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Waldemar Gor !ows!i Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland2 "bstract The article contains the competition problems given at he 1 st International Physics Olympiad (Warsaw, 1967 and their sol!tions" #dditionally it contains comments o$ historical character" Introd#ction One o$ the most important points when preparing the st!dents to the International Physics Olympiads is solving and analysis o$ the competition problems given in the past" %n$ort!nately, it is very di$$ic!lt to $ind appropriate materials" The proceedings o$ the s!bse&!ent Olympiads are p!blished starting $rom the '( IPhO in )igt!na ()weden, 19*+ " It is tr!e that some o$ very old problems were p!blished (not always in ,nglish in di$$erent boo-s or articles, b!t they are practically !navailable" .oreover, sometimes they are more or less s!bstantially changed" The original ,nglish versions o$ the problems o$ the 1st IPhO have not been conserved" The permanent )ecretariat o$ the IPhOs was created in 19*/" %ntil this year the Olympic materials were collected by di$$erent persons in their private archives" These archives as a r!le were o$ amate!r character and practically no one o$ them was complete" This article is based on the boo-s by 0" 1!n$alvi 213, Tade!s4 Pniews-i 253 and Waldemar 6or4-ows-i 2/3" Tade!s4 Pniews-i was one o$ the members o$ the Organi4ing 7ommittee o$ the Polish Physics Olympiad when the 1st IPhO too- place, while 0" 1!n$alvi was one o$ the members o$ the International 8oard at the 1st IPhO" 9or that it seems that credibility o$ these materials is very high" The di$$erences between versions presented by 0" 1!n$alvi and T" Pniews-i are rather very small (altho!gh the boo- by Pniews-i is richer, especially with respect to the sol!tion to the e:perimental problem " #s regards the competition problems given in )igt!na (19*+ or later, they are available, in principle, in appropriate proceedings" ;In principle< as the proceedings !s!ally were p!blished in a small n!mber o$ copies, not eno!gh to satis$y present needs o$ people interested in o!r competition" It is tr!e that every year the organi4ers provide the permanent )ecretariat with a n!mber o$ copies o$ the proceedings $or $ree dissemination" 8!t the needs are contin!ally growing !p and we have disseminated practically all what we had" The competition problems were commonly available (at least $or some time =!st only $rom the ''(I IPhO in 7anberra (#!stralia as $rom that time the organi4ers started p!tting the problems on their home pages" The Olympic home page www"=y!"$i>ipho contains the problems starting $rom the ''(III IPhO in )!db!ry (7anada " %n$ort!nately, the problems given in 7anberra (''(I IPhO and in Oslo (''(II IPhO are not present there" The net res!lt is s!ch that $inding the competition problems o$ the Olympiads organi4ed prior to )!db!ry is very di$$ic!lt" It seems that the best way o$ improving the sit!ation is p!blishing the competition problems o$ the older Olympiads in o!r =o!rnal" The &!estion arises, however, who sho!ld do it" #ccording to the )tat!tes the problems are created
This is somewhat e:tended version o$ the article sent $or p!blication in Physics Competitions in ?!ly 5@@/" eAmailB gor4-Ci$pan"ed!"pl
by the local organi4ing committees" It is tr!e that the te:ts are improved and accepted by the International 8oard, b!t always the organi4ers bear the main responsibility $or the topics o$ the problems, their str!ct!re and &!ality" On the other hand, the glory res!lting o$ high level problems goes to them" 9or the above it is absol!tely clear to me that they sho!ld have an absol!te priority with respect to any $orm o$ p!blication" )o, the best way wo!ld be to p!blish the problems o$ the older Olympiads by representatives o$ the organi4ers $rom di$$erent co!ntries" Poland organi4ed the IPhOs $or thee timesB I IPhO (1967 , (II IPhO (197+ and '' IPhO (19*9 " )o, I have decided to give a good e:ample and present the competition problems o$ these Olympiads in three s!bse&!ent articles" #t the same time I as- o!r 7olleag!es and 9riends $rom other co!ntries $or doing the same with respect to the Olympiads organi4ed in their co!ntries prior to the ''(III IPhO ()!db!ry " I IPhO (Warsaw 1967) The problems were created by the Organi4ing 7ommittee" #t present we are not able to recover the names o$ the a!thors o$ the problems" $heoretical problems Problem 1 # small ball with mass M D @"5 -g rests on a vertical col!mn with height h D Em" # b!llet with mass m D @"@1 -g, moving with velocity v@ D E@@ m>s, passes hori4ontally thro!gh the center o$ the ball (9ig" 1 " The ball reaches the gro!nd at a distance s D 5@ m" Where does the b!llet reach the gro!ndF What part o$ the -inetic energy o$ the b!llet was converted into heat when the b!llet passed tro!gh the ballF Geglect resistance o$ the air" #ss!me that g = 1@ m>s5" m v M
v I hori4ontal component o$ the velocity o$ the b!llet a$ter collision ! I hori4ontal component o$ the velocity o$ the ball a$ter collision
d We will !se notation shown in 9ig" 5"
#s no hori4ontal $orce acts on the system ball H b!llet, the hori4ontal component o$ moment!m o$ this system be$ore collision and a$ter collision m!st be the sameB
mv@ = mv + M! "
v = v@ − M !" m
9rom conditions described in the te:t o$ the problem it $ollows that
v >! "
#$ter collision both the ball and the b!llet contin!e a $ree motion in the gravitational $ield with initial hori4ontal velocities v and !, respectively" .otion o$ the ball and motion o$ the b!llet are contin!ed $or the same timeB
t= 5h " g
It is time o$ $ree $all $rom height h" The distances passed by the ball and b!llet d!ring time t areB
s = !t
and d = vt ,
! =s g " 5h
v = v@ − M g s " m 5h
d = v@ 5h M − s" g m
G!mericallyB d = 1@@ m" The total -inetic energy o$ the system was e&!al to the initial -inetic energy o$ the b!lletB
5 mv@ " "@ = 5
Immediately a$ter the collision the total -inetic energy o$ the system is e&!al to the s!m o$ the -inetic energy o$ the b!llet and the ballB
"m = mv 5 , 5 "M = M! 5 " 5
Their di$$erence, converted into heat, was
∆" = "@ − ( "m + " M "
It is the $ollowing part o$ the initial -inetic energy o$ the b!lletB
" + "M ∆" =1− m " "@ "@ 8y !sing e:pressions $or energies and velocities (&!oted earlier we get p=
p= M s 5 g v@ 5 5 m v@ 5h s 5h M + m " − g m
G!mericallyB p D 95,*J"
Problem % 7onsider an in$inite networ- consisting o$ resistors (resistance o$ each o$ them is r shown in 9ig" /" 9ind the res!ltant resistance $ A# between points # and 8" # # r r 8
Solution It is easy to remar- that a$ter removing the le$t part o$ the networ-, shown in 9ig" + with the dotted s&!are, then we receive a networ- that is identical with the initial networ- (it is res!lt o$ the $act that the networ- is in$inite "
Th!s, we may !se the e&!ivalence shown graphically in 9ig" E" r $A#
#lgebraically this e&!ivalence can be written as
$ A# = r + 1 1 1 " + r $ A#
5 $ A# − r$ A# − r 5 = @ "
This e&!ation has two sol!tionsB
$ A# = 1 5 (1 ± E r "
The sol!tion corresponding to ;A; in the above $orm!la is negative, while resistance m!st be positive" )o, we re=ect it" 9inally we receive
$ A# = 1 5 (1 + E r "
Problem & 7onsider two identical homogeneo!s balls, # and 8, with the same initial temperat!res" One o$ them is at rest on a hori4ontal plane, while the second one hangs on a thread (9ig" 6 " The same &!antities o$ heat have been s!pplied to both balls" #re the $inal temperat!res o$ the balls the same or notF ?!sti$y yo!r answer" (#ll -inds o$ heat losses are negligible"
#s regards the te:t o$ the problem, the sentence ;The same &!antities o$ heat have been s!pplied to both balls"< is not too clear" We will $ollow int!itive !nderstanding o$ this sentence, i"e" we will ass!me that both systems (# I the hanging ball and 8 I the ball resting on the plane received the same portion o$ energy $rom o!tside" One sho!ld reali4e, however, that it is not the only possible interpretation"
