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Chaos was the primal emptiness- a dark, silent, formless and infinite oddity with no trace of life. Out of Chaos, Mother Earth Gaea first came to existence. Full of life and power, Gaea created high mountains, low lands, rivers, lakes and seas. Soon Chaos created Tartarus, the embodiment of the Underworld who built his home deep below the World of Gaea. Gaea and Tartarus united and created Typhoeus(Typhoon), an appalling, fire breathing dragon with hundred heads. Then, love appeared out of Chaos, in the form of Eros. Eros was the most handsome of all greek gods and invincible by nature. Chaos also gave birth to Erebus, the symbolization of the dark silence, and Nyx, the embodiment of the night. With the intervention of Eros, Erebus and Nyx united and Nyx created Aether (the Atmosphere) and Hemera (the Day).
Transliteration Khaos, Khaeos Aêr
Latin Spelling Chaos Aer
Translation Gap, Chasm (khaos) Air (aêr)
Χαος Χαεος Αηρ
KHAOS (or Chaos) was the first of the Protogenoi (primeval gods) to emerge at the creation of the universe was followed in quick succession by Gaia (Earth), Tartaros (the Underworld) and Eros (Love the life-bringer
Khaos was the lower atmosphere which surrounded the earth - invisible air and gloomy mist. Her name kha literally means the gap, the space between heaven and earth. Khaos was the mother or grandmother of the substances of air: Nyx (Night), Erebos (Darkness), Aither (Light) and Hemera (Day), as well as the various emotion-affecting Daimones which drifted through it. She was also a goddess of fate like her daughter Nyx grand-daughters the Moirai.
Later authors defined Khaos as the chaotic mix of elements that existed in the primeval universe, confusing the primeval Mud of the Orphic cosmogonies, but this was not the original meaning. PARENTS
[1.1] NONE (the first being to emerge at creation) (Hesiod Theogony 116) [2.1] KHRONOS & ANANKE (Orphic Argonautica 12, Orphic Fragment 54) [2.2] KHRONOS (Orphic Rhapsodies 66)
[1.1] [1.2] [2.1] [3.1] [4.1] EREBOS, NYX (without a mate) (Hesiod Theogony 124) EREBOS, NYX, AITHER, HEMERA (Hyginus Preface) THE MOIRAI (Quintus Smyrnaeus 3.755) EROS (Oppian Halieutica 4.10) THE BIRDS (by Eros) (Aristophanes Birds 685)
NB According to Hesiod's Theogony Gaia, Tartaros and Eros came into being after Khaos. This passage is sometimes misread, making them her offspring.
CHAOS (Chaos), the vacant and infinite space which existed according to the ancient cosmogonies prev the creation of the world (Hes. Theog. 116), and out of which the gods, men, and all things arose. A d definition of Chaos is given by Ovid (Met. i. 1, &c.), who describes it as the confused mass containi elements of all things that were formed out of it. According to Hesiod, Chaos was the mother of Erebos an Some of the later poets use the word Chaos in the general sense of the airy realms, of darkness, or the world. Source: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.
KHAOS & THE BIRTH OF THE COSMOS
Hesiod, Theogony 116 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or 7th B.C.) : "Verily at the first Khaos came to be, but next wide-bosomed Gaia (Earth), the ever-sure foundations of all deathless ones who hold the peaks of snowy Olympus . . . From Khaos came forth Erebos and black Nyx (N
Alcman, Fragment 1 (from Scholiast on Aristophanes the Birds 14) (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric II) (C B.C.) : "He (Alkman) has identified Poros with the god called Khaos by Hesiod."
Alcman, Fragment 1 : "Aisa (Fate) and Poros (the Contriver), those ancient ones, conquered them all (ie they were killed in battle Greek Lyric II Alcman Frag 1 Callimachus, Aetia Fragment 2 (trans. Trypanis) (Greek poet C3rd B.C.) : "When the bevy of Mousai met the shepherd Hesiod . . . they told him of the birth of Khaos."
Aristophanes, Birds 685 ff (trans. O'Neill) (Greek comedy C5th to 4th B.C.) : "At the beginning there was only Khaos (Air), Nyx (Night), dark Erebos (Darkness), and deep Tartaros (Hel Ge (Earth), Aer (Air) and Ouranos (Heaven) had no existence. Firstly, black-winged Nyx (Night) laid a germ egg in the bosom of the infinite deeps of Erebos (Darkness), and from this, after the revolution of long ages sprang the graceful Eros (Desire) with his glittering golden wings, swift as the whirlwinds of the tempest. H mated [or fertilised] in deep Tartaros (Hell-Pit) with dark Khaos (Air), winged like himself, and thus hatched our race [the birds], which was the first to see the light."
Orphic Rhapsodies 66 (fragments) (trans. West) (Greek hymns C3rd - C2nd B.C.) : "This Khronos (Unaging Time), of immortal resource, begot Aither (Light) and great Khaos (Chasm or Air), this way and that, no limit below it, no base, no place to settle."
Orphic Fragment 54 (from Damascius) : "United with it [Khronos time] was Ananke (Inevitability, Compulsion), being of the same nature, or Adrast incorporeal . . . this is the great Khronos (Unaging Time) that we found in it [the Rhapsodies], the father of and Khaos. Indeed, in this theology too [the Hieronyman], this Khronos (Time), the serpent has offspring, t number: moist Aither (Light) (I quote), unbounded Khaos (Air), and as a third, misty Erebos (Darkness) . . Among these, he says, Khronos (Time) generated an egg [containing all solid matter - earth sea and sky]."
Epicuras, Fragment (from Epiphanius) : "And he [Epicurus] says that the world began in the likeness of an egg, and the Wind [the entwined forms o Khronos (Time) and Ananke (Inevitability)?] encircling the egg serpent-fashion like a wreath or a belt then to constrict nature. As it tried to squeeze all the matter with greater force, it divided the world into the two hemispheres, and after that the atoms sorted themselves out, the lighter and finer ones in the universe floa above and becoming the Bright Air [Aither or Ouranos] and the most rarefied Wind [Khaos the Air?], while heaviest and dirtiest have veered down, become the Earth (Ge), both the dry land and the fluid waters [Pon Sea?]." Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 3. 755 (trans. Way) (Greek epic C4th A.D.) : "The Moirai (Fates), daughters of holy Khaeos."
Pseudo-Hyginus, Preface (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) : "From Caligine (Mist) [was born] Chaos; from Chaos [was born]: Nox (Night), Dies (Day) [Hemera], Erebus Aether." Virgil, Georgics 4. 345 ff (trans. Fairclough) (Roman bucolic C1st B.C.) : "Among these [the nymphs] Clymene . . . from Chaos on was rehearsing the countless loves of the gods."
Oppian, Halieutica 4. 10 (trans. Mair) (Greek poet C3rd A.D.) : "Thou [Eros] art the eldest-born among the blessed gods and from unsmiling Khaeos didst arise with fierce flaming torch and didst first establish the ordinances of wedded love and order the rites of the marriage-be
KHAOS THE LOWER AIR
Khaos was the earth-bound lower air. Its heavenly counterpart was the shining aither, and beneath the ear there were the dark mists of erebos.
Hesiod, Theogony 699 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or 7th B.C.) : "[War of the Titanes:] [Zeus] came forthwith, hurling his lightning . . . flame unspeakable rose to the brigh air: the flashing glare of the thunder- stone and lightning blinded their eyes for all that there were strong. Astounding heat seized Khaos (Air): and to see with eyes and to hear the sound with ears it seemed even a Gaia (Earth) and wide Ouranos (Heaven) above came together." Hesiod, Theogony 813 : "And beyond, away from all the gods, live the Titanes, beyond gloomy Khaos (Air)."
Ibycus, Fragment S223B (from Scholast on Aristophanes, Birds) (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric III) (Gre
C6th B.C.) : "He uses khaos (void) instead of aeros (air) here, as does Ibycus:' he flies in the alien void (khaos)."
Bacchylides, Fragment 5 (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric IV) (C5th B.C.) : "In the limitless void (khaos) he [the eagle] plies his fine-feathered plumage before the blasts of the west w
Aristophanes, Clouds 264 ff (trans. O'Neill) (Greek comedy C5th to 4th B.C.) : "[Comedy-Play:] Sokrates: Give heed to the prayers. (In an hierophantic tone) Oh! most mighty king, the boundless Aer (Air), that keepest the earth suspended in space [Aristophanes calls air both Aer and Khaos] bright Aither (Upper Air) and ye venerable goddesses, the Nephelai (Clouds)."
Aristophanes, Clouds 627 : "[Comedy-play:] By Anapnoe (Respiration), by Khaos (Void), by Aer (Air) [three names for the same divini
Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 2. 549 ff (trans. Way) (Greek epic C4th A.D.) : "[Eos the Dawn grieving her son Memnon says she will no longer rise:] `I will to blind night leave earth, sk sea, till Khaeos and formless darkness brood o'er all.'"
Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 14. 1 : "Then rose from Okeanos Eos (Dawn) the golden-throned up to the heavens; Nyx (Night) into Khaos sank."
Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 4. 104 (trans. Mozley) (Roman epic C1st A.D.) : "Orion fell by the cruel virgin’s [Artemis’] shaft and now fills Chaos [the Air, which Orion fills as a constellat
Statius, Thebaid 3. 483 ff (trans. Mozley) (Roman epic C1st A.D.) : "Mysterious is the cause, yet of old has this honour [of prophetic omen] been paid to the birds, whether the Founder of the heavenly bode thus ordained, when he wrought the vast expanse of Chaos into the fresh see things."
Nonnus, Dionysiaca 41. 82 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) : "Before all Khthon (Earth) [Gaia], milling out from Helios the shine of his newmade brightness upon her allmothering breast . . . Beroe first shook away the cone of darkling mist, and threw off the gloomy veil of Kh (Air)."
Suidas s.v. Khaos (trans. Suda On Line) (Byzantine Greek lexicon C10th A.D.) : "Khaos (Space): Also the air (aer), according to Aristophanes in the Birds: `You shall not grant passage to smell of the (burning sacificial) thighs through your foreign city and the space (khaos).' Also `even Zeus is than Khaos', in the very ancient writers. And Ibykos (writes): 'he flies about in someone else's space (khao again: 'He fools around and spouts nonsense at us in vain, that even Zeus lived earlier than khaos.'"
