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Chng 6 CHUI S V CHUI LY THA

Trong chng ny, chng ti trnh by nhng khi nim v tnh cht c bn thng c s dng v chui s. Mt s tnh cht c bn v chui s dng, chui an du nh tiu chun Leibnitz cng c gii thiu. Chng ti cng a ra nhng khi nim c bn mang tnh cht gii thiu v chui hm, phn quan trng m chng ti mun nhn mnh y l kho st s hi t cng nh khai trin mt s hm thng gp thnh chui ly tha. 6.1. Chui s 6.1.1. Cc khi nim c bn 1. nh ngha Cho dy s v hn (un ) nZ , tng v hn
+

u1 + u2 + u3 + ... + un + ... c gi l chui s, k hiu l: un


n =1

un c gi l s hng th n.
2. Dy tng ring t sn = u1 + u2 +u 3 +... + un c gi l tng ring th n ca chui s un
n =1

( sn ) nZ + c gi l dy tng ring ca chui s

n =1

un .

3. Chui s hi t, phn k Chui s un c gi l hi t nu tn ti gii hn Lim s n = s v s c gi l tng n


n =1

ca n. Ta vit: u n = s .
n =1

s n khng tn ti hay bng th chui s un c gi l phn k Nu gii hn Lim n


n =1

v khi chui s khng c tng. 4. Phn d th n Trong trng hp chui s un hi t c tng bng S th hiu S-Sn c gi l phn
n =1

d th n ca chui s un , k hiu l: rn
n =1

Vy, di dng ngn ng -N, ta c:

122

Chui s un hi t > 0, N : n > N s sn <


n =1

> 0, N : n > N rn <


5. Cc v d 1)

q
n=0

=1 + q + ... + q n + ... (tng cp s nhn v hn)

Ta c tng ring S n = 1 + q + ... + q n . Xt cc trng hp sau a) q 1 Ta c S n = b) q = 1 Ta c S n = 1 + 1 + ... + 1 = n Do : lim Sn = +.


n

1 q n +1 , suy ra lim S n = 1 n 1 q 1 q , q < 1

q >1

c) q = -1

1, n = 2k + 1 Ta c S n = 1 1 + 1 ... = . Do lim Sn khng tn ti n 0, n = 2 k


Vy

q
n =0

1 , hi t, nu | q |< 1 . 1 q
n

Chui s

q
n =0

phn k nu | q | 1 th chui phn k

2) Cho chui s
sn =
= 1

1 n =1 n( n + 1)

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 + + + ... + = (1 ) + ( ) + ( ) + ... + ( )= 1.2 2.3 3.4 n(n + 1) n n +1 2 2 3 3 4


1 n +1

lim sn = 1 Vy, chui s cho hi t v c tng bng 1.


n

6.1.2. Tiu chun hi t Cauchy 1. Tiu chun Cauchy Chui s un hi t > 0, N > 0 : p > q N s p sq < .
n =1

2. V d

123

Dng tiu chun Cauchy, chng t rng chui s Gii


=

n =1

1 phn k. n

1 : N , p = 2 N > q = N N : s p s q = s 2 N s N = 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N = + + ... + > + + ... + = = > = 2N 2N 2N 2N 2N 2 3 N +1 N + 2

6.1.3. iu kin cn chui s hi t 1. nh l Nu chui s un hi t th lim u n = 0 .


n =1
n

Chng minh: Gi s l tng ca chui s hi t un


n =1

n sn s

Suy ra 2. H qu

n s s = 0 un = sn sn 1

Nu lim un 0 th chui s un phn k.


n
n =1

V d Chui s 3. Ch

n n 1 0 khi n phn k v un = n =1 2n + 1 2n + 1 2

un 0 ch l iu kin cn m khng chui s u n hi t.


n =1

Chng hn, xt chui s


sn =

n =1

1 n

1 1 1 n 1 1 1 1 1 + + + ... + > + + + ... + = = n 1 2 3 n n n n n n


n =1

1 Lim sn = + . Vy, chui s M Lim n = + n phn k. + n

6.1.4. Tnh cht cu chui s hi t 1.Tnh cht 1

124

Nu chui s u n hi t c tng l s, chui s vn hi t c tng l s th cc chui


n =1

n =1

n =1

(un vn ) cng hi t v c tng l s s

Chng minh: Gi sn v sn ln lt l cc tng ring th n ca cc chui s u n v vn .


n =1
n =1

/ / Khi , lim sn = s v lim sn = s lim ( sn + sn ) = s + s .p.c.m

V d Tnh tng ca chui s sau: Gii Ta c


1 n 1 1 ( ) = 4 = v 1 3 n=1 4 1 4 1 n n 3 + 4n 1 1 3 = = ( ) = n 1 2 12 = 1 n n =1 3 1 3

3n + 4n n n =1 12

( )n +
n =1

( )n = + = 3 2 6 n =1 3

2. Tnh cht 2

Nu chui s u n hi t c tng l s th chui s ku n cng hi t v c tng l ks.


n =1 n =1

Chng minh: Gi sn ln lt l tng ring th n ca chui s: u n


n =1

Lim ksn = k Lim sn = ks .p.c.m.


n n

3. Tnh cht 3

Tnh hi t hay phn k ca 1 chui s khng thay i khi ta ngt b i khi chui s 1 s hu hn cc s hng u tin. Chng minh: Nu bt i t un m s hng u tin, ta c chui s u n
n=1
n = m +1

