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History of Impeachment of President Johnson

History of Impeachment of President Johnson

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HISTORY OF THE IMPEACHMENT OF

ANDREW JOHNSON PRESIDENT OF
THE UNITED STATES
BY THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES AND HIS TRIAL BY THE
SENATE FOR HIGH CRIMES AND MISDEMEANORS IN OFFICE
1868
By Edmund G R!""
Bu#$ F#%n&'(n R)")%#*+ , S!u#*) W!#&" S)#()" -./
2
CONTENTS
PREFACE.
CHAPTER 1. — THE PROBLEM OF RECONSTRUCTION.
CHAPTER II. — THE BALTIMORE CONVENTION.
CHAPTER III. — MR. JOHNSON'S ACCESSION TO THE PRESIDENCY.
CHAPTER IV. — FIRST ATTEMPT TO IMPEACH THE PRESIDENT.
CHAPTER V. — THE TENURE-OF-OFFICE ACT.
CHAPTER VI. — IMPEACHMENT AGREED TO BY THE HOUSE.
CHAPTER VII. — IMPEACHMENT REPORTED TO THE SENATE.
CHAPTER VIII. — ORGANIZATION OF THE COURT ARGUMENT OF COUNSEL
CHAPTER IX. — EXAMINATION OF WITNESSES AND THEIR TESTIMONY.
CHAPTER X. — A CONFERENCE HELD AND THE FIRST VOTE TAKEN.
CHAPTER XI. — THE IMPEACHERS IN A MAZE. A RECESS ORDERED.
CHAPTER XII. — WAS IT A PARTISAN PROSECUTION
CHAPTER XIII. — THE CONSTITUTIONAL POWER OF IMPEACHMENT.
PREFACE
3
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DAVID B. HILL.
4
CHAPTER 1 0 THE PROBLEM OF
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WILL YET ATTAIN IT SOONER BY SAVING THE ALREADY ADVANCED STEPS
TOWARD IT THAN BY RUNNING BACK OVER THEM. C'&1$6$ "*-" "*$ &$( G'5$,&4$&"
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MATURED AND ANNOUNCED BY HIM WOULD HAVE BEEN ACCEPTED BY A VAST
MAJORITY OF HIS COUNTRYMEN.B
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CHAPTER II 0 THE BALTIMORE CONVENTION
LINCOLN AND JOHNSON NOT NOMINATED AS REPUBLICANS
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18
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DESIRE THE UNCONDITIONAL MAINTENANCE OF THE UNION9 THE SUPREMACY
OF THE CONSTITUTION9 AND THE COMPLETE SUPPRESSION OF THE EXISTING
REBELLION9 WITH THE CAUSE THEREOF9 03 5!+','/% (-,9 -&6 -## -." -&6 $22$1"!5$
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CHAPTER III 0 MR JOHNSON1S ACCESSION TO
THE PRESIDENCY
THE RECONSTRUCTION ERA
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26
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.,$%$&"$69 -&6 !% %!4.#3 1'&"!&/!&+ THE POLICY WHICH MR. LINCOLN PRESENTED TO
THE NATION ON THE 7TH OF DECEMBER9 178A. M,. J'*&%'&'% .'#!13 6!22$,% 2,'4 M,.
27
L!&1'#&'% !& %'4$ ,$%",!1"!'&% !" 1'&"-!&%9 (*!1* M,. L!&1'#&'% 6!6 &'" 1'&"-!&. H!% .#-& '2
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'2 (*!1* "*!% (-% - .,'4!&$&" .-,". MR. LINCOLN WAS TRIUMPHANTLY AND
OVERWHELMINGLY RE-ELECTED UPON THAT POLICY.
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6-3% 0$2',$ *!% 6$-"*. MR. JOHNSON HAS HONESTLY AND FAITHFULLY ATTEMPTED
TO ADMINISTER THAT POLICY9 (*!1* *-6 0$$& 0$:/$-"*$6 03 "*-" 4-& -,'/&6 (*'%$
+,-5$ - (*'#$ (',#6 *-% +-"*$,$6 -% 4'/,&$,%. I ,$2$, "' "*$%$ 2', "*$ ./,.'%$ '2 %*'(!&+ "*-"
28
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*!% #-4$&"$6 .,$6$1$%%',—- .'#!13 "*-" *-6 0$$& ENDORSED BY THE WHOLE NATION IN
THE REELECTION OF MR. LINCOLN.
A+-!& G'5. M',"'& %-!6@
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&'"*!&+ &$(9 "*-" *$ *-% %!4.#3 .,$%$&"$69 -&6 !% SIMPLY CONTINUING THE POLICY
WHICH MR. LINCOLN PRESENTED TO THE NATION ON THE 7TH OF DECEMBER9
178A.
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PRETENDED ACTS OF SECESSION WERE9 FROM THE BEGINNING9 NULL AND VOID.
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36
CHAPTER IV 0 FIRST ATTEMPT TO IMPEACH THE
PRESIDENT
THE ASHLEY INDICTMENT
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-&6 ",/%" -&6 .$,%'&-# $%"$$4 !&*-,4'&!'/%9 HE SHOULD IN SUCH CASE BE ALLOWED
TO DISPENSE WITH THE SERVICES OF THAT OFFICER IN VACATION AND HAVE
SOME OTHER PERSON ACT IN HIS STEAD. W$ "*'/+*" "*-" %' 4/1* 6!%1,$"!'&9 %' 4/1*
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"*$ *$-6 '2 - D$.-,"4$&" ,$"!,$ 2,'4 "*$ C-0!&$"9 THAT WOULD FOLLOW WITHOUT ANY
POSITIVE ACT OF REMOVAL ON THE PART OF THE PRESIDENT.
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48
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I ('/#6 &'" 5'"$ "' ,$"-!& *!49 NOR WOULD I COMPEL THE PRESIDENT TO LEAVE
ABOUT HIM IN THESE HIGH POSITIONS A MAN IN WHOM HE DID NOT ENTIRELY
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-..#3 "' "*$ .,$%$&" 1-%$9 !% %*'(& 03 "*$ 2-1" "*-" !"% #-&+/-+$ !% %' 2,-4$6 -% NOT TO APPLY
TO THE PRESENT PRESIDENT. L L L I" ('/#6 &'" .,$5$&" "*$ .,$%$&" P,$%!6$&" 2,'4
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49
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"*$ P'%"4-%"$, G$&$,-# -&6 "*$ A""',&$3 G$&$,-#9 %*-## *'#6 "*$!, '22!1$% ,$%.$1"!5$#3 FOR AND
DURING THE TERMS OF THE PRESIDENT BY WHOM THEY MAY HAVE BEEN
APPOINTED9 -&6 2', '&$ 4'&"* "*$,$-2"$,9 %/0=$1" "' ,$4'5-# 03 -&6 (!"* "*$ -65!1$ -&6
1'&%$&" '2 "*$ S$&-"$.