When the balls are warmed !p, their mass centers are moving as the radii o$ the balls are changing" The mass center o$ the ball # goes down, while the mass center o$ the ball 8 goes !p" It is shown in 9ig" 7 (scale is not conserved " Kisplacement o$ the mass center corresponds to a change o$ the potential energy o$ the ball in the gravitational $ield" In case o$ the ball # the potential energy decreases" 9rom the 1 st principle o$ thermodynamics it corresponds to additional heating o$ the ball" In case o$ the ball 8 the potential energy increases" 9rom the 1 st principle o$ thermodynamics it corresponds to some ;losses o$ the heat provided< $or per$orming a mechanical wor- necessary to rise the ball" The net res!lt is that the $inal temperat!re o$ the ball 8 sho!ld be lower than the $inal temperat!re o$ the ball #" The above e$$ect is very small" 9or e:ample, one may $ind (see later that $or balls made o$ lead, with radi!s 1@ cm, and portion o$ heat e&!al to E@ -cal, the di$$erence o$ the $inal temperat!res o$ the balls is o$ order 1@AE 1" 9or spatial and time $l!ct!ations s!ch small &!antity practically cannot be meas!red" 7alc!lation o$ the di$$erence o$ the $inal temperat!res was not re&!ired $rom the participants" Gevertheless, we present it here as an element o$ disc!ssion" We may ass!me that the wor- against the atmospheric press!re can be neglected" It is obvio!s that this wor- is small" .oreover, it is almost the same $or both balls" )o, it sho!ld not a$$ect the di$$erence o$ the temperat!res s!bstantially" We will ass!me that s!ch &!antities as speci$ic heat o$ lead and coe$$icient o$ thermal e:pansion o$ lead are constant (i"e" do not depend on temperat!re " The heat !sed $or changing the temperat!res o$ balls may be written as
%i = mc∆t i , where i = A or # ,
LereB m denotes the mass o$ ball, temperat!re o$ ball"
c A the speci$ic heat o$ lead and
∆ t i A the change o$ the
The changes o$ the potential energy o$ the balls are (neglecting signs B
∆"i = mgrα∆t i , where i = A or # "
LereB g denotes the gravitational acceleration, r A initial radi!s o$ the ball, α A coe$$icient o$ thermal e:pansion o$ lead" We ass!me here that the thread does not change its length" Ta-ing into acco!nt conditions described in the te:t o$ the problem and the interpretation mentioned at the beginning o$ the sol!tion, we may writeB
% = % A − A∆" A , $or the ball A , % = %# + A∆" # , $or the ball # "
A denotes the thermal e&!ivalent o$ wor-B A ≈ @"5+
cal " In $act, A is only a conversion ?
ratio between calories and =o!les" I$ yo! !se a system o$ !nits in which calories are not present, yo! may omit A at all" Th!s
% = (mc − Amgrα ∆t A , $or the ball A , % = ( mc + Amgrα ∆t # , $or the ball #
∆t A = % , mc − Amgrα ∆t # = % " mc + Amgrα
9inally we get
∆t = ∆t A − ∆t # = 5 Agrα c − ( Agrα
% 5 A%grα ≈ " m mc 5
(We neglected the term with α 5 as the coe$$icient
α is very small"
Gow we may p!t the n!merical val!esB % =E@ -cal, A ≈ @"5+ cal>?, g ≈9"* m>s5, +7 -g (mass o$ the lead ball with radi!s e&!al to 1@ cm , r = @"1 m, c ≈ @"@/1 cal>
α ≈ 591@
1A1" #$ter calc!lations we get
∆ t ≈ 1"E1@
Problem ' 7ommentB &he 'rgani(ing Committee prepared three theoretical pro)lems* +nfortunately, at the time of the ,st 'lympiad the $omanian students from the last class had the entrance e-aminations at the universities* .or that $omania sent a team consisting of students from younger classes* &hey were not familiar with electricity* &o give them a chance the 'rgani(ers /under agreement of the International #oard0 added the fourth pro)lem presented here* &he students /not only from $omania0 were allowed to chose three pro)lems* &he ma-imum possi)le scores for the pro)lems were1 ,st pro)lem 2 , points, 2nd pro)lem 