KHAOS THE GLOOM OF THE NETHERWORLD Khaos was sometimes equated with Erebos, the darkness of the underworld.
Ovid, Metamorphoses 10. 30 ff (trans. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) : "[Orpheus peititions the gods of the underworld to return his Eurydike:] By these regions [the Underworld] with fear, by this huge Chaos, these vast silent realms, reweave, I implore, the fate unwound too fast of m Eurydice."
with nature’s blessing. this way to the shades is more fitting for me – my son I follow KHAOS THE PRIMORDIAL MIXTURE OF ELEMENTS Khaos was later identified with the primordial mixture of elements . all objects were at odds. and from the denser vapours set apart the ethereal sky." Seneca. So into shape whatever god it was reduced the primal matter and prescribed its sever parts. take me. and moist with dry. . . naught but a lifeless bulk. and gird the shores of the encircled earth.C. Medea 740 Seneca. self-balanced equipoised. so who severed land from sky and sea from land. . girt by the banks of Tartarus.earth. t lord [Haides] of the realm of gloom. next came the air in lightnes in place. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B. 403 ff : "She [the witch Kirke] . The fier weightless force of heaven’s vault flashed up and claimed the topmost citadel. let Chaos the outcries of his grief. Medea 9 : "Thou chaos of endless night [i. out of Erebos (Darkness) and Chaos (Gloomy Air) called Nox (Night) and the Di (Gods of Night) and poured a prayer with long-drawn wailing cries to Hecate. nor Amphitrite’s [the Sea’s] arms embraced the long far margin of the land. no creature swim the sea. the thicker earth with grosser elements sank burdened by its weight. no wax Phoebe [Selene the Moon] her crescent filled anew. blind Chaos is burst open. No Titan [Helios the Sun] as yet poured light upon the world.Seneca. Though there were and sea and air. murky Chaos and shadowy Dis’ [Haides'] dark dwelling-place. Medea 740 : "Funereal gods.D. Then first. . nothing kept form. a raw and undivided mass. with warring seeds joined elements compressed together. dire Chaos. then bade the sea and rise under the rushing winds. well named Chaos. This strife a Deus (God) [Phanes or Thesis?]. earth. ye realms remote from heaven. since in one mass cold essence fought with hot. Phaedra 1238 : "Yawn. the abysses of dismal Mors [Thanatos. . he fastened in its place appropriate in peace and harmony. the land no foot could tread. death]. all one. lowest and last the girdling w pent the solid globe. Oedipus 570 ff : "[The seer Teiresias performs necromancy:] The whole place was shaken and the ground was stricken from . take me. he rounded it into a mighty disc. and for the tribes of Dis [Haides] a way is given to the upper world. Miller) (Roman tragedy C1st A. the underworld].e. the air was lightless." Seneca. to make the earth even on every side. nor in the ambient air yet hung the earth." ." Sources: .Ovid. Hercules Furens 1100 ff (trans. and har soft and light with things of weight. Metamorphoses 10. Ovid. let the queen of the dark world [Persephone] hear . Metamorphoses 1. water.which app the Orphic Theogonies as primordial "Mud".D. in the whole world the countenance of nature was th same." Seneca.) : "Ere land and sea and the all-covering sky were made.) : "Let the heavens hear his mighty groans. to C1st A. ye unhallowed ghosts. and from the blind heap resolved and freed. 1 ff (trans." Seneca. . fire and earth .
o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o Hesiod.Greek Epic C5th AD Suidas . Hercules Furens .Latin Tragedy C1st AD Seneca.C1st AD Virgil. New Zealand GAIA Greek Name Transliteration Gaia.Greek Lyric C7th BC Greek Lyric IV Bacchylides.Greek Lyric C5th BC Aristophanes.Latin Epic C1st AD Statius.Latin Epic C1st AD Oppian.Greek Epic C4th AD Hyginus. Aaron J.Greek Poetry C3rd AD Nonnos. Dionysiaca .Greek Comedy C5th-4th BC Orphica.Latin Tragedy C1st AD Valerius Flaccus. Thebaid . Theogony .Greek C3rd BC Quintus Smyrnaeus. Gê Latin Name Gaea. Fragments .2011. Fasti . Hymns .Latin Idyllic C1st BC Seneca. Clouds .Latin Epic C1st BC .Greek Comedy C5th-4th BC Aristophanes. Georgics . Fall of Troy .Byzantine Lexicographer C10th AD Theoi Project Copyright © 2000 .Latin Mythography C2nd AD Ovid. Atsma. Phaedra . Fragments . Gaiê. Fragments .Greek Hymns BC Callimachus.Latin Tragedy C1st AD Seneca. Fabulae . The Argonautica .Latin Epic C1st BC . Birds .C1st AD Ovid. Oedipus . Metamorphoses . Terra. Cynegetica .Greek Epic C8th-7th BC Greek Lyric II Alcman. Tellus Translation Earth Γαια Γαιη Γη .
She was portrayed as inseperable from her native element. INDEX OF GAIA PAGES PART 1: INTRO. when her son Kronos defied her by imprisoning these same sons. the Gigantes from her mating with Tartaros (the hell-pit) and mortal creatures were sprung or born from her earthy flesh. and that she was invoked by persons taking oaths. the sea-gods from her union with Pontos (the sea). &c. In her opposition she first produced the tribe of Gigantes and later the monster Typhoeus to dethrone him. Athenian red-figure kylix C5th B. angered with him for the binding of her Titan-sons in the pit of Tartaros. Gaia was depicted as a buxom. 278. v. First she rebelled against her husband Ouranos (Sky) who had imprisoned her sons in her womb. but both failed in both attempts. 576. Berlin In the ancient Greek cosmology earth was conceived as a flat disk encirced by the river Okeanos. Then later. Rhod. matronly woman. xi. for we read in the Iliad (iii. the personification of the earth. along with air. 762. in the Homeric poems. She appears in the character of a divine being as early as the Homeric poems. & MYTHS ENCYCLOPEDIA GAEA or GE (Gaia or Gê).). vii. she was the first being that sprang front Chaos. reclining woman. 548. sea and sky..C. iii. 104) that black sheep were sacrificed to her. xix. the mother of Erechtheus and Tithyus. ii. comp. half risen from the earth (as in the image right) in Greek vase painting. Od. (Il. and topped above by the solid dome of heaven and below by the great pit of Tartaros.GAIA (or Gaea) was the Protogenos (primeval divinity) of earth.5. In mosaic art. In myth Gaia appears as the prime opponent of the heavenly gods. Gaia appears as a full-figured. and sometimes accompanied by grain spirits--the Karpoi. According to the Theogony of Hesiod (117. 259. Apollon. xv. 124. often clothed in green. sand gave birth to Uranus and Pontus. 36. Od. 324. one of the primal elements who first emerged at the dawn of creation. she assisted Zeus in his overthrow of the Titan. 716. She herself supported the sea and moutains upon her breast. Antikenmuseen. i. (iii. 12.) She is further called. By Uranus Birth of the Cosmos Castration of Ouranos Gaia & the Titan War Gaia & the Giant War Mother of Sea-Gods Mother of Rustic Gods Mother of Daimones . Finally she came into conflict with Zeus. Gaea rising from the earth. She was the great mother of all : the heavenly gods were descended from her union with Ouranos (the sky).
Arges. Her worship appears to have been universal among the Greeks. . Briareus. but she made a large iron sickle. Theog. Paus. (Thuc. and at Olympia.) The surnames and epithets given to Ge have more or less reference to her character as the all-producing and all-nourishing mother (mater omniparens et alma). gave it to her sons. iii. Theia. Paus. § 2.1] AITHER & HEMERA (Hyginus Preface) . and Gyges. and mutilated Uranus. Cronos undertook the task. the Gigantes. Source: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. 25. Met. Rheia. Greece Cult in Arkadia. and at Athens. S. 11. vi. Greece Cult in Elis. Delphi. §8.) We have express statements attesting the existence of statues of Ge in Greece. (Philostr. viii.) Besides these. (i. Eum. Phlyus. PARENTS [1. them in the bosom of the earth. Apollod. Iapetus. and hence Servius (ad Aen.. Coeus. 15. Greece Cult in Lakonia. 24. she had an oracle in early times. Orphic Frag 54 & 57. and requested them to take vengeance upon their father. ii. § 8. and other places. Mnemosyne. § 3). S. 22. &c. 196. the mother of Nereus. 252) remarks that she was represented with a key. Phoebe. 232. § 3. 24. (Paus. Tegea. Thetys. requires no explanation.1] Emerged from HYDROS (Orphic Rhapsodies 66. § 3. Ov. 5. however. too. As Ge was the source from which arose the vapours producing divine inspiration. 12.1] NONE (the second being to emerge at creation) (Hesiod Theogony 116) [2. became the seeds of the Erinnyes. 14. and hence she is frequently mentioned where they are invoked.) Servius (ad Aen. various other divinities and monsters sprang from her. Ceto. Themis. v. Phorcys. § 3. she herself also was regarded as an oracular divinity. Creius. Sparta. S. but none have come down to us. S.. and she had temples or altars at Athens. too. 166) classes her together with the divinities presiding over marriage. Subsequently Ge became. 14. 2. Olympia. 48. x. and Ge therefore concealed. Cronos. in the temple of Demeter (Paus. vii.PART 2: MOTHER NATURE Hymns to Mother Gaia Genesis of Giants Birth of Orion Genesis of Kings Birth of Erikhthonios Genesis of Tribes Nurse of Gods & Men Genesis of Animals Gaia Wrath: Orion Genesis of Monsters Genesis of Plants Wedding of Zeus Rape of Persephone Birth of Dionysos Metamorphosis Daphne Metamorphosis Pitys Metamorphosis Ampelos Metamorphosis Sykeus PART 3: GAIA EARTH & CULT Caverns & Chasms Gaia & Phaethon's Fire Earth Miscellany Oracles of Gaia Gaia & Delphic Oracle Gaia Witness Oaths Gaia & Ghosts of Dead Titles & Epithets of Gaia General Cult Cult in Attica. and Eurybia. Steropes. Greece Cult in Akhaia. Greece . vii. (Hes. 21. The drops of blood which fell from him upon the earth (Ge). § 6. Cottus. § 1. and it is well known that the oracle of Delphi was believed to have at first been in her possession (Aeschyl. there was a statue of her. Epicuras Frag) [3. At Patrae she was represented in a sitting attitude. iv. by Pontus. 39. § 8. Vit. i. Bura. and the Melian nymphs. These children of Ge and Uranus were hated by their father. x. Brontes.) That Ge belonged to the theoi chthinioi. i. &c. S. vii. -Oceanus. v. 31. Thaumas. Apoll. § 4). § 7. the Cyclopes. 1. Hyperion. she then became the mother of a series of beings. § 8.