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THE SENATE
THE PRESIDENT1S ANSWER
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"' 1'&1/, !& %-!6 %/%.$&%!'&9 (*$,$03 -&6 03 2',1$ '2 "*$ .,'5!%!'&% '2 -& -1" $&"!"#$6 BA& A1"
,$+/#-"!&+ "*$ "$&/,$ '2 1$,"-!& 1!5!# '22!1$%9B .-%%$6 M-,1* %$1'&69 $!+*"$$& */&6,$6 -&6 %!<"3-
%$5$&9 %-!6 E6(!& M. S"-&"'& 6!6 2',"*(!"* ,$%/4$ "*$ 2/&1"!'&% '2 *!% '22!1$9 (*$,$'2 "*$ %-!6
A&6,$( J'*&%'& *-6 "*$& -&6 "*$,$ 6/$ &'"!1$9 -&6 %-!6 E6(!& M. S"-&"'&9 03 ,$-%'& '2 "*$
.,$4!%$%9 '& %-!6 K1%" 6-3 '2 F$0,/-,39 0$!&+ #-(2/##3 $&"!"#$6 "' *'#6 %-!6 '22!1$ '2 S$1,$"-,3
2', "*$ D$.-,"4$&" '2 W-,9 (*!1* %-!6 ',6$, 2', "*$ ,$4'5-# '2 %-!6 E6(!& M. S"-&"'& !% !&
%/0%"-&1$ -% 2'##'(%9 "*-" !% "' %-3@
E<$1/"!5$ M-&%!'&9 W-%*!&+"'&9 D. C.9 F$0. K19 1787.
S!,@—B3 5!,"/$ '2 "*$ .'($, -&6 -/"*',!"3 5$%"$6 !& 4$ -% P,$%!6$&" 03 "*$ C'&%"!"/"!'& -&6
#-(% '2 "*$ U&!"$6 S"-"$% 3'/ -,$ *$,$03 ,$4'5$6 2,'4 '22!1$ -% S$1,$"-,3 2', "*$ D$.-,"4$&" '2
W-,9 -&6 3'/, 2/&1"!'&% -% %/1* (!## "$,4!&-"$ /.'& "*$ ,$1$!." '2 "*!% 1'44/&!1-"!'&.
67
Y'/ (!## ",-&%2$, "' B,$5$" M-=', G$&$,-# L',$&;' T*'4-%9 A6=/"-&" G$&$,-# '2 "*$ -,439 (*'
*-% "*!% 6-3 0$$& -/"*',!;$6 -&6 $4.'($,$6 "' -1" -% S$1,$"-,3 '2 W-, -6 !&"$,!4. -## ,$1',6%9
0'')%9 .-.$,%9 -&6 '"*$, ./0#!1 .,'.$,"3 &'( !& 3'/, 1/%"'63 -&6 1*-,+$.
R$%.$1"2/##3 3'/,%9 A&6,$( J'*&%'&. T' "*$ H'&. E6(!& M. S"-&"'&9 W-%*!&+"'&9 D. C.
W*!1* ',6$, (-% /&#-(2/##3 !%%/$6 (!"* !&"$&" "*$& -&6 "*$,$ "' 5!'#-"$ "*$ -1" $&"!"#$6 BA& A1"
,$+/#-"!&+ "*$ "$&/,$ '2 1$,"-!& 1!5!# '22!1$%9B .-%%$6 M-,1* K69 178I9 -&6 (!"* "*$ 2/,"*$, !&"$&"
1'&",-,3 "' "*$ .,'5!%!'&% '2 %-!6 -1"9 !& 5!'#-"!'& "*$,$'29 -&6 1'&",-,3 "' "*$ .,'5!%!'&% '2 "*$
C'&%"!"/"!'& '2 "*$ U&!"$6 S"-"$%9 -&6 (!"*'/" "*$ -65!1$ -&6 1'&%$&" '2 "*$ S$&-"$ '2 "*$ U&!"$6
S"-"$%9 "*$ %-!6 S$&-"$ "*$& -&6 "*$,$ 0$!&+ !& %$%%!'&9 "' ,$4'5$ %-!6 E6(!& M. S"-&"'& 2,'4
"*$ '22!1$ '2 S$1,$"-,3 2', "*$ D$.-,"4$&" '2 W-,9 "*$ %-!6. E6(!& M. S"-&"'& 0$!&+ "*$& -&6
"*$,$ S$1,$"-,3 2', "*$ D$.-,"4$&" '2 W-,9 -&6 0$!&+ "*$& -&6 "*$,$ !& "*$ 6/$ -&6 #-(2/#
$<$1/"!'& -&6 6!%1*-,+$ '2 "*$ 6/"!$% '2 %-!6 '22!1$9 (*$,$03 %-!6 A&6,$( J'*&%'&. P,$%!6$&" '2
"*$ U&!"$6 S"-"$%9 6!6 "*$& -&6 "*$,$ 1'44!" -&6 (-% +/!#"3 '2 - *!+* 4!%6$4$-&', !& '22!1$.
ARTICLE II.