125

Gi sn v sk ln lt l cc tng ring th n v th k ca cc chui s u n v un


n =1

n = m +1

s = sm + k sm
/ k

* Nu chui s u n hi t
chui s u n hi t.
n = m +1

n =1

m+ k / sm+ k s sk

s sm

* Nu chui s u n phn k sm + k khng c gii hn khi


n =1
n = m +1

k v do sm

hu hn sk khng c gii hn khi k chui s u n phn k. V d Xt s hi t ca chui s Gii Chui ny suy t chui iu ho bng cch ngt b i 3 s hng u tin. M chui 1 iu ho phn k nn chui cng phn k. n =1 n + 3 Bi tp Tnh tng ca cc chui sau
1)

n =1

1 n+3

1 n =1 n( n + 4)

3)

1 4n 1
2

n =1

4)

2n + 1 2 n =1 n ( n + 1)
2

1 2) n =1 n ( n + 1)( n + 2)

2 n + 5n 5) n n =1 10

6)

1 4n 1
2

n =1

6.2. Chui s dng 6.2.1. nh ngha

Chui s dng l chui s V d

n =1

u n , m u

> 0, n 1

n =1

1 l chui s dng. n + 1.3n

6.2.2. nh l

Chui s dng hi t khi v ch khi dy (sn) b chn trn. Chng minh:

126

n =1

u n hi t nn dy (sn) hi t. M v u u n hi t.

> 0, n 1 , suy ra dy (sn) tng, do

(sn) b chn trn. Ngc li nu (sn) b chn trn, th tn ti di hn, v dy (sn) tng, do chui s V d Xt s hi t ca cc chui s dng sau: 1)

n =1

n2
n =1

Ta c S n =

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ... ... + + + + + + = 2 2 ( n 1) n n 12 2 2 n 2 1 1 .2

Suy ra sn b chn. Vy chui trn hi t. 2)

1 n

n =1

Ta c S n = 1 + 1 + ... + 1 1 + 1 + ... + 1 = n = n 1 2 n n n n n Suy ra sn khng b chn. Vy chui phn k.


6.2.3. Cc tiu chun hi t 1. Tiu chun so snh a. nh l

Gi s un v vn l 2 chui dng tho un vn n n0 , khi


n =1 n =1

* Nu chui vn hi t th chui un hi t.
n =1 n =1

* Nu chui u n phn k th chui


n =1

v
n =1

h phn k.

Chng minh: Do tnh cht 3 ca chui s hi t, c th gi s n0 = 1 , ngha l un vn n

* Gi sn v sn ln lt l tng ring th n ca cc chui un v vn


n =1 n =1

sn sn n

(1)

127

/ = s/ Nu chui vn hi t v c tng l s, ngha l Lim sn n

n =1

sn s n

(2)
n =1

T (1) v (2) sn < s n Chui un hi t.

* Nu chui un phn k sn n +
n =1

(3)

T (3) v (1) suy ra:


b. V d

/ sn

vn phn k. n + , ngha l chui


n =1

Xt s hi t ca cc chui s sau: 1) Do

1
n .2 n
1 1 n n n 2 n .2

n =1

m chui

1 n hi t chui cho hi t. n =1 2

2) Chui s
1 < n

1 n 1

n=2

phn k v

1 1 phn k n 2 m chui n=2 n n 1

3)

2n n n =1 7 + 2n

2n 2 Ta c: 0 < n < ( ) n , n 1 7 + 2n 7

2 M chui hi t nn chui n =1 7

5n + n
n =1

2n

hi t.

4)

n=2

ln n n

Ta c:

ln n 1 , n 3 > n +1 n +1

128

M chui

n=2

1 phn k nn chui n +1

n=2

ln n phn k. n +1

2. Tiu chun tng ng

u Gi s un v vn l 2 chui dng tho lim n = k n =1 n =1


n

vn

1) Nu 0 < k < + th hai chuis un v,


n =1

n =1

vn

ng thi hi t hoc phn k.

2) Nu k = 0. v chui s

n =1

vn
n =1

hi t th

n =1

un

hi t.

3) Nu k = + v chui s Chng minh 1) T lim Do

vn

phn k th

n =1

u n phn k.

un u = k ta c > 0, n 0 > 0 : n n 0 n k < . n v vn n


un < + k suy ra un < ( + k )vn , n n0 . vn

Nu

n =1

vn hi t nn chui

( + k )v n hi t. Theo nh l trn ta suy ra chui


n =1

u
n =1

hi t.

Nu
lim

v
n =1

phn k th ta cng lm tng t, tuy nhin ch t lim

un = k suy ra n v n

vn 1 1 u n hi t th t suy ra = . V 0 < k < + nn 0 < < + . Do o nu chui n u k k n n =1

chui

v
n =1

hi t. Vy

u
n =1 n

phn k.

Vy 2 chui

un ,
n =1

v
n =1

ng hi t hoc phn k.

2) Gi s k = 0 v

v
n =1

hi t.

129

Khi t gi thit lim V

u un = 0 ta c > 0, n0 > 0 : n < , n n0 un < vn , n n0 . vn vn

v
n =1

hi t, nn

v
n =1

hi t, do

u
n =1

hi t.

3) Chng minh hon ton tng t nh mc (2). Gi s k = + v

v
n =1

phn k. T

lim

un v = + suy ra lim n = 0 . n v n u n n
Do Ch Thng ta so snh vi chui s quan trng chui cp s nhn v chui iu ho. V d Xt s hi t ca cc chui s sau: 1)

n =1

u n phn k, v nu

n =1

u n hi t th theo (ii) suy ra vn hi t mu thun.


n =1

2n + n 2 + 1 n n =1 5 + 2n + 2

2 ( )n v = n n =1 n =1 5

2n + n 2 + 1 Ta c un = n > 0 , vi mi n 1 . Ta s so snh vi chui s 5 + 2n + 2 hi t.

