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saqarTvelos realuri istoriis damdgeni sapatriarqos mudmivmoqmedi komisia

mitropoliti anania jafariZe

ivane javaxiSvili da uwmidesi patriarqi ilia II saqarTvelos eklesiis erTianobis Sesaxeb

Tbilisi 2013

uwmidesi da unetaresi sruliad saqarTvelos kaTolikos-patriarqi ilia II Tavis epistoleebsa da qadagebebSi xSirad aRniSnavs, saqarTvelos eklesiis mTlianobis Sesaxeb, rom saqarTvelos yvela kuTxe erT saeklesio mTlianobas Seadgenda wmida ninos epoqidanve. sabWoTa aTeistur epoqaSi Camoyalibda eklesiisaTvis sruliad miuRebeli Teoria, TiTqosda dasavleT saqarTvelo 600 wlis manZilze IV-X ss. imyofeboda ara saqarTvelos, aramed konstantinopolis sapatriarqos iurisdiqciaSi. es Teoria mTlianad ewinaaRmdegeba Zvel qarTul saeklesio istoriografias, da amasTanave saeklesio swavlebas, imis Sesaxeb, rom CamoyalibebisTanave saqarTvelos eklesia iyo mTliani da is Tavis iurisdiqciaSi moicavda, rogorc aRmosavleT, ise dasavleT saqarTvelos. eklesiis es swavleba kargad aqvs gadmocemuli did iv. javaxiSvils, romelic saqarTvelos eklesiis mTlianobis udidesi qomagi iyo. misi midgoma am sakiTxisadmi samagaliToa, rac unda gaiTvaliswinon Tanamedrove istorikosebma. swored am sakiTxs exeba mitropolit anania jafariZis naSromi ` ivane javaxiSvili da uwmidesi patriarqi ilia II saqarTvelos eklesiis erTianobis Sesaxeb~. rac Seexeba noticiebSi aRniSnul rodopolisis, ziganas, saisinisa da petras kaTedrebs, isini mdebareobdnen ara dasavleT saqarTveloSi, aramed qarTvelTa uZveles qveyanaSi _ qaldea _ trapezuntis regionSi, xolo dasavleT saqarTvelo mudam qarTuli eklesiis iurisdiqciaSi imyofeboda.

samecniero redaqtori profesori i. gorgiZe

mitropoliti anania jafariZe, 2013

ivane javaxiSvili saqarTvelos eklesiis erTianobis Sesaxeb

ivane javaxiSvili saqarTvelos eklesiis erTianobis Sesaxeb


wmida werilSi nabrZanebia _ `didebuli mravalia, rCeuli ki erTi~. saqarTvelos uTvalav didebul eriskacTa Soris gamorCeulia ivane javaxiSvili, romelic imTaviTve Seiyvara qarTvelma erma. ivane javaxiSvili moRvaweobda urTules periodSi, rasac amJamad uwodeben `aTeizmis epoqas~ da romelic gamoirCeoda yovelive wmidisa da Rirebulis uaryofiT. miuxedavad aRniSnulisa, iv. javaxiSvilma Tavisi saocari niWiereba da gamorCeuloba cxadyo imiT, rom is gadaiqca avtoritetad TviT nihilizmiT Sepyrobili TaobebisTvisac ki. iv. javaxiSvilis Tvalwin daingra ruseTis imperia, saqarTvelom 1918-21 wlebSi Tavisufleba moipova, magram droebiT. Sesabamisi iyo eklesiis bedic. 1917 wels saqarTvelos eklesiam marTalia moipova nanatri Tavisufleba ruseTis eklesiis uRlisagan, magram okupaciis wlebSi eklesiac gaiziarebda saqarTvelos saxelmwifos beds da isic dakargavda Tavisuflebas, rom ara Tavdadeba gamoCenili moRvaweebisa. iv. javaxiSvili da misi Tanamosagreni yvelafers akeTebdnen saqarTvelos eklesiis TavisuflebisaTvis. iv. javaxiSvili Zalze did mniSvnelobas aniWebda saqarTvelos eklesiis mTlianobasa da mis damoukideblobas. am moments is afasebda gansakuTrebuli sityvebiT, romlebic albaT, unda daimaxsovron momavalma Taobebma. iv. javaxiSvilis sityvebiT Cveni eklesiis Tavisufleba da mTlianoba warmoadgenda `qarTveli eris saukeTeso SvilTa da mTeli xalxis mier saukuneTa brZoliT miRweul monapovars~. amitomac iyo, rom igi uaryofiTad

afasebda kidec warsulSi saqarTvelos eklesiis erTianobis winaaRmdeg mimarTul qmedebebs. kerZod, man gamowvlilviT ganixila im antioqieli da ierusalimeli patriarqebis qmedebebi, romlebic qarTveli separatistebis mxardaWeriT aqucmacebdnen da anawevrebdnen saqarTvelos eklesias. iv. javaxiSvilis sidiade Cans iqidanac, rom man eklesiis wiaRSi ZvelTaganve danergil Teorias _ wmida ninos droidan qarTuli eklesiis erTianobis Sesaxeb _ upirobod dauWira mxari, ufro metic, is mis erTgul mcvelad iqca, am Teorias misca didi Sefaseba, miiCnia mTeli qarTveli xalxisa da mis saukeTeso SvilTa naRvawad, saukuneTa brZoliT miRweul monapovrad. amave dros, misTvis kargad iyo cnobili sxva Teoriebic am sferoSi. magaliTad, misi moRvaweobis periodSi zogierTi mecnieri ayalibebda Teorias, TiTqosda, Tavdapirvelad dasavleTi saqarTvelo imyofeboda konstantinopolis sapatriarqos iurisdiqciis qveS. iv. javaxiSvilma es axali Teoria miiRo rogorc erT-erTi mimdinare muSa Teoria, romelic emsgavseboda Teorias _ dasavleT saqarTvelos antioqiis iurisdiqciis qveS yofnis Sesaxeb. rogorc iTqva, misTvis zogadad, rogorc mecnierisaTvis misaRebi iyo mxolod Teoria qarTuli eklesiis Tavdapirveli erTianobis Sesaxeb, radganac is miaCnda `mTeli qarTveli eris mier Sesisxlxorcebul Semecnebad~, romlis mospobis ufleba, misi azriT, aravis hqonda, arc maT vinc dasavleT saqarTvelos konstantinopolur iurisdiqcias uWerda mxars da arc antioqiuris momxreT. iv. javaxiSvilma ganixila saqarTvelos eklesiis mTlianobis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli qmedebebi, kerZod, is wers: `XV saukunis 70-ian wlebSi saqarTveloSi antioqiel-

ierusalimeli patriarqi mixeili Camovida... rasakvirvelia, umTavresad Sewirulebisa da fulis Sesagroveblad iyo garjili~ (iv. javaxiSvili, t. III, gv. 447). mas dauweria `mcneba sasjulo~, sadac aRniSnuli aqvs, rom winaT qarTlisa da afxazeTis kaTalikosni antioqiis patriarqisagan iyvnen damokidebuli da maTgan hqondaT miRebuli xeldasxma. qarTuli eklesiis mermindeli TviTmwysoba da saeklesio TviTmmarTveloba antioqiel-ierusalimel patriarqs ukanono movlenad hqonda gamocxadebuli~ (iqve, gv. 447). es yovelive mas sWirdeboda, raTa TviTon ekurTxebina dasavleT saqarTvelos eklesiis axali meTauri, amiT ki dasavleT saqarTvelos eklesia CamoeSorebina saqarTvelos erTiani dedaeklesiisagan. Tavis mxriv, dasavleT saqarTvelos saeklesio damoukidebloba surda im dros imereTis mefes, bagrats. amitomac, antioqielis saeklesio Teoria gamoTqmuli iyo qarTveli separatistebis gulis mogebis mizniT. `man, rasakvirvelia, bagrat mefesTan SeTanxmebiT da saTanado jildos miRebis Semdeg afxazeTis kaTalikosad akurTxa iovakime, romelic saqarTvelos eklesiis kaTalikos-patriarqisagan sruliad damoukideblad gamocxadda. aRsaniSnavia, rom antioqiel-ierusalimelma patriarqma afxazeTis `kaTalikosi saydarsa zeda andria mociqulisa~ dasmulad aRiara. amave dros `sasjulo mcnebaSi naTqvamia, rom nino qarTvelTa ganmanaTlebelma mxolod qarTli moaqcia, andria mociqulma ki dasavleT saqarTvelo gaaqristiana. amiT antioqiel-ierusalimel patriarqs mixeils saqarTvelos saeklesio mTlianobis moSla (rac bagrat mefes im dros politikuri mizniT swadda) undoda, rom es istoriuli sabuTebiT daemtkicebina.

raki aRmosavleT da dasavleT saqarTvelos qristianobis sxvadasxva mqadageblebi hyavda, amiT mas undoda daesabuTebina, rom, maSasadame, afxazeTis kaTalikoss damoukideblad arsebobisa da TviTmwysobis ufleba hqonda. is mcxeTis kaTalikosisagan ar unda yofiliyo xeldasxmuli~ (iv. javaxiSvili, t. III, gv. 447). ra xerxebiT unda daemtkicebina ucxoel patriarqs qarTuli eklesiis antioqiaze damokidebuleba uZveles droSi? ucxoelma patriarqma ise warmoadgina saqme, TiTqosda saqarTvelos sivrceSi Tavdapirvelad Camoyalibda ori sxvadasxva eklesia _ qarTlisa da afxazeTisa, rom TiTqosda isini oriveni Tavdapirvelad imyofebodnen antioqiis sapatriarqos iurisdiqciaSi. Sesabamisad, maTze uflebamosileba gaaCnda antioqias, magram man aRmoaCina, rom dasavleT saqarTveloze Tavis uflebamosilebas axorcielebda aRmosavleT saqarTvelos saeklesio xelisufali. es man miiCnia saeklesio kanonebis darRvevad. marTlac, Tavdapirvelad Tu sxva eklesia iyo afxazeTis eklesia, ra ufleba hqonda qarTlis eklesias afxazeTSi? antioqieli patriarqis azriT saeklesio samarTlebrivi safuZveli amisTvis ar arsebobda, xolo antioqiis eklesias ki gaaCnda Zveli samarTlebrivi ufleba afxazeTis sakaTalikosoze. maSasadame, qarTlis eklesiam saeklesio wesebis darRveviT Tavisi uflebamosileba gaavrcela dasavleT saqarTveloSi. es iyo dadanaSauleba prozelitizmSi, anu es iyo erTi eklesiis SeWra meore eklesiis iurisdiqciaSi _ darRveva III msoflio krebis me-8 kanonisa. es kanoni gmobda aseT qmedebas da amasTanave moiTxovda aRdgenas Zveli Tavdapirveli mdgomareobisas. marTlac, antioqiis patriarqma Tavis azriT aRasrula es kanoni da gamosca samarTlebrivi dokumenti `mcnebai sas-

juloi~, romelSic ganacxada, rom afxazeTis eklesia antioqiam ukan daibrunda Tavis saeklesio wiaRSi da aRadgina Tavisi Zveli iurisdiqcia afxazeTze, ris Semdegac mas ufleba hqonda epatrona am saeklesio erTeulisaTvis da daeniSna misi sasuliero meTauri. es ucxo eklesiis meTauri marTlac ase moiqca da caiSel-bedieli mitropoliti ioakime daniSna afxazeTis kaTalikosad. aseTi qmedeba aRaSfoTebs iv. javaxiSvils, mas miaCnia, rom antioqiels araviTari samarTlebrivi ufleba ar gaaCnda afxazeTis sakaTalikosos mimarT. Tavisi msjelobis sayrdenad miiCnevs qarTuli eklesiis wiaRSi ZvelTagan arsebul samarTlebriv dokuments, gamocemuls ruisurbnisis krebis mamebis mier, rom Tavdapirvelad anu I-IV ss-Si, andria mociqulisa da wmida ninos epoqaSi, Camoyalibda ara ori sxvadasxva eklesia, aramed erTi, sruliad saqarTvelos momcveli eklesia, rom orive ganmanaTlebelma, rogorc andriam, ise wmida ninom, mxolod erTi eklesia Camoayalibes, rom isini moRvaweobdnen ara sxvadasxva geografiul arealze, aramed erT geopolitikur sivrceSi, rom andriam saxareba iqadaga `yovelsa qveyanasa saqarTveloYsasa~, xolo wmida ninom ki gananaTla `yoveli savseba yovelTa qarTvelTa naTesavisa~. maSasadame, maT erTi eklesia Camoayalibes da am eklesiam avtokefalia ZvelTaganve moipova, rom mxolod Semdeg am erTiani eklesiis wiaRSi Camoyalibda ori saeklesio administraciuli erTeuli _ qarTlisa da afxazeTis sakaTalikosoebi, rom isini, marTalia, administraciulad TavisTavadi saeklesio erTeulebi iyvnen, magram qmnidnen erT qarTul saeklesio mTlianobas, radganac gaaCndaT saerTo saeklesio samarTali, saerTo sjuliskanoni, saerTo saeklesio tradiciebi da liturgiis saerTo qarTuli ena. administraciuli TavisTavadoba afxazeTis

sakaTalikosos miuRia qarTlis sapatriarqosagan, rodesac IX s-Si qarTvelTa mefe bagratma `ganaCina kaTalikosi afxazeTs~. antioqiis patriarqis Camosvlis dros ki, XV s-Si, realuri viTareba aseTi iyo. rogorc vTqviT, antioqielma patriarqma gaixsena III msoflio krebis me-8 kanoni, romelic krZalavs erTi eklesiis SeWras meore eklesiis iurisdiqciaSi da moiTxovs winandeli, anu Tavdapirveli mdgomareobis aRdgenas. antioqielma mcxeTa daadanaSaula, rom is SeiWra dasavleT saqarTvelos eklesiis iurisdiqciaSi, amitomac man scada gaeuqmebina mcxeTis yovelgvari uflebamosileba iq da TviTon akurTxa afxazeTis axali kaTalikosi. aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, CvenTvis istoriul magaliTs unda warmoadgendes es saqme. rogorc cnobilia, amJamad Cveni oficialuri istoriografiis mier miiCneva, rom Tavdapirvelad dasavleT saqarTvelo IV-IX ss-Si 500 wlis manZilze, TiTqosda, imyofeboda konstantinopolis sapatriarqos iurisdiqciaSi. es Teoria Zalze saSiSia samomavlod, radganac iseTive samarTlebriv uflebamosilebas aniWebs konstantinolis sapatriarqos, rogoric TavisTavze miiwera antioqielma patriarqma mixeilma. rogorc iTqva, III msoflio krebis me-8, aseve mociqulTa 35-e da II msoflio krebis me-2 kanonis ZaliT, sxvis eklesiaSi SeWrili meore eklesia valdebulia aRadginos Tavdapirveli mdgomareoba da am kanonebidan gamomdinare, Tuki dasavleT saqarTveloze Tavis uflebamosilebas Tavdapirvelad axorcielebda konstantinopoli, mas unda daubrundes kidec es saeklesio erTeuli. yovelive zemoT Tqmulidan gamomdinare, vfiqrobT iv. javaxiSvili mxars ar dauWerda Cvens istoriografiaSi