T*-" '& "*$ %-!6 "($&"3-2!,%" '2 F$0,/-,39 !& "*$ 3$-, '2 '/, L',6 '&$ "*'/%-&6 $!+*" */&6,$6 -&6
%!<"3-$!+*"9 -" W-%*!&+"'&9 !& "*$ D!%",!1" '2 C'#/40!-9 %-!6 A&6,$( J'*&%'&9 P,$%!6$&" '2 "*$
U&!"$6 S"-"$%9 /&4!&62/# '2 "*$ *!+* 6/"!$% '2 *!% '22!1$9 '2 *!% '-"* '2 '22!1$9 -&6 !& 5!'#-"!'& '2
"*$ C'&%"!"/"!'& '2 "*$ U&!"$6 S"-"$%9 -&6 1'&",-,3 "' "*$ .,'5!%!'&% '2 -& -1" $&"!"#$6 BA& -1"
,$+/#-"!&+ "*$ "$&/,$ '2 1$,"-!& 1!5!# '22!1$%9B .-%%$6 M-,1* %$1'&69 $!+*"$$& */&6,$6 -&6 %!<"3-
%$5$&9 (!"*'/" "*$ -65!1$ -&6 1'&%$&" '2 "*$ S$&-"$ '2 "*$ U&!"$6 S"-"$%9 %-!6 S$&-"$ "*$& -&6
"*$,$ 0$!&+ !& %$%%!'&9 -&6 (!"*'/" -/"*',!"3 '2 #-(9 6!69 (!"* !&"$&" "' 5!'#-"$ "*$ C'&%"!"/"!'& '2
"*$ U&!"$6 S"-"$%9 -&6 "*$ -1" -2',$%-!69 !%%/$ -&6 6$#!5$, "' '&$ L',$&;' T*'4-% - #$""$, '2
-/"*',!"3 !& %/0%"-&1$ -% 2'##'(%9 "*-" !% "' %-3@
E<$1/"!5$ M-&%!'&. W-%*!&+"'&9 D. C.9 F$0,/-,3 K19 1787.
S!,@—T*$ H'&. E6(!& M. S"-&"'& *-5!&+ 0$$& "*!% 6-3 ,$4'5$6 2,'4 '22!1$ -% S$1,$"-,3 2', "*$
D$.-,"4$&" '2 W-,9 3'/ -,$ *$,$03 -/"*',!;$6 -&6 $4.'($,$6 "' -1" -% S$1,$"-,3 '2 W-, -6
!&"$,!49 -&6 (!## !44$6!-"$#3 $&"$, /.'& "*$ 6!%1*-,+$ '2 "*$ 6/"!$% .$,"-!&!&+ "' "*-" '22!1$.
M,. S"-&"'& *-% 0$$& !&%",/1"$6 "' ",-&%2$, "' 3'/ -## "*$ ,$1',6%9 0'')%9 .-.$,%9 -&6 '"*$, ./0#!1
.,'.$,"3 &'( !& *!% 1/%"'63 -&6 1*-,+$.
R$%.$1"2/##3 3'/,%9 A&6,$( J'*&%'&. T' B,$5$" M-=', G$&$,-# L',$&;' T*'4-%. A6=/"-&"
G$&$,-# U. S. A,439 W-%*!&+"'&9 D. C.
T*$& -&6 "*$,$ 0$!&+ &' 5-1-&13 !& %-!6 '221$ '2 S$1,$"-,3 2', "*$ D$.-,"4$&" '2 W-,9 (*$,$03
%-!6 A&6,$( J'*&%'&. P,$%!6$&" '2 "*$ U&!"$6 S"-"$%9 6!6 "*$& -&6 "*$,$ 1'44!" -&6 (-% +/!#"3
'2 - *!+* 4!%6$4$-&', !& '22!1$.
ARTICLE III.
T*-" %-!6 A&6,$( J'*&%'&9 P,$%!6$&" '2 "*$ U&!"$6 S"-"$%9 '& "*$ "($&"3-2!,%" 6-3 '2 F$0,/-,39 !&
"*$ 3$-, '2 '/, L',6 '&$ "*'/%-&6 $!+*" */&6,$6 -&6 %!<"3-$!+*"9 -" W-%*!&+"'&9 !& "*$ D!%",!1" '2
C'#/40!-9 6!6 1'44!" -&6 (-% +/!#"3 '2 - *!+* 4!%6$4$-&', !& '22!1$ !& "*!%9 "*-"9 (!"*'/"
-/"*',!"3 '2 #-(9 (*!#$ "*$ S$&-"$ '2 "*$ U&!"$6 S"-"$% (-% "*$& -&6 "*$,$ !& %$%%!'&9 *$ 6!6
68
-..'!&" '&$ L',$&;' T*'4-% "' 0$ S$1,$"-,3 2', "*$ D$.-,"4$&" '2 W-, -6 !&"$,!49 (!"*'/" "*$
-65!1$ -&6 1'&%$&" '2 "*$ S$&-"$9 -&6 (!"* !&"$&" "' 5!'#-"$ "*$ C'&%"!"/"!'& '2 "*$ U&!"$6 S"-"$%9
-&6 &' 5-1-&13 *-5!&+ *-..$&$6 !& %-!6 '22!1$ '2 S$1,$"-,3 2', "*$ D$.-,"4$&" '2 W-, 6/,!&+
"*$ ,$1$%% '2 "*$ S$&-"$9 -&6 &' 5-1-&13 $<!%"!&+ !& %-!6 '22!1$ -" "*$ "!4$9 -&6 (*!1* %-!6
-..'!&"4$&"9 %' 4-6$ 03 %-!6 A&6,$( J'*&%'&9 '2 %-!6 L',$&;' T*'4-%9 !% !& %/0%"-&1$ -%
2'##'(%9 "*-" !% "' %-3@
E<$1/"!5$ M-&%!'&9 W-%*!&+"'&9 D. C.9 F$0. K19 1787. S!,@—T*$ H'&. E6(!& M. S"-&"'& *-5!&+
0$$& "*!% 6-3 ,$4'5$6 2,'4 '22!1$ -% S$1,$"-,3 2', "*$ D$.-,"4$&" '2 W-,9 3'/ -,$ *$,$03
-/"*',!;$6 -&6 $4.'($,$6 "' -1" -% S$1,$"-,3 '2 W-, -6 !&"$,!49 -&6 (!## !44$6!-"$#3 $&"$,
/.'& "*$ 6!%1*-,+$ '2 "*$ 6/"!$% .$,"-!&!&+ "' "*-" '22!1$.
M,. S"-&"'&9 *-% 0$$& !&%",/1"$6 "' ",-&%2$, "' 3'/ -## "*$ ,$1',6%9 0'')%9 .-.$,%9 -&6 '"*$, ./0#!1
.,'.$,"3 &'( !& *!% 1/%"'63 -&6 1*-,+$.
R$%.$1"2/##3 3'/,%9 A&6,$( J'*&%'&. T' B,$5$" M-=', G$&$,-# L',$&;' T*'4-%9 A6=/"-&"
G$&$,-#9 U. S. A,439 W-%*!&+"'&9 D. C
ARTICLE IV.