D thy rng
n

lim

un = 1 , do chui s cho hi t. vn

2)

n =1

ln n n

Ta c un = M chui 3)

ln n 1 , vi mi n 3 . n n 1 phn k ( v d trn), nn chui cho phn k. n

n =1

n
n =1

3n + 1 n +n+2

Ta c un =

3n + 1 > 0 , vi mi n 1 . n2 n + n + 2

130

u > 0 . Ta c. Do lim n = 3 chui Chn vn = n v n n n

v n hi t, nn n

n +1
3

n =1

n =1

+n+2

h i

t.
3. Tiu chun D Alembert a. nh l D Alembert
/
/

Lim Nu chui s dng un tho n


n =1

u n +1 = D th chui s un s hi t khi D < 1 v n =1 un

phn k khi D > 1 Khi D = 1 Chui s dng un c th hi t hoc phn k.


n =1

Khi D = + chui s dng un phn k.


n =1

Chng minh:

D <1

1 - D > 0 Chn < 1 D D + <1

un+1 u = D n0 : n > n0 n+1 D < n + u un n lim


u n +1 < ( D + )u n n > n0
n = n0 + 1 : un0 + 2 < ( D + )un0 +1

n = n0 + 2 : un0 + 3 < ( D + )un0 + 2 < ( D + )2 un0 +1

n = n0 + k : un0 + k +1 < ( D + )k un0 +1 ...


k M chui s ( D + ) un0 +1 hi t do 0 < D + < 1 k =0

Chui s u n hi t Chui s u n hi t.
n = n0 +1 n =1

* D >1
Chn = D 1 hay D = 1
u n +1 u = D n0 : n > n0 n +1 D < n + u un n Lim

u n +1 > D = 1 n > n 0 un +1 > un n > n0 Lim un 0 n un

131

chui s dng

n =1

un phn k.
u n +1 > 1 un + `1 > un n > N un

* Khi D = + : Vi M=1, N : n > N


un n 0 chui s dng
n =1

un phn k.

b. V d

Xt s hi t ca cc chui sau

1)
lim

(n + 1)! = un 2n n =1 n =1

un +1 (n + 2) 2n n+2 = lim [ n +1 ] = lim = n u n n 2 ( + 1)! 2 n n

Chui s

( n + 1)! phn k. n =1 2n

2)
lim

n =1

n = un 5 n n =1

n n + 1 5n un+1 n +1 1 = lim n+1 . = lim = < 1 Chui s n hi t. n u n 5 n =1 5 5 n n 5n n

3)

2n n =1 n !

2n 2n +1 . Do Ta c un = , un +1 = (n + 1)! n!

un +1 2 = 0 , khi n . Vy chui cho hi t. un n +1


4)

n3 n 2 + 1 n n =1 2 + 3n + ln n

n3 n 2 + 1 n3 Ta c un = n = vn ~ 2 + 3n + ln n 2 n
v n +1 (n + 1) 3 2 n 1 = . 3 <1 . n +1 vn 2 n 2

Do chui Ch

v n hi t
n =1

132

Khi D = 1 th cha c kt lun g, ngha l chui c th hi t, cng c th l phn k. Chng hn, xt chui

e n n! nn
n

n =1

1 e Ta c u n +1 = 1 khi n . V 1 + < e vi mi n 1 nn un +1 > un , n n un 1 + 1 n

vi mi n 1. c bit un u1 = e , suy ra lim un e . Do vy chui Vy chui cho hi t.


4. Tiu chun Cauchy

e n n! nn

phn k.

n =1

Cho chui s dng

n =1

n u n u n . Gi s nlim

= L . Khi

1) Nu L < 1 th

n =1

un un

hi t;

2) Nu L > 1 th Chng minh:

phn k.

n =1

Gi s: lim n u n = L .
n

- Khi L < 1. Ly r sao cho L < r < 1. Khi n0 > 0 : n un < r , n n0 , ngha l
u n < r , n n 0 . V chui
n

n = n0

hi t nn chui

u n hi t.
n =1

- Khi L > 1. Ta c

n0 > 0 : n u n > 1, n n0 , tc l u n > 1, n n0 . Do u n


n =1

khng dn v 0 khi n . Vy chui Ch

un

phn k .

Khi L = 1 th cha c kt lun g, ngha l chui c th hi t, cng c th l phn k. V d Xt s hi t ca cc chui sau:

133

2 2n + 1 1) hi t, v l = < 1 3 n =1 3n + 2

n +1 2) n n =1

n2

phn k, l = e > 1

5. Tiu chun tch phn Cauchy a. nh l

Xt chui s dng

n=1

un . t hm s f(x) tha
+ 1

f (n) = u n , n 1

Gi s hm f(x) lin tc, dng, gim trn [1;+ ) . Khi chui Chng minh: Theo gi thit, ta c vi mi k, hm f(x) gim trn on [k, k+1] nn

n =1

u n hi t

f ( x)dx

hi t.

u k +1 = f ( k + 1) f ( x ) f ( k ) = u k , x [ k , k + 1] , theo nh l trung bnh tch


phn ta c uk +1
2
k +1

f ( x)dx uk . Do vi mi k nn ta c
3 2

u 2 f ( x)dx u1 , u 3 f ( x)dx u 2 , ..., u n


1

n 1

f ( x)dx u n1 ,
n

Suy ra:

u2 + u3 + ... + un f ( x)dx + f ( x) dx + ... +


1 2

n 1

f ( x) dx = f ( x) dx
1

u1 + u 2 + ... + u n 1
Do :

sn u1 f ( x)dx sn 1
1

t I n = f ( x)dx . Ta c, sn u1 I n , I n sn 1
1

(*)

( ? ) Gi s chui

u n hi t.
n =1

Theo nh l mc 2, suy ra dy tng ring (sn-1) b chn. Do t bt ng thc (*) suy ra dy {I n } cng b chn. Hn na lim I n d thy dy {I n } tng. Do vy tn ti, do
n

134

f ( x)dx hi t.
1 +

(? ) Gi s

f ( x)dx hi t. Khi {I n } b chn. T bt ng thc (*) suy ra {S }


n

b chn, cho nn chui b. V d

u
n =1

hi t.