3] KOURETES (Greek Lyric V Anon.66.174) OFFSPRING YOUNGER GIANTS .3] ENKELADOS. KRIOS.3. Scholiast on Theocritus 1. KRONOS.1] ALGOS (DOLOR). Hyginus Preface) [3. THE HEKATONKHEIRES (by Ouranos) (Apollodorus 1. HYPERION.1] KHRONOS.23) [1.OFFSPRING PROTOGENOI [1. Diodorus Siculus 5. BRIAREUS. THEMIS. TARTAROS. THE ERINYES (by Aither or Ouranos ?) (Hyginus Pref NB text is corrupt) [2. PHEME (Virgil Aeneid 4.243) [5.4] THE TITANES (OKEANOS. LYSSA (IRA).9.1] ARISTAIOS (by Ouranos) (Greek Lyric IV Bacchylides Frag 45) [4. KRONOS). DOLOS (DOLUS). THAUMAS.65) OFFSPRING DAIMONES [1.10) [1.3] THEMIS.2] THE ERINYES. LETHE (OBLIVIO). MNEMOSYNE.1] TRIPTOLEMOS (by Okeanos) (Apollodorus 1. EURYBIA (by Pontos) (Hesiod Theog.65.1. THE OUREA.7] OKEANOS. HYPERION.135 & 14. THE TITANES.2] PHEME (Virgil Aeneid 4.6] THE KYKLOPES. Apollodorus 1. Frag 985. KRONOS. PHOIBE (Aeschylus Eumenides 1) [1. Apollodorus 1. Diodorus Siculus 5.1] THE ERINYES.34) [3. RHEIA. ? (SUPERBIA). THE TITANIDES (as above plus DIONE). GYES. ? (INTEMPERANTIA). THE GIGANTES (by the blood of the castrated Ouranos) (Apollodorus 1. THE HEKATONKHEIRES (by Ouranos) (Eumelus Titanomachia Frag 1) [1. HYSMINE (PUGNA) (by Aither) (Hyginus Preface) [1.1] AITNA (by Ouranos) (Simonides Frag 52. KETO.2] KOURETES (by a shower of rain) (Ovid Metamorphoses 4. PONTOS (without a mate) (Hesiod Theogony 126) [1.2] GIGANTES (by Tartaros) (Hyginus Preface) [3. PSEUDOLOGOS (MENDACIUM).1] SEILENOS (Nonnus Dionysiaca 29.1) [1. THE KYKLOPES. THE MELIAI (by the blood of the castrated Ouranos) (Hesiod Theogony 184) [2. RHEIA.1] KENTAUROI KYPRIOI (by Zeus) (Nonnus Dionysiaca 14. THE TITANIDES (THEIA. Strabo 10. ? (INCESTUM). TARTAROS (by Aither or Ouranos?) (Hyginus Preface) [2. 232.174) OFFSPRING SEA GODS [1.4] DAKTYLOI (Nonnus Dionysiaca 14.32) [7. AERGIA (SOCORDIA).1] KABEIROS (Greek Lyric V Anonymous Frag 985) [3. PHORKYS.193 & 32. AMPHILOGIA (ALTERCATIO).2] THE TITANES (as above). THE KYKLOPES. MNEMOSYNE. PONTOS. STEROPES.1] THE TITANES (OKEANOS.1] KOURETES (by the blood of Ouranos) ? (Hesiod Theogony 176) [1. 1. ATLAS. ANANKE (by Hydros) (Orphic Fragments 54 & 57) OFFSPRING TITANES-GIGANTES [1. THE HEKATONKHEIRES (by Ouranos) (Hesiod Theogony 135. DIONE. POINE (ULTIO). KOIOS. Apollodorus 1. THEMIS.5] PROMETHEUS (Aeschylus Prometheus Bound 211) [1. TETHYS.39.3. Nonnus Dionysiaca 13.2] KHARYBDIS (by Poseidon) (Other references) OFFSPRING RUSTIC GODS [1. DEIMOS (TIMOR).2) [1.2.23) [2.1] TYPHOEUS (by Tartaros) (Hesiod Theogony 819. PHOIBE). KOIOS. TETHYS) (by Ouranos) (Aeschylus Prometheus Bound 207) [1. THE GIGANTES (incl KOURETES ?). HORKOS (JUSIURANDUM).1] NEREUS. PENTHOS (LUCTUS).1] DYSAULES (Greek Lyric V Anonymous Frag 985) [8.1] OURANOS. IAPETOS. KOIOS.282) [1.65) [6.2] PONTOS.
Hyginus Fabulae 48. HYPERBOREOI (races of men born to her by Epaphos) (Hesiod Catalogues Frag 40A) GAIA & THE BIRTH OF THE COSMOS I) THE HESIODIC COSMOGONY Hesiod. Virgil Aeneid 6. KATOUDAIOI.4. SKYTHES. Ovid Fasti 5. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.5) [2. et al) [2. Nonnus Dionysiaca 13.1] ANTAIOS (by Poseidon) (Apollodoros 2.25.1] [7. whom she .35) [4. & Hermes) (Hyginus Fabulae 195 & Astronomica 2.C. and Eros (Love).1] SKORPIOS (Hesiod Astronomy Frag 4. LIBYES.34. but of Nyx (Night) were born Aither (Light) and Hemera (Day).25) [2. PYGMAIOI. Nonnus Dionysiaca 20.1] TITYOS (Homer Odyssey 11.1] [2. HYLLOS (Pausanais 1. and dim Tartaros (Hell) in the depth of the wide-pathed Earth.1] AREION (Pausanias 8.174) [8. but next wide-bosomed Gaia (Earth). Callimachus Hecale Frag 260.505) OPHIOTAUROS (Ovid Fasti 3.1] ALPOS (Nonnus Dionysiaca 45.1] PHAIAKAI (by the blood of the castrated Ouranos) (Alcaeus Frag 441) [2.1215) DRAKON NEMEIOS (Statius Thebaid 5.452) [9.188. Hyginus Astronomica 2.96) [3. From Khaos (Air) came forth Erebos (Darkness) and black Nyx (Night).580.1] [4.21.1] KEKROPS (Antoninus Liberalis 6.493.1] DAMASEN (Nonnus Dionysiaca 25.438) DRAKON KHOLKIKOS (Apollonius Rhdius 2.1] THE GEGENEES (Apollonius Rhodius 1.1] [6.[1.1] LAISTRYGON (by Poseidon) (Hesiod Catalogues Frag 40A) [6.793) OFFSPRING ANIMALS [1.1] [4.595. Theogony 116 ff (trans. et al) ALALKOMENEUS (Greek Lyric V Anonymous Frag 985) IARBAS (Greek Lyric V Anonymous Frag 985) Various other Autokhthones (earth-born men) OFFSPRING HUMAN TRIBES [1. who unnerves the limbs and overcomes the mind and wise counsels of all gods and all men within them.1] [5.2] ANAX. Hyginus Fabulae 31) [5.35.901) [7. the eversure foundation of all the deathless ones who hold the peaks of snowy Olympos.1] ORION (Apollodorus 1. LAISTRYGONES.1] HEMIKUNOI.1] [3.26) OFFSPRING FIRST KINGS [1.1] [3. AITHIOPES.33) [2. Apollodorus 3.1] ARGOS PANOPTES (Aeschylus Suppliants 306 & Prometheus 566. fairest among the deathless gods.115. Philostratus Elder 2.1] SYKEUS (Athenaeus 78a) [9.1] [5.4) PYTHON (Hyginus Preface & Fabulae 140. Poseidon. et al) PALAIKHTHON (Aeschylus Suppliants 250) PELASGOS (Greek Lyric V Anonymous Frag 985.1] ERIKHTHONIOS (by Hephaistos) (Homer Iliad.1] EKHIDNA (by Tartaros) (Apollodorus 2. Ovid Metamorphoses 1. Nonnus Dionysiaca 4. MELANOKHROTOI.6-7) OFFSPRING MONSTERS [1.2] ORION (fertilised by an oxhide soaked with the urine of Zeus. Apollodorus 2.) : "Verily at first Khaos (Air) came to be.
no waxing Phoebe [Selene the Moon] her crescent filled anew." Homeric Hymn IV to Hermes 427 (trans. in darkness blind long buried. This strife a Deus (God) [the elder Eros or Khronos?].D. Pontus (Sea). From Aether (Light) and Dies (Day) [Hemera] [were born]: Terra (Earth) [Gaia]. to make the earth even on every side. how at the first they came to be. equal to herself." Ovid.D." Ovid. . nothing kept its form. that no part or place should lack fit forms of life.Boyle) (Roman poetry C1st B. But afterwards she lay with Ouranos and bare deep-swirling Okeanos [Earth-encircling River]. Mare (Sea). . The fiery weightless force of heaven’s vault [Ouranos] flashed up and claimed the topmost citadel. all objects were at odds." Pseudo-Hyginus. naught but a lifeless bulk.) : "He [Apollon] sang the story of the deathless gods and of dark Gaia (Earth). when the world acquired three elements and the whole structure shifted to new forms. 9 ff (trans. without sweet union of love. Fasti5." Homeric Hymn XXX to Gaea (trans. Themis and Mnemosyne and gold-crowned Phoibe and lovely Tethys. the gusty air the birds.C. he fastened in its place appropriate in peace and harmony. next came the air in lightness and in place. So into shape whatever god it was reduced the primal matter and prescribed its several parts. the land received the beasts. who severed land from sky and sea from land. Koios and Krios and Hyperion and Iapetos. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B. with nature’s blessing. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C7th .C. and moist with dry. . equipoised. solved. and. with warring seeds of ill-joined elements compressed together. eldest of all beings. and from the denser vapours set apart the ethereal sky. to cover her on every side. and hard with soft and light with things of weight. Then first. Caelum (Heaven) [Ouranos]. to C1st A. 1 ff (trans. the thicker earth with grosser elements sank burdened by its weight. the land no foot could tread.conceived and bore from union in love with Erebos. graceful haunts of the goddess Nymphai who dwell amongst the glens of the mountains.D. Though there were land and sea and air.C. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A. nor in the ambient air yet hung the earth. each from the blind heap resolved and freed. to C1st A. nor Amphitrite’s [the Sea’s] arms embraced the long far margin of the land. and.) : "After Chaos. no creature swim the sea. Preface (trans. and gird the shores of the encircled earth . self-balanced.4th B.) : "Ere land and sea and the all-covering sky were made.) : "Well-founded Gaia (Earth). he rounded it into a mighty disc. but . And Gaia (Earth) first bore starry Ouranos (Heaven). in the whole world the countenance of nature was the same. mother of all. Dies (Day). earth subsided with its weight and dragged the seas [Pontos] down. in the sea he set the shining fish to swim. since in one mass cold essence fought with hot.4th B. From Chaos [was born]: Nox (Night). No Titan [Helios the Sun] as yet poured light upon the world. She bare also the fruitless deep with his raging swell. then bade the sea extend and rise under the rushing winds. well named Chaos. And she brought forth long Ourea (Mountains).C. . Metamorphoses 1. the firmament he made the home of gods and goddesses and the bright constellations. all one.) : "From Caligine (Mist) [was born] Chaos (Air). a raw and undivided mass. over all the spangled sky began to gleam. the air was lightless. Erebus. Theia and Rheia. lowest and last the girdling waters pent the solid globe. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C7th . Scarce had he thus all things in finite bounds divided when the Sidera (Stars). Aether .