T*-" %-!6 A&6,$( J'*&%'&9 P,$%!6$&" '2 "*$ U&!"$6 S"-"$%9 /&4!&62/# '2 "*$ *!+* 6/"!$% '2 *!%
'22!1$ -&6 '2 *!% '-"* '2 '22!1$9 !& 5!'#-"!'& '2 "*$ C'&%"!"/"!'& -&6 #-(% '2 "*$ U&!"$6 S"-"$%9 '&
"*$ "($&"3-2!,%" 6-3 '2 F$0,/-,39 !& "*$ 3$-, '2 '/, L',6 '&$ "*'/%-&6 $!+*" */&6,$6 -&6 %!<"3-
$!+*"9 -" W-%*!&+"'&9 !& "*$ D!%",!1" '2 C'#/40!-9 6!6 /&#-(2/##3 1'&%.!,$ (!"* '&$ L',$&;'
T*'4-%9 -&6 (!"* '"*$, .$,%'&% "' "*$ H'/%$ '2 R$.,$%$&"-"!5$% /&)&'(&9 (!"* !&"$&"9 03
!&"!4!6-"!'& -&6 "*,$-"%9 /&#-(2/##3 "' *!&6$, -&6 .,$5$&" E6(!& M. S"-&"'&9 "*$& -&6 "*$,$ "*$
S$1,$"-,3 2', "*$ D$.-,"4$&" '2 W-,9 6/#3 -..'!&"$6 /&6$, "*$ #-(% '2 "*$ U&!"$6 S"-#$%9 2,'4
*'#6!&+ %-!6 '22!1$ '2 S$1,$"-,3 2', "*$ D$.-,"4$&" '2 W-,9 1'&",-,3 "' -&6 !& 5!'#-"!'& '2 "*$
C'&%"!"/"!'& '2 "*$ U&!"$6 S"-"$%9 -&6 '2 "*$ .,'5!%!'&% '2 -& -1" $&"!"#$6 BA& -1" "' 6$2!&$ -&6
./&!%* 1$,"-!& 1'&%.!,-1!$%9B -..,'5$6 J/#3 "*!,"3-2!,%"9 $!+*"$$& */&6,$6 -&6 %!<"3-'&$9 (*$,$03
%-!6 A&6,$( J'*&%'&9 P,$%!6$&" '2 "*$ U&!"$6 S"-"$%9 6!6 "*$& -&6 "*$,$ 1'44!" -&6 (-% +/!#"3
'2 - *!+* 1,!4$ !& '22!1$.
ARTICLE V.
T*-" %-!6 A&6,$( J'*&%'&9 P,$%!6$&" '2 "*$ U&!"$6 S"-"$%9 /&4!&62/# '2 "*$ *!+* 6/"!$% '2 *!%
'22!1$ -&6 '2 *!% '-"* '2 '22!1$9 '& "*$ "($&"3-2!,%" 6-3 '2 F$0,/-,39 !& "*$ 3$-, '2 '/, L',6 '&$
"*'/%-&6 $!+*" */&6,$6 -&6 %!<"3-$!+*"9 -&6 '& 6!5$,% '"*$, 6-3% -&6 "!4$% !& %-!6 3$-,9 0$2',$
"*$ %$1'&6 6-3 '2 M-,1*9 !& "*$ 3$-,9 '2 '/, L',6 '&$ "*'/%-&6 $!+*" */&6,$6 -&6 %!<"3-$!+*"9 -"
W-%*!&+"'&9 !& "*$ D!%",!1" '2 C'#/40!-9 6!6 /&#-(2/##3 1'&%.!,$ (!"* '&$ L',$&;' T*'4-%9 -&6
(!"* '"*$, .$,%'&% "' "*$ H'/%$ '2 R$.,$%$&"-"!5$% /&)&'(&9 "' .,$5$&" -&6 *!&6$, "*$ $<$1/"!'&
'2 -& -1" $&"!"#$6 BA& -1" ,$+/#-"!&+ "*$ "$&/,$ '2 1$,"-!& 1!5!# '22!1$%9B .-%%$6 M-,1* %$1'&69
$!+*"$$& */&6,$6 -&6 %!<"3-%$5$&9 -&6 !& ./,%/-&1$ '2 %-!6 1'&%.!,-139 6!6 /&#-(2/##3 -""$4." "'
.,$5$&" E6(!& M. S"-&"'&9 "*$& -&6 "*$,$ 0$!&+ S$1,$"-,3 2', "*$ D$.-,"4$&" '2 W-,9 6/#3
-..'!&"$6 -&6 1'44!%%!'&$6 /&6$, "*$ #-(% '2 "*$ U&!"$6 S"-"$%9 2,'4 *'#6!&+ %-!6 '22!1$9
(*$,$03 "*$ %-!6 A&6,$( J'*&%'&9 P,$%!6$&" '2 "*$ U&!"$ S"-"$%9 6!6 "*$& -&6 "*$,$ 1'44!" -&6
(-% +/!#"3 '2 - *!+* 4!%6$4$-&', !& '22!1$.
ARTICLE VI.
69
T*-" %-!6 A&6,$( J'*&%'&9 P,$%!6$&" '2 "*$ U&!"$6 S"-"$%9 /&4!&62/# '2 "*$ *!+* 6/"!$% '2 *!%
'22!1$ -&6 '2 *!% '-"* '2 '22!1$9 '& "*$ "($&"3-2!,%" 6-3 '2 F$0,/-,39 !& "*$ 3$-, '2 '/, L',6 '&$
"*'/%-&6 $!+*" */&6,$6 -&6 %!<"3-$!+*"9 -" W-%*!&+"'&9 !& "*$ D!%",!1" '2 C'#/40!-9 6!6
/&#-(2/##3 1'&%.!,$ (!"* '&$ L',$&;' T*'4-% 03 2',1$ "' %$!;$9 "-)$ -&6 .'%%$%% "*$ .,'.$,"3 '2
"*$ U&!"$6 S"-"$% !& "*$ D$.-,"4$&" '2 W-,9 -&6 "*$& -&6 "*$,$ !& "*$ 1/%"'63 -&6 1*-,+$ '2
E6(!& M. S"-&"'&9 S$1,$"-,3 2', %-!6 D$.-,"4$&"9 1'&",-,3 "' "*$ .,'5!%!'&% '2 -& -1" $&"!"#$6
BA& -1" "' 6$2!&$ -&6 ./&!%* 1$,"-!& 1'&%.!,-1!$%9B -..,'5$6 J/#3 "*!,"3-'&$9 $!+*"$$& */&6,$6
-&6 %!<"3 '&$9 -&6 (!"* !&"$&" "' 5!'#-"$ -&6 6!%,$+-,6 -& -1" $&"!"#$6 BA& -1" ,$+/#-"!&+ "*$
"$&/,$ '2 1$,"-!& 1!5!# '22!1$%9B .-%%$6 M-,1* %$1'&69 $!+*"$$& */&6,$6 -&6 %!<"3-%$5$&9 (*$,$03
%-!6 A&6,$( J'*&%'&9 P,$%!6$&" '2 "*$ U&!"$6 S"-"$%9 6!6 "*$& -&6 "*$,$ 1'44!" - *!+* 1,!4$ !&
'22!1$.