1) Xt s hi t ca chui

n , R
n =1

(chui Riemann)

- Nu > 0 : t f ( x) =

1 . Kim tra thy f ( x) tho tt c cc iu kin ca nh l. x


+

Ta bit rng tch phn suy rng - Nu 0 th lim un = lim Vy chui 2)

1 dx hi t khi > 1 v phn k khi 1 x

1 0 n

n , R
n =1

hi t khi > 1 v phn k khi 1

3
n =1

ln n
n2
ln n
3

Ta c un = phn k. 3)

n2

1
3

n2

, vi mi n 3 . M chui

2 n =1 n3

phn k, nn chui cho

n4 1 n =1 n n + 1
Ta c
3

n 1 ~ n n +1

4 n3 1 n.n 2

1 = 1 . V chui n6

1
1 n6

phn k, nn chui

n =1

n 4 1 phn k. n =1 n n + 1

4)

ln n n =3 n

Gii Dng tiu chun tch phn, xt hm s f ( x) =


ln x x

135

D f = (0,+ ) , f / ( x ) =

1 ln x , f / ( x) = 0 x = e 2 x

Bng xt du o hm
x
f/
f
/

0 +

e 3 0 -

Hm f ( x) lin tc, n iu gim, dng trong [3, + )


+

Mt khc,

ln xdx = x

ln xd (ln x) = lim
3

b+

ln 2 x = ln xd (ln x ) lim b+ 3 2

b 3

ln n ln 2 b ln 2 3 Lim = + . V y chu i phn k. b + n =3 n 2

5)

n ln n
n=2

Xt hm s f ( x) = f / ( x) =

1 lin tc, dng trn [ 2,+ ) v u n = f ( n) n 2 x ln x

ln x + 1 < 0 x > 1 f ( x) gim trn [ 2,+ ) x 2 ln 2 x


+

Mt khc,
2

dx x ln x

= lim

b+ 2

d (ln x) lim ln ln b = ln ln 2 = lim [ln ln x ]b =+ 2 = b + b + ln x

Chui cho phn k theo tiu chun tch phn.

Bi tp Kho st s hi t ca cc chui s sau


1 3 1) 2 n =1 n 4
n

2)

n +1

n =1 n 2 + 2

1.4.9...n 2 3) n =1 1.3.5.7...( 4 n 3)

4) ln
n =1

5n + 3 5n
2

1 n 5) 1 1 + n n =1 2 n

136

n 6) n =1 n 3 + 2

6.3. Chui s an du - Chui s c du bt k 6.3.1. Chui an du 1. nh ngha

Chui an du l chui s c dng

u1 u 2 + u 3 ... hay u1 + u 2 u 3 + ... ,


Trong un > 0, n 1 V d

(1)

1 1 1 + ... 2 3
Ta quy c ch xt chui an du c dng u1 u 2 + u 3 ... =
2. nh l Leibnitz a. nh l
n =1 n 1 ( 1) u n .

Nu dy

{u n } l mt dy gim v u

0 khi n th chui

( 1)
n =1

n 1

un hi t v

( 1)
n =1

n 1

un u1 .

Chng minh: chng t dy tng ring (sn) hi t ta chng minh n c 2 dy con hi t (s2m) v (s2m+1) Ta c s2(m+1) = s2m+2 =s2m + (u2m+1 - u2m+2 ) > s2m => (s2m) tng Mt khc, ta cng c

s 2 ( m +1) = u1 [(u 2 u 3 ) + (u 4 u 5 ) + (u 6 u 7 ) + ...(u 2 m u 2 m +1 )] < u1


Dy (s2m) hi t v s u1

Ch rng s2m > 0 m Ta li c: s2 m +1 = s2 m + u2 m +1 Do u n 0 u 2 m +1 0

s2 m +1 s + 0 = s s2 m s > 0, m1 : m > m1 s2 m s <

137

s 2 m +1 s > 0, m2 : m > m2 s 2 m +1 s <


t N = max ( 2m1 , 2m2 + 1) Khi , n > N c 2 kh nng

n = 2 k > 2 m1 k > m1 s 2 k s <

* n = 2k + 1 > 2m2 + 1 k > m2 s 2k +1 = s <


Vy > 0, N : n > N sn s < (.p.c.m)
b. V d

Xt s hi t cua chui an du (1) n 1.


n =1

1 n

Gii
un = 1 n 0 v dy (un ) n iu gim (u n ) hi t theo Leibnitz n

v tng s u1 = 1
c. Ch

Nu chui (1) tho Leibnitz v hi t v s th chui

(u1 u2 + u3 u4 + ...) hi t v -s
Nh vy nu cc gi thit ca nh l Leibnitz c tho th chui an du

(u1 u2 + u3 u4 + ...) hi t v tng s ca n tho s u1 .


d. Tnh gn ng tng ca chui an du hi t

Nu chui an du (u1 u2 + u3 u4 + ...) tho Leibnitz th chui phn d th n

u n +1 + u n + 2 + ... cng hi t theo Leibnitz v theo ch trn ta c: rn un +1


Theo nh l Leibnitz, ta ch bit chui an du hi t nhng khng r nhiu nn ny sinh vn c lng tng s . Ta xem s sn s vp phi sai s tuyt i l: s sn = rn un +1 V d Tr li chui ( 1)
n =1 n 1

s bng bao

s s5 = 1 1 + 1 1 + 1 0,5 + 0.33 0,25 + 0,2 0,78 2 3 4 5 1 Vp phi sai s tuyt i l r5 u6 = 0,167 6