And I assume that the theology of the [Orphic] Rhapsodies discarded the two first principles (together with the one before the two.D. . that is--and was a Serpent (Drakon) with extra heads growing upon it of a bull and a lion." Orphica. Dionysiaca 41. The third principle after the two was engendered by these--Ge (Earth) and Hydros (Water). Okeanos (Ocean). and from their marriage Ouranos (Heaven). Nyx (Night). not chained by gravity. The one before the two [Thesis]. For this is the great Khronos (Unaging Time) that we found in it [the Rhapsodies]. because this was the first that was expressible and acceptable to human ears. . 50 (trans. misty Erebos (Darkness) . Theogonies Fragment 54 (from Damascius) : "Originally there was Hydros (Water)." Nonnus. . That of the Immortals did not exist until Eros (Sexual Desire) had brought together all the ingredients of the world. or Adrastea. The Birds 685 (trans." Nonnus. dark Erebos (Darkness). . and threw off the gloomy veil of Khaos (Air). Compulsion) . and its name was Khronos (Unaging Time) and also Herakles. and deep Tartaros (Hell's Pit). too. Khronos and Ananke]." II) THE ORPHIC COSMOGONY Aristophanes. Ge (Earth) and the imperishable race of blessed gods (Theoi) sprang into being. and as a third. United with it was Ananke (Inevitability. 243 : "Mother Gaia (Earth) unbegotten and self-delivered.D. Rhapsodies Fragment 66 (trans. Ge (Earth).C. jumped out. West) (Greek hymns C3rd A." Nonnus. the Orphics discarded the concepts of Thesis." Orphica. Indeed. . O'Neill) (Greek comedy C5th to 4th B.C. Terra [Ge the Earth] for a long time did not yield to Caelus [Ouranos the Heaven]. and began from this third principle [Phanes] after the two. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A. Dionysiaca 27. and the stars. Aer (Air) [or Aither] and Ouranos (Heaven) had no existence . from which Ge (the Earth) solidified: he posits these two as first principles. three in number: moist Aither (Light) (I quote). water and earth . occuping the place of essence. The sun. that was left unspoken) [that is. this Khronos (Time). the father of Aither and Khaos. he [Orpheus] says. only he [Orpheus] made it bisexual [as Phanes] to symbolize the universal generative cause. All rank was equal. and Mud. in this theology too [the Hieronyman]. .C2nd B. I think this stands for the third principle. Dionysiaca 27. and a god’s countenance in the middle. being of the same nature. milling out from Helios (the Sun) the shine of his newmade brightness upon her all-mothering breast .) : "Gaia (Earth) produced Aither [or Ouranos the Sky] dotted with its troop of stars.lightness lifted the heavens [Ouranos] up high. however.) : "At the beginning there was only Khaos (Air).50 Nonnus. incorporeal. 82 ff : "Before all Khthon (Earth) [Gaia]. Nor Stars to Phoebus [Helios the Sun]. her arms extended throughout the universe and touching its extremities. Gaia and Phanes was born]. he leaves unexpressed. his very silence being an intimation of its ineffable nature. it had wings upon its shoulders. unbounded Khaos (Air). . Beroe [the first city] first shook away the cone of darkling mist. the serpent has offspring. and you horses of the moon. Dionysiaca 29.) : "Great Khronos fashioned from (or in) divine Aither a bright white egg [the world egg from which Ouranos.
and on his head a monstrous serpent. wherefore he is also called Pan (All). This Herakles generated a huge egg [which formed the earth. Its crown became Ouranos (Heaven). and mother Tethys [Thesis]’. . presenting the appearance of all kinds of animal forms . the dyad of the two natures inside it (male and female) [Ouranos. who is the genesis of the all’. and what had sunk downwards. which. GIGANTES T1. PANES . and thirdly an incorporeal god with golden wings on his shoulders. and born ‘among’ these because it is from these that the third Intelligible triad is produced [Protogonos-Phanes]. And the third god of the third triad this theology too celebrates as Protogonos (First-Born) [Phanes]. earth]. . heaven. and from the pair of them a living creature was generated with an extra head growing upon it of a lion. What is this triad." Orphica. by the force of its engenderer was broken in two from friction." T1.1B GAIA ANODOS T1. Gaia (Earth). he says. and the plurality of the various seeds between. then? The egg." Orphica.who was the original inventor of the gods’ names and recounted their births and said what they have all done. and who enjoys some credit among them as a true theologian. and is generally followed by Homer. and Gaia.1A GAIA. and Orpheus . but each of them was born just as we are born." Orphica. As it tried to squeeze all the matter with greater force. For Hydros (Water) was according to him the origin of everything. .. So much this second genealogy supplies concerning the Intelligible principles. And this is agreed by them all.5 GAIA. . bulls’ heads growing upon his flanks. . above all about the gods . . Homer saying `Okeanos the genesis of the gods. it divided the world into the two hemispheres [Ouranos heaven and Gaia earth]. its name was Herakles and Khronos (Time). sea and sky]. Theogonies Fragment 57 (from Athenogoras) : "Khronos (Time) . and in the middle of them a god’s countenance. and another of a bull. Among these. and the Wind [the entwined forms of Khronos (Time) and Ananke (Inevitability)?] encircling the egg serpent-fashion like a wreath or a belt then began to constrict nature. GIGANTES T1.also making their first genesis from water : `Okeanos. [also called] Herakles generated a huge egg. Epicuras Fragment (from Epiphanius) : "And he [Epicurus] says that the world began in the likeness of an egg. as they [the Greeks] say. and from Hydros (the Water) Mud formed [primeval Gaia].4 GAIA. Theogonies Fragment 57 (from Athenogoras) : "The gods. did not exist from the beginning. being filled full. There also came forth an incorporeal god [Phanes or primeval Eros]. and it calls him Zeus the order of all and of the whole world. Khronos (Time) generated an egg--this tradition too making it generated by Khronos.
and he made them live beneath the wide-pathed earth.) : "And Gaia first bare starry Ouranos (Heaven). at its great borders. while she was vexed in her dear heart : `My children. After them was born Kronos the wily. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B. for all the bloody drops that gushed forth Gaia received. she bare the Kyklopes. for he first thought of doing shameful things. gotten of a sinful father. where they were afflicted. and he hated his lusty sire. overbearing in spirit. and told her plan to her dear sons. and to be an ever-sure abiding-place for the blessed gods . and swiftly lopped off his own father's members and cast them away to fall behind him. holding long spears in their hands and the Nymphai whom they call Meliai [Of Honey. bringing on night and longing for love. those whom Gaia (Earth) and wide Ouranos (Heaven) begot [the Titanes]. and the gods sprung of these. and he lay about Gaia spreading himself full upon her. and set and hid him in an ambush.C. we should punish the vile outrage of your father. THE TITANES & THE CASTRATION OF OURANOS Hesiod. if you will obey me. And not vainly did they fall from his hand. and Steropes and stubborn-hearted Arges. these were the most terrible. and revealed to him the whole plot.' So he said : and vast Gaia rejoiced greatly in spirit." Hesiod. For of all the children that were born of Gaia and Ouranos. Theogony 617 ff : "But when first their father [Ouranos] was vexed in his heart with [the Hekatonkheires] Obriareus and Kottos and Gyes. and as the seasons moved round she bare the strong Erinyes and the great Gigantes with gleaming armour. Theogony 43 ff : "And they [Mousai] uttering their immortal voice. and would not suffer them to come up into the light: and Ouranos rejoiced in his evil doing. and she made the element of grey flint and shaped a great sickle. Brontes. three other sons were born of Gaia and Ouranos. Theia and Rheia. Themis and Mnemosyne and gold-crowned Phoibe and lovely Tethys.GAIA. And again. in bitter anguish for a long time and with great grief at heart. ." Hesiod. being set to dwell under the ground. he bound them in cruel bonds . or Of Ash-Trees] all over the boundless earth. for I reverence not our father of evil name. for he first thought of doing shameful things. But afterwards she [Gaia] lay with Ouranos and bare deep-swirling Okeanos. great and doughty beyond telling. and none of them uttered a word. and put in his hands a jagged sickle. Theogony 126 ff (trans. I will undertake to do this deed. givers of good things.' So she said. But vast Gaia (Earth) groaned within. . From their shoulders sprang a hundred arms. Kottos and Briareos and Gyes [the Hekatonkheires]. And again. cheering them. to cover her on every side. Then the son from his ambush stretched forth his left hand and in his right took the great long sickle with jagged teeth. not to be approached. celebrate in song first of all the reverend race of the gods from the beginning. . and irresistible was the stubborn strength that was in their great forms. being straitened. equal to herself. Koios and Krios and Hyperion and Iapetos. And she spoke. And he used to hide them all away in a secret place of Gaia so soon as each was born. at the end of the earth. . but fear seized them all." . and each had fifty heads upon his shoulders on their strong limbs. and they were hated by their own father from the first. But great Kronos the wily took courage and answered his dear mother : `Mother. And Ouranos came. youngest and most terrible of her children.