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amJamad gabatonebul Teorias dasavleT saqarTvelos konstantinopolis iurisdiqciaSi 500-wlovani yofnis Sesaxeb. piriqiT, is am Teorias miiCnevda `mTeli qarTveli xalxis brZoliT monapovris~ uaryofad da is uTuod amJamadac mxars dauWerda ruis-urbnisis krebis samarTlebriv aqts, rom dasavleT da aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi I-IV ss-Si Camoyalibda erTiani eklesia, rom Tavdapirvelad wmida andriasa da wmida ninos RvawliT dafuZnebuli qarTuli eklesia Tavidanve erTiani iyo, Tumca misTvis sxva samecniero Teoriebic aRniSnul sakiTxze cnobili iyo. iv. javaxiSvili werda: `giorgi mTawmideli da gansakuTrebiT efrem mcire, ruis-urbnisis 1103 wlis saeklesio krebis yvela sulisCamdgmeli da nikoloz kaTalikosi amtkiceben, rom andria mociqulma iqadaga `yovelsa qveyanasa saqarTveloisasa~, xolo Semdgom qristianoba kvlav aRadgina wmida ninom, romlis saswaulTmoqmedebam da qadagebam `miizida yoveli savseba yovelTa qarTvelTa naTesavisa~, nikoloz kaTalikosic, wmida ninos saerTo mociqulad da ganmanaTleblad Tvlida `Cven qarTvelTaisa~ (~saswaulni sveticxovlisa~). erTi sityviT, andria mociqulic da wmida ninoc saerTo qarTuli eklesiis damaarseblad da mTeli eris ganmanaTleblad iyvnen cnobilni. saqarTvelos sxvadasxva nawilebis calke mqadageblebis gamoZebnis survilic ar hqoniaT, radgan isini mTliani da ganuyofeli saqarTvelos ganmtkicebisa da aRorZinebisaTvis iRvwodnen. antioqiel-ierusalimeli patriarqi mixeili, swored am qarTvel saxelovan mecnierTa mier Seqmnilsa da mTeli qarTveli erisagan Sesisxlxorcebul Semecnebas spobda~ (iv. javaxiSvili, Txz., t. III, gv. 340).

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samwuxaroa, rom Zvel qarTvel saxelovan mecnierTa (iv. javaxiSvilis Sefaseba) mier boZebul Semecnebas spobs zogierTi axali qarTveli mecnieri, Tanac iseTi umaRlesi saerTaSoriso saeklesio organodan, rogoricaa `pravoslavnaia enciklopedia~. magaliTad, Zveli qarTuli wyaroebis sawinaaRmdegod `pravoslavnaia enciklopedia~-s me-13 tomis avtorebi (gv. 200) noticiebze _ bizantiur kaTedraTa nusxebze _ dayrdnobiT miiCneven, rom dasavleT saqarTveloSi IX s-mde arsebuli saepiskoposoebi konstantinopolis iurisdiqciaSi imyofebodnen. TiTqosda, `egrisis samefoSi, I noticiis mixedviT, arsebobda lazikis eparqia, romlis centri iyo fazisis (foTis) samitropolito oTxi saepiskoposo kaTedriT _ rodopolisi (varcixe), saisini (caiSi), petra (cixisZiri), zigana (ziganisi, gudava) (~pravoslavnaia enciklopedia~, t. XIII, gv. 200, rus. enaze). TiTqosda, Semdgom isini qarTulma eklesiam konstantinopols CamoaSora. vSiSobT, rom es araswori Teoria, gavrcelebuli mTel msoflioSi `pravoslavnaia enciklopediis~ mier, did safrTxes Seuqmnis samomavlod saqarTvelos teritoriul da saeklesio mTlianobas. sinamdvileSi lazikis aRniSnuli saepiskoposoebi mdebareobdnen trapezuntis olqSi _ qalaq ziganas regionSi, iqve iyo rodopolisis kaTedrac. amis Sesaxeb miuTiTebs ara mxolod msoflioSi saxelganTqmuli mecnieri n. adonci, aramed amJamad saberZneTSi dabeWdili zogierTi saeklesio rukac. qarTuli wyaroebis dabejiTebuli mtkicebiT, mudam, farnavaz mefis droidanac, dasavleT saqarTvelo yovelTvis Sedioda qarTlis samefos sazRvrebSi vidre md. egriswylamde da vaxtang gorgaslis Semdeg vidre md. klisuramde. amitomac miiCneoda, rom am sasazRvro mdinareebis aqeT, dasavleT saqarTveloSi, konstantinopols arasodes

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iurisdiqcia ar gaaCnda, mxolod am mdinareebis iqiT mdebare teritoria Sedioda bizantiis imperiis SemadgenlobaSi, VIII s-mde. amitomac, rodesac Cven vamtkicebT, rom dasavleT saqarTveloSi konstantinopols ar gaaCnda Tavisi iurisdiqcia, cxadia, igulisxmeba am sasazRvro mdinareebis aqeT mdebare dasavleT saqarTvelos teritoria. rogorc cnobilia, md. egriswylad miiCneva md. RaliZga (oCamCiris raionSi), xolo md. klisurad _ md. kelasuri (soxumTan). rusul `pravoslavnaia enciklopediaSi~, dasavleT saqarTvelos msgavsad, samxreT saqarTveloc araqarTul qveynadaa gamocxadebuli, sadac, TiTqosda, qarTuli eklesiis gabatonebis Semdeg moxda mkvidri `somxebis~ gaqarTveleba. `somxebis~ gaqarTvelebis `Tvalsazrisi~ imdenadaa gavrcelebuli, rom man ukve qarTul saeklesio gamocemebSic SeaRwia. magaliTad, cnobili avtori wers: kirion I kaTalikosma, qvemo qarTlSi `araqarTuli mosaxleobis gasaqarTveleblad marjved gamoiyena politikuri viTareba~ (saqarTvelos kaTalikos-patriarqebi, Tb., 2000, gv. 28) somexi avtorebi, da ara mxolod isini, aseT statiebs safuZvlad udeben Teorias, rom qvemo qarTli da, saerTod, samxreT saqarTvelo somxuri qveyana iyo, romelic eklesiis mier `gaqarTvelda~. esaa e.w. `qarTizaciis~ Teoria, romelic oficialuri istoriografiisaTvis ueWvel dogmad iqca. am Teoriis msgavsia amJamad gavrcelebuli Tvalsazrisi, rom mcxeTa-Tbilisis samxreT-aRmosavleTiT mdebare regionebi, e.i. istoriuli kaxeTi da qvemo qarTli, TiTqosda, Tavdapirvelad dasaxlebuli iyo albaneli xalxiT, romelic qarTuli eklesiis meSveobiT gaqarTvelda. es Teoriac unda eqvemdebarebodes gadaxedvas, rad-

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ganac Zveli qarTuli saeklesio istoriografiis Tanaxmad, hereT-albaneTi moicavda sul sxva teritorias. kerZod, Semdegdroindeli ranisa da Saqis miwa-wyals, amitomac uwodebdnen Semdgom saukuneebSi hereTis dedofals SuSaniks saeklesio wyaroebSi ranis dedofals, xolo mefeTa titulaturaSi ixseneboda ranTa mefe, romelic gulisxmobda hereTis yofili samefos mflobelobas. albaneTis kulturul memkvidreobaze amJamad pretenzias acxadeben azerbaijanelebi, amitomac Tuki albaneTi uSualod emijneboda mcxeTa-Tbiliss _ aRniSnuli TeoriiT maT garkveuli uflebamosileba eniWebaT mcxeTis aRmosavleTiTa da Tbilisis samxreTiT mdebare miwa-wyalsa da masze mdebare kulturis Zeglebzec. yovelive zemoT aRniSnulidan, Cans, rom didi iv. javaxiSvili ar ganixilavda saistorio mecnierebas rogorc dogmas, aramed miiCnevda, rom is unda ganviTarebuliyo, rom erTxel miRebuli Tvalsazrisi ar unda CaTvliliyo Seucvlel WeSmaritebad, romlis koreqtireba anda uaryofa SeuZlebeli iqneboda. mis mier ruis-urbnisis krebis samarTlebrivi aqtis mxardaWera miuTiTebs imis Sesaxebac, rom istoriuli mecnierebis ganviTarebisaTvis zogjer saWiro aris axali ideebis Camoyalibeba, anda Zveli erovnuli saistorio ideebis aRorZineba-ganaxleba axali moTxovnilebebis Sesabamisad. marTlac, Tu ar ganviTarda istoriuli mecniereba, is CamorCeba da erT adgilas gaiyineba, amiT ki ver SeZlebs Tavisi funqciis srulyofilad aRsrulebas. ivane javaxiSvili CvenTvis yovelTvis TvalsaCino etaloni da magaliTi aris Tavisi moRvaweobis yoveli waxnagiT.

22.04.2010.

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II

uwmidesi da unetaresi sruliad saqarTvelos kaTolikos-patriarqi ilia II araswori istoriografiuli Teoriebis Sesaxeb

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uwmidesi ilia II da wm. sinodi araswori istoriografiuli Teoriebis Sesaxeb


uwmidesma da unetaresma sruliad saqarTvelos patriarqma ilia II-m Tavis ramdenime epistolesa da qadagebaSi dasva da ganixila qarTuli istoriografiis problematikuri sakiTxebi, romlebic misuwmidesobas miaCnia prioritetulad sazogadoebis sulieri Semobrunebis gzaze. 2011 wlis saSobao epistoleSi uwmidesi patriarqi aRniSnavs: `Cveni uZvelesi istoriis zogierTi sakvanZo sakiTxi, rac qarTvelTa warmomavlobasa da eris erTianobas ukavSirdeba, realuri saxiT Tanamedrove sazogadoebam naklebad icis. amis mizezi aris is, rom carizmi da sabWoTa imperia yovelTvis cdilobdnen igi araobieqturad warmoeCinaT. maT ar surdaT, Cvens xalxSi erovnul-patriotuli suliskveTebis gaRviveba, radgan igi saxelmwifoebrivi damoukideblobis moTxovnis saSiSroebas Seicavda. araobieqturad miwodebuli istoriis safuZvelze, sruliad ukanonod da usamarTlod Seiqmna, magaliTad, avtonomiebi XX saukunis dasawyisSi ruseTis mier dapyrobil saqarTveloSi. adrec miTqvams, rom swored amitom, gansakuTrebul cenzuras ganicdida qarTuli istoriografia, enaTmecniereba da sxva iseTi mimarTulebebi, romelnic msoflmxedvelobis ganmsazRvrel dargebad miiCneoda. Cvens cnobil mkvlevarebs didi Zalisxmeva da Tavdadeba dasWirdaT, raTa nawilobriv mainc gadaerCinaT da dRemde moetanaT Cveni eris istoriuli simarTle. axla ki, rodesac aRsdga saqarTvelos Tavisufleba, aucilebelia, Segnebulad

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dafaruli warsulis warmoCena da saqarTvelos obieqturi matianis dawera uxsovari droidan dRemde (aRniSnul sakiTxze bolo sxdomaze imsjela wm. sinodma da miiRo saTanado gadawyvetileba). amas jer kidev XIX s-Si da XX sis dasawyisSi cdilobdnen Cveni sasiqadulo mamuliSvilni, magram maTi naazrevi maSindeli saxelmwifoebrivi ideologiis sapirwoned, bunebrivia, ver iqca~. qarTuli Tanamedrove istoriografiis problematikuri sakiTxebis rkvevas misma uwmidesobam gansakuTrebuli yuradReba miaqcia 2006 wlidan. am wlis saSobao epistoleSi man aRniSna, rom Tanamedrove qarTuli istoriografia samwuxarod ver acda jer kidev XIX saukuneSi ruseTis imperiis mier saistorio mecnierebaSi danergil Teorias, romlis mixedviTac qarTveli eris mTlianoba da misi uflebebi saqarTvelos miwa-wyalze saeWvod Canda. amasTan dakavSirebiT ilia II wers: `wminda ilia marTali Tavis publicistur werilebSi ebrZoda peterburgis universitetSi Seqmnil antiqarTul istoriografiul Teorias, romlis mixedviTac erTiani qarTveli eri warmodgenili iyo gansxvavebuli tomebis xelovnur gaerTianebad. aRniSnuli kampaniis gagrZeleba iyo is, rom imperiulma Zalebma daiwyes megrulad da svanurad saRvTismsaxuro wignebis Targmna da scades wirva-locvis Catarebac, magram am kuTxis Svilebma da mTelma qarTulma sazogadoebam maT sakadrisi pasuxi gasca. es iyo neli moqmedebis ideologiuri naRmi; am naRmma Cven dRevandel mdgomareobamde migviyvana da Zmoba da erToba dagvarRvevina~ - wers uwmidesi patriarqi 2006 wlis saSobao epistoleSi. saqme isaa, rom qarTul istoriografiaSi amJamad mkvidrad danergili TeoriiT dasavleT saqarTvelo 600

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wlis manZilze imyofeboda ara qarTuli eklesiis iurisdiqciaSi, aramed ucxo (konstantinepolis) sapatriarqoSi. am Teoriis Tanaxmad, romelic asaxulia yvela cnobarsa, saskolo saxelmZRvanelosa da saenciklopedio statiaSi TiTqos qarTlis (mcxeTis) sakaTalikoso IX-X s.-Si `SeiWra~ dasavleT saqarTvelos (konstantinepolis) sapatriarqos iurisdiqciaSi da berZnuli eparqiebis gauqmebis Semdgom dasavleT saqarTveloSi TviTon gabatonda `IX saukunidan mTel dasavleT saqarTveloSi qarTuli eklesia gabatonda~ (qse, t. 10, gv. 460). sabWoTa epoqaSi gavrcelda aseTi umarTebulo Tvalsazrisi _ `dasavleT saqarTveloSi berZnuli kaTedrebis moSla da maT sapirispirod qarTuli saepiskoposo centrebis daarseba sabolood X saukuneSi sruldeba~ (narkvevebi, t. II, 1973, gv. 427). Tu rogori `reaqciuli iyo qarTuli eklesiis prozelitizmi _ konstantinopolis sapatriarqos iurisdiqciaSi SeWra~ _ amis Sesaxeb Cveni oficialuri istoriografia wers: `qarTvelebi dasavleT saqarTvelodan sdevnian berZnul enas, berZnul viwro erovnul kulturas, SemoaqvT da avrceleben sakuTar, qarTul enas, qarTul RvTismsaxurebas da qarTul saeklesio-samonastro wesebs. qarTul kulturas Tan mohqonda qarTuli politikuri Segneba da ideali, ase rom `mcxeTa jer enobrivad (eTnikur elementze dayrdnobiT) SeiWra lixTimereTSi, xolo Semdeg, rogorc Cans, formula wamoayena Tavisi organizaciuli gabatonebis dasasafuZvleblad cxadia, mcxeTis sakaTalikosos mxriv, es aris konstantinopolis sapatriarqos winaaRmdeg mimarTuli brZola lixT-imereTis eklesiaze organizaciulad gabatonebis mizniT~ (iqve, narkv. II, 1973, gv. 586).