2 , points, 3rd pro)lem 2 , points and 4th pro)lem 2 5 points* &he fourth pro)lem was solved )y 6 students* 'nly four of them solved the pro)lem for 5 points* # closed vessel with vol!me ! D 1@ l contains dry air in the normal conditions ( t D @°7, p D 1 atm " In some moment / g o$ water were added to the vessel and the system was warmed !p to t D 1@@°7" 9ind the press!re in the vessel" Kisc!ss ass!mption yo! made to solve the problem" Solution The water added to the vessel evaporates" #ss!me that the whole portion o$ water evaporated" Then the density o$ water vapor in 1@@ °7 sho!ld be @"/@@ g>l" It is less than the density o$ sat!rated vapor at 1@@°7 e&!al to @"E97 g>l" (The st!dents were allowed to !se physical tables" )o, at 1@@°7 the vessel contains air and !nsat!rated water vapor only (witho!t any li&!id phase " Gow we ass!me that both air and !nsat!rated water vapor behave as ideal gases" In view o$ Kalton law, the total press!re p in the vessel at 1@@°7 is e&!al to the s!m o$ partial press!res o$ the air pa and !nsat!rated water vapor pvB
p = p a + pv "
#s the vol!me o$ the vessel is constant, we may apply the 6ayAM!ssac law to the air" We obtainB
57/ + t p a = p@ " 57/
The press!re o$ the water vapor may be $o!nd $rom the e&!ation o$ state o$ the ideal gasB
pv!@ m = $, 57/ + t µ
where m denotes the mass o$ the vapor, µ A the molec!lar mass o$ the water and $ I the !niversal gas constant" Th!s,
pv = m
57/ + t !@
p = p@ 57/ + t m 57/ + t + $ " 57/ µ !@
p = (1"/66 + @"E16 atm ≈1"** atm"
()perimental problem The $ollowing devices and materials are givenB 1" 8alance (witho!t weights 5" 7alorimeter /" Thermometer +" )o!rce o$ voltage E" )witches 6" Wires 7" ,lectric heater *" )topAwatch 9" 8ea-ers 1@" Water 11" Petrole!m 15" )and ($or balancing Ketermine speci$ic heat o$ petrole!m" The speci$ic heat o$ water is 1 cal>(g °7 " The speci$ic heat o$ the calorimeter is @"@95 cal>(g°7 " Kisc!ss ass!mptions made in the sol!tion" *ol#tion
The devices given to the st!dents allowed !sing several methods" The st!dents !sed the $ollowing three methodsB 1" 7omparison o$ velocity o$ warming !p water and petrole!mN 5" 7omparison o$ cooling down water and petrole!mN /" Traditional heat balance" #s no weights were given, the st!dents had to !se the sand to $ind portions o$ petrole!m and water with masses e&!al to the mass o$ calorimeter" .irst method1 comparison of velocity of warming up I$ the heater is inside water then both water and calorimeter are warming !p" The heat ta-en by water and calorimeter isB
%1 = mw c w ∆t1 + mc cc ∆t1 ,
whereB mw denotes mass o$ water, mc A mass o$ calorimeter, c w A speci$ic heat o$ water, cc t1 A change o$ temperat!re o$ the system water H calorimeter" A speci$ic heat o$ calorimeter, ∆ On the other hand, the heat provided by the heater is e&!alB
%5 = A +5 τ1 , $
whereB A I denotes the thermal e&!ivalent o$ wor-, + I voltage, $ I resistance o$ the heater, τ, I time o$ wor- o$ the heater in the water" O$ co!rse,
%1 = %5 "
A +5 τ1 = mw c w ∆t1 + mc cc ∆t1 " $
9or petrole!m in the calorimeter we get a similar $orm!laB
A +5 τ 5 = m p c p ∆t 5 + mc cc ∆t 5 " $
t 5 A change o$ whereB m p denotes mass o$ petrole!m, c p A speci$ic heat o$ petrole!m, ∆ temperat!re o$ the system water H petrole!m, τ2 I time o$ wor- o$ the heater in the petrole!m"
8y dividing the last e&!ations we get
m c ∆t + mc cc ∆t τ1 = w w 1 " τ 5 m p c p ∆t 5 + mc cc ∆t 5
It is convenient to per$orm the e:periment by ta-ing masses o$ water and petrole!m e&!al to the mass o$ the calorimeter ($or that we !se the balance and the sand " 9or
mw = m p = mc
the last $orm!la can be written in a very simple $ormB
τ1 cw ∆t1 + cc ∆t1 = " τ 5 c p ∆t 5 + cc ∆t 5
cc = ∆t1 τ 5 ∆t1 τ 5 cw − 1 − τ ∆t cc τ 1 ∆t 5 1 5
cc = 71 7 cw − 1− 1 75 75 cc ,
71 = ∆t1