ARTICLE VII.
T*-" %-!6 A&6,$( J'*&%'&9 P,$%!6$&" '2 "*$ U&!"$6 S"-"$%9 /&4!&62/# '2 "*$ *!+* 6/"!$% '2 *!%
'22!1$ -&6 '2 *!% '-"* '2 '22!1$9 '& "*$ "($&"3-2!,%" 6-3 '2 F$0,/-,39 !& "*$ 3$-, '2 '/, L',6 '&$
"*'/%-&6 $!+*" */&6,$6 -&6 %!<"3-$!+*"9 -" W-%*!&+"'&9 !& "*$ D!%",!1" '2 C'#/40!-9 6!6
/&#-(2/##3 1'&%.!,$ (!"* '&$ L',$&;' T*'4-% (!"* !&"$&" /&#-(2/##3 "' %$!;$9 "-)$9 -&6 .'%%$%%
"*$ .,'.$,"3 '2 "*$ U&!"$6 S"-"$% !& "*$ D$.-,"4$&" '2 W-,9 !& "*$ 1/%"'63 -&6 1*-,+$ '2 E6(!&
M. S"-&"'& S$1,$"-,3 2', %-!6 D$.-,"4$&"9 (!"* !&"$&" "' 5!'#-"$ -&6 6!%,$+-,6 "*$ -1" $&"!"#$6
BA& -1" ,$+/#-"!&+ "*$ "$&/,$ '2 1$,"-!& 1!5!# '22!1$%B .-%%$6 M-,1* %$1'&69 $!+*"$$& */&6,$6 -&6
%!<"3-%$5$&9 (*$,$03 %-!6 A&6,$( J'*&%'&9 P,$%!6$&" '2 "*$ U&!"$6 S"-"$%9 6!6 "*$& -&6 "*$,$
1'44!" - *!+* 4!%6$4$-&', !& '22!1$.
ARTICLE VIII.
T*-" %-!6 A&6,$( J'*&%'&9 P,$%!6$&" '2 "*$ U&!"$6 S"-"$%9 /&4!&62/# '2 "*$ *!+* 6/"!$% '2 *!%
'22!1$ -&6 '2 *!% '-"* '2 '22!1$9 (!"* !&"$&" /&#-(2/##3 "' 1'&",'# "*$ 6!%0/,%$4$&"% '2 "*$
4'&$3% -..,'.,!-"$6 2', "*$ 4!#!"-,3 %$,5!1$ -&6 2', "*$ D$.-,"4$&" '2 W-,9 '& "*$ "($&"3-2!,%"
6-3 '2 F$0,/-,39 !& "*$ 3$-, '2 '/, L',6 '&$ "*'/%-&6 $!+*" */&6,$6 -&6 %!<"3-$!+*"9 -"
W-%*!&+"'&9 !& "*$ D!%",!1" '2 C'#/40!-9 6!6 /&#-(2/##3 -&6 1'&",-,3 "' "*$ .,'5!%!'&% '2 -& -1"
$&"!"#$6 BA& -1" ,$+/#-"!&+ "*$ "$&/,$ '2 1$,"-!& 1!5!# '22!1$%9B .-%%$6 M-,1* %$1'&69 $!+*"$$&
*/&6,$6 -&6 %!<"3-%$5$&9 -&6 !& 5!'#-"!'& '2 "*$ C'&%"!"/"!'& '2 "*$ U&!"$6 S"-"$%9 -&6 (!"*'/"
"*$ -65!1$ -&6 1'&%$&" '2 "*$ S$&-"$ '2 "*$ U&!"$6 S"-"$%9 -&6 (*!#$ "*$ S$&-"$ (-% "*$& -&6
"*$,$ !& %$%%!'&9 "*$,$ 0$!&+ &' 5-1-&13 !& "*$ '22!1$ '2 S$1,$"-,3 2', "*$ D$.-,"4$&" '2 W-,9 -&6
(!"* !&"$&" "' 5!'#-"$ -&6 6!%,$+-,6 "*$ -1" -2',$%-!69 "*$& -&6 "*$,$ !%%/$ -&6 6$#!5$, "' '&$
L',$&;' T*'4-% - #$""$, '2 -/"*',!"3 !& (,!"!&+9 !& %/0%"-&1$ -% 2'##'(%9 "*-" !% "' %-3@
E<$1/"!5$ M-&%!'&9 W-%*!&+"'&9 D. C.9 F$0. K19 1787.
S!,@—T*$ H'&. E6(!& M. S"-&"'& *-5!&+ 0$$& "*!% 6-3 ,$4'5$6 2,'4 '22!1$ -% S$1,$"-,3 2', "*$
D$.-,"4$&" '2 W-,9 3'/ -,$ *$,$03 -/"*',!;$6 -&6 $4.'($,$6 "' -1" -% S$1,$"-,3 '2 W-, -6
!&"$,!49 -&6 (!## !44$6!-"$#3 $&"$, /.'& "*$ 6!%1*-,+$ '2 "*$ 6/"!$% .$,"-!&!&+ "' "*-" '22!1$.
M,. S"-&"'& *-% 0$$& !&%",/1"$6 "' ",-&%2$, "' 3'/ -## "*$ ,$1',6%9 0'')%9 .-.$,%9 -&6 '"*$, ./0#!1
.,'.$,"3 &'( !& *!% 1/%"'63 -&6 1*-,+$.
R$%.$1"2/##3 3'/,%9 A&6,$( J'*&%'&. T' B,$5$" M-=', G$&$,-# L',$&;' T*'4-%9 A6=/"-&"
G$&$,-#9 U&!"$6 S"-"$% A,439 W-%*!&+"'&9 D. C.
70
W*$,$03 %-!6 A&6,$( J'*&%'&9 P,$%!6$&" '2 "*$ U&!"$6 S"-"$%9 6!6 "*$& -&6 "*$,$ 1'44!" -&6
(-% +/!#"3 '2 - *!+* 4!%6$4$-&', !& '22!1$.