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qarTvel avtorebze dayrdnobiT saeklesio separatisti d. dbari eWvmiutanel faqtad miiCnevs Tvalsazriss, rom dasavleT saqarTvelo konstantinopolis iurisdiqciaSi imyofeboda da iq RvTismsaxurebisaTvis eklesiebSi aramxolod berZnuli, aramed afxazuri enac gamoiyeneboda, xolo Semdeg TiTqosda dasavleT saqarTvelos eklesia da afxazuri saxelmwifo qarTvelma agresorebma qarTuli eklesiis winamZRolobiT daipyres da afxazuri eklesia Cakles (ix. wignSi ( ) ) am TeoriiT ara mxolod dasavleT saqarTvelo, TiTqos kaxeTis didi nawilic ki ucxo eklesiis iurisdiqciaSi iyo. Tanamedrove istoriografiis mier miCneulia, rom bodbe, daviT garejas mimdebare teritoriebi TiTqos Sedioda albaneTis sakaTalikosos iurisdiqciaSi da mxolod Semdgom gabatonda iq qarTuli eklesia ( , .1, statia `albaneTis sakaTalikoso~). ~pravoslavnaia enciklopediis~ tomeulebSi, dasavleT saqarTvelos msgavsad, samxreT saqarTveloc araqarTul qveynadaa gamocxadebuli, sadac, TiTqosda, qarTuli eklesiis gabatonebis Semdeg moxda mkvidri `somxebis~ gaqarTveleba. `somxebis~ gaqarTvelebis `Tvalsazrisi~ imdenadaa gavrcelebuli, rom man ukve qarTul saeklesio gamocemebSic SeaRwia. magaliTad, kirion I kaTalikosma TiTqosda qvemo qarTlSi `araqarTuli mosaxleobis gasaqarTveleblad marjved gamoiyena politikuri viTareba~ miiCneva, rom tao-klarjeTi, basiani da mimdebare regionebi Tavdapirvelad iyo somxuri eTnikuri regioni. Sesabamisad banas, xaxulis, oSkis da sxva eklesiebi miiCneva somxuri arqiteqturis Zeglebad da isini mxolod imitom aRmoCnd-

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nen qarTuli eklesiis wiaRSi, rom mkvidri somxuri mosaxleoba gaqarTvelda `qarTizaciis~ Sedegad ( , .1, statia `somxuri eklesia~). aseve sadavodaa qceuli qarTvelTa ufleba saqarTvelos sxva istoriul regionebze. Tanamedrove istoriografiaSi danergili am Tvalsazrisis gamo qarTvel avtorebs Zalze xSirad uTiTeben separatistebi TavianT SromebSi. am naSromebiT maT saerTaSoriso saeklesio wreebic ki daaintereses. amis gamo sagangebod imsjela wm. sinodma 2012 w. 5 ivliss da miiRo ganCineba: `vinaidan XIX saukunis meore naxevarSi da, gansakuTrebiT, XX s-Si, - komunistebis mmarTvelobis xanaSi, mizanmimarTulad Seicvala da gayalbda Sexeduleba saqarTvelos eklesiis sazRvrebis Sesaxeb, mkvidrdeboda ra azri, TiTqos dasavleT saqarTvelo IV-X saukuneebSi, anu 600 wlis manZilze, ar iyo qarTuli eklesiis iurisdiqciaSi, amasTan, TiTqos, Crdilo, aRmosavleT da samxreT saqarTveloSi aseve ar Sedioda Cveni zogierTi istoriuli regioni, daevalos wmida andria pirvelwodebulis qarTul universitets, gadadgas realuri, drouli da qmediTi nabijebi aTeistur periodSi SemuSavebuli ideologiis nacvlad saqarTvelos eklesiis namdvili istoriis warmoCenisa da popularizaciisaTvis. xeli Seewyos meufe ananias (jafariZe) mier warmodgenili masalebis dabeWdvas da istoriul wyaroebze dayrdnobili im WeSmariti azris ganmtkicebas, rom `wminda mociqulma andriam iqadaga yovelsa qveyanasa saqarTveloisasa~, xolo wminda ninom `gananaTla yoveli savseba yovelTa qarTvelTa naTesavisa~ (didi sjuliskanoni, 1974, gv. 545-546) da rom amas mowmoben ucxouri wyaroebic. aRsaniSnavia isic rom am azrs srulad

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iziarebs batoni ivane javaxiSvili. igi wers: `andria mociqulic da wmida ninoc saerTo qarTuli eklesiis damaarseblad da mTeli eris ganmanaTleblad iyvnen cnobilni, saqarTvelos sxvadasxva nawilebis calke mqadageblebis gamoZebnis survilic ar hqoniaT, radgan isini mTliani da ganuyofeli saqarTvelos ganmtkicebisa da aRorZinebisaTvis iRvwodnen~ (qarTveli eris istoria, t. III, gv. 47)~ aRniSnavs wm. sinodi. sazogadod, rogorc mefis ruseTis imperiaSi ise sabWoTa kavSirSi istoria iyo is samecniero dargi, romelic ruseTis imperiis mier gamoiyeneboda rogorc ideologia dapyrobili erebis daSla-danawevrebis mizniT. amitomac, rogorc wesi yovelTvis Zalze yalbdeboda is. am faqts miuTiTebs kidevac uwmidesi patriarqi ilia II. yovel SemTxvevaSi, rogorc iTqva saqarTvelos eklesiis interesebs SemaSfoTeblad azaralebs jer kidev sabWoTa epoqaSi Seqmnili da amJamad gabatonebuli saistorio Teoriebi. am sakiTxs eZRvneba mravali gamokvleva, wmida sinodis dadgenilebebi da patriarqis epistoleebi. wm. sinodma sxvadasxva wlebSi orjer miiRo dadgenileba istoriis problematikasTan dakavSirebiT. kerZod, 2011 wlis 20 dekembers wm. sinodma Tavis sxdomaze miiRo Semdegi dadgenileba `sabWoTa periodSi xdeboda saqarTvelosa da msoflio istoriis gayalbeba. Secdomebis gamosasworeblad Seiqmnas istorikosTa jgufi manglisisa da walkis mitropolit ananias (jafariZe) xelmZRvanelobiT~. xolo wm. sinodis meore sxdoma, romelmac miiRo sagangebo dadgenileba saqarTvelos eklesiis istoriis problematikasTan dakavSirebiT Sedga 2012 wlis 5 ivliss.

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wm. sinodis 2012 wlis 5 ivlisis dadgenilebaSi naTqvamia _ `XIX s. meore naxevarSi da gansakuTrebiT XX s. komunistebis mmarTvelobis xanaSi mizan mimarTulad Seicvala da gayalbda Sexeduleba saqarTvelos eklesiis sazRvrebis Sesaxeb ...~ wmida sinodma sagangebod daavala sapatriarqos andria pirvelwodebulis qarTul universitets gadadgas realuri, drouli da qmediTi nabijebi aTeistur periodSi SemuSavebuli ideologiis nacvlad saqarTvelos eklesiis namdvili istoriis populalizaciisa da warmoCenisaTvis. wm. sinodma miuTiTa kidec gzebi am problemis gadasawyvetad. cxadia wminda sinodis dadgenileba exeba sapatriarqos yvela saswavlo dawesebulebas. saerTod ki aRniSnuli problematikuri sakiTxebi amJamindeli qarTuli istoriografiisa imdenad mniSvnelovani aris saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebrivi ganmtkicebisa da qarTveli eris mTlianobisaTvis, rom uwmidesma patriarqma 2009 wlis 10 ivliss Tavis 76-e brZanebiT Seqmna sapatriarqosTan arsebuli komisia, romelsac evaleba saqarTvelos realuri istoriis dadgena. uwmidesi patriarqis 2009 wlis brZanebaSi naTqvamia _ `saqarTvelos sapatriarqosTan Seiqmnas saqarTvelos realuri istoriis damdgeni mudmivmoqmedi komisia misi maRalyovladusamRvdeloesobis, manglisisa da walkis mitropolit ananias (jafariZe) xelmZRvanelobiT~. zemoT aRniSnulidan gamomdinare saqarTvelos sapatriarqos saswavlo dawesebulebebma, kerZod ki sapatriarqos andria pirvelwodebulis qarTulma universitetma unda gaiTvaliswinon saqarTvelos eklesiis meTauris, uwmidesi patriarqis miTiTebebi da aseve wm. sinodis dadgenilebebi saqarTvelos amJamindel istoriografia-

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sTan dakavSirebiT da gadadgas realuri, drouli da qmediTi nabijebi aTeistur epoqaSi SemuSavebuli ideologiis nacvlad saqarTvelos eklesiis namdvili istoriis warmoCenisa da popularizaciisaTvis. saqarTvelos sapatriarqos realuri istoriis damdgeni komisiis Tavmjdomare, wmida sinodis wevri, manglel_ walkeli mitropoliti anania.

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amonaridebi uwmidesi patriarqis epistoleebidan araobieqturi istoriis sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT


I. amonaridi 2012 wlis saSobao epistoledan

`unda SevqmnaT konkurentunariani sainformacio garemo, romelic faseulobebs daefuZneba da maT TanamedroveobasTan Seazavebs. es daexmareba axalgazrdebs damoukideblad gascen pasuxi drois gamowvevebs. amaSia saqarTvelos gadarCena. Tqvens yuradRebas saqarTvelos istoriaze SevaCereb. samwuxarod, Cveni uZvelesi istoriis zogierTi sakvanZo sakiTxi, rac qarTvelTa warmomavlobasa da eris erTianobas ukavSirdeba, realuri saxiT Tanamedrove sazogadoebam naklebad icis. amis mizezi aris is, rom carizmi da sabWoTa imperia yovelTvis cdilobdnen, igi araobieqturad warmoeCinaT. maT ar surdaT, Cvens xalxSi erovnul-patriotuli suliskveTebis gaRviveba, radgan igi saxelmwifoebrivi damoukideblobis moTxovnis saSiSroebas Seicavda. araobieqturad miwodebuli istoriis safuZvelze, sruliad ukanonod da usamarTlod Seiqmna, magaliTad, avtonomiebi, XX saukunis dasawyisSi ruseTis mier dapyrobil saqarTveloSi. adrec miTqvams, rom swored amitom, gansakuTrebul cenzuras ganicdida qarTuli istoriografia, enaTmecniereba da sxva iseTi mimarTulebebi, romelnic msoflmxedvelobis ganmsazRvrel dargebad miiCneoda. Cvens cnobil mkvlevarebs didi Zalisxmeva da Tavdadeba dasWirdaT, raTa nawilobriv mainc gadaerCinaT da dRemde moetanaT Cveni eris istoriuli simarTle. axla ki, rodesac aRsdga saqarTvelos Tavisufle-

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ba, aucilebelia, Segnebulad dafaruli warsulis warmoCena da saqarTvelos obieqturi matianis dawera uxsovari droidan dRemde (aRniSnul sakiTxze bolo sxdomaze imsjela wm. sinodma da miiRo saTanado gadawyvetileba). amas jer kidev XIX s-Si da XX s-is dasawyisSi cdilobdnen Cveni sasiqadulo mamuliSvilni, magram maTi naazrevi maSindeli saxelmwifoebrivi ideologiis sapirwoned, bunebrivia, ver iqca~.

TqvenTvis mlocveli

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II. amonaridi 2006 wlis saSobao epistoledan

`metad mniSvnelovania qveynis mTlianobis aRdgenis sakiTxi. saqarTvelosTvis gareSe Zalebis mier Tavsmoxveuli Sida konfliqtebi, romelsac arasworad eTnokonfliqtebsac uwodeben, orasi wlis manZilze mtruli Zalebis mier warmoebuli informaciuli omis Sedegicaa. mavanni dResac cdiloben Seuqmnan saerTaSoriso sazogadoebas araswori warmodgena imis Sesaxeb, TiTqos afxazeTi da cxinvalis regioni istoriulad araqarTuli teritoriebia. istoriografia, enaTmecniereba, arqeologia... nawilobriv politizirebuli mecnierebebia da, bunebrivia, yoveli qveyana, Tavis interesebidan gamomdinare, iyenebs maT. es gansakuTrebiT damaxasiaTebelia imperiebisaTvis, romelnic am meTodiT cdiloben gaimyaron Tavisi poziciebi (gaTiSe da ibatones principi). jer kidev wminda ilia marTali Tavis publicistur werilebSi ebrZoda peterburgis universitetSi Seqmnil antiqarTul istoriografiul Teorias, romlis mixedviTac erTiani qarTveli eri warmodgenili iyo gansxvavebuli tomebis xelovnur gaerTianebad. aRniSnuli kampaniis gagrZeleba iyo is, rom imperiulma Zalebma daiwyes megrulad da svanurad saRvTismsaxuro wignebis Targmna da scades wirva-locvis Catarebac, magram am kuTxis Svilebma da mTelma qarTulma sazogadoebam maT sakadrisi pasuxi gasca. es iyo neli moqmedebis ideologiuri naRmi; am naRmma Cven dRevandel mdgomareobamde migviyvana da Zmoba da erToba dagvarRvevina~.

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III. amonaweri wmida sinodis sxdomis oqmidan istoriis gayalbebasTan dakavSirebiT (20. XII. 2011)

2011 wlis 20 dekembers Sedga saqarTvelos marTlmadidebeli eklesiis wminda sinodis sxdoma. wminda sinodma ganixila sxvadasxva sakiTxebi da miiRo Sesabamisi dadgenilebebi: sinodma ganaCina: `d) sabWoTa periodSi xdeboda saqarTvelosa da msoflio istoriis gayalbeba. Secdomebis gamosasworeblad Seiqmnas istorikosTa jgufi manglisisa da walkis mitropolit ananias (jafariZe) xelmZRvanelobiT~.