Thng thng ta gp bi ton ngc li

1 . , nu ta xem n

138

Phi chn n ti thiu bng bao nhiu gi tr gn ng sn ca chui an du chnh xc n ( ngha l sai s tuyt i khng vt qu ). p dng vo v d trn, ta phi chn n sao cho: r5 u 6 Chng hn = 0.001 , th th n phi tho Vy, n ti thiu l 999.
6.3.2. Chui c du bt k 1. nh l

1 1 n + 1 1000 n 999 n + 1 1000

Nu chui s un hi t th u hi t.
n =1 n =1 n

Chng minh Gi sn v sn ln lt l tng ring th n ca cc chui s u v un ,


n =1 n

n =1

ngha l sn = u1 + u 2 + u3 + ...u n v Trong chui u , k hiu


n =1 n

/ sn = u1 + u2 + u3 + ... un

+ sn l tng ca tt c cc s hng dng trong n s hng u tin

s
c

l tng cc gi tr tuyt i ca tt c cc s hng m trong n s hng u tin. Ta

/ + + sn = sn sn v sn = sn + sn
+ / + R rng ( sn ) v ( s n ) l nhng dy tng v sn sn , sn sn

(1)

/ / Theo gi thit, chui s un hi t s n s v sn < s n (2)

n =1
/

T (1) v (2) sn < s n, sn < s n


/

Suy ra rng cc dy s

+ ( sn ) v (sn ) u hi t (v u tng v b chn trn.)

Do ( sn ) cng hi t.
2. nh ngha

Chui s u c gi l hi t tuyt i nu chui s un hi t.


n =1 n n =1

3. V d

139

sin nx hi t tuyt i. 3 n =1 n

Gii Ta c
sin nx sin nx 1 = 3 n 3 3 n n n

m chui s
4. Ch

n =1

1 hi t ( Chui Riemann vi = 3 > 1) n3

iu kin u n hi t ch l iu kin ch khng phi l iu kin cn chui s


n =1

n =1

un hi t. Ngha l c trng hp chui s un hi t nhng chui s un phn


n =1

n =1

k, ta ni chui s un bn hi t.
n =1

V d Chui s ( 1) n 1.
n =1

1 1 1 bn hi t v chui s (1) n 1 = l chui iu ho phn n =1 n n =1 n n

k. V d Xt tnh hi t ca cc chui s 1)

sin n 2 n =1 n

Ta c | 2) Ta c
n

sin n 1 | 2 , do chui cho hi t 2 n n


n 2n n

+ 1 ( 1) 3n + 1
2n +1

| un | =

2 < 1 =>Chui cho hi t. 3n +1 3

Ch

| u n | phn k th cha kt lun chui u n hi t hay phn k. Tuy nhin, nu dng tiu chun DAlembert hay Cauchy m bit c | u n | phn k th u n cng phn k.
Nu chui Tht vy, t

140

un +1 > 1 un +1 >| un |>| un |> 0, n n0 > 0 , do un khng dn v 0, tc l un un khng tin v 0, suy ra chui phn k.
0

V d

en 1 ( ) n!
n

u e( n +1) n ! 1 2 n +1 e + . Do chui cho phn k. . n = Ta c n +1 = un ( n + 1)! e n + 1


2 2

Trng hp | u n t. V d

| phn k nhng u n hi t th chui

u n c gi l bn hi

( 1)
n =1

n 1

1 l bn hi t. n

Bi tp 1) Chng t rng cc chui s sau bn hi t


a)

(1) n1
n =1

n+1 2 n +n+1

b)
e)

(1) n1
n =1

ln n n
1 2n 1

c)

(1)
n =1
n =1

2n + 1 n2 + 1
n

d)

(1) n
n =1

2n 2 + 1 n3 + 3

(1) n
n =1

f)

(1)

n n +1
2

2) Cho chui s

cos n n =1 n!

a) Chng t rng chui s ny hi t theo Leibnitz, hn th na n cn hi t tuyt i. b) Phi chn n ti thiu l bao nhiu sn l tr gn ng ca tng ca chui vi chnh xc = 0,001
6.4. Chui lu tha 6.4.1. Chui hm 1. nh ngha

Chui hm l chui

u (x) , trong cc u ( x) l cc hm ca x.
n
n

Khi x = xo th chui hm tr thnh chui s u n ( x0 ) . Nu chui s hi t th im xo gi l im hi t, nu n phn k th xo gi l im phn k. - Tp hp tt c cc im x m chui hm hi t c gi l min hi t ca chui hm.

141

- sn ( x) = uk ( x) : gi l tng ring th n ca chui hm.


k =1

- Nu lim sn ( x) = s( x) th S(x) gi l tng ca chui hm. Trong trng hp ny, rn ( x ) = s ( x ) sn ( x ) : gi l phn d th n ca chui hm. Do ta c rn ( x ) = u n +1 ( x) + u n + 2 + ...
2. V d

1)

n =0

xn
1 . 1 x

Chui ny hi t vi mi x tho |x| < 1 v c tng S ( x) = Vy min hi t ca chui trn l X = (-1; 1) 2) 3)

1
x

c min hi t l X = (1;+) (theo kt qu ca chui Riemann bit)

cos nx 3 + x2

Ta c

sin nx 1 1 , x . M chui n3 + x 2 n3 + x 2 n3

n
n =1

1
3

hi t nn

cos nx hi t, x 3 + x2

Vy min hi t l X = R .
6.4.2. Chui hm hi t u 1. nh ngha

Chui hm

u n ( x) c goi l hi t u ti hm S(x) trn X, nu

> 0, n0 > 0 : n > n0 S ( x ) S n ( x ) = rn ( x ) < , x X

2. V d

Chui

( 1)n
x2 + n

hi t vi mi x (theo l Leibnitz)
1 1 , x R < x + n +1 n +1
2

Ta c rn ( x) un +1 ( x ) = Nh vy rn ( x ) <

1 1 < , n > 1 n +1 1

Do > 0, ly n0 > Vy chui

1 . Khi n n0 , rn ( x ) < , x R

( 1)n
x +n
2

hi t u trn R .