being born. Koios. and Titanes: Briareus. Mnemosyne. Titanomachia Frag 1 (from Plotius) (trans. Smyth) (Greek tragedy C5th B. Pontus. (From the drops of the flowing blood Erinyes were born. Themis.Eumelus of Corinth. who were names Briareos. distressed by the loss of her children into Tartaros. Evelyn-White) (Greek Epic C8th B. Steropes. and she gave Kronos (Time) a sickle made of adamant. Library of History 5. was co vered up in Gaia’s bosom [that is. Gyes.D. Ops [Rhea].D. 1 (trans. 66. Dione. Phoibe. from whom as their mother they derive the name they have. Atlas. Oldfather) (Greek historian C1st B. Hyperion and Polus [Koios]. Themis. Steropes. . . son of Ouranos though he was. trapped in Tartaros]. by which they make three Hekatontacheiroi (Hundred-handed) sons and three Kyklopes to be born to him.C. Tisiphone. Iapetos.5 (trans." Pseudo-Hyginus." Pseudo-Apollodorus.C." Nonnus. Bibliotheca 1. 50 ff (trans. Hyperion. as certain writers of myths relate. Kronos (Time) himself . Gyes and Kottos. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A. and Brontes. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.) Thus having overthrown Ouranos’ (Sky's) rule the Titanes retrieved their brothers from Tartaros and gave the power to Kronos. by name Arges. namely the Titanes: Okeanos." Diodorus Siculus. and as far away from the earth as the earth is from the sky). and Kronos the youngest. Megaira. After these he sired the Kyklopes. . and their sisters were Rhea. Preface (trans.) : "From Aether [or Ouranos] and Terra [Gaia] [were born various Daimones] . Tisiphone. namely Alecto. of one of the Kouretes and Titaia. and each had a hundred hands and fifty heads. and Kronos cut off his genitals. Saturnus [Kronos]. and fathered other sons on Ge (Earth). The males were Kronos. Krios and Okeanos. Megaera.) : "Ouranos (Sky) was the first to rule over the entire world. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A. Theia. He married Ge (Earth) and sired first the Hekatonkheires.) : "The Titanes.) : "The Epic Cycle begins with the fabled union of Ouranos (Sky) and Ge (Earth)." For MORE information on the castration of Ouranos see KRONOS and OURANOS GAIA & THE WAR OF THE TITANES . Kreios. Hyperion. Mnemosyne. But Ouranos (Sky) bound these and threw them into Tartaros (a place in Haides’ realm as dark as Erebos. children of Ouranos (Heaven) and Khthon (Earth). persuaded the Titanes to attack their father. Dione.) : "The Titanes numbered six men and five women. each of whom had one eye in his forehead. Dionysiaca 27. and three Furiae.D. Now Ge (Earth). of Ouranos (Sky) and Ge (Earth). They were unsurpassed in both size and power. also daughters called Titanides: Tethys." Aeschylus. Koios. but according to others. Iapetos. Themis. tossing them into the sea. So all of them except Okeanos set upon Ouranos (Sky). [From Caelum-Ouranos and Terra-Gaia were born? :] Oceanus. Prometheus Bound 207(trans. Rhea.) : "Gaia (Earth) shall cover you up. . Phoibe and Tethys [Diodorus omits Theia]. Tartarus. Moneta [Mnemosyne]. 1 . named Alekto.C.
he bound them in cruel bonds . although advising them for the best. And they readily heard and obeyed their dear daughter. huge Gaia had hidden these. the strength and glorious limbs of the prince increased quickly. the earlier king of the gods. So they sent her to Lyetus. and he made them live beneath the wide-pathed earth. Prometheus Bound 206 ff (trans. where they were afflicted. . After that. For she herself recounted all things to the gods fully. Then he took it in his hands and thrust it down into his belly. . But [Zeus and his brothers] brought them up again to the light at Gaia's advising. . strong though he was. Astounding heat seized Khaos (the Air): and to see with eyes and to hear the sound with ears it seemed even as if Gaia (Earth) and wide Ouranos (Sky) above came together. at its great borders." Hesiod. All the land (khthon) seethed ." Aeschylus. And they remembered to be grateful to him for his kindness. they pressed far-seeing Olympian Zeus to reign and to rule over them. was unable to persuade . the father of gods and men. Theogony 881 ff : "But when the blessed gods had finished their toil. in bitter anguish for a long time and with great grief at heart. So he divided their dignities amongst them. through the contriving of great Zeus. . she gave a great stone wrapped in swaddling clothes.C. at the end of the earth.) : "I [the Titan Prometheus]. But when she was about to bear Zeus. but to the mightily ruling son of Ouranos. so great a crash was there while the gods were meeting together in strife. and took him in her arms and hid him in a remote cave beneath the secret places of the holy earth on thick-wooded Mount Aigaion. and Ouranos (Sky) from on high were hurling her down. sons of Ouranos whom his father in his foolishness had bound. And he set free from their deadly bonds the brothers of his father [Kyklopes].Hesiod.Thither came Gaia carrying him swiftly through the black night to Lyktos first. to the rich land of Krete. . by Gaia's (Earth's) prompting. . when she was ready to bear great Zeus. Gaia and starry Ouranos. how that with these they would gain victory." Hesiod. The life-giving earth crashed around in burning. and that retribution might overtake great. hurling his lightning: the bold flew thick and fast from his strong hand together with thunder and lightning. and as the years rolled on. and brought up again his offspring . and the vast wood crackled loud with fire all about. Theogony 462 ff (trans. great Kronos the wily was beguiled by the deep suggestions of Gaia. then she besought her own dear parents. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B. Theogony 687 ff : "[War of the Titanes] [Zeus] came forthwith. being set to dwell under the ground. .Therefore he kept no blind outlook. and told her all that was destined to happen touching Kronos the king and his stout-hearted son. whirling an awesome flame. . crafty Kronos for his own father and also for the children whom he had swallowed down. and settled by force their struggle for honours with the Titanes.) : "[Kronos] learned from Gaia (Earth) and starry Ouranos (Heaven) that he was destined to be overcome by his own son. the youngest of her children. and gave him thunder and the glowing thunderbolt and lightening : for before that. to devise some plan with her that the birth of her dear child might be concealed. but watched and swallowed down his children : and unceasing grief seized Rhea. Him did vast Gaia (Earth) receive from Rhea in wide Krete to nourish and to bring up. Smyth) (Greek tragedy C5th B. . for such a mighty crash would have arisen if Gaia (Earth) were being hurled to ruin.C." Hesiod. Theogony 617 ff : "But when first their father [Ouranos] was vexed in his heart with [the Hekatonkheires] Obriareus and Kottos and Gyes.
they did not pay any attention to my words." Nonnus. There was a shocking monster born of Mother Terra (Earth) [Gaia]. in a black grove with a triple wall. After ten years of fighting Ge prophesied a victory for Zeus if he were to secure the prisoners down in Tartaros as his allies. 155 ff (trans. and shut up the murderers of horned Dionysos within the gate of Tartaros [after a long war]: the trees blazed. Because both Ge (Earth) and Ouranos (Heaven) had given him prophetic warning that his rule would be overthrown by a son of his own. attacked the mother of the Titanes [Gaia the Earth] with avenging brand. . Roaring Styx [as an ally of Zeus] imprisoned it. And though I argued all this to them. Then Rainy Zeus covered the whole sky with clouds and flooded all the earth [in the flood of Deukalion]. In anger he stirs the mighty Titanes to arms and seeks the assistance owed by fate. children of Ouranos (Heaven) and Khthon (Earth). a libation of suppliant prayer. 6 (trans." Pseudo-Apollodorus. in the pride of their strength thought to gain the mastery without a struggle and by force. and wished to wash with water the ashes of ruin and the fiery wounds of the land. whose back half was a serpent." For MORE information on the War of the Titanes see KRONOS and the TITANES GAIA & THE WAR OF THE GIGANTES The ancients barely distinguished between the War of the Titanes and the War of the Gigantes.) : "But Kronos [after deposing Ouranos] once again bound the Kyklopes and confined them in Tartaros. He thereupon slew their jail-keeper Kampe. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A. Fasti 3. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A. to C1st A. He kindled the East: the dawnlands of Baktria blazed under blazing bolts. the Northern ridges . Zeus fought a war against Kronos and the Titanes. he took to swallowing his children at birth .the Titanes. Whoever fed the bull’s guts to consuming flames was destined to defeat the eternal gods. Bibliotheca 1. and under the foot of Zephyros the western brine halfburn spat out a shining stream.D. Dionysiaca 6. the hair of suffering Gaia (Earth) was scorched with heat. and freed them from their bonds. He then married his sister Rhea. Often my mother Themis.D.Boyle) (Roman poetry C1st B. 793 ff (trans. Now Okeanos poured rivers of tears from his watery eyes. . .) : "Saturnus [Kronos] was thrust from his realm by Jove [Zeus]. the Assyrian waves est afirethe neighbouring Kaspion Sea and the Indian mountains." Ovid.D. she had many names). had foretold to me the way in which the future was fated to come to pass. the Red Sea rolled billows of flame and warmed Arabian Nereus. a bull. disdaining counsels of craft.C. but they. Father Zeus . Then Zeus clamed his wrath at the sight of the scorched earth. warned by the three Parcae [Moirai the Fates]. or Gaia (Earth) (though one form.even the surface of the frozen Northern Sea bubbled and burned: under the clime of snowy Aigokeros the Southern corner boiled with hotter sparks. That it was not by brute strength nor through violence. The opposite West also fiery Zeus blasted with the thunderbolt in love for his child. . he pitied her. . The immortal Titanes sometimes appear as leaders of the Gigante-troops.) : "After the first Dionysos [Zagreus] had been slaughtered [by the Titanes]. but by guile that those who should gain the upper hand were destined to prevail.