ARTICLE IX.
T*-" %-!6 A&6,$( J'*&%'&9 P,$%!6$&" '2 "*$ U&!"$6 S"-"$%9 '& "*$ "($&"3-%$1'&6 6-3 '2
F$0,/-,39 !& "*$ 3$-, '2 '/, L',6 '&$ "*'/%-&6 $!+*" */&6,$6 -&6 %!<"3-$!+*"9 -" W-%*!&+"'&9 !&
"*$ D!%",!1" '2 C'#/40!-9 !& 6!%,$+-,6 '2 "*$ C'&%"!"/"!'&9 -&6 "*$ #-(% '2 "*$ U&!"$6 S"-"$% 6/#3
$&-1"$69 -% 1'44-&6$,-!&-1*!$2 '2 "*$ -,43 '2 "*$ U&!"$6 S"-"$%9 6!-# 0,!&+ 0$2',$ *!4%$#2 "*$&
-&6 "*$,$ W!##!-4 H. E4',39 - 4-=',-+$&$,-# 03 0,$5$" !& "*$ -,43 '2 "*$ U&!"$6 S"-"$%9 -1"/-##3
!& 1'44-&6 '2 "*$ 6$.-,"4$&" '2 W-%*!&+"'& -&6 "*$ 4!#!"-,3 2',1$% "*$,$'29 -&6 6!6 "*$& -&6
"*$,$9 -% %/1* 1'44-&6$,-!&-1*!$29 6$1#-,$ "' -&6 !&%",/1" %-!6 E4',3 "*-" .-," '2 - #-( '2 "*$
U&!"$6 %"-"$%9 .-%%$6 M-,1* %$1'&69 $!+*"$$& */&6,$6 -&6 %!<"3-%$5$& $&"!"#$6 BA& -1" 4-)!&+
-..,'.,!-"!'&% 2', "*$ %/..'," '2 "*$ -,43 2', "*$ 3$-, $&6!&+ J/&$ "*!,"!$"*9 $!+*"$$& */&6,$6
-&6 %!<"3-$!+*" -&6 2', '"*$, ./,.'%$%9B $%.$1!-##3 "*$ %$1'&6 %$1"!'& "*$,$'29 (*!1* .,'5!6$%9
-4'&+ '"*$, "*!&+%9 "*-" B-## ',6$,% -&6 !&%",/1"!'&% ,$#-"!&+ "' 4!#!"-,3 '.$,-"!'&%9 !%%/$6 03 "*$
P,$%!6$&" ', S$1,$"-,3 '2 W-,9 %*-## 0$ !%%/$6 "*,'/+* "*$ G$&$,-# '2 "*$ A,439 -&69 !& 1-%$ '2
*!% !&-0!#!"39 "*,'/+* "*$ &$<" !& ,-&)9B (-% /&1'&%"!"/"!'&-#9 -&6 !& 1'&",-5$&"!'& '2 "*$
1'44!%%!'& '2 %-!6 E4',39 -&6 (*!1* %-!6 .,'5!%!'& '2 #-( *-6 0$$& "*$,$"'2',$ 6/#3 -&6
#$+-##3 .,'4/#+-"$6 03 G$&$,-# O,6$,% 2', "*$ +'5$,&4$&" -&6 6!,$1"!'& '2 "*$ -,43 '2 "*$
U&!"$6 S"-"$%9 -% "*$ %-!6 A&6,$( J'*&%'& "*$& -&6 "*$,$ ($## )&$(9 (!"* !&"$&" "*$,$03 "'
!&6/1$ %-!6 E4',39 !& *!% '22!1!-# 1-.-1!"3 -% 1'44-&6$, '2 "*$ 6$.-,"4$&" '2 W-%*!&+"'&9 "'
5!'#-"$ "*$ .,'5!%!'&% '2 %-!6 -1"9 -&6 "' "-)$ -&6 ,$1$!5$9 -1" /.'&9 -&6 '0$3 %/1* ',6$,% -% *$9
"*$ %-!6 A&6,$( J'*&%'&9 4!+*" 4-)$ -&6 +!5$9 -&6 (*!1* %*'/#6 &'" 0$ !%%/$6 "*,'/+* "*$
G$&$,-# '2 "*$ -,43 '2 "*$ U&!"$6 S"-"$%9 -11',6!&+ "' "*$ .,'5!%!'&% '2 %-!6 -1"9 -&6 (!"* "*$
2/,"*$, !&"$&" "*$,$03 "' $&-0#$ *!49 "*$ %-!6 A&6,$( J'*&%'&9 "' .,$5$&" "*$ $<$1/"!'& '2 "*$ -1"
$&"!"#$6 BA& -1" ,$+/#-"!&+ "*$ "$&/,$ '2 1$,"-!& 1!5!# '22!1$%9B .-%%$6 M-,1* %$1'&6 $!+*"$$&
*/&6,$6 -&6 %!<"3-%$5$& -&6 "' /&#-(2/##3 .,$5$&" E6(!& M. S"-&"'& "*$& 0$!&+ S$1,$"-,3 2',
"*$ D$.-,"4$&" '2 W-,9 2,'4 *'#6!&+ %-!6 '22!1$ -&6 6!%1*-,+!&+ "*$ 6/"!$% "*$,$'29 (*$,$03
%-!6 A&6,$( J'*&%'&9 P,$%!6$&" '2 "*$ U&!"$6 S"-"$%9 6!6 "*$& -&6 "*$,$ 1'44!" -&6 (-% +/!#"3
'2 - *!+* 4!%6$4$-&', !& '22!1$.