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IV. amonaweri wmida sinodis sxdomis oqmidan istoriis gayalbebasTan dakavSirebiT (5. VII. 2012)

(mokle varianti)

2012 wlis 5 ivliss saqarTvelos sapatriarqoSi Sedga wminda sinodis morigi sxdoma. sxdomas Tavmjdomareobda sruliad saqarTvelos kaTolikos-patriarqi, mcxeTa-Tbilisis mTavarepiskoposi da biWvinTisa da cxum-afxazeTis mitropoliti ilia II.
6. wminda sinodma moismina manglisisa da walkis mitropolit ananias (jafariZe) moxseneba saqarTvelos eklesiis istoriis problematikasTan dakavSirebiT da ganaCina: vinaidan XIX saukunis meore naxevarSi da, gansakuTrebiT, XX s-Si, - komunistebis mmarTvelobis xanaSi, mizanmimarTulad Seicvala da gayalbda Sexeduleba saqarTvelos eklesiis sazRvrebis Sesaxeb, mkvidrdeboda ra azri, TiTqos dasavleT saqarTvelo IV-X saukuneebSi, anu 600 wlis manZilze, ar iyo qarTuli eklesiis iurisdiqciaSi, amasTan, TiTqos, Crdilo, aRmosavleT da samxreT saqarTveloSi aseve ar Sedioda Cveni zogierTi istoriuli regioni, daevalos wmida andria pirvelwodebulis qarTul universitets, gadadgas realuri, drouli da qmediTi nabijebi aTeistur periodSi SemuSavebuli ideologiis nacvlad saqarTvelos eklesiis namdvili istoriis warmoCenisa da popularizaciisaTvis. xeli Seewyos meufe ananias (jafariZe) mier warmodgenili masalebis dabeWdvas da istoriul wyaroebze dayrdnobili im WeSmariti azris ganmtkicebas, rom `wminda mo-

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ciqulma andriam iqadaga yovelsa qveyanasa saqarTveloYsasa~, xolo wminda ninom `gananaTla yoveli savseba yovelTa qarTvelTa naTesavisa~. (didi sjulis kanoni, 1974, gv. 545-546) da rom amas mowmoben ucxouri wyaroebic. aRsaniSnavia isic rom am azrs srulad iziarebs batoni ivane javaxiSvili. igi wers: `andria mociqulic da wmida ninoc saerTo qarTuli eklesiis damaarseblad da mTeli eris ganmanaTleblad iyvnen cnobilni, saqarTvelos sxvadasxva nawilebis calke mqadageblebis gamoZebnis survilic ar hqoniaT, radgan isini mTliani da ganuyofeli saqarTvelos ganmtkicebisa da aRorZinebisaTvis iRvwodnen~. (qarTveli eris istoria, t. III, gv. 47). sapatriarqos uwyebani #27, 12-20 ivlisi, 2012 w.

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2009 w. realuri istoriis damdgeni sapatriarqos mudmivmoqmedi komisiis wevrTa mier momzadebuli daskvna _ saqarTvelos erovnul-saxelmwifoebrivi da saeklesio mTlianobis sawinaaRmdegod mimarTuli e.w. `qarTizaciis~ Teoriis Sesaxeb
`XIX-XX saukuneebSi saqarTvelos eklesiis avtokefaliis gauqmebisa da saxelmwifoebrivi damoukideblobis gauqmebis periodSi mizanmimarTulad yalbdeboda saqarTvelos istoria da enaTmecnierebis safuZvlebi~. sruliad saqarTvelos kaTolikos-patriarqis 2009 wlis 10 ivlisis, 76-e brZanebidan sruliad saqarTvelos sapatriarqosadmi

`egre mtrisa ar meSinis, radgan cxadad mawyinarobs; moyvaresa mtersa vufrTxi, memoyvreba, mocinarobs~... rusTaveli
uwmidesi da unetaresi, sruliad saqarTvelos kaTolikos-patriarqi ilia II 2006 wlis saSobao epistoleSi brZanebs, rom peterburgis universitetSi, XIX s-is bolos Seiqmna antiqarTuli istoriografiuli Teoria, romelsac amJamad ewodeba `qarTizaciis Teoria~. XIX-XX saukuneebSi saqarTvelos dapyrobis epoqaSi ruseTma imperiuli devizis `gaTiSe da ibatone~-s Sesabami-

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sad Seaferxa qarTveli eris integracia-konsolidaciis procesi. man am saqmisaTvis gamoiyena ara mxolod samxedro Zala, aramed samecniero wreebi. rogorc ruseTis imperiaSi, ise sabWoTa kavSirSi istoriografia gamoiyeneboda mZlavr ideologiur iaraRad mcirericxovani erebis dasaSlelad da dasamorCileblad. ruseTma aRniSnuli iaraRi gansakuTrebulad gamoiyena saqarTveloSi, radganac mas aq daxvda xalxi erovnul-saxelmwifoebrivi cnobierebiTa da maRalinteleqtualuri elitiT. qarTvelTa mxridan am winaaRmdegobis gadasalaxavad ruseTma samecniero da sauniversiteto wreebi gamoiyena, ris Sesaxebac jer kidev wmida ilia marTali werda publicistur werilebSi. carizmis dakveTiT peterburgis universitetSi, qarTveli eris mTlianobis danawevrebis mizniT, profesorma q. patkanovma da misma samecniero wrem, (maT Soris iyo niko mari) Seqmna e.w. `qarTizaciis~ Teoria. qerofe patkanovis (qerofe petrosis Ze patkaniani) da niko maris mosazrebebis, patkanov-maris `TeoriaSi~ Cadebuli safrTxis Sesaxeb jer kidev wmida ilia marTali brZanebda `qvaTa RaRadSi~1 _ `profesori patkanovi, aw gardacvalebuli, mTelis Tavisis mecnierebis zarbaznebiT mogvesia da hlamis zurgze mtveri agvadinos. jer mogvdga da Tavze dagvafxriwa Cveni `qarTlis cxovreba~. es vaxtang VI dros aris SeTiTxnilio da araviTari cnoba ar aris, rom vaxtangis winad `qarTlis cxovreba~ yofiliyoso. erTaderTi werili `somxuri qronika~ hqviano da Tu ram masalaa qarTvelebis istoriisa, iq Tu ipovebao. marTalia, es `qroni1 `somexTa mecnierni da qvaTa RaRadi~ ilia WavWavaZis publicisturmemkvidreobas ganekuTvneba, romelic pirvelad gazeT iveriaSi gamoqveynda 1899 wels da imave wels gamoica calke wignad, mogvianebiT ki rusul enazec daistamba.

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ka~ qarTulidam naTargmniao, magram dedani unda iyos SeTxzuli, anu Sedgenili, uswavlelisa da umecaris somxisagan meTormete saukunes, rodesac qarTvelebma igrZnes istoriis saWiroebao~ [1]. Rvawlmosili istoriografi, arqeologi da eTnografi dimitri baqraZec2 [2] aRniSnavda am patkanovis `Rvawls~ gamokvlevaSi _ `profesori patkanovi da qarTuli istoriis wyaroebi~, sxvaTa Soris, patkanov-maris3 `Rvawlze~ miuTiTebdnen axalgazrda ivane javaxiSvils mSoblebi werilebSi: 1898 wlis 22 oqtombers aforiaqebuli mama swerda III kursel ivane javaxiSvils: `Svilo, rogorc mama

dimitri zaqarias Ze baqraZe (1826-1890). peterburgis mecnierebaTa akademiis wevr-korespodenti. daamTavra Tbilisis sasuliero saswavlebeli da Semdgom moskovis sasuliero akademia. 1851 wlidan moRvaweobs saqarTveloSi. 1881 wels Seqmna kavkasiis istoriisa da arqeologiis sazogadoeba. 1879 wels i. WavWavaZesa da d. yifianTan erTad daaarsa qarTvelTa Soris wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoeba. 1889 wels Seqmna qarTul siZveleTa Tavmoyrisa da dacvis mniSvnelovani kera Tbilisis saeklesio muzeumi. d. baqraZis redaqtorobiT gamoqveynda ioane batoniSvilis `kalmasoba~, vaxuStis `saqarTvelos istoria, vaxtang VI-is kanonTa krebulis rusuli Targmani, 1889 wels gamoaqveyna naSromi `istoria saqarTvelosi~ (uZvelesi droidan X s-is dasasrulamde). XIX s-is 80-ian wlebSi ebrZoda qerofe patkanovs (patkanians), romelic uaryofda `qarTlis cxovrebis~, rogorc saistorio wyaros mniSvnelobas. 1875 wels Seadgina leqsikoni `kavkasia qristianobis uZveles ZeglebSi ~(rusul enaze). 1884 wels aRmoaCina mariamiseuli `qarTlis cxovreba~. iv. javaxiSvilis ganmartebiT d. baqraZem pirvelma Seafasa `qarTlis cxovrebis~ saistorio Rirebuleba, igi leonti mrovels marTebulad Tvlida mematianed da ara ubralo gadamwerad rogoradac igi SemdgomSi T. Jordaniam CaTvala. d. baqraZem safuZveli Cauyara qarTul paleografias, rac SemdgomSi iv. javaxiSvilma ganaviTara. wyaro: ivane javaxiSvili. enciklopediuri leqsikoni, Tsu-s gamomcemloba 2002 w. gv. 182.

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girCev, Seni sakuTari da WeSmariti kritikulis TvaliT Sexedo yvelafers da ara miepyro maris qarTulis sawinaaRmdego mimarTulebas~ [3]. Cven, albaT, aRarc davinteresdebodiT am e.w. `qarTizaciis~ sakiTxiT, rom sabWoTa xelisuflebis dros es Teoria ar gadaqceuliyo qarTuli sabWoTa istoriografiis oficialur da erTaderT samecniero mimarTulebad. Tu ra saSiSroebas warmoadgens aRniSnuli `qarTizaciis Teoria~ qarTveli eris mTlianobisa da saxelmwifoebrivi usafrTxoebisaTvis naTlad gvamcnobs uwmidesi da unetaresi, sruliad saqarTvelos kaTolikos-patriarqi ilia meore: `jer kidev wmida ilia marTali Tavis publicistur werilebSi ebrZoda peterburgis universitetSi Seqmnil antiqarTul istoriografiul Teorias, romlis mixedviTac erTiani qarTveli eri warmodgenili iyo gansxvavebuli tomebis xelovnur gaerTianebad. aRniSnuli kampaniis gagrZeleba iyo is, rom imperiulma Zalebma daiwyes
. - , , ( ?). 1930 . , , XVI () o c : . ( ), - . 1931 ... , , , , ... (1941-45 w., red.), ( ) ... . , , ` 25 , 1988 ., 21, . 12.
3

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megrulad da svanurad saRvTismsaxuro wignebis Targmna da scades wirva-locvis Catarebac, magram am kuTxis Svilebma da mTelma qarTulma sazogadoebam maT sakadrisi pasuxi gasca~.4 XIX-XX ss-Si, qarTvelTa fsiqikaSi ganuwyvetliv inergeboda Tvalsazrisi, rom qarTvelobas saerTo istoria arasdros hqonia, mimdinareobda saerTo erovnuli TviTSemecnebis ngreva-Sla. wmida ilia marTali werda: `araferi ise ar aerTianebs ers, rogorc saerTo istoria~, saerTo sarwmunoeba. wmida ilia marTlis es Tvalsazrisi aris uSualo gagrZeleba ruis-urbnisis krebis mamebis mtkicebisa, rom wmida ninos mier daarsebuli eklesia moicavda sruliad saqarTvelos rogorc dasavleT, ise aRmosavleT mxares, rom andria pirvelwodebulma iqadaga saxareba `yovelsa qveyanasa saqarTvelosasa~ (didi sjuliskanoni, 1975, gv. 545), rom aseve wmida ninom `sarwmunoebasa mimarT miizida yoveli savseba yovlisa qarTvelTa naTesavisa~ (didi sjuliskanoni, 1975, gv. 546). maSasadame, qarTvel ers, rogorc adastureben `qarTlis cxovreba~ da `moqcevai qarTlisai~, jer kidev qristeSobamde aerTianebda saerTo saxelmwifo dasavleT da aRmosavleT saqarTvelos momcveli, saerTo ena da saerTo eklesia wmida mociqulebisa da wmida ninos Semdeg. saeklesio, aseve kulturisa da saxelmwifo ena Zveli qarTuli ena iyo, radganac mTel am arealze cxovrobda erTi enis mqone mosaxleoba, rogorc mematiane wers, saqarTveloSi ara izraxeboda sxva ena Tvinier qarTulisa. amitomac wmida werilis zepiri da werilobiTi Targmnis epoqauwmidesi da unetaresi, sruliad saqarTvelos kaTolikospatriarqi, ilia II-is, saSobao epistole, 2006 w.
4

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Si, II-IV ss-Si (1800-1600 wlis win) ZvelqarTul enaze iTargmna wmida werili. sazogadod, mociqulTa epoqaSi saeklesio wesebis Tanaxmad wmida werili unda Targmniliyo yvela enaze. aRniSnavda kidec pavle mociquli filipelTa mimarT Tavis epistoleSi: _ `saxelisa mimarT ieso qristesisa yoveli muxli modrkes da yovelman enaman aRuaros sadidebelad RvTisa~ (filipelTa mimarT, Tavi II, muxli V). am saeklesio wesidan gamomdinare, radganac sruliad saqarTveloSi imJamad Zveli qarTuli ena warmoadgenda rogorc dasavleT, ise aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi yvelasaTvis gasageb saerTo enas, amitomac mxolod am enaze iTargmna wmida werili. miiCneoda, rom kuTxuri metyvelebani warmoadgendnen Zveli qarTuli enis dialeqtebs. maSasadame, mTel am arealze qarTvel ers aerTianebda saerTo istoria, saerTo sarwmunoeba, saerTo ena. XIX-XX ss-Si, rogorc aRiniSna, ganuwyvetliv mimdinareobda qarTuli Semecnebidan saerTo enisa da saerTo istoriis amoSla. da amJamad, samwuxarod, faqtobrivad dainerga Tvalsazrisi, rom TiToeuli kuTxis mosaxleobas gaaCnda sakuTari warmomavloba da sakuTari istoria. magaliTad, ase warmoaCenen kolxeTis, hereTis da sxva kuTxeebis istorias. faqtobrivad amasve imeorebs rusuli presa, rasac saTanado pasuxi unda gaeces. XX saukuneSi, aTeistur-bolSevikuri represiebis Semdeg, istoriografiaSi WeSmaritebis Zieba waxalisebuli ar yofila, ufro metic, kultivirebuli iyo wyaroebis gayalbeba an maTi interpretireba ise, rom SesaZlebeli yofiliyo maTi Cayeneba marqsistuli ideologiis samsaxurSi. qarTizaciis Teoria rom sabWoTa epoqaSi gadaiqca qarTuli istoriografiis oficialur Teoriad, Cans qarTuli sabWoTa enciklopediidanac, romlis X tomis