Theogony 819 ff (trans. and in it is to be seen a fountain of malodorous water. Rhoecus. Jones) (Greek geographer C1st B. Bibliotheca 1. a deathless and unsleeping beast. . by the aid of golden Aphrodite [sexual desire]. which is in Sicily. she sought a drug that would prevent their destruction even by mortal hands. The defeat of the Gigantes by the gods angered Ge all the more. that Typhaon. ienios. Pelorus." Apollonius Rhodius. Typhon. effracorydon. Gullick) (Greek rhetorician C2nd to C3rd A. abesus. Astreaus.) : "Like some monstrous offspring of the ogre Typhoeus or of Gaia (Earth) herself." Strabo. when he had offered violence to Zeus and been struck by his thunder-bolt. When Ge learned of this. menephriarus. Rieu) (Greek epic C3rd B. Eurytus. and on fleeing hither for refuge were shrouded by Mother Ge (Earth).) : "But when Zeus had driven the Titanes from heaven. Theodamas." Pseudo-Hyginus. so she had intercourse with Tartaros and bore Typhoeus in Kilikia. Argonautica 2. Pallas.C.'" Athenaeus. one of the Titanes [or Gigantes]. . Theomises. guarded as it is from every side by such a serpent. they say. huge Gaia (Earth) bare her youngest child Typhoeus of the love of Tartaros (the Pit).D. but would finish them off only with the help of some mortal ally. offspring of Gaia herself. Fabulae 152 : "Tartarus begat by Tartara [Gaia]. alemone. colophonus.Hesiod. . Argonautica 2. and Helios (the Sun). Typhon. .) : "Leuka [in Italia] is a small town. Now there was an oracle among the gods that they themselves would not be able to destroy any of the Gigantes. to C1st A. a creature of immense size and fearful shape. elentes. Agrius. the mythical story is told that those of the Gigantes who survived at the Kampanian Phlegra and are called the Leuternian Gigantes were driven out by Herakles. He challenged Jove [Zeus] to see if Jove would content with him for the rule.) : "Sykeus. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A. Coeus. Ephialtes. Jove struck his breast with a flaming thunderbolt. Ge (Earth) gave birth to the Gigantes. Polybotes. 38 ff (trans. 1206 ff : "[Argos addresses his fellow Argonauts :] `It would be no easy thing to take the fleece without permission of Aeetes." Hyginus. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A. When it was burning him he put Mount Etna.) : "From Terra (Earth) and Tartarus [were born]. dropped warm blood from his head. It was there. and the fountain gets its malodorous stream from the ichor of their bodies.D. 1. who had a hundred Draco heads springing from his shoulders. Ge (Earth). and that she caused the plant [the fig-tree] to grow for her son’s pleasure.C. But Zeus barred the appearance of Eos (the Dawn). mophius. Deipnosophistae 78a (trans. Selene (the Moon).D.C. 5 (trans.39 (trans. the kind he used to bear in the old days of her quarrel with Zeus.) : "Now because of her anger over the Titanes. was pursued by Zeus and taken under the protection of his mother. Iapetus. 34 . She brought him forth on the slopes of Kaukasos by the rock of Typhaon. Geography 7." Apollonius Rhodius. Gigantes: Enceladus. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B. Emphytus. Otus. Ouranos (Heaven) was the father . over him. and chopped up the drug himself before Ge could find it .D. . Preface (trans." Pseudo-Apollodorus.
the trumpet of Zeus brayed. While his faces were shrivelling. the Gigante’s knees gave way beneath him. Dionysiaca 48. bloodshed and outrage--born beyond doubt of blood. . drunk with the fiery bolt from heaven. torrents boiling with foam and steam poured down the Mygdonian gorge. the witness of his fate. that he might quench Typhon’s overpowering thirst by his cool breezes. the tools of fire . his mother dry Gaia (Earth) was beaten too. mountain on mountain reared and reached the stars. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A. There they lay. drenched in her children’s weltering blood. and lay with his back upon Gaia (Earth) his mother. Then the Pater Omnipotens (Almighty Father) hurled his bolt and shattered great Olympus and struck down high Pelion piled on Ossa. She herself melted along with his bruised body. and when the lifebringing mother heard that the son of Semele had . 540 ff : "Now as the son [Typhoeus in his battle against Zeus] was scourged with frozen volleys of jagged hailstones. Dionysiaca 2. she prayed to Titan Helios (Sun) with submissive voice: she begged of him one red hot ray. Then Kronion inclined the equally balanced beam of the fight. foretelling victory with a roll of thunder. hidden sparks from a fire-barbed arrow heated the water-springs. and stole the snowy tools of Zeus. so she cut the tresses from her forest-covered head as in the month of leaf-shedding. stricken with a war-wound of something more than steel. as her river-tears rolled echoing through the swollen torrents of the hills." Ovid. stretching his snaky limbs in the dust and belching flame. it’s said. Dionysiaca 1. she tore gullies in her cheeks.C. Gaia wailed. and when she saw his legion of high-clambering hands burnt all round. he [Typhon] leapt up [on hearing the music of Kadmos’ pipes] and dragged along his viperish feet. 154 & 1. 6 : "[Hera] addressed her deceitful prayers to Allmother Gaia (Earth). by pouring his kindred radiance over frozen Typhon. 636 ff : "[Typhoeus lay defeated at the feet of Zeus :] Gaia tore her rocky tunic and lay there grieving. . Then at a nod from his mother.) : "He [Zeus] laid his celestial weapons well hidden with his lightning in a deep cavern [while he lay with his lover Plouto].From this it is said to burn still. and seeing the stone bullets and icy points embedded in the Gigante’s flesh. to win the gods’ domain. But that new stock no less despised the gods and relished cruelty. and to preserve memorial of her sons refashioned it in human form [another Race of Man]." Nonnus. and Terra (Earth) [Gaia]. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B." Nonnus. Dionysiaca 2. down fell Typhoeus’s high -uplifted frame. that with its heating fire she might melt the petrified water of Zeus. 156 ff (trans. From underground the thunderbolts belched out smoke. to C1st A." Nonnus. the Earth [Gaia]. who had destroyed that cloud of numberless earthborn Indians. he left in a cave the flaming weapons of Zeus with Mother Gaia (Earth) to keep them. gave life to that warm gore. she let the winds beat her breast and shear off a coppice for a curl. Kilikian Typhoeus stretched out his hands. until it boomed again. Metamorphoses 1." Nonnus.D. the white cliff was blackened. drying out upon the doings of Zeus and the valour of Dionysos. and just then was grieving to behold Typhaon’s smoking heads. she besought one of the tempestuous winter’s blasts to come for one morning.) : "Gigantes. instead of the shears of mourning. But Gaia his mother had thrown off her veil of forests with her hand. 415 ff (trans. grim broken bodies crushed in huge collapse.D.
bind Bakkhos fast.) : "And Pontos (Sea) begat Nereus .) : "The children of Pontos and Ge were Phorkos. tusciuersus. and the battalions of the Gegenees (Earthborn) set forth to war. And yet again he got great Thaumas and proud Phorkys. and Artemis of Alkyoneus. make your attack with hightowering rocks against clustergarlanded Dionysos--catch this Indianslayer.’ With these words she excited all the host of the Gigantes. Thaumas. that one may say. when I sing Brighteyes [Athene] the bedfellow of Enkelados. this destroyer of my family. and fair-cheeked Keto and Eurybia. Then she armed all around Bakkhos the mountainranging tribes of Gigantes. cepheus. god or mortal. Or wound him with cutting steel and kill him for me like Zagreus. and goaded her own sons to battle : `My sons." For MORE information on the War of the Giants see the HEKA-GIGANTES For MORE information on the monster Typhoeus see TYPHOEUS T20. and give Kythereia [Aphrodite] to Khthonios. ATLAS R43. Eurybia. that Gaia in her anger has twice armed her slayers against the breed of Kronides--the older Titanes against the former Dionysos [Zagreus]. . Nereus. Bring Dionysos to me. Earth’s own brood." Pseudo-Hyginus.2 GAIA. ENKELADOS. ATHENA GAIA MOTHER OF SEA-GODS Hesiod." Pseudo-Apollodorus. and Keto. this son of Zeus. 10 (trans.D. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A. . Preface (trans. she groaned still more thinking of her children.2 GAIA.wiped out the Indian nation with speedy fate. the younger Gigantes against Dionysos later born. and let me not see him ruling with Zeus a bastard monarch of Olympos! Bind him. that he may attend in the chamber when I bestow Hebe on Porphyrion as a wife.) : "From Pontus (Sea) and Terra (Earth) [were born] : Thaumas. being mated with Gaia (Earth). that I may enrage Kronion [Zeus] when he sees Lyaios a slave and the captive of my spear. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D. Bibliotheca 1.C. Theogony 233 ff (trans." For MORE information on these sea-gods see NEREUS. PHORKYS and KETO GAIA MOTHER OF RUSTIC-GODS .
1 (trans. to C1st A. Library of History 5." Strabo.) : "The Curetes.D. . or Lemnos to Kabeiros. Oldfather) (Greek historian C1st B. Campbell) (Greek lyric B. were the Idaian Kouretes. Jones) (Greek geographer C1st B. and as the seasons moved round she bare the strong Erinyes and the great Gigantes with gleaming armour [probably the Kouretes] and the Nymphai whom they call Meliai [probably the honeynymph nurses of Zeus] all over the boundless earth.) : "And the author of Phoronis speaks of the Kouretes . who himself sprang up out of mother Gaia (Earth) unbegotten and selfdelivered.D. .D. divine race. fair offspring. Campbell. Geography 10. . 3.C. And not vainly did they fall from his hand.] Nonnus. The Kouretes are perhaps here described as being sprung from the bloody shower of rain that fell upon the earth following the castration of Ouranos. sprung from a sharp shower [of rain]. or the Phrygian Korybantes that the sun first saw shooting up tree-like . . Dionysiaca 14. the first of men to appear .C. in secret rites. to C1st A. Metamorphoses 4. Fragments 985 (from Hippolytus. Refutation of all the Heresies) (trans.) : "Ge (Earth)." For MORE information on these demi-gods see KOURETES and KABEIROI II) SEILENOS Rustic God Nonnus. But it is hard to discover whether . Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A. DAKTYLOI & KABEIROI Rustic Gods Hesiod." Ovid. .I) KORYBANTES." For MORE information on this god see SEILENOS III) ARISTAIOS Rustic God Bacchylides. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.D. earthborn Korybantes. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B. Some writers of myths relate that these gods were born of Gaia (the Earth). ." [N.C." Diodorus Siculus.B.) : "Seilenos.C. for all the bloody drops that gushed forth Gaia received. Theogony 176 ff (trans. as 'earth-born.) : "Nine Kouretes.) : "Then the son [Kronos] from his ambush stretched forth his left hand and in his right took the great long sickle with jagged teeth. Vol. 19 (trans.C." Greek Lyric V Anonymous. 282 (trans. Fragment 45 (from Scholiast on Apollonius of Rhodes) (trans. Dionysiaca 29. was the first to produce man . and swiftly lopped off his own father's [Ouranos'] members and cast them away to fall behind him. 65. say the Greeks. 23 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A. . 243 ff (trans. dwellers on a rocky crag.) : "Daktyloi Idaioi. a generation which grew up for Rheia selfmade out of the ground in the olden time.