denote ;velocities o$ heating< water and petrole!m, respectively" These &!antities can be t1 and ∆ t 5 on time determined e:perimentally by drawing graphs representing dependence ∆ (τ " The e:periment shows that these dependences are linear" Th!s, it is eno!gh to ta-e slopes o$ appropriate straight lines" The e:perimental set!p given to the st!dents allowed meas!rements o$ the speci$ic heat o$ petrole!m, e&!al to @"E/ cal>(g °7 , with acc!racy abo!t 1J" )ome st!dents !sed certain m!tations o$ this method by per$orming meas!rements at ∆ t1 D ∆ t 5 or at τ1 =τ 5 " Then, o$ co!rse, the error o$ the $inal res!lt is greater (it is t1 D ∆ t 5 or at τ1 = τ 5 " additionally a$$ected by acc!racy o$ establishing the conditions ∆ Second method1 comparison of velocity of cooling down )ome st!dents initially heated the li&!ids in the calorimeter and later observed their cooling down" This method is based on the GewtonOs law o$ cooling" It says that the heat % trans$erred d!ring cooling in time τ is given by the $orm!laB
% = h(t −ϑ sτ ,
whereB t denotes the temperat!re o$ the body, ϑ A the temperat!re o$ s!rro!nding, s I area o$ the body, and h I certain coe$$icient characteri4ing properties o$ the s!r$ace" This $orm!la is correct $or small di$$erences o$ temperat!res t −ϑ only (small compared to t and ϑ in the absol!te scale " This method, li-e the previo!s one, can be applied in di$$erent versions" We will consider only one o$ them"
7onsider the sit!ation when cooling o$ water and petrole!m is observed in the same calorimeter (containing initially water and later petrole!m " The heat lost by the system water H calorimeter is
∆%1 = (m w c w + m c c c ∆t ,
t denotes a change o$ the temperat!re o$ the system d!ring certain period τ1 " 9or where ∆ t the system petrole!m H calorimeter, !nder ass!mption that the change in the temperat!re ∆ is the same, we have
∆%5 = (m p c p + mc c c ∆t "
t in the second case will be di$$erent" Met it be τ5 " O$ co!rse, the time corresponding to ∆ 9rom the GewtonPs law we get
∆%1 τ 1 = " ∆%5 τ 5
τ 1 m w c w + mc cc = " τ 5 m p c p + mc c c
I$ we cond!ct the e:periment at
mw = m p = mc ,
then we get
cp = &5 &5 cw − 1 − & &1 1 c c "
#s cooling is rather a very slow process, this method gives the res!lt with de$initely greater error" &hird method1 heat )alance This method is rather typical" The st!dents heated the water in the calorimeter to certain temperat!re t1 and added the petrole!m with the temperat!re t 5 " #$ter reaching the thermal e&!ilibri!m the $inal temperat!re was t" 9rom the thermal balance (neglecting the heat losses we have
( m w c w + m c c c (t1 − t = m p c p (t − t 5 "
I$, li-e previo!sly, the e:periment is cond!cted at
mw = m p = mc ,
c p = (c w + c c
t1 − t " t − t5
In this methods the heat losses (when adding the petrole!m to the water always played a s!bstantial role" The acc!racy o$ the res!lt e&!al or better than EJ can be reached by !sing any o$ the methods described above" Lowever, one sho!ld remar- that in the $irst method it was easiest" The most common mista-e was neglecting the heat capacity o$ the calorimeter" This mista-e increased the error additionally by abo!t *J" +ar!s Go mar-ing schemes are present in my archive materials" Only the mean scores are available" They areB Problem Q 1 Problem Q 5 Problem Q / ,:perimental problem $han!s The a!thor wo!ld li-e to e:press deep than-s to Pro$" ?an .ostows-i and Kr" Rohanes )!rya $or reviewing the te:t and $or val!able comments and remar-s" ,iterat#re 213 -. /#nfal0i, Collection of Competition &as7s from the Ist trough 8!th International Physics 'lympiads, ,95: 2 ,964, 0oland ,otvos Physical )ociety and %G,)7O, 8!dapest 19*E 253 $ade#s Pniews!i, 'limpiady .i(yc(ne1 8! i 8!I, PSW), Wars4awa 1969 2/3 Waldemar Gor !ows!i, ;adania ( fi(y7i ( ca<ego =wiata /( ro(wi>(aniami0 ? 2 lat Mi@d(ynarodowych 'limpiad .i(yc(nych, WGT, Wars4awa 199+ 2I)8G */A5@+A169*A13 7"6 points 7"* points (witho!t the 0omanian st!dents E"9 points 7"7 points
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