. is
I = ∫ y 2 dA = 2 R 4 ∫ = R4 2
−π . 4.12
h4 h4 ≈ 4π 12.
Example 4-2-4! Auilding columns or bridge piers are ma be subBected to bending moment both
. the moment of inertia. 4-2-12(a) is
dA = f ( y ) ⋅ dy = 2 R 2 ⋅ cos 2 θ ⋅ dθ
.12 ) ha+ing the same area. we obtain Fig. I. 4-2-12c that shows the in5 detail illustrating how we express dy in terms of R dθ and cosθ as follows.12)
Fig.oting that y = R ⋅ sin θ as shown in Fig.e. %ubstituting the abo+e e#uation into "#.2. 4-2-12 :ircular section
Jet us compare the result abo+e with that of a s#uare section ha+ing the same area.2
sin 2 θ cos 2 θ ⋅ dθ R4 4
sin 2 2θ ⋅ dθ =
πR ∫−π .
dy = R ⋅ dθ ⋅ cosθ
(he area of the slice in Fig. 4-2-12a.&*
showing that the moment of inertia of a circular section is similar to that of the s#uare section (
I = h 4 .2 (1 − cos 4θ ) ⋅ dθ =
(4.2. i.approximates the chord length.
1s we learned in :hapter 2..1×12 * mm ' y max '22
(he maximum stress caused b the bending moment of M x = &2 ×12 * . 1ssume that the tube section of Fig.' ×12@ mm 4 12 12
(he corresponding section modulus is
Zx = Ix 4@. 12
.and y-directions b earth#ua)e or storm effects.mm around about the inclined axis
shown in Fig. we can treat the moment acting on the cutit as a +ector. 4-2-11a is
* subBected to the bending moments of M x = M y = &2 ×12 . 4-2-11b.. the bending moment itself is not a +ector.' ×12 @ = = 1*.mm is
Mx &2 ×12 * = = '.. %ee Fig. (his t pe of column is often used in bridges.-mm 2 * Zx 1*.mm and compute the maximum stress
in the section1.
Fig. 4-2-11c. Aut if we cut the member and consider the forces at the cut. 0ou will remember that we did that for as we can do for axial forces.in x. 4-2-11 (ube section 555555
Solution! (he moment of inertia around the x-axis is obtained b
subtracting the moment of
inertiathat of the inner rectangle (422 x &22) from that of the outer one (&22 x *22)!
Ix = &22 × *22' 422 × &22' − = 4@. which shows showing the +ector summation of Mx and My.11 .1 ×12
(his is e#ui+alent to a bending moment of M = &2 2 ×12 * .
*1 .' ×12 * mm ' 2&2
* (he maximum stress caused b the bending moment of M y = &2 ×12 .&2 ..' ×12 *
(he stress distribution is shown in Fig.
. 4-2-12a. (he corresponding section modulus is
Zy = Iy y max = '&.11 + '.
Fig.mm is shown in
Fig. *22 mm).
* (he stress caused b the simultaneous bending moments of M x = M y = &2 ×12 . 4-2-12 %tress distribution
(he moment of inertia around the -axis is
Iy = *22 × &22 ' &22 × 422 ' − = '&.@ ×12 @ mm 4 12 12
Iy is smaller than Ix because of the smaller height (h . (he maximum stress is
σ = σ x + σ y = '.@ ×12@ = 14.&2 = *.mm is
&2 ×12 * = '. 4-2-12(b). 4-2-12c.-mm 2 14.(he stress distribution is shown in Fig..-mm 2
and occurs at corners where the moment Mx and My cause stresses of the same sense (tension or compression).
Fig.-mm2.-mm (using .-mm2 and a tensile strength of 1 . 1ssume that we can use a material with a compressi+e strength of 2 . 42-1'b. Ko it b trial and error. Kesign the section so that the area (the number of s#uares) is minimiGed.ote that the positi+e sign of the bending moment indicates that the bottom fiber will be in tension. and should not be discontinuous as shown in Fig. It is difficult to find the best solution directl .Design the best beam section
!o" about #Determine the optimum
proportions for an I-section resitingresisting moment$%&! 8e would li)ewish to design a beam section that can resist the a bending moment of 7&2 x 12' . (he section should be continuous as shown in Fig./01-I) with the limitation that the neither its height nor its and the width should not exceed @2 mm. 4-2-1' "xamples