3. Tiu chun v s hi t u

142

a. nh l (tiu chun Cauchy)

Chui hm

u n ( x ) hi t u trn X khi v ch khi > 0, n

: n, p N * , n n0

un+1 ( x) + ... + un+ p ( x) < , x X

b. nh l (tiu chun Weierstrass)

Nu c mt chui s dng an hi t sao cho u n ( x) a n , n 1, x X th chui hm trn hi t tuyt i v u trn X. Cho chui hm Chng minh. R rng chui

u n ( x) .

u n ( x) , x X

hi t (theo tiu chun so snh)

Do chui u n ( x ) hi t tuyt i. V chui s

an

hi t nn ta c

u n +1 ( x ) + ... + u n + p ( x) <| u n +1 ( x ) | +...+ | u n + p ( x ) |< < a n +1 + .... + a n + p < , x X Theo nh l Cauchy trn, suy ra chui hm hi t u trn X V d Xt tnh hi t u ca chui hm

cos nx 2 + x2 cos nx 1 1 2 2 , n N * , x R 2 2 2 n +x n +x n

Ta c

Ta bit chui s dng trn R .

1
2

hi t nn chui hm

cos nx hi t tuyt i v u 2 + x2

4. Tnh cht c bn ca chui hm hi t u a. Tnh cht 1

Cho chui hm

u ( x) hi t u v hm S(x) trn X. Nu cc s hng u n (x) u lin n


n

tc x 0 X th S(x) cng lin tc ti x 0 X . Ta c lim S ( x) = S ( x0 ) lim un ( x) = un ( x0 ) = lim un ( x) .


xx xx0 n n n xx0

V d Tnh lim
x n

sin nx n2 + x 2

Ta thy chui trn hi t u, c cc s hng lin tc ti x =

143

Do lim
x n

sin nx n +x
2 2

= lim
n x

sin nx n2 + x2

=0

b. Tnh cht 2

Cho chui hm

un (x) hi t u v hm S(x) trn [a, b]. Nu cc s hng u n (x) u


n
b b a b a

lin tc trn [a, b], n 1 th S ( x)dx = u n ( x) dx = u n ( x)dx .


n a

c. Tnh cht 3

un (x) hi t trn (a, b) ti S(x), cc s hng u n ( x), u ' n ( x) lin tc n trn (a, b). Khi nu chui u ' n ( x) hi t u trn (a, b) th S(x) kh vi v S(x) =
Cho chui hm

u ' n ( x) .
n

6.4.3. Chui ly tha 1. nh ngha

Chui ly tha l chui hm c dng

n =0

an x n = a0 + a1 x + ...
a (x x )
n=0 n

(1)

Ch Nu chui lu tha c dng


n

, th bng cch t X = x x 0 ta a chui

v dng (1). V vy, ta quy c nghin cu chui ly tha c dng (1). V d

xn 1 1) trong an = 2n + 1 n = 0 2n + 1

2n 1 2n 1 n 2) 2 ( x 2) , trong an = 7 n 2 + 1 n =0 7 n + 1
n

2. nh l Abel

Nu chui lu tha

n =0

an x n hi t ti x = x0 0 th n hi t tuyt i ti mi x tho

x < x0 .
Chng minh: Gi s chui lu tha a n x hi t ti
n n =0

x0 .

Khi chui s

n =0

a n x0 n

hi t,

an x0n 0 khi n . Do

144

n K > 0 : an x0 K , n 1

x x n K Ta c an x n = an x0 , n 1 . x0 x0

Khi | x |<| x0 | th 3. H qu

x K x0 n =0

hi t (v

x x0

< 1 ). Do vy chui lu tha

n =0

| an x n | hi t.

Nu chui lu tha

n =0

an x n phn

k ti x = x 0 th n phn k ti mi x tho

x > x0 .
Chng minh:

x1 tho | x1 |>| x 0 | m chui hi t ti x1 . Khi theo nh l Abel n s hi t tuyt i ti | x |<| x1 | , m trong khong ny c cha im x0 , iu ny
Tht vy nu c mu thun vi gi thit.
4. Bn knh hi t ca chui ly tha a. nh ngha

S r > 0 c gi l bn knh hi t ca chui ly tha

n =0

an x n nu

chui

n =0

an x n hi t (tuyt i) vi mi | x |< r , v phn k vi mi | x |> r .