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statiaSi `qarTvelebi~ naTqvamia: `qarTis tomma~ SeZlo aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi mcxovrebi `araqarTul da araqarTvelur~ tomebSi SeRweva-infiltracia da maTi asimilaciis Semdeg IX-X ss-Si Camoyalibda `aRmosavlur-qarTuli erovneba~ [4]. am statiis mixedviT, qarTis tomma SeZlo `herul-albanuri mosaxleobis qarTizacia~ [4]. maSasadame, oficialuri TvalsazrisiT, herebi da albanelebi erTi xalxia, anda herul-albanuri mosaxleoba erTi eTnosia, romelic Semdgom qarTizebuli iqna da Seemata `aRmosavlur-qarTul erovnebas~. aqedanac Cans, rom oficialuri istoriografiis TvalsazrisiT, iyo dro, rodesac herebi qarTvelebi ar iyvnen. amave TeoriiT, qarTuli sabWoTa enciklopediis mixedviT, IX-X saukuneebSi Camoyalibebula aRmosavlur-qarTuli erovneba da misi saxeli yofila `qarTvelebi~, xolo dasavleT saqarTveloSi amave TeoriiT, TiTqosda gansxvavebuli eTnosi cxovrobda. imave qarTuli sabWoTa enciklopediis Tanaxmad, dasavleT saqarTveloSi Turme Camoyalibebula sxva dasavlurqarTuli erovneba da aseTi procesebi ganviTarebula: daiwyo dasavleT saqarTvelos `qarTizacia~ eklesiis meoxebiT _ `IX saukunidan mTel dasavleT saqarTveloSi qarTuli eklesia gabatonda~, ris Sedegadac terminma `qarTveli~ kulturul-politikuri mniSvneloba SeiZina [4]. rusi interventebisa da separatistebis mier gaCaRebul afxazeTisa da samaCablos omebis dros, aseve okupantebis mier afxazeTis mitacebis win e.w. `ideologiur omSi~ qarTvelTa damarcxeba unda aixsnas `axali qarTuli istoriografiis~ sisustiTac, romelic iqamde aTeuli wlebis manZilze acxadebda, rom Tavdapirvelad, uZveles xanaSive, kolxeTis samefos epoqaSi, mTeli dasavleT saqarTvelos zRvispireTi dasaxlebuli iyo afxa-

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zur-adiReuri tomebiT da Semdgom dros maT adgilze Casaxldnen qarTveluri tomebi. ara mxolod afxazeTSi, samaCablos konfliqtis dros mxolod erTeuli istorikosebi icavdnen erovnul interesebs. samwuxarod, oficialurma, `qarTizaciis~ TeoriiT xelfexSekrulma, istoriografiam ver SeZlo simarTlis warmoCena, radganac iqamde mecnierulad amtkicebda `qarTizaciis~ Teoriis Sesabamisad, rom aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mTianeTis mosaxleoba, maT Soris samaCabloSi istoriulad mcxovrebi dvalebi, TiTqosda qarTvelebi ki ar iyvnen, aramed _ araqarTvelebi, romelTa `qarTizacia _ gaqarTveleba~ moxda garkveul istoriul etapze. TiTqosda, ara marto dvalebi da sxva mTiulebi, gaqarTvelebuli `qarTizebuli~ xalxi yofilan _ her-kaxebi, qvemo qarTlelebi, tao-klarjelebi, dasavleT saqarTvelos mosaxleoba, Tanac Turme maTi asimilaciis procesSi saqarTvelos eklesias didi wvlili miuZRoda. qarTul sabWoTa enciklopediaSi, statiaSi `qarTvelebi~, rogorc iTqva, aseTi terminologiiT aris aRwerili es procesi. rusuli `pravoslavnaia enciklopediis~ mixedviT ki, Tavdapirvelad dRevandeli ingiloebi albaneTis sakaTalikosos iurisdiqciaSi iyvnen. sainteresoa, rom Tbilisidan amJamad dabejiTebiT unergaven saingilos mosaxleobas Tvalsazriss, rom isini eTnikuri herebi arian. Tumca aqamde ingiloebma TavianTi herobis Sesaxeb araferi icodnen da isini TavianT Tavs aRmosavleT kaxeTis mosaxleobad miiCnevdnen. amJamad ki Tvalsazrisi, rom ingiloebi herebi arian, Zalze gavrcelda. amis paralelurad, azerbaijaneli istorikosebi da mecnierebi amtkiceben, rom herebi da albanelebi erTi xalxi iyo da, amasTanave, albanelebi azerbaijaneli xalxis winaprebi iyvnen, Sesabamisad, herul-albanuri kultura azerbaijanuli

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kulturis sakuTrebaa da Semdgom qarTulma eklesiam is miisakuTra. maSasadame, ingiloebi Tu herebi arian, isini amis gamo azerbaijanul tomad moiazreba. yvelaferi zemoT aRniSnuli ki patkanovis suliskveTebiT da niko maris `naRvawiTaa~ generirebuli: Tanaxmad didi ivane javaxiSvilisa, n. mari araTu afxazebs, aramed megrelebs da svanebsac ki araqarTvelebad Tvlida. iv. javaxiSvili werda: `akad. n. mari misayvedurebs, rom megrelebs, svanebs da afxazebs me qarTvelebs vuwodeb da pontosa da frigiis erebi TiTqos qarTvelebadac ki miqcevia. afxazebs me qarTvelTa monaTesaved vTvli, magram qarTvelebs ar vuwodeb, rac Seexeba megrelebs da svanebs da davumateb Wanebsac, maT marTlac qarTvel tomebad vTvli~ [5]. dasavleT saqarTvelos mosaxleobis araqarTvelebad `gadaqcevis~ Semdgom, n. marma aRmosavleT saqarTvelosac `mixeda~, misi `Teoriis~ Tanaxmad, fSav-xevsurebi CaCnuri tomebi yofilan da Semdeg gaqarTvelebulan. am `Teorias~ zogi qarTveli mkvlevari rusulad ukeTebs tiraJirebas, magaliTad 1983 wels z. anCabaZis redaqtorobiT dabeWdil wignSi ` n. maris Sesaxeb naTqvamia , : , , , . n. mars sxva SromebSic aqvs analogiuri `mignebebi~: . - , , , [6]. n. maris Tanaxmad, mTeli samxreTi saqarTvelo ara qarTvelebis, aramed somexTa miwa-wylad miiCneva, xolo iqau-

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ri qarTveloba _ gaqarTvelebul somxebad [7]. uTuod esaa erT-erTi mniSvnelovani mizezi saqarTvelos da qarTveli eris mimarT im biologiuri zizRisa, rasac sxvadasxva juris momxvdurni avlenen. n. maris mimdevar qarTvel avtorTa azriT, dasavleT saqarTveloSi iqamde ukve Camoyalibebuli iyo kolxuri anu megrul-Wanuri eTnosi da Semdgom daiwyo misi `qarTizacia~ da es procesi braldeba qarTul eklesias, romelic, TiTqosda, iWreboda sxva ucxo eklesiis, am SemTxvevaSi, dasavleT saqarTvelos konstantinopolis iurisdiqciis sazRvrebSi da maT mrevls iTvisebda. cxadia, esaa dadanaSauleba prozelitizmSi. prozelitizmi ki dagmobilia mociqulTa droidanve da sxvisi samwysos misakuTreba eklesiisaTvis saTakilo qmedebad iTvleboda jer kidev I msoflio krebidan. saqarTvelos eklesiisaTvis am saTakilo epiTetiT, Tanamedrove avtorebs, Cans, eris winaSe Cveni eklesiis mniSvnelobis `warmoCena~ surT, magaliTad, 2005 wels, saerTaSoriso konferenciaze, romelic saqarTveloSi qristianobis oc saukunes eZRvneboda, saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa erovnuli akademiis istoriis institutis saxeliT wardgenili iqna moxseneba _ `qarTuli eklesia da saxelmwifo teritoria Sua saukuneebSi~ [8], sadac naTqvamia: `qarTuli eklesiis kulturul-ideologiuri prozelitizmi winaswar qmnida mkvidr niadags politikuri procesebis warmatebiT ganviTarebisaTvis~. qarTuli saxelmwifoebrivi cnobierebis dangrevis mizniT, rusul specsamsaxurebSi Seqmnili e.w. `qarTizaciis~ Teoriis _ uaxlesi istoriis qarTuli saxelmwifoebriobis mTavari safrTxis ideologiuri safuZvlis dasamkvidreblad, XX s-is 20-30-ian wlebSi, rusuli bolSevikuri saxelmwifos mier, Cveni xalxis Zveli istoria

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`reaqciul Teoriad~ gamocxadda, daiwyo mis winaaRmdeg `gadamwyveti brZola~ ukve `gamarqsistebuli~ mecnierebis mxridan. aRniSnulis tragizms aZlierebs is faqti, rom `qarTizaciis~ Teoria bolSevikebis xelSi gadaiqca ara mxolod berketad saqarTvelos Zveli istoriis dasangrevad, aramed mis Casanacvlebladac. amJamad `qarTizaciis~ Teoria erTaderT utyuar samecniero mimarTulebadaa aRiarebuli. is absoluturadaa gabatonebuli XX da XXI saukunis dasawyisis qarTul istoriografiasa da filologiaSi. `qarTizaciis~ Teoriis gacnobis Semdeg, ucxoelT eqmnebaT STabeWdileba qarTvelTa `imperializmis~ Sesaxeb, rom, TiTqos, maT patara `erebi~ hyavT dapyrobili; amgvar STabeWdilebas mxars umagrebs enaTmecnierTa nawilis Teoriac qarTvelTa e.w. sami-oTxi enis Sesaxeb, romelTagan erTis _ qarTulis _ `aRzevebiT~ iCagreba sxva qarTveluri `enebi~; es yovelive ki mavanTaTvis safuZvels qmnis araqarTvelebad gamoacxadon qarTvelTa erTi nawili, Sesabamisad, araqarTulad miiCnion maTi metyveleba [9]. magaliTad, naTela quTelia amasTan dakavSirebiT wers: `internetis vebsaitebze musirebs Tema megrelebi da svanebi patara erebi yofilan da qarTvel `okupantebs daupyriaT~ da axla maT enebs ganviTarebis saSualebas ar aZleven. arsebobs `doqtrina~ _ ar arsebobs qarTveli eri, arsebobs calkeul tomTa konglomerati~ (n. quTelia. qarTuli ena, rogorc kulturulerovnuli da politikuri mTlianobis safuZveli; krebulSi: `axlo aRmosavleTi da saqarTvelo~, IV, Tbilisi, 2005, gv. 273). uTuod es unda iyos erT-erTi mTavari mizezi imisa, Tu ratom uwodebda saqarTvelos `mcire imperias~ cnobili rusi mecnieri a. saxarovi.

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aRsaniSnavia, rom Cveni saxelmwifosa da eklesiis arakeTilismsurvelebma, gansakuTrebiT ki separatistma ideologebma, imTaviTve aitaces Cveni istoriografiis mier legalizebuli `qarTizaciis~ Teoriis daskvnebi Cveni eklesiis prozelitizmis Sesaxeb TavianT sasargeblod. isini vrcel samecniero naSromebSi (maT Soris, rusuli `pravoslavnaia enciklopedia~-s statiebSi) amtkiceben, rom saqarTvelos esa Tu is kuTxe istoriulad araqarTuli regionia da, Sesabamisad, qarTvelebs istoriuli ufleba ara aqvT am kuTxeebze. SeuZlebelia, saqarTvelos wmida eklesia prozelituri yofiliyo imitom, rom `prozelituri~ iseT eklesias ewodeba, romelic iWreba sxva eklesiis samrevloSi misi misakuTrebis mizniT. aseTi qmedeba ki msoflio saeklesio kanonebiT miuRebeli iyo da aris. magaliTad, mociqulTa 35-e kanoni brZanebs: `episkoposma ar unda gabedos xeldasxma Tavisi samrevlos gareT, qalaqebsa da soflebSi, romlebic ar eqvemdebarebian mis eklesias. xolo Tu igi mxilebuli iqneba, unda ganikveTos isic da mis mier xeldasxmulebic~ (`didi sjulis kanoni~, 1974, mociqulTa kanonebi). mociqulTa am kanons kidev ufro amtkicebs 381 wels konstantinopolSi mowveuli II msoflio krebis me-2 kanoni: `eklesiaTa keTilad gangebisa da mSvidobisaTvis arc erT episkoposs ara aqvs ufleba, gascdes Tavisi eklesiis sazRvrebs da SeiWras sxva eklesiis sazRvrebSi, raTa ar moaxdinos eklesiebis aRreva. kanonis Tanaxmad, aleqsandriis episkoposi unda ganagebdes mxolod egviptis eklesiebs... pontoeli episkoposni unda marTavdnen mxolod pontos eklesiebs, xolo Trakiis episkoposni _ mxolod Trakiis eklesiebs. episkoposi ar unda gavides Tavisi

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samTavros eklesiis farglebidan xeldasxmisaTvis~ (`didi sjulis kanoni~ 1974, mociqulTa kanonebi). III msoflio krebis mamebma kidev ufro dabejiTebiT damoZRvres eklesiaTa meTaurebi, ar daemorCilebinaT sxvisi samwyso _ `nurc erTi episkoposi nu miitacebs sxva eparqias, romelic Tavidanve da ZvelTaganve ar emorCileboda mas da ar iyo mis winamorbed saydrismpyrobelTa gamgeblobis qveS, xolo Tu vinme miitacebs sxvis eparqias iZulebiT, ganTavisuflebuli unda iyos igi, raTa ar dairRves mamaTa kanonebi~ (III msoflio krebis me-8 kanoni). imaves wers da aRniSnavs sxva saeklesio kanonebic. Tu qarTuli eklesia prozelituri iyo da mas ZvelTaganve ar emorCileboda dasavleT saqarTvelos, aRmosavleT saqarTvelos erTi nawilis, samxreT saqarTvelos samwysoebi, qarTulma eklesiam ki miiTvisa isini, amiT daurRvevia msoflio saeklesio kanonebi, kerZod, mociqulTa 35-e, II msoflio krebis me-2, III msoflio krebis me-8, karTagenis 74-e da sxva kanonebi, da gana kanondamrRvevi eklesia SeiZleba yofiliyo marTali da marTlmadidebluri, romliTac amayobdnen saqarTvelos eklesiis wmida mamebi? amis Taobaze SesaniSnavad miuTiTebda prokofi kesarieli, `rom qarTvelebi marTlmadideblobis wesebs yvelaze ukeT icavdnen~. somexi ierarqebi werdnen, rom qarTvelebi amayoben TavianTi sarwmunoebrivi siwmidiT da TavianTi saeklesio upiratesobiT. saqarTvelos eklesia ki Turme, `qarTuli sabWoTa enciklopediis~ Tanaxmad, arRvevda umTavres saeklesio kanonebs da sxvis iurisdiqciaSi iWreboda: `dasavleT saqarTveloSi gabatonda qarTuli eklesia da mRvdelmsaxurebac qarTul enaze sruldeboda, ramac didad Seuwyo xeli dasavleT saqarTveloSi `qarTizaciis~ process~ [10. qarTuli sabWoTa enciklopedia. `saq. ssr~, 1981 w. gv. 61].