A&6 "*$ H'/%$ '2 R$.,$%$&"-"!5$% 03 .,'"$%"-"!'& %-5!&+ "' "*$4%$#5$% "*$ #!0$,"3 '2 $<*!0!"!&+
-" -&3 "!4$ *$,$-2"$, -&3 2/,"*$, -,"!1#$%9 ', '"*$, -11/%-"!'& ', !4.$-1*4$&" -+-!&%" "*$ %-!6
A&6,$( J'*&%'&9 P,$%!6$&" ', "*$ U&!"$6 S"-"$%9 -&6 -#%' '2 ,$.#3!&+ "' *!% -&%($,% (*!1* *$
%*-## (-)$ /&"' "*$ -,"!1#$% *$,$!& .,$2$,,$6 -+-!&%" *!49 -&6 '2 '22$,!&+ .,''2 "' "*$ %-4$9 -&6
$5$,3 .-," "*$,$'29 -&6 "' -## -&6 $5$,3 '"*$, -,"!1#$9 -11/%-"!'&9 ', !4.$-1*4$&" (*!1* %*-## 0$
$<*!0!"$6 03 "*$49 -% "*$ 1-%$ %*-## ,$:/!,$9 6' 6$4-&6 "*-" "*$ %-!6 A&6,$( J'*&%'& 4-3 0$ ./"
"' -&%($, "*$ *!+* 1,!4$% -&6 4!%6$4$-&',% !& '22!1$ *$,$!& 1*-,+$6 -+-!&%" *!49 -&6 "*-" %/1*
.,'1$$6!&+%9 $<-4!&-"!'&%9 ",!-#%9 -&6 =/6+4$&"% 4-3 0$ "*$,$/.'& *-6 -&6 +!5$& -% 4-3 0$
-+,$$-0#$ "' #-( -&6 =/%"!1$.
ARTICLE X.
T*-" %-!6 A&6,$( J'*&%'&9 P,$%!6$&" '2 "*$ U&!"$6 S"-"$%9 /&4!&62/# '2 "*$ *!+* 6/"!$% '2 *!%
'22!1$9 -&6 "*$ 6!+&!"3 -&6 .,'.,!$"!$% "*$,$'29 -&6 '2 "*$ *-,4'&3 -&6 1'/,"$%!$% (*!1* '/+*" "'
$<!%" -&6 0$ 4-!&"-!&$6 0$"($$& "*$ $<$1/"!5$ -&6 #$+!%#-"!5$ 0,-&1*$% '2 "*$ +'5$,&4$&" '2 "*$
U&!"$6 S"-"$%9 6$%!+&!&+ -&6 !&"$&6!&+ "' %$" -%!6$ "*$ ,!+*"2/# -/"*',!"3 -&6 .'($,% '2 C'&+,$%%9
71
6!6 -""$4." "' 0,!&+ !&"' 6!%+,-1$9 ,!6!1/#$9 *-",$69 1'&"$4." -&6 ,$.,'-1*9 "*$ C'&+,$%% '2 "*$
U&!"$6 S"-"$%9 -&6 "*$ %$5$,-# 0,-&1*$% "*$,$'29 "' !4.-!, -&6 6$%",'3 "*$ ,$+-,6 -&6 ,$%.$1" '2
-## "*$ +''6 .$'.#$ '2 "*$ U&!"$6 S"-"$% 2', "*$ C'&+,$%% -&6 #$+!%#-"!5$ .'($,% "*$,$'29 D(*!1*
-## '22!1$,% '2 "*$ +'5$,&4$&" '/+*" !&5!'#-0#3 "' .,$%$,5$ -&6 4-!&"-!&.E -&6 "' $<1!"$ "*$
'6!/4 -&6 ,$%$&"4$&" '2 -## "*$ +''6 .$'.#$ '2 "*$ U&!"$6 S"-"$% -+-!&%" C'&+,$%% -&6 "*$ #-(%
03 !" 6/#3 -&6 1'&%"!"/"!'&-##3 $&-1"$6> -&6 !& ./,%/-&1$ '2 *!% %-!6 6$%!+& -&6 !&"$&"9 '.$&#3 -&6
./0#!1#39 -&6 0$2',$ 6!5$,% -%%$40#-+$% '2 "*$ 1!"!;$&% '2 "*$ U&!"$6 S"-"$%9 1'&5$&$6 !& 6!5$,%
.-,"% "*$,$'2 "' 4$$" -&6 ,$1$!5$ %-!6 A&6,$( J'*&%'& -% "*$ C*!$2 M-+!%",-"$ '2 "*$ U&!"$6
S"-"$%9 6!69 '& "*$ $!+*"$$&"* 6-3 '2 A/+/%"9 !& "*$ 3$-, '2 '/, L',6 '&$ "*'/%-&6 $!+*" */&6,$6
-&6 %!<"3-%!<9 -&6 '& 6!5$,% '"*$, 6-3% -&6 "!4$%9 -% ($## 0$2',$ -% -2"$,(-,69 4-)$ -&6 6$#!5$,9
(!"* - #'/6 5'!1$9 1$,"-!& !&"$4.$,-"$9 !&2#-44-"',39 -&6 %1-&6-#'/% *-,-&+/$%9 -&6 6!6 "*$,$!&
/""$, #'/6 "*,$-"% -&6 0!""$, 4$&-1$%9 -% ($## -+-!&%" C'&+,$%% -% "*$ #-(% '2 "*$ U&!"$6 S"-"$%
6/#3 $&-1"$6 "*$,$039 -4!6 "*$ 1,!$%9 =$$,9 -&6 #-/+*"$, '2 "*$ 4/#"!"/6$% "*$& -%%$40#$6 -&6 !&
*$-,!&+.
ARTICLE XI.