Ch Nu r = 0 , th

n =0

an x n ch hi t ti x = 0 .

b. nh l (Hadamard) (Cng thc tm bn knh hi t)

Gi s = lim cng thc:

| an +1 | (hoc = lim n | an |) . Khi bn knh hi t c tnh bng n | a | n

1 , 0 < < + = + r = 0, +, = 0 Chng minh:

(*)

145

Gi s = lim

| an +1 | | u ( x) | |a | = lim n+1 . | x |= . | x | . Ta c lim n +1 n | a | | un ( x ) | | an | n

* Nu 0 < < + , th chui hi t tuyt i khi | x |< 1 | x |< , phn k khi

| x |> 1

Do bn knh hi t r =

| un +1 ( x) | = + , do bn knh hi t r = 0 . | un ( x ) |

* Nu = + th x 0, ta c lim * Nu = 0 th ta c lim
bn knh hi t r =+ .

| un+1 ( x) | = 0 < 1 , suy ra chui hi t tuyt i x R , do | un ( x ) |

i vi trng hp = lim n | an | ta cng c chng minh tng t. 5. Bi ton tm min hi t ca chui ly tha - Bc 1. Tm bn knh hi t r ca chui lu tha bng cng thc (*) - Bc 2. Xt ti 2 im mt x = r , x = r . - Bc 3. Kt lun min hi t. Ch Nu chui ly tha c dng dng

a (x x )
n=0 n

, th bng cch t X = x x 0 ta a v

a X
n=0 n

trc khi p dng cng thc (*).

V d Tm min hi t ca chui lu tha

xn 1) n =1 n

- p dng cng thc (*) trn, ta c = lim - Xt ti x = 1 , ta c - Ti x = 1 :

| a n +1 | n = lim = 1 => r = 1 . n | a | n n + 1 n

n
n =0

phn k (chui iu ho).

(1)n hi t theo tiu chun Leibnitz. n n =0

Do min hi t ca chui l X = [ 1,1)

146

2)

n x
n n =1

Ta c = lim n an = lim n = + . Suy ra r = 0 .


n n

Vy min hi t ca chui l X = {0} .

xn 3) n =0 n !

Ta c = lim

| an +1 | 1 n! = lim = 0 . Suy ra r = + n | a | n ( n + 1)! 1 n


n n

Vy min hi t ca chui l X = R .

n +1 1 4) n = 0 2n + 1 x + 2

1 Ta t t = , ta c chui ly tha x+2

n +1 n t . Ta c n =0 2n + 1

= lim n an = lim
n n

1 n +1 1 = . Suy ra bn knh hi t r = = 2 . 2n + 1 2
n

2n + 2 - Xt ti t = 2 , ta c chui s . n =0 2n + 1
2n+1 2n+1 1 2n + 2 = 1 + 1 = e2 0. Do chui s l phn k. Ch rng lim lim 2n + 1 n 2n + 1 n n n

2n + 2 - Xt ti t = 2 . Ta c chui s (1) . Khi n=0 2n + 1


n

1 2n + 2 (1)n = lim 1 + lim 2n + 1 n n 2n + 1


n

n 2 n +1 2 n +1

= e 2 0 . Do chui s phn k.

5 x< 2. Vy tm hi t 2 < t < 2 , hay 2 < 1 < 2 x+2 x > 3 2

Do min hi t ca chui ly tha cho l X = (, 5 ) ( 3 , +).


2 2

6. Tnh cht c bn ca chui ly tha

Gi s chui lu tha
a. Tnh cht 1

a n x n c khong hi t ( r , r ) .
147

Chui lu tha hi t u trn mi on [a; b] (r ; r ) Chng minh: Ly 0 < x0 < r , sao cho [ a, b ] [ -x 0 , x0 ] . Khi v 0 < x0 < r nn chui s hi t. Mt khc ta li c a n x Do chui
b. Tnh cht 2
n n a n xo

a x
n =0 n

n 0

, x [a, b], n

an x n

hi t u trn [a; b] ( r ; r ) .

C th ly tch phn tng s hng ca chui trn [a; b] (r; r ) .


c. Tnh cht 3

Tng ca chui lu tha l 1 hm lin tc trong khong (-r; r).


d. Tnh cht 4

C th ly o hm tng s hng ca chui. Chng minh: Suy ra t tnh cht 1. Bi tp Tm min hi t ca chui hm 1)

n =1

2 ( x 1) n 2 n

1 2) 2 ( x + 2) n n =1 n

3)

n =1

( x + 2 )n
2 n +1

n 2x 3 4) 2 n =1 n + 1 x

( x + 1) n 5) n =1 n ( n + 2)

1 n 6) 2 ( x + 4) n =1 n

1 7) n n =1 ( x 2)

3n n 8) 2 ( x 2) n =1 n

6.5. Chui Taylor v chui Mac- Laurin 6.5.1. Khai trin 1 hm thnh chui lu tha 1. t vn

Gi s hm f ( x) c o hm mi cp trong mi ln cn no ca im xo v c th biu din di dng tng ca 1 chui lu tha trong ln cn y.


2. nh dng

f ( x) = a 0 + a1 ( x x 0 ) + a 2 ( x x 0 ) 2 + a 3 ( x x 0 ) 3 + ... + a n ( x x 0 ) n + ...
trong a0 , a1 , a2 , ..., an ,... l cc hng s
3. Xc nh cc h s

(0)

Theo tnh cht 3 ca chui lu tha, trong khong hi t, ta c:

f / ( x ) = a1 + 2a2 ( x x0 ) + ... + nan ( x x0 ) n 1 + ...


f // ( x) = 2a2 + ... + n(n 1) an ( x x0 ) n 2 + ...

(1) (2)

148

.............................................................

(n)

f ( n ) ( x) = n!a0 + ...
.
f ( k ) ( x0 ) k = 0, n Th x = xo vo cc ng thc trn, ta c: ak = k!

4. Kt qu

Khi :
f ( x) = f ( x0 ) + f / ( x0 )( x x0 ) + f // ( x0 ) f ( n ) ( x0 ) ( x x0 )2 + ... + ( x x0 )n + ... 2! n!

6.5.2. Chui Taylor 1. nh ngha


f ( n ) ( x0 ) ( x x0 ) n c gi l chui Taylor ca hm f ( x) trong ln cn n =0 n!