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qarTuli eklesiis `gabatonebamde~ dasavleT saqarTveloSi, Cveni istorikosebis mtkicebiT, Turme arsebobda egrisisa da afxazeTis eklesiebi, romlebic imyofebodnen konstantinopolis iurisdiqciaSi, isini Semdgom gaerTianebulan konstantinopolis iurisdiqciaSive, magram IX s-Si mcxeTis sakaTalikosos TiTqosda `gabatonebis~ Sedegad konstantinopolis sapatriarqos daukargavs mTeli dasavleT saqarTvelos momcveli es mniSvnelovani samitropolitoebi da saepiskoposoebi. sabWoTa istorikosi wers: `es saeklesio gamoyofa, rogorc vTqviT, erTbaSad ar momxdara. jer xorcieldeba egris-afxazeTis eklesiebis gaerTianeba, rogorc konstantinopolis samwysoSi Semavali eparqiisa, romelsac saTaveSi afxazTa kaTalikosi edga (VIII s-is bolo an IX s-is dasawyisi); Semdgom IX s-is manZilze (safiqrebelia, ufro mis pirvel naxevarSive) dasavleT saqarTvelos eklesia gamoeyo konstantinopolis sapatriarqos da mcxeTis taxts uerTdeba, xolo afxazTa kaTalikosi sruliad saqarTvelos kaTalikoss eqvemdebareba. konstantinopolidan gamoyofis Semdeg iwyeba berZnuli kaTedrebis moSla da maT sapirispirod qarTuli saepiskoposo centrebis daarseba~. es saeklesio reforma, n. berZeniSvilis varaudiT, sabolood X sSi sruldeba [11]. Tu rogori reaqciuli iyo qarTuli eklesiis es `prozelitizmi~ anu konstantinopolis sapatriarqos iurisdiqciaSi SeWra _ amis Sesaxeb Cveni oficialuri istoriografia wers: `qarTvelebi aqedan sdevnian berZnul enas, berZnul viwro erovnul kulturas, SemoaqvT da avrceleben sakuTar, qarTul enas, qarTul RvTismsaxurebas da qarTul saeklesio-samonastro wesebs. qarTul kulturas Tan mohqonda qarTuli politikuri Segneba da ideali, ase

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rom mcxeTa jer enobrivad (eTnikur elementebze dayrdnobiT) SeiWra lixT-imereTSi, xolo Semdeg, rogorc Cans, es saintereso formula wamoayena Tavisi organizaciuli gabatonebis dasafuZneblad _ `qarTlia~ iq, sadac mRvdelmsaxureba qarTul enazea (mxolod `kvirieleisoni~ SeiZleba berZnulad). mironis kurTxeva `qarTls~ ganeweseba. maSasadame, qarTls nakurTxi mironi savaldebuloa yvela im eklesiisaTvis, sadac mRvdelmsaxureba qarTul enazea. cxadia, mcxeTis sakaTalikosos mxriv es aris kanonikuri safuZvlebis dacviT konstantinopolis sapatriarqos winaaRmdeg mimarTuli brZola lixT-imereTis eklesiaze organizaciulad gabatonebis mizniT~ [12]. sabWoTa kavSiris sazRvrebis Caketilobis gamo berZnul samyaroSi da, maT Soris, konstantinopolis sapatriarqoSic XX saukunis bolosac ar icnobdnen iqamde sruliad axal sabWoTa `saistorio Teorias~ qarTuli eklesiis prozelitizmisa da `misi konstantinopolis sapatriarqos winaaRmdeg mimarTuli brZolis Sesaxeb~ (sabWoTa istorikosebis sityvebia). cnobili berZeni kanonistis _ mitropolit maqsimes 1966 wels gamocemuli wigni `saqar-Tvelos eklesia da misi avtokefalia~, ar Seicavs cnobebs aRniSnulTan dakavSirebiT. SeiZleba daisvas kiTxva, ra problemebi Seeqmneba saqarTvelos eklesias samomavlod, Tu konstantinopolis sapatriarqo an ucxoeTis romelime eklesia oficialurad aRiarebs aRniSnul Teorias, qarTuli eklesiis SeWris Sesaxeb iqamde konstantinopolis iurisdiqciaSi myof dasavleT saqarTveloSi, es Teoria xom ar SeuqmniT maT myar samarTlebriv safuZvels, raTa scnon da aRiaron separatistuli eklesiebi afxazeTsa da dasavleT saqarTvelos sxva kuTxeebSi. meore mxriv, es Teoria iZleva karg saSualebas da masze dayrdnobiT ukve aqezeben am kuTx-

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eTa separatist moazrovneebs, raTa dedaeklesiad aRiaron ara saqarTvelos wmida eklesia, aramed konstantinopolis sapatriarqo. aRniSnuli `saeklesio Teoria~ yvelaze ufro metad gaitana da gaavrcela rusulma `pravoslavnaia enciklopediam~. arasodes, arc erT saukuneSi, konstantinopolis sapatriarqos ar gamouTqvams araviTari Tvalsazrisi an SeniSvnac ki dasavleT saqarTvelos mis eparqiebSi qarTuli eklesiis SeWris Sesaxeb. es rom ase yofiliyo, qarTulberZnuli aTaswlovani saeklesio urTierTobebis dros amis Sesaxeb erTxel mainc gamoiTqmeboda Tundac mcire SeniSvna. saqme is aris, rom konstantinopolis iurisdiqciaSi myofi fazisis samitropolito da misi oTxi saepiskoposo, romlebic TiTqosda qarTuli eklesiis mier iyvnen gauqmebulni, sinamdvileSi mdebareobdnen ara dasavleT saqarTveloSi, aramed qarTveli eris uZveles qveyanaSi, romelsac trapizonis olqi ewoda. iqamde ki mas erqva `qaldea~, `sofeli megrelTa~. iq trapezonis olqSi mdebare Woroxis anu fasisis marcxena sanapiroze mdebareobdnen fasisis samitropolito da misi saepiskoposoebi - rodopolisisa, saisinisa, petronisa da ziganasi, rogorc es kargad aris garkveuli n. adoncis mier. es samitropolito konstantinopolis iurisdiqciaSi imyofeboda, xolo mis CrdiloeTiT moqceuli miwa-wyali Woroxidan vidre mdinare egriswylamde (vaxtang gorgaslis Semdgom mdinare klisuramde) _ wmida ninos droidanve qarTuli eklesiis iurisdiqciaSi imyofeboda ase rom, Cveni Zveli saeklesio matianeebis cnobebiT, dasavleT saqarTveloSi , ZvelTaganve saqarTvelos eklesiis iurisdiqcia vrceldeboda. sxva saeklesio wyaroebTan erTad amis Sesaxeb xazgasmiT miuTiTebda `ruis-urbnisis~ sakanonmdeblo krebis

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Zegliswera _ `andria pirvelwodebulma saxareba iqadaga yovelsa qveyanasa saqarTveloYsasa~, xolo wmida ninom qristianul sarwmunoebaze moaqcia `yoveli savseba yovlisa qarTvelTa naTesavisa~. ruis-urbnisis sakanonmdeblo krebis monawile wmida mamebis TvalsazrisiT, dasavleT saqarTvelo mudam istoriuli saqarTvelo iyo, romlis mosaxleoba, aRmosavleT saqarTvelosTan erTad, moaqcia wmida ninom. maSasadame, dasavleT saqarTveloSi saeklesio iurisdiqcia imTaviTve mcxeTis xelSi iyo da ara konstantinopolisa. dasavleT saqarTvelo eklesiurad odesme konstantinopolis iurisdiqciaSi rom yofiliyo, amis Sesaxeb uTuod SemorCeboda pirdapiri an iribi cnobebi TviT berZnul wyaroebSive, an raime sayvedurnarevi miniSneba mainc iqneboda berZeni ierarqebisa, aseTi ki ar arsebobs. magaliTad, konstantinopolis patriarqi nikoloz mistikosi Zalze Tbil da megobrul werilebs werda afxazTa mefes giorgi II-s X saukunis Sua wlebSi, roca sabWoTa istorikosebis azriT, mis samefoSi `brZola iyo gaCaRebuli konstantinopolis sapatriarqos winaaRmdeg~, ase rom yofiliyo, konstantinopolis patriarqi nikoloz mistikosi rogorme moaxerxebda protestis gacxadebas afxazTa mefis _ giorgi meorisadmi (922-957 w.w.), [patriarq mistikosis werilebi giorgi II-sadmi; georgika, IV, nakveTi II]; erTi sityviT, wyaroebi ar adastureben sabWour Tvalsazriss. aRmosavleTSi, zogi qarTveli istorikosis TvalsazrisiT, TviT wmida ninos saqmianoba TiTqosda mimarTuli iyo iqiTken, rom hereTSi mcxovrebi araqarTuli mosaxleoba (albanelebi) gaeqarTvelebina. Cveni azriT, aseTi warmodgena wmida ninosi Zalze ucnauria. es qarTveli mecnieri wers: bodbe, sujeTisa da kambeCovanis sazRvarze,

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mefe mirianis dros axladSemoerTebuli qveyana iyo, aq `albanelebic (herebi) cxovrobdnen ... maTi saboloo asimilacia drois ambavi iyo~. `Cans, mirian mefis da wmida ninos intensiuri kulturul-saganmanaTleblo saqmianoba mimarTuli iyo hereTSi qarTuli qristianobis gavrcelebisaken... romelic winaaRmdegobas awydeboda ara mxolod albanelTagan, aramed somxebisganac~ [13]. sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, wmida nino `aqarTvelebda~ ara marto her-albanelebs, aramed, somxebsac; Cveni mecnieris am mosazrebis sapirispirod, movses xorenacs mTeli mosaxleoba `klarjeTidan masquTebamde~ (anu kaspiis zRvispireTSi mcxovreb tom masquTebamde) - eTnikur qarTvelebad miaCnia (sadac iqadaga wmida ninom) da ara somxebad, anda albanelebad (herebad), rogorc warmoadgina sabWoTa istoriografiam. somxuri saistorio mwerlobis mama, somexTa herodoted wodebuli, movses xorenaci wers: `sanatreli nune wavida iqedan (e.i. mcxeTidan), raTa Tavisi advilgasagebi saubriT qarTvelTa qveynis sxva kuTxeebic daemoZRvra. gavbedav da vityvi, rom nune mociquli qali gaxda. man iqadaga saxareba klarjeTidan dawyebuli vidre alanTa da kaspiis karamde, masquTTa sazRvrebamde, rogorc amas agaTangelozi gvauwyebs~ (movses xorenaci. `somxeTis istoria~; 1984; gv. 172). wmida ninos somxebi, anda Tundac albanelebi (Cveni mecnieris azriT _ igive herebi) rom gaeqarTvelebina, rogorme xorenaci miuTiTebda amis Sesaxeb, magram is sul sxva raimes gvauwyebs, kerZod, sazRvravs qarTvelebis eTnikur gansaxlebas _ esaa klarjeTi, vidre alanTa da kaspiis karamde (e.i. darialamde) da vidre masquTTa sazRvramde _ am sazRvrebSi qarTvelebi saxloben, maT uqadaga wmida ninom; ase rom, darialis karamde mcxovrebi dvalebi gaqarTvelebuli vainaxebi ki ar iyvnen, rogorc warmoud-

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genia sabWouri epoqis istoriografias, aramed _ qarTvelebi, aseve masquTebis qveynamde, anu aRniSnul mtkvar-araqsis SesarTavamde mcxovrebi herebi m. xorenacs eTnikur qarTvelebad miaCnia da ara albanelebad. misgan gansxvavebiT, qarTveli mecnieri fiqrobs, rom wmida ninos `prozelitizmis simbolo~ aRumarTavs axladSemoerTebul albanur qalaq bodisSi (e.i. sadRac ujarma bodbeSi) da wers _ `mgonia ase unda gavigoT wmida ninos gadawyvetileba, rom jvari - qristianuli prozelitizmis simbolo _ droebiT `aRimarTos igi ujarmas qalaqsa da daba bodisi ara win aRudges qalaqsa mas mefeTasa, rameTu erisa simravle ars mun~ [d. musxeliSvili. saqarTvelo IV-VIII saukuneebSi, 2003, gv. 38.], ase iqca Cveni mecnieris sityviT, `ori faqtobrivad eTnikurad erTmaneTisagan gansxvavebuli qveyana erT kulturul erTeulad~. aqedan Cans, rom sabWoTa epoqis istorikosebis azriT, wmida nino qarTlis garda, albaneTSic moRvaweobda da man albaneTis qveynis erTi nawili qarTul eklesias SemouerTa. bodbis miCneva ara qarTlis, aramed albaneTis qalaqad, qarTul wyaroebs ewinaaRmdegeba; wmida nino qarTvelTa ganmanaTlebelia da ara albanelebisa. jvari ar aris prozelitizmis simbolo, saqarTvelos eklesias jvari prozelituri mizniT arasodes gamouyenebia, miT umetes, araqarTuli tomebis `asimilacia _ gaqarTvelebis~ mizniT; aseTi mosazreba usafuZvloa, igi ar eyrdnoba wyaroebs. ilia marTlis sityviT _ `patkanovis Segirdi~, `qarTizaciis~ yalbi Teoriis erT-erTi avtori, n. mari `mecnierulad asabuTebda~ erTiani qarTveli eris ararsebobas. man qarTveli eris sxvadasxva eTnografiul jgufebs `iafeturi~ xalxebi daarqva, xolo qarTvelur da mis monaTe-