another the son of Ge and Ouranos.D. and shot up a strange-looking horned generation. Atlas. for whose sake I dropt seed in the furrow of the plowland and begat the Kentauroi. Tartarus. the Kyprian (of Cyprus). Mendacium (Falsehood). Tisiphone. Megaera. another the son of Khiron. Ira (Wrath). Intemperantia (Intemperance). Obliuio (Forgetfulness). and three Furiae.5th B. Gyes.) : "Another tribe of twiform Kentauroi . Timor (Fear). . as Bacchylides does: one the son of Karystos [son of Khiron].C. Preface (trans. Gaia (Earth) received Kronion’s fruitful dew. Incestum (Incest). Socordia (Sloth). that she might not see an unhallowed bedfellow in her own begetter. 65) (trans. Pontus. Moneta [Mnemosyne]. Dionysiaca 14. because unwilling Aphrodite was too fast and he could not catch her: instead of the Kypris’ bed. Campbell. Themis. One when Kypris [Aphrodite] fled like the wind from the pursuit of her lascivious father [Zeus]. Hyperion and Polus [Koios]. daughter of Ouranos (Heaven) and Ge (Earth). Fragment 52 (from Scholiast on Theocritus 1.Greek Lyric IV) (Greek lyric C5th B. Dionysiaca 32. Saturnus [Kronos]. Luctus (Lamentation). Superbia (Pride).C. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.) : "From Aether and Terra (Earth) [Gaia] [were born] : Dolor (Grief). and one the son of Kyrene. Zeus the Father gave up the chase and left the union unattempted." For MORE information on this god see ARISTAIOS IV) KENTAUROI KYPRIOI Fertility Spirits Nonnus. Pugna (Combat)." For MORE information on this goddess see AITNA GAIA MOTHER OF DAIMONES (SPIRITS) Pseudo-Hyginus." Nonnus. [From Caelum-Ouranos and Terra-Gaia? :] Oceanus. and Titanes : Briareus." . 65 : "I [Zeus] desired the Paphian [Aphrodite]. according to Alkimos in his work on Sikelia (Sicily). Vol." For MORE information on these fertility daimones see KENTAUROI KYPRIOI V) AITNA Mountain Goddess Simonides. Ops [Rhea].) : "Aitna is a mountain in Sikelia (Sicily). 193 ff (trans. Dolus (Deceit).) : "Some authorities give the parentage of four gods called Aristaios. Dione. he dropt on the ground the love-shower of seed from the generative plow. named after Aitna. Greek Lyric III) (Greek lyric C6th . Vltio (Vengeance). Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A. Jusiurandum (Oath).D. Altercatio (Altercation). Steropes. namely Alecto. .
D.Greek Lyric C6th-5th B. and for every eye she has also a tongue.Greek History C1st B. Other references not currently quoted here: Dionysius of Halicarnassus Roman Antiquities 1.C.C.Latin Epic C1st B. each feather upon whose body--incredible though it sounds--has a sleepless eye beneath it. Hyginus.39.C.27. Virgil. a winged angel of ruin. Dionysiaca .Greek Geography C1st B.Latin Mythography C2nd A. Theoi Project Copyright © 2000 .C. Nonnos.D.Greek Epic C3rd B. Greek Lyric V Anonymous. Day-Lewis) (Roman epic C1st B. Aeneid 4.C1st A.Virgil. Terra [Gaia] produced this creature her last child.C.C.Greek Cullinary Guide C3rd A.C. buries its head in the cloud base.Greek Hymns B. Athenaeus.Greek Lyric B.15.C. 174 (trans.) : "Fama (Rumour). Greek Lyric IV Bacchylides. The Library of History .C.1.C.C1st A. The legend is that enraged with the gods. Aeneid . Fragments . at the start a small and cowardly thing.C.Latin Epic C1st B." Sources: o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o Hesiod. a voice.Latin Epic C1st B.D. Fragments .C. Thucydides 2. Aeschylus. et. Diodorus Siculus.Greek Comedy C5th-4th B.Greek Tragedy C5th B. Fabulae . . Greek Lyric III Simonides. Deipnosophistae .Greek Mythography C2nd A. New Zealand . Ovid. and a pricked ear. The Library .Greek Epic C8th-4th B. and walking upon the ground.D. Apollodorus.Greek Epic C8th-7th B.Greek Lyric C5th B. a terrible grotesque monster.C1st A. Birds . it soon puffs itself up. Geography . thriving on movement. the swiftest traveller of all the ills on earth. . Fragments . al. . Theogony . Ovid.C.D. gathering strength as it goes. Strabo. Aristophanes. The Argonautica . Metamorphoses . Fasti . as a sister to Enceladus and Coeus--a swift-footed creature. Atsma.C. Aaron J. Philostratus Life of Apollonius of Tyana 6.Greek Epic C5th A. Orphic Fragments .C. Prometheus Bound .2011. The Homeric Hymns .D.D. Apollonius Rhodius.
com ERO 1 2403497737 ISO-8859-1 ISO-8859-1 GALT:#008000. EROS was the Protogeno deity) of procreation wh formed at the beginning the driving force behind new life in the early cos knew him as Phanes.w .G en ub-3887923691 Greek Name Transliteration Eros Ερος A Eros-Phanes hatched fr Roman bas relief C2nd A.theoi. a mis armed with bow and arr the goddess Aphrodite. ." The Younger Eros. "Nature. a p hatched from the world was also equivalent to T and Physis.
1] NONE (one of the f creation) (Hyginus Theogo [1. metaphysical sense he Aristotle (Metaph. 120.17) OFFSPRING Birds 685) [1.1] THE BIRDS (by Kha ENCYCLOPEDIA EROS (Erôs). can scarcely a part of the ancient the Greeks. 69 as the first of the gods .2] EREBOS & NYX (Hyg De Natura Deorum 3. In this account w a combination of the later notions. 4 the Orphic poetry ( comp. Tartar fairest among the god the minds and the co men. Homer d Eros. Aristoph. Accordin Eros was one of the fu in the formation of the as he was the unitin which brought orde among the conflicting Chaos consisted. i. Fi (Theog.PARENTS [1. Av.). in L CUPI′DO. th that mentions him.1] NYX (Aristophanes B [2. the Ero cosmogonies. and Hesiod. the god of l in which he is usually the creature of the la and in order to unders properly we must Erotes: viz.2] KHAOS (Oppian Hali [2. t then came Ge. de cosmogonic Eros. &c. the philosophers and mys great resemblance to Eros whom we me epigrammatic and ero witty and playful descr however.
C." II) THE COSMOGONY O Alcman. In P (p.the world's egg." Plato. of Eileithyia.C. called him since the beginning prov when the matter began a certain Poros came in beginning. So Alkman re matter of all things as c unformed. ( Source: Dictionary of Biography and Mytholo EROS & THE BIRTH O I) THE HESIODIC THEO Hesiod. . 178.b) he is likewis of the gods. Fragment 5 (fro Campbell. It is qu with the notion of the that he is described a and Ge. Vol. existence by himself.) : "[Plato reorders some o . Timaeus 178a (tr philosopher C4th B. ancient Poros (Con and Tekmor (Ordinance Tekmor came into being thereupon . . had no parentage. Greek Ly C7th B.) : "`[First came] Thetis (C that. and fairest among the death unnerves the limbs and mind and wise counsels men within them. Theogony 116 f White) (Greek epic C8th "Verily at first Khaos (A next wide-bosomed Gai sure foundation of al1 th who hold the peaks of s and dim Tartaros (Hell) wide-pathed Earth.
He mated [or Tartaros (Hell-Pit) with winged like himself. air] and Ouranos (Heav existence.Theogony in a fable :] P who is the son of Metis Penia (Poverty) conside straitened circumstance a child by him. black (Night) laid a germless of the infinite deeps of E and from this. which wa the light. and acco down at his side and co (Sexual Desire). and deep T Ge (Earth). Firstly. after the ages. a go . swift as the whir tempest. Thus much older than that of Olympos. That of the Im exist until Eros had brou the ingredients of the w their marriage Ouranos Okeanos (Ocean). dark (Darkness). being led away b quail. a waterfowl. sprang the gracef the elder eros] with his wings. Aer (Air) [i. and forth our race. How many hand had sworn to remain ins opened their thighs bec and have yielded thems lovers when almost at t youth. Nyx (Night)." III) THE ORPHIC COSMO In the Orphic Theogonie Eros is usually named P separate Phanes entry fo information on this deity Aristophanes. Ge (E imperishable race of ble sprang into being. Birds 685 (Greek comedy C5th to "At the beginning there (Air). We are the of there are a thousand pr have wings and we lend lovers.
Unstable is the s make it fast. Do . are fabled to be the c (Darkness) and Nox (Ni EROS PRIMAL GOD O Oppian. 10 "O cruel Eros (Love). 4 (Greek poet C3rd A. the above and all that is be and the lamentable trib who. ho How infinite thy might! dost thou devise and or mighty spirit (daimon). earth is steadfast. mind maddening. .) "Mighty Eros (Love). Cicero. ancient Khaos’s (Inevitability). Halieutica 4. Eros [Phanes]. cr all gods fairest to behol all most grievous when heart with unforseen as . whom latter men he first was manifested. fierce sharp. though they have lips the oblivious water tremor before thee. consuming. and Khro bred within his boundles (Light) and two-sexed. Argonautica 12 (Greek epic C4th to C6t "Firstly. whose melt no healing--wherewith t the very wild beasts to Oppian. ever-bor father. Cynegetica 2. yet is shafts. beyond sun doth ever behold: t light yields place for fea thunderbolts of Zeus lik Such fiery arrows. De Natura Deoru Rackham) (Roman rheto "Amor (Love) [Eros]. By dost pass afar. Thou come air and high Olympos is All things fear thee.Orphica.D.