Chui hm ca im xo

Khi x = xo: Chui hm Ch

f ( n ) ( 0) n x c gi l chui Mac-Laurin ca hm f ( x) n=0 n!

Theo trn, nu hm s f ( x) c o hm mi cp trong Vx0 v c th biu din di dng tng ca 1 chui lu tha trong ln cn y th chui lu tha y phi l chui Taylor ca hm trong ln cn y.
2. iu kin hi t

Ta xt xem nu chui Taylor ca hm f ( x) no hi t th vi iu kin no tng ca n ng bng f ( x) . a) V d tng ca chui hi t khng bng hm s
12 x khi x 0 Xt hm s f ( x) = e khi x = 0 0

Hm f ( x) kh vi v hn ln ti mi x v o hm mi cp ca f ( x) ti x = 0 Tht vy,
f ( x ) f (0) e lim = lim x 0 x 0 x0 x
1 x2

t=1 x 2 = lim te t = lim


t

t et
2

= lim

1 = 2tet 2

= 0 f / (0) = 0

149

1 2 x2 2 e / / x 3 f ( x) f (0) 2e x lim = lim = lim x 0 x 0 x 0 x0 x x4 2t 2 4t 4 = lim t = lim t = lim t = 0 t + e t + e t + e

t=

1 x2 =

t +

lim 2t 2e t =

f // (0) = 0
Vy, chui Mac-Lau rin ca hm f l:

0 + 0 x + 0 x 2 + 0 x 3 + ... + 0 x n + ... n hi t v c tng bng khng vi mi x


b) nh ngha hm khai trin c thnh chui Taylor: Hm s f ( x) c gi l khai trin c thnh chui Taylor nu chui Taylor ca hm hi t v c tng ng bng f ( x) c) Cc iu kin
nh l 1

Gi s trong mt ln cn no ca im xo hm f ( x) c o hm mi cp. Nu lim Rn ( x) = 0 trong Rn ( x) =


n

f ( n +1) ( ) ( x x0 ) n +1 (n + 1)!

vi l 1im no nm gia xo v x th c th khai trin hm f ( x) thnh chui Taylor trong ln cn y. Chng minh: Tht vy, Khai trin Taylor ca f ( x) n cp n l: f ( x ) = Pn ( x ) + Rn ( x ) trong f ( n +1) ( ) Rn ( x ) = ( x x 0 ) n +1 v lim Rn ( x) = 0 nn f ( x ) = lim Pn ( x )
(n + 1)!
n

Mt khc, Pn ( x) = sn ( x) tng ring th n ca chui Tay lor ca hm f , do


f ( x) = f ( x0 ) + f / ( x0 ) f // ( x0 ) f ( n) ( x0 ) ( x x0 ) + ( x x0 )2 + ... + ( x x0 )n + ... (.p.c.m) 1! 2! n!

nh l 2

Nu trong ln cn no ca im xo hm f ( x) c o hm mi cp v tr tuyt i ca mi o hm u b chn bi cng 1 s th c th khai trin hm f ( x) thnh chui Taylor trong ln cn y. Chng minh: Theo gi thit, f ( n) ( x) M trong ln cn Vx0

150

Rn ( x) =

( n +1)

( )

(n + 1)!

x x0

n +1

M x x0 (n + 1)!

Do chui s
n+1

( x x0 ) n ( x x0 ) n n 0 c min hi t l R s hng tng qut n =1 n! n!

x x0 n n 0 0 Rn ( x) (n + 1)!

Hm f ( x) thnh chui Taylor trong ln cn y.

6.5.3. Chui Mac-Laurin ca 1 s hm thng dng

1. f ( x ) = e
f
(n)

(0) = 1

x2 x3 xn n 1 + x + + + ... + + ... 2! 3! n!

N l 1 s dng c nh bt k, ta c

k 1, x ( N , N ), f ( k ) ( x ) = e x e N = M
f ( x) khai trin hm f ( x) thnh chui Mac-Laurin trong ln cn ( N ,+ N ) ca x =

xo= 0

ex = 1+ x +
2. y = sin x

x2 x3 xn + + ... + + ... 2! 3! n!

f ( k ) ( x) = sin( x + k

) 1

Hm f ( x) = sin x khai trin c thnh chui Mac-Laurin

f (0) = 0, f / (0) = 1, f // (0) = 0, f (3) (0) = 1, f ( 4) (0) = 0,...


Vy, ta c: x3 x5 x7 x 2 n 1 n 1 sin x = x + + ... + ( 1) + ... 3! 5! 7! (2n 1)! 3. y = cos x Tng t nh trn, chui Mac-Laurin ca hm f ( x ) = cos x hi t v chnh n trn ton R:
cos x = 1 x 2 x4 x6 x2n + + ... + (1) n + ... 2! 4! 6! (2n)!

4. y = (1 + x) (Chui nh thc)
(1 + x ) = 1 + x +

( 1)
2!

x 2 + ... +

( 1)...( n + 1)
n!

x n + ...

151

c bit

* Khi = 1 :

1 = 1 x + x 2 x 3 + ... + (1) n x n + ... 1+ x

5. y = ln(1 + x)
ln(1 + x ) = x
x2 x3 x 4 xn + + ... + ( 1) n 1 + ... n 2 3 4

Bi tp 1) Khai trin hm y = x 3 thnh chui Taylor ln cn im x = 1 ( Vit 4 s hng u ca chui Taylor) 2) Khai trin hm y =
1 thnh chui lu tha ca x 3 x

3) Khai trin thnh chui Mac-Laurin cc hm sau; a) y = (e x + e x ) b) y = x e


2 x

1 2

c) y = sin 2 x 4) Khai trin hm s f ( x ) = t ca chui va tm c.


x thnh chui lu tha ca x v tm min hi x+2

152