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save enebs _ `iafeturi~ da `Tubal-kainuri~. n. marma yvelaferi gaakeTa imisaTvis, raTa `daesabuTebina~, rom TiTqosda megrelebi ar iyvnen qarTvelebi. erTi wyaros araswori komentirebiT man qarTvel mecnierebs miaRebina dogma TiTqosda `qarTebis~ tomma kulturul-eklesiuri zemoqmedebis saSualebiT megreli `xalxi~ `gaaqarTvela~ IX-X saukuneebSi. ivane javaxiSvilma pasuxi gasca am yalb Teorias da daasabuTa, rom qarTuli ena araTu IX-X saukuneebSi iqca dasavleT saqarTveloSi kultmsaxurebis enad, aramed TviT warmarTobis drosac ki dasavleT saqarTveloSi _ samegrelosa da svaneTSi, warmarTuli kultmsaxureba qarTul enaze aResruleboda [14]. miuxedavad patkanovmaris `naRvawidan~ generirebuli siyalbis mxilebisa ivane javaxiSvilis mier, aRniSnuli `Teoria~ dResac ganagrZobs damangrevel moqmedebas qarTuli erovnul-saxelmwifoebrivi cnobierebisa. e.w. `qarTizaciis~ Teoriis gacnobis Semdeg TviT qarTvelebi iviwyeben nacionalur interesebs da kuTxurobis apologetebi xdebian amis erTi kargi magaliTia 1994 wels gamocemuli wigni `svanur-qarTuli leqsikoni, Coloruli kilo~5. am wignis SesavalSi weria: `aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi iberebis moqmedebiT ganadgurda svanuri mosaxleoba~ (a. liparteliani. svanur-qarTuli leqsikoni, Coloruli kilo. 1994, gv. X), sxva msgavsi citatebi am wignidan: `mirianma sastikad dasaja es ... heri-wanari-svanebi, vinc Jletas gadaurCa, ayara da daasaxla axlandeli svaneTis teritoriaze, rbevas gadarCa albaneTis mosazRvre teritoria~ (iqve, gv. XI). ai, kidev amonaridebi am wignidan: `herebis kulturul-eTnikuri Serwyma qarTul tomebTan, herebis asimilireba daiwyo Zv.w. II-I ss. mijnaze~ (saq. ist. nark. t. II, gv. 402). `aRmosavleT saqarTvelos

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mTel teritoriaze mis iberizaciamde svanuri mosaxleoba iyo~ (a. liparteliani, `svanur-qarTuli leqsikoni, Coloruli kilo~. 1994, gv. XIII). es qarTveli mecnieri Tavis wignSive miuTiTebs misi azrebis wyaros - esaa niko mari da imowmebs n. maris rusulenovan wignebs - niko mari, `mogzauroba svaneTSi~ (1911-1912 ww.) da n. mari, `xe mcenareulobis iafeturi saxelebi~ (1913w). amgvaradve, fazisis akademiis erTi qarTveli wevri wers: `523 wels ki sparseTma bolo mouRo iberiis mmarTvelobas, iberiis mefe gurgeni Tavisi mravalricxovani amaliT bizantiaSi gadaixvewa, xolo sparseTis veraguli gegmis Tanaxmad saxelmwifos marTvis saTaveSi modian qarTebi, magram saxelmwifo suverenitetis gawirvis fasad da imxanad qarTebis mmarTvelTa qmedeba xelisuflebaSi mosasvlelad arakanonzomieri da moRalaturi iyo~ [k. fifia, fazisis akademiis namdvili wevri, `unda iTqvas simarTle~, Jurnali cotneideli, t. II, 2005-08w.w.]. Tu Cveni zogi istorikosi yvela qarTul Temsa da toms sakuTar winapars gamouZebnis - magaliTad, ingiloebsa da kaxelebs _ her-albanelebs, fSav-xevsurebs _ vainaxebs, qvemo qarTlelebs _ somxebs, dasavlel qarTvelebs _ adiRe-Cerqezebs da a.S. Tu ganacxadeben, rom dasavleT saqarTveloSi sxva eTnosi Camoyalibda, romelic Semdeg `qarTizebul~ iqna _ eri da saxelmwifo daiyofa. miT umetes, rom wyaroebi, Tu maT kargad da sworad wavikiTxavT, mikerZoebis gareSe, ar iZleva amis uflebas, piriqiT, Cveni wyaroebi: `moqcevai qarTlisai~ Tu `qarTlis cxovreba~ RaRadeben, rom qristes Sobamde Seqmnili erTiani saqarTvelos - `qarTlis samefos~ mosaxleoba imTaviTve iyo qarTveli xalxi da am saxelmwifos Crdilo-dasavleTi sazRvari md. egriswyalze gadioda azonisa da far-

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navazis dros; Tu ras niSnavs wyaros es miTiTeba, gvixsnis wmida ambrosi xelaia: `jer kidev araqristiani qarTuli tomis modgmebma Seqmnes patara sivrciT, magram Zlieri nebisyofiT saxelmwifo, romelic cnobilia istoriaSi saqarTvelos saxeliT - erTaderTi matarebeli wina aziaSi qristianuli kulturisa da evropuli humanizmisa~. maSasadame, kaTolikos-patriarq wmida ambrosi xelaiasa, da zogadad saqarTvelos wmida eklesiis TvalsazrisiT, jer kidev gaqristianebamde I-IV saukuneebamde, qarTvelTa modgmam Seqmna dasavleT-aRmosavleT saqarTvelos momcveli erTiani saxelmwifo, matarebeli erTiani qarTuli kulturisa. rusul imperias Cveni istoriografebisaTvis Tavisufali muSaobis saSualeba rom mieca, saWiro ar iqneboda Cveni mosazrebebis gamoTqma da arc wmida eklesia ganaCinebda Semdegs: `dauSvebelia istoriis gayalbeba - megrelebisa da svanebis mwignobrobisa da qristianuli kulturis armqoneebad gamocxadeba da am kuTxis SvilebisaTvis XXI saukuneSi bibliis Targmna, rac upirveles yovlisa miznad isaxavs eris gaTiSvas da qveynis mTlianobis darRvevis mcdelobas~ [15. saqarTvelos samociqulo marTlmadidebluri eklesiis wmida sinodis sxdomis oqmi, 23, 2005, sapatriarqos uwyebani, 45, gv. 7.]. amJamad garkveuli qarTuli wreebi ise warmoadgenen saqmes, TiTqosda rusul `pravoslavnaia enciklopediaSi~ mxolod tao-klarjeTis eTnikuri da kulturuli saxe iyos damaxinjebuli. sinamdvileSi aq saqarTvelos yoveli kuTxis da, saerTod, qarTveli eris istoriaa gayalbebuli rogorc TandarTuli literaturis CamonaTvalidan Cans, statiebis avtorebi qarTul oficialur istoriografias eyrdnobodnen. `pravoslavnaia enciklopedias~

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mixedviT, aRmosavleT saqarTvelo, kerZod kaxeTis da mcxeTis aRmosavleTiT mdebare mxareebi, istoriuli albaneTis miwa-wyladaa gamocxadebuli, albanelebi ki azerbaijaneli eris winaprebad miiCneva, herebi _ albaneli xalxis erT-erT jgufadaa warmodgenili. bodbe, gurjaani, saingilo da maxlobeli mxareebi _ albanelebis anu azerbaijanelebis winaprebis istoriul sacxovrisad moiazreba. saqme isaa, rom am mosazrebas safuZvlad udevs eklesiis istoriis gayalbeba, wyaroebze zewola da misi monacemebis TviTneburi interpretirebiT yalbi daskvnebis miReba, jer TviT saqarTvelos mecnierTa mier da Semdgom maTi damowmebiT ucxoel avtorTa mxridan. kerZod, `pravoslavnaia enciklopedias~ statia `albaneTis sakaTalikosos~ rukis mixedviT, mcxeTis aRmosavleTiT mdebare miwa-wyali (qvemo kaxeTi) _ albaneTis sakaTalikosos iurisdiqciaSi Semaval teritoriad miiCneva. rusul `pravoslavnaia enciklopediis~ statiaSi: `alaniis samitropolito~ aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mTianeTi, kerZod axalgoris, yazbegisa da mimdebare miwa-wyali warmodgenilia konstantinopolis sapatriarqos iurisdiqciis qveS myof alaniis samitropolitos iurisdiqciaSi, mravali qarTuli eklesia-monasteri da, rac mTavaria, miwa-wyali alanur-konstantinopoluradaa gamocxadebuli. (2008 wlis agvistos Semdeg cxadi gaxda, risTvis daiwera rusul `pravoslavnaia enciklopediaSi~ amdeni siyalbe saqarTvelos Sesaxeb). dasavleT saqarTveloSi amave `pravoslavnaia enciklopediis~ statiis `afxazeTis sakaTalikoso~-s mixedviT aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mosaxleoba arabebis dros gadasaxlda iq da Seitana qarTuli ena da kultura~. es TiTqosda imis Sedegad moxda, rom iqamde konstantinop-

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olis iurisdiqciaSi myof dasavleT saqarTveloSi SeiWra mcxeTa da iq gabatonda. afxazi separatistebic am Tvalsazriss arian CaWidebulni; 2005 wels gamoica `afxazeTis marTlmadidebluri eklesiis mokle narkvevi~ mRvdel-monazon doroTe dbaris avtorobiT, sadac damowmebulia rusuli `pravoslavnaia enciklopediis~ aRniSnuli statia _ qarTvelebis dasavleT saqarTveloSi gadasaxlebis Sesaxeb VIII-X ss-Si. avtori eWvmiutanel faqtad miiCnevs Tvalsazriss, rom dasavleT saqarTvelo konstantinopolis iurisdiqciaSi imyofeboda da iq RvTismsaxurebisaTvis eklesiebSi ara mxolod berZnuli, aramed afxazuri enac gamoiyeneboda, xolo Semdeg TiTqosda es `eklesia da afxazuri saxelmwifo qarTvelma agresorebma qarTuli eklesiis winamZRolobiT daipyres da afxazuri eklesia Cakles~ [16]. maSasadame, CvenSi istoriulad ori Tvalsazrisi Camoyalibda dasavleT saqarTvelos saeklesio iurisdiqciis Sesaxeb. pirvelis mixedviT dasavleT saqarTvelo IV saukunidanve, uwyvetad, saqarTvelos eklesiis wiaRSi imyofeboda, miuxedavad imisa, rom es asaxa ruis-urbnisis krebam, amJamad es Tvalsazrisi uaryofilia da sayovelTaodaa aRiarebuli meore Tvalsazrisi, rom IX-X ss-mde dasavleT saqarTvelo berZnuli eklesiis wiaRSi imyofeboda. samwuxarod, axlaxan, 2007 wels gamocemuli `pravoslavnaia enciklopedia~-s me-13 tomSi erTaderT eWvmiutanel WeSmaritebadaa gamocxadebuli zemoT aRniSnuli meore Tvalsazrisi, rom dasavleT saqarTvelo IX-X ss-Si berZnuli eklesiis iurisdiqciaSi imyofeboda, Sesabamisad, uaryofilia Zveli qarTuli saeklesio Tvalsazrisi. ukve naxsenebi rusuli enciklopediis me-13 tomSi _ statiis avtoris sityviT, wmida nino mxolod qarTlis _ aRmo-

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savleT saqarTvelos ganmanaTlebladaa warmodgenili, da isea miwodebuli mkiTxvelisaTvis, TiTqosda es erTaderTi Tvalsazrisi iyos, maSin roca ivane javaxiSvilis sityviT: `qarTvelebs imTaviTve wmida nino erTiani qveynis, erTiani saqarTvelos ganmanaTleblad miuCneviaT da ara misi erTi romelime nawilisa~. marTalia, `pravoslavnaia enciklopedia~-s me-13 tomis avtorebi miuTiTeben dasavleT saqarTvelos saeklesio iurisdiqciis wyaroTa simwiris Sesaxeb, magram Zalze samwuxaroa, rom duman da odnav miniSnebasac ki ar akeTeben imis Taobaze, rom am sakiTxs Tavisi gansakuTrebuli yuradReba miaqcia ruis-urbnisis krebam da miiRo Sesabamisi gansazRvreba. rogorc Cans, ruis-urbnisis krebis Zegliswera `pravoslavnaia enciklopedia~-s qarTvel avtorebs ar miaCniaT wyarod dasavleT saqarTvelos saeklesio iurisdiqciis kvlevis saqmeSi. Cveni mizani ar aris `pravoslavnaia enciklopedia~-Si gamoTqmuli Tvalsazrisis kritikuli ganxilva, Cven am sakiTxiT saerTod arc davinteresdebodiT, is rom ar exebodes saqarTvelos eklesiis da saerTod qarTveli eris mTlianobis sakiTxs. sabednierod, Cvenze gacilebiT adre iv. javaxiSvili Seexo swored am Temas, gamowvlilviT ganixila da mogvca didebuli daskvna. niSandoblivia rom `pravoslavnaia enciklopedia~-s avtorebma ar gaiTvaliswines iv. javaxiSvilis es daskvna da Sefaseba. XV s-Si saqarTvelos daSla-danakuwebis Jams Camovida antioqiis patriarqi mixeili, romelmac iv. javaxiSvilis sityviT, `SeTxza Teoria saqarTvelos eklesiis mTlianobis dasarRvevad, qarTveli eris saukeTeso SvilTa saukunovani brZoliT miRweuli monapovris, saqarTvelos eklesiis Tavisuflebis mosaspobad, misi mTlianobis dasarRvevad~ [iv. javaxiSvili, Txz., t. III, 1982, gv. 340].

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mainc ra Teoria SeTxza ucxoelma ierarqma? es Teoria, romelic TiTqosda xelaxla gacocxlda aRniSnuli enciklopediis furclebze, SemdegSi mdgomareobs: andria mociquli araa ganmanaTlebeli sruliad saqarTvelosi, aseve wmida nino mxolod aRmosavleT nawilis ganmanaTlebelia. iv. javaxiSvili werda: `giorgi mTawmideli da gansakuTrebiT efrem mcire, ruis-urbnisis 1103 wlis saeklesio krebis yvela sulisCamdgmeli da nikoloz kaTalikosi amtkiceben, rom andria mociqulma iqadaga `yovelsa qveyanasa saqarTveloYsasa~, xolo Semdgom qristianoba kvlav aRadgina wmida ninom, romlis saswaulTmoqmedebam da qadagebam `miizida yoveli savseba yovelTa qarTvelTa naTesavisa~, nikoloz kaTalikosic, wmida ninos saerTo mociqulad da ganmanaTleblad Tvlida `Cven qarTvelTaYsa~ (`saswaulni sveticxovlisa~). erTi sityviT, andria mociqulic da wmida ninoc saerTo qarTuli eklesiis damaarseblad da mTeli eris ganmanaTleblad iyvnen cnobilni. `saqarTvelos sxvadasxva nawilebis calke mqadageblebis gamoZebnis survilic ar hqoniaT, radgan isini mTliani da ganuyofeli saqarTvelos ganmtkicebisa da aRorZinebisaTvis iRvwodnen. antioqiel-ierusalimeli patriarqi mixeili swored am qarTvel saxelovan mecnierTa mier Seqmnilsa da mTeli qarTveli erisagan Sesisxlxorcebul Semecnebas spobda~ [iv. javaxiSvili, Txz., t. III, gv. 340]. samwuxaroa, rom Zvel qarTul saxelovan mecnierTa (iv. javaxiSvilis Sefaseba) mier boZebul Semecnebas spobs zogierTi axali qarTveli mecnieri, Tanac iseTi umaRlesi saerTaSoriso saeklesio organodan, rogoricaa `pravoslavnaia enciklopedia~. magaliTad, Zveli qarTuli wyaroebis sawinaaRmdegod `pravoslavnaia enciklopedia~-s me-13 tomis avtorebi (gv.