Select Papyri III. to make the wrest all the mind to ma doest even roll to doom thou meetest in wild an fraught with frenzy.) : "Love (erôs) is the oldes Nonnus. As fiery against Typhon. 4 Rouse) (Greek epic C5th "[Zeus addresses Eros a in a plan to recover his the monster Typhon :] Y primeval founder of fecu your bow. Moral Maxi Vol. thou reje beasts nor all the brood under the coverts of the thou descend and even tribes thou dost array th that naught may be left compelling power. wi anguish and untempere shedding of tears is for delight and to hear the to inflame a burning red and to blight and wither the cheek. bare t on soaring pinions. Whether the eldest-born among the from unsmiling Khaeos fierce and flaming torch establish the ordinances and order the rites of th whether Aphrodite of m queen of Paphos. and by fiery thunderbolts return vanquisher. draw o save all things. and the unive adrift. be t to us come gentle and w and in tempered measu refuses the work of Eros the race of Heaven suffi breed of men. N elegiac C4th A. If all things come shepherd of life. Dionysiaca 1.D.soul like a storm-wind a bitter menace of fire. strike one w . not e swims beneath the wate Anonymous. for thy delight.
C. . New Zealand . Theogon Aristophanes. Cyneget Oppian. Dionysiaca 24.D.Greek Cicero. 1." combination of primordi wielding youngster. "Eros once more ordere forms of life by the gird circle of the well-plowed seed of generation. A.C Plato.2011. Hesiod.C. Fragme Greek Papyri III Fragments . Th C4th B. Dionysia Other references not curre Aristotle Metaph. A.4 Theoi Project Copyright © 2000 .may your charmed shot Kronion [Zeus] did not d have madness from the tune of Kadmos. Halieutic Nonnos. -G Orphica. Oppian.C. as muc for Europa’s embrace.C2nd A." Sources: o o o o o o o o o o B. Aaron J.D. A.C.D.D. Symposium Orphic Hymns C2nd A.] Nonnus. Atsma. B. Comedy C5th-4th B.D. De Natur Philosophy C1st B.
Day.Z Pantheon of the Gods Family Tree of the Gods Cult of the Greek Gods Bestiary of Creatures Kingdoms of Myth Star Myths Plant & Flower Myths ANANKE NECESSITY CHRONOS TIME EROS PROCREATION GREEK MYTH BIOS Gods & Goddesses Olympian Gods Titans & Titanesses Personified Spirits Nymphs & Daemones Heroes & Heroines Fabulous Creatures Giants & Fantastic Men GALLERIES Greek Vase Paintings Greco-Roman Sculpture Greco-Roman Fresco Greco-Roman Mosaics GAEA EARTH HEMERA DAY NYX NIGHT LIBRARY Theoi Classical Texts FAQ Site Bibliography OCEANUS WATER OUREA MOUNTAINS PONTUS SEA . Sea. Light. Darkness. Procreation and Time. Night. Air. Sky. Search Custom Search OVERVIEW Theoi Home Page Gods & Spirits A . Fresh Water.SEARCH THEOI partner-pub-3887 ISO-8859-1 Area : Greek Mythology : Gods & Goddesses : Primeval Gods The primeval gods or "Protogenoi" of Greek mythology were the basic components of the universe which were emerged at creation. Underworld. They included Earth.
For example Gaea or Thalassa might appear as a woman half risen from the earth or sea. incorporeal being wit serpentine tail. EREBUS (Erebos) The Protogenos of the mists of darkness. CHAOS (Khaos) The Protogenos of the lower air. He was one of the . Hemera (day). Nyx (night). They were. Aphrodite's son. serpentine being who twisted circling around the whole of creation. Gaea the body of the earth. She filled the gap between the bright mists of the heavenly aither and the floor of the earth. He was known as Phanes or Protogonos distinguishing him from the younger Eros. ANANKE The Protogeonos of inevitability. who circled the whole of creation. EROS The Protegonos of generation." an genos "born"). were known in Greek mythology as the Protogenoi (protos meaning "first.TETHYS NURSING THALASSA SEA URANUS SKY A COMPLETE LIST OF PRIMEVAL GODS OR PROTOGENOI The first born of the immortals. purely elemental beings .Uranus was the literal sky. A few of them were ocassionally described or portrayed in anthropomorphic form. CHRONOS (Khronos) The Protogenos of time was the very first being to emerge at creation self-formed. Aether (light). His element lay beneath the arch of heaven's dome. however these forms were inevitably inseperable from their native element. compulsion and necessity. entwined with his consort Ananke. She was the mate of Chronus (Time) and like him was an incorporeal. His dark element was sunk into the hollows of the earth. etc. but high above the airs of the mortal realm. for the most part. as well as the birds. AETHER (Aither) The Protogenos of the mists of light which fill the upper zones of air. who formed the very fabric of the universe. From Chaos were descended the other airs: Erebus (darkness). Only late classical writers describe Khaos as a primeval mixture of the elements. He was a three-headed. and encircled the dismal realm of the underworld.
first beings to emerge at creation. Erebus across the heavens at night. cloaking the bright light of the heavenly aether. GAEA (Gaia) The Protogenos of the earth. inseperable from her native form. spread across the heavens by her mother Nyx. NESOI The Protogenoi of the islands. PHANES The Protogenos of generation. Mother Earth emerged at the beginning of creation to form the foundation of the universe. Phanes was also named Eros or simply Protogonos (the Firs Born). Hydros was usually equated with the earth-encircling. Their rocky forms were born of Gaea the Earth. and set the universe in order. when the elements of the universe were set in their proper order. the seed of creation. He sprung from Gaea the Earth at the beginning of creation. Tartarus arched beneath her. rose up from the ends of the earth to scatter the dark mists of night. OUREA The Protogenoi of the mountains. Her anthropomorphic form was of a woman clothed in star-spangled mantle. freshwater Titan Oceanus. PHUSIS The Protogenos of nature. and caused the universe to procreate. According to some Zeus swallowed him whole o gain supremacy over the universe. fresh- water river Oceanus. TARTARUS (Tartaros) The Protogenos of the great stormy pit which lay beneath the roots of the earth. Nyx drew the dark mists of her consort. PONTUS (Pontos) The Protogenos of the sea. Their rocky forms were broken from the earth by Poseidon and cast into the sea. NYX The Protogenos of night. "Mother Nature" was one of the first beings to emerge at creation. Gaea was one of the few Protogenoi to be depicted in anthropomorphic form. at the beginning of time. He was sprung from a silver egg. the creator-god. OCEANUS (Okeanos) The Protogenos of the great earth-encircling. The Titans . HEMERA The Protogenos of the day. His anthropomorphic form was that of a horned man with the tail of a serpentine fish in place of legs. Together with the earth he formed the primeval Mud. She was related to both Gaea and Tethys. He was the anti-heaven: just as the dome of heaven arched high above the earth. HYDROS The Protogenos of water. however even as such she was shown as a woman partially risen from the ground. and reveal to the earth below the bright shining blue of the Aether. her protogenic consort. spring and rain-bearing cloud was sprung. From his flow every river.
He sprung forth from Gaea the Earth at the beginning of creation. and to be an ever-sure abiding-place for the blessed gods. Nyx (Night).were imprisoned in his depths. After them was born Kronos the wily. and dim Tartaros (the Pit) in the depth of the wide-pathed Earth. seized and castrated him. Ge (Earth). equal to herself. Themis and Mnemosyne and gold-crowned Phoibe and lovely Tethys. you Mousai who dwell in the house of Olympos. whose form stretched from one horizon to the other. Later his son Cronus. who unnerves the limbs and overcomes the mind and wise counsels of all gods and all men within them. Theia and Rhea. But afterwards he [Gaia. black-winged Nyx (Night) laid a germless egg in the bosom of the infinite deeps of Erebos (Darkness). whom she conceived and bore from union in love with Erebos. She was born of Aether (light) and Hemera (day). and from this.Hesiod. THALASSA The Protogenos of the sea or sea's surface. In truth at first Khaos (Air) came to be. as he descended to consort with Mother Earth. but of Nyx (Night) were born Aither (Light) and Hemera (Day). From Tethys and her husband Oceanus the rivers. and tell me which of them first came to be. the ever-sure foundation of all the deathless ones who hold the peaks of snowy Olympos. She was an aspect of allnourishing Mother Nature. She bore also the fruitless deep with his raging swell. Earth] lay with Ouranos (Heaven) and bare deepswirling Okeanos. . and Eros (Love). And she brought forth long Ourea (Mountains). graceful haunts of the goddess Nymphai who dwell amongst the glens of the hills. From Khaos (Air) came forth Erebos (Darkness) and black Nyx (Night). Theogony 115 COSMOGONY OF ARISTOPHANES "At the beginning there was only Khaos (Air). And Gaia (Earth) first bore starry Ouranos (Heaven). Mother Nature's great nurse. springs and clouds drew their waters. COSMOGONY OF HESIOD "Declare to me from the beginning. Mixing with the deep waters of Pontus (sea) Thalassa spawned the schools of fish. Aer (Air) and Ouranos (Heaven) had no existence. Firstly. and deep Tartaros (Hell's Pit). without sweet union of love." . Koios and Krios and Hyperion and Iapetos. fairest among the deathless gods. Pontos (Sea). URANUS (Ouranos) The Protogenos of the solid dome of heaven. TETHYS The Protogenos of the flow of fresh-water. but next wide-bosomed Gaia (Earth). THESIS The Protogenos of creation. She was similar to Tethys. to cover her on every side. dark Erebos (Darkness).
Birds 685 The Theoi Project: Guide to Greek Mythology was created and is edited by Aaron J. G (Earth) and the imperishable race of blessed gods (Theoi) sprang into being. Okeanos (Ocean). and thus hatched forth our race [the birds]. which was the first to see the light. That of the Immortals did not exist until Eros had brought together all the ingredients of the world. New Zealand. Ats Website copyright © 2000–2007 Aaron Atsma. ." Aristophanes. winged like himself. swift as the whirlwinds of the tempest. and from their marriage Ouranos (Heaven). He mated in deep Tartaros (Hell-Pit) with dark Khaos (Air).after the revolution of long ages. sprang the graceful Eros (Love) with his glittering golden wings.
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