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200) noticiebze _ bizantiur kaTedraTa nusxebze dayrdnobiT miiCneven, rom dasavleT saqarTveloSi VI-IX ss-Si arsebuli saepiskoposoebi konstantinopolis iurisdiqciaSi imyofebodnen. TiTqosda `egrisis samefoSi, I noticiis mixedviT, arsebobda lazikis eparqia, romlis centri iyo fazisis (foTis) samitropolito oTxi saepiskoposo kaTedriT _ rodopolisi (varcixe), saisini (caiSi), petra (cixisZiri), zigana (ziganisi, gudava), da abazgiis eparqiis sebastopolis (cxumis) avtokefaluri saepiskoposo kaTedra (gv. 200). TiTqosda Semdgom isini qarTulma eklesiam konstantinopols CamoaSora. vSiSobT, rom es araswori Teoria, gavrcelebuli mTel msoflioSi `pravoslavnaia enciklopediis~, mier did safrTxes Seuqmnis samomavlod saqarTvelos teritoriul da saeklesio mTlianobas. rusul `pravoslavnaia enciklopediaSi~, dasavleT saqarTvelos msgavsad, samxreT saqarTveloc araqarTul qveynadaa gamocxadebuli, sadac, TiTqosda, qarTuli eklesiis gabatonebis Semdeg moxda mkvidri `somxebis~ gaqarTveleba. `somxebis~ gaqarTvelebis `Tvalsazrisi~ imdenadaa gavrcelebuli, rom man ukve qarTul saeklesio gamocemebSic SeaRwia. magaliTad, cnobili avtorebi weren: kirion I kaTalikosma, qvemo qarTlSi `araqarTuli mosaxleobis gasaqarTveleblad marjved gamoiyena politikuri viTareba~ [17]. somexi avtorebi da ara mxolod isini, aseT statiebs safuZvlad udeben Teorias, rom qvemo qarTli da, saerTod, samxreT saqarTvelo `somxuri qveyana~ iyo, romelic eklesiis mier `gaqarTvelda~. esaa e.w. `qarTizaciis~ Teoria, romelic qarTuli sabWoTa oficialuri istoriografiisaTvis ueWvel dogmad iqca da es ukanaskneli

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mas aviTarebda mTeli XX saukunis ganmavlobaSi, aRniSnuli tendencia ki XXI saukunis dasawyisis saqarTveloSi rusuli saokupacio reJimebis damyarebiT warmoCinda afxazeTsa da samaCabloSi. erTi sityviT, rusul `pravoslavnaia enciklopedias~ sxvadasxva tomSi gamoqveynebuli statiebi qarTuli Tanamedrove istoriografiis naklsa da marcxs warmoadgens. mosalodneli iyo, rom samecniero wreebi am sakiTxis gansaxilvelad gamarTavdnen msjelobas da moxdeboda samecniero azris urTierTgacvla, magram aravin dainteresebula am problemis ganxilviT. saqme isaa, rom Tanamedrove qarTul istoriografias, romelic eyrdnoba `qarTizacia - gaqarTvelebis~ yalb Teorias (rac TiTqos eklesiis winamZRolobiT qarTis tomma VIII-X ss-Si moaxdina), ar SeuZlia amJamad saqarTvelos erovnul-saxelmwifoebrivi interesebis dacva. aRniSnulis naTeli dadasturebaa ukanasknel xans (2008 wlis agvisto) saqarTvelos winaaRmdeg ganxorcielebuli morigi rusuli agresia da aneqsia, rac mzaddeboda didi xniT adre da, garda militaristulisa, Sedgeboda inteleqtualuri diversiis mdgenelisagan, romelic, cxadia, dafuZnebulia `qarTizaciis Teoriaze~; qarTuli istoriografia, saqarTvelosaTvis damdgari Sedegebis gaTvaliswinebiT, aRniSnuli erovnul-saxelmwifoebrivi da saeklesio mTlianobis problemis gadaWras SeZlebs, Tu is gaiziarebs Zveli qarTveli istorikosebis im Tvalsazriss, rom qarTveli xalxi Camoyalibda ara VIII-X ss-Si eklesiis meoxebiT mezobeli tomebis qarTizaciis Sedegad, aramed istoriaSi gamoCenis dros qarTveli xalxi ukve warmoadgenda eTnikurad mTlian, erT xalxs, erTi eniTa da kulturiT, romlis sacxovrisi

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moicavda dasavleT, aRmosavleT da samxreT saqarTvelos, rom imTaviTve qarTvelebi iyvnen ara mxolod Sida qarTlis mosaxleoba, aramed _ egriselebi, svanebi, kaxelebi da samxreT saqarTvelos mosaxleoba, rom maT hqondaT erTi ena (sustad diferencirebuli fuZeqarTuli ena), romelsac daeyrdno saRvTismetyvelo liturgikuli ena (qristianobis gavrcelebis Semdeg), rom mxolod Semdgom daiwyo am erTiani enis SigniT dialeqtebis warmoqmna. aseTi viTareba ar aris uprecedento (magaliTad, erTi slavi xalxi, erTiani enis mqone, mxolod gaqristianebis Semdeg daiyo sxvadasxva did enobriv jgufebad). erTi enisa, mmarTvelobisa da erTi eklesiis arsebobis Sesaxeb mogonebebi daucavs Cveni xalxis istoriul mexsierebasac. magaliTad, cnobili sazogado moRvawe sergei mesxi osmaleTis saqarTvelodan dabrunebis Semdeg gaocebuli iyo lazTa Soris SemorCenili istoriuli maxsovrobiT, rom maT odesRac Tavdapirvelad, danarCen sxva qarTvelebTan erTad hqoniaT, saerTo ena, erTiani saxelmwifo (mmarTveloba) da erTi sarwmunoeba. is Tavis werilSi _ `osmaleTis saqarTvelo~ _ werda: `imaT axsovT, rom Cveni TanamoZmeni arian, rom erT dros sazogado istoriuli cxovrebiT gvicxovria, erTs bedsa da ubedurebis qveS vyofilvarT, erTi mefeebi gvyolia, erTi mmarTveloba da erTi ena, sarwmunoeba gvqonia~. kidev ufro adre imaves werda wmida dimitri yifiani, roca rusuli xelisufleba Seecada samegrelos skolebidan da eklesiebidan qarTuli enis gandevnas: `mociqulTa droidan qarTuli ena iyo saeklesio da sakulto ena samegreloSi da iq es ena yvelas esmis, amJamad ki axal kulturas nergaven. megrul enas aswavlian sxva anbanis saSualebiT~ [18].

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faqti erTiani qarTveli xalxis qristesSobamde arsebobis Sesaxeb dafiqsirebulia Zvel qarTul wyaroebSi, magaliTad, roca `moqcevai qarTlisai~ aRniSnavs, rom azoni daadgines mefed mTeli istoriuli saqarTvelosi, rom misi pirveli, erTiani `qarTlis samefos~, dasavleT sazRvari gadioda mdinare egriswyalze, cxadia, igulisxmeba, rom egriswyalTan mdebare egrisi qarTlia, qarTlis samefos nawilia, da misi mosaxleoba qarTveli eris nawilia, radganac azonis epoqaSi, qristesSobamde IV-III saukuneebSi, pirveli erTiani qarTuli saxelmwifos sazRvrebi `moqcevai qarTlisai~-is mixedviT aseTi iyo: `sazRvari daudva mas hereTi da egriswyali da somxeTi da mTa crolisa~ [19. `moqcevai qarTlisai~, Zegl. I, 1964 w., gv. 81]. amave Tvalsazriss atarebs `qarTlis cxovreba~. yvela mefe, uklebliv, farnavazidan vaxtang gorgaslamde, flobs dasavleT saqarTvelos, dasavleT saqarTvelos mosaxleoba ueWvelad qarTuli iyo (Cveni saeklesio wyaroebis cnobiT) da am mosaxleobas ar esaWiroeba araviTari `qarTizacia _ gaqarTveleba~. rogorc aRiniSna, amave Tvalsazriss gamoTqvams ruis-urbnisis krebis Zegliswerac, sadac andria pirvelwodebuli mTeli saqarTvelos momaqcevlad, xolo wmida nino mTeli qarTveli eris gamaqristianeblad iwodeba. Tu oficialuri istoriografia ar gaiziarebs Zvel istorikosTa Tvalsazriss, cxadia, ver SeZlebs rusuli verc `pravoslavnaia enciklopediisa~ da verc e.w. separatistTa (sinamdvileSi _ mezobeli imperiis mesveurTa) miznebis jerovan Sefasebas da qveynis dacvas dezintegraciis da teritoriuli rRvevis, garedan inicirebuli, destruqciuli procesebisgan.

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zog adi das k v n a


qarTveli eris mTlianobis dasarRvevad patkanovis mier SemuSavebuli Teoria, marTalia, daZleuli iqna wmida ilia marTlis mier, magram sabWoTa reJimis dros is aRorZinda e.w. `qarTizaciis~ Teoriis saxiT da XX s-is 30-iani wlebidan gadaiqca qarTuli sabWoTa istoriografiis erTaderT mimarTulebad. am Teorias iziarebs da eyrdnoba TiTqmis yvela nabeWdi saistorio naSromi. am saxiT patkanov-maris saistorio Teoria amJamad ukve damkvidrda erTaderTad da Seucvlelad. es Teoria ki saSiSia qarTuli saxelmwifoebriobisaTvis, Zirs uTxris qarTveli erisa da eklesiis mTlianobas. mas, viTarca erTaderT WeSmarit saistorio Teorias, aswavlian yvela saero saswavlo dawesebulebaSi. Cven imedi gvqonda, rom sasuliero saswavleblebSi mainc Tavs aaridebdnen `qarTizaciis~ Teorias, magram saswavlo programebidan Cans, rom man sasuliero saswavleblebSic SeaRwia, rac Zlier saSiSia saeklesio mTlianobisaTvis. aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, erovnul-saxelmwifoebrivi da saeklesio mTlianobisaTvis gadaudebel aucileblobad migvaCnia aRdges saRvTo madliT mosili avtoriteti Zveli qarTuli wyaroebisa da ruis-urbnisis krebis mamebis `Zegliswerisa~, didi ilia marTlis (WavWavaZis) da dimitri baqraZis samecniero mimarTulebisa istoriografiasa da enaTmecnierebaSi.

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1. ilia WavWavaZe. qvaTa RaRadi. redaqtori: Tengiz sanikiZe; gamomcemlebi: d. gviCiani, m. mxeiZe, b. kudava. Tbilisi 1994 w. http://www.nplg.gov.ge/frames.php 2. dimitri baqraZe. profesori patkanovi da qarTuli istoriis wyaroebi. droeba; 1884.,1-5 maisi; 94-98. // dimitri baqraZe. profesori patkanovi da qarTuli istoriis wyaroebi. Txzuleba dimitri baqraZisa - Tbilisi: z. WiWinaZis gamoc., 1884: eqvT. xelaZis st.; daculia: speb; palata; saq. muz.; griSaSvili; arqivi; quTaisis sajaro; quTaisis un-ti; ruseTis erovnuli bib-ka [spb]; ruseTis mecn. akad. bib-ka [spb]. 3. s. jorbenaZe. cxovreba da Rvawli ivane javaxiSvilisa, 1984 w. gv. 48. 4. qarTuli sabWoTa enciklopedia. tomi X, gv. 458, 460. Tbilisi 1986 w. 5. iv. javaxiSvili. Txz. t. I., gv. 152. 6. mTavarepiskoposi anania jafariZe. dedaeklesia. gamomc. `ganaTleba~ 1996 w., gv. 191-193. 7. iqve, gv. 208-209. 8. d. musxeliSvili. qarTuli eklesia da saxelmwifo teritoria Sua saukuneebSi. saqarTvelos sapatriarqos qristianuli kvlevis saerTaSoriso centri, II saerTaSoriso simpoziumi, 24-26 noemberi, 2005. 9. t. futkaraZe. qarTvelebi. gamomcemloba: `quTaisis saxelmwifo universiteti~, 2005, gv. 42-77. 10. qarTuli sabWoTa enciklopedia. `saq. ssr~, 1981 w. gv. 61. 11. saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi. t. II, gamomcemloba `sabWoTa saqarTvelo~, Tbilisi 1973, gv. 427.

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12. T. papuaSvili. adrefeodaluri xanis qarTuli literatura da saistorio mwerloba. saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi. t. II, Tbilisi, 1973, gv. 574-601. 13. d. musxeliSvili. saqarTvelo IV-VIII saukuneebSi, 2003, gv.38. 14. mTavarepiskoposi anania jafariZe. saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria. gamomcemloba `merani~ 1998 w., tomi meore, gv. 269-270. 15. saqarTvelos samociqulo marTlmadidebluri eklesiis wmida sinodis sxdomis oqmi, 23, 2005, sapatriarqos uwyebani, 45, gv. 7. 16. () , , 2005 . 17. `saqarTvelos kaTolikos-patriarqebi~, Tbilisi 2000w., gv. 28. 18. a. jafariZe, saqarTvelos saeklesio krebebi, 2003, t. III, gv. 72. 19. `moqcevai qarTlisai~, Zegl. I, 1964 w., gv. 81.

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fotoze: berZnuli rukis fragmenti _ rodopolisis kaTedra lokalizebulia trapezuntTan, aqvea ziganas, saisinisa da sxva kaTedrebi.

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sarCevi
ivane javaxiSvili saqarTvelos eklesiis erTianobis Sesaxeb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . uwmidesi ilia II da wm. sinodi araswori istoriografiuli Teoriebis Sesaxeb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . amonaridebi uwmidesi patriarqis epistoleebidan araobieqturi istoriis sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT . I. amonaridi 2012 wlis saSobao epistoledan . . . . . . . . II. amonaridi 2006 wlis saSobao epistoledan . . . . . . . III. amonaweri wmida sinodis sxdomis oqmidan istoriis gayalbebasTan dakavSirebiT (20.XII.11) . . . . . . . . . . . saqarTvelos kaTolikos-patriarqis brZaneba #76 . . . IV. amonaweri wmida sinodis sxdomis oqmidan istoriis gayalbebasTan dakavSirebiT (5.VII.12) . . . . . . . . . . . . komisiis mier momzadebuli daskvna _ saqarTvelos erovnul-saxelmwifoebrivi da saeklesio mTlianobis sawinaaRmdegod mimarTuli e.w. `qarTizaciis Teoriis Sesaxeb~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zogadi daskvna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . literatura . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rukebi a)berZnuli rukis fragmenti . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . b)noticia IX, VII-X ss. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . g)noticia X, VII-X ss. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 17 25 25 27 28 29 30

32 62 63 65 67 69

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