T*-" %-!6 A&6,$( J'*&%'&9 P,$%!6$&" '2 "*$ U&!"$6 S"-"$%9 /&4!&62/# '2 "*$ *!+* 6/"!$% '2 *!%
'22!1$9 -&6 '2 *!% '-"* '2 '221$9 -&6 !& 6!%,$+-,6 '2 "*$ C'&%"!"/"!'& -&6 #-(% '2 "*$ U&!"$6
S"-"$%9 6!69 *$,$"'2',$9 "' (!"9 '& "*$ $!+*"$$&"* 6-3 '2 A/+/%"9 A. D. $!+*"$$& */&6,$6 -&6 %!<"3-
%!<9 -" "*$ C!"3 '2 W-%*!&+"'&9 -&6 "*$ D!%",!1" '2 C'#/40!-9 03 ./0#!1 %.$$1*9 6$1#-,$ -&6
-22!,49 !& %/0%"-&1$9 "*-" "*$ "*!,"3-&!&"* C'&+,$%% '2 "*$ U&!"$6 S"-"$% (-% &'" - C'&+,$%% '2 "*$
U&!"$6 S"-"$% -/"*',!;$6 03 "*$ C'&%"!"/"!'& "' $<$,1!%$ #$+!%#-"!5$ .'($, /&6$, "*$ %-4$9 0/"9 '&
"*$ 1'&",-,39 (-% - C'&+,$%% '2 '&#3 .-," '2 "*$ S"-"$%9 "*$,$03 6$&3!&+9 -&6 !&"$&6!&+ "' 6$&39
"*-" "*$ #$+!%#-"!'& '2 %-!6 C'&+,$%% (-% 5-#!6 ', '0#!+-"',3 /.'& *!49 "*$ %-!6 A&6,$( J'*&%'&9
$<1$." !& %' 2-, -% *$ %-( 2!" "' -..,'5$ "*$ %-4$9 -&6 -#%' "*$,$03 6$&3!&+9 -&6 !&"$&6!&+ "'
6$&39 "*$ .'($, '2 "*$ %-!6 "*!,"3-&!&"* C'&+,$%% "' .,'.'%$ -4$&64$&"% "' "*$ C'&%"!"/"!'& '2
"*$ U&!"$6 S"-"$%> -&69 !& ./,%/-&1$ '2 %-!6 6$1#-,-"!'&9 "*$ %-!6 A&6,$( J'*&%'&9 P,$%!6$&" '2
"*$ U&!"$6 S"-"$%9 -2"$,(-,6%9 "'-(!"9 '& "*$ "($&"3 2!,%" 6-3 '2 F$0,/-,39 A. D. $!+*"$$& */&6,$6
-&6 %!<"3-$!+*"9 -" "*$ 1!"3 '2 W-%*!&+"'&9 !& "*$ D!%",!1" '2 C'#/40!-9 6!69 /&#-(2/##39 -&6 !&
6!%,$+-,6 '2 "*$ ,$:/!,$4$&"% '2 "*$ C'&%"!"/"!'& "*-" *$ %*'/#6 "-)$ 1-,$ "*-" "*$ #-(% 0$
2-!"*2/##3 $<$1/"$69 -""$4." "' .,$5$&" "*$ $<$1/"!'& '2 -& -1" $&"!"#$6 BA& -1" ,$+/#-"!&+ "*$
"$&/,$ '2 1$,"-!& 1!5!# '22!1$%9B .-%%$6 M-,1* %$1'&69 $!+*"$$& */&6,$6 -&6 %!<"3-%$5$&9 03
/&#-(2/##3 6$5!%!&+ -&6 1'&",!5!&+9 -&6 -""$4."!&+ "' 6$5!%$ -&6 1'&",!5$ 4$-&% 03 (*!1* *$
%*'/#6 .,$5$&" E6(!& M. S"-&"'& 2,'4 2',"*(!"* ,$%/4!&+ "*$ 2/&1"!'&% '2 "*$ '22!1$ '2
S$1,$"-,3 2', "*$ D$.-,"4$&" '2 W-,9 &'"(!"*%"-&6!&+ "*$ ,$2/%-# '2 "*$ S$&-"$ "' 1'&1/, !& "*$
%/%.$&%!'& "*$,$"'2',$ 4-6$ 03 %-!6 A&6,$( J'*&%'& '2 %-!6 E6(!& M. S"-&"'& 2,'4 %-!6 '22!1$
'2 S$1,$"-,3 2', "*$ D$.-,"4$&" '2 W-,> -&69 -#%'9 03 2/,"*$, /&#-(2/##3 6$5!%!&+ -&6 1'&",!5!&+9
-&6 -""$4."!&+ "' 6$5!%$ -&6 1'&",!5$ 4$-&%9 "*$& -&6 "*$,$9 "' .,$5$&" "*$ $<$1/"!'& '2 -& -1"
$&"!"#$6 BA& -1" 4-)!&+ -..,'.,!-"!'&% 2', "*$ %/..'," '2 "*$ -,43 2', "*$ 2!%1-# 3$-, $&6!&+ J/&$
"*!,"!$"*9 $!+*"$$& */&6,$6 -&6 %!<"3-$!+*"9 -&6 2', '"*$, ./,.'%$%9B -..,'5$6 M-,1* %$1'&69
$!+*"$$& */&6,$6 -&6 %!<"3-%$5$&> -&6 -#%'9 "' .,$5$&" "*$ $<$1/"!'& '2 -& -1" $&"!"#$6 BA& -1" "'
.,'5!6$ 2', "*$ 4',$ $22!1!$&" +'5$,&4$&" '2 "*$ ,$0$# S"-"$%9B .-%%$6 M-,1* %$1'&69 $!+*"$$&
*/&6,$6 -&6 %!<"3-%$5$&9 (*$,$03 "*$ %-!6 A&6,$( J'*&%'&9 P,$%!6$&" '2 "*$ U&!"$6 S"-"$%9 6!6
"*$&9 "' (!"9 '& "*$ "($&"3-2!,%" 6-3 '2 F$0,/-,39 A. D. $!+*"$$& */&6,$6 -&6 %!<"3-$!+*"9 -" "*$
1!"3 '2 W-%*!&+"'&9 1'44!"9 -&6 (-% +/!#"3 '29 - *!+* 4!%6$4$-&', !& '22!1$.
72
S1*/3#$, C'#2-<9 S.$-)$, '2 "*$ H'/%$ '2 R$.,$%$&"-"!5$%. A""$%"@ E6(-,6 M1P*$,%'&9 C#$,) '2
"*$ H'/%$ '2 R$.,$%$&"-"!5$%.
A" "*$ 1'&1#/%!'& '2 "*$ ,$-6!&+ '2 "*$ A,"!1#$% '2 I4.$-1*4$&"9 "*$ P,$%!6$&" '2 "*$ S$&-"$
,$%.'&6$6 "*-" B"*$ S$&-"$ (!## "-)$ ',6$, /.'& "*$ %/0=$1" '2 !4.$-1*4$&"9 '2 (*!1* .,'.$,
&'"!1$ (!## 0$ +!5$& "' "*$ H'/%$ '2 R$.,$%$&"-"!5$%.B
I& -66!"!'& "' "*$ S.$-)$, -&6 M-&-+$,%9 - #-,+$ &/40$, '2 "*$ 4$40$,% '2 "*$ H'/%$ '2
R$.,$%$&"-"!5$% ($,$ .,$%$&" "' (!"&$%% "*$ $<",-',6!&-,3 -&6 !4.,$%%!5$ .,'1$$6!&+%9 -&6 -" !"%
1#'%$ -## (!"*6,$( -&6 "*$ S$&-"$ ,$%/4$6 "*$ ,'/"!&$ 0/%!&$%% '2 "*$ 6-3'% %$%%!'&.
O& M'&6-39 M-,1* KA,69 17879 "*$ P,$%!6$&"9 03 *!% -""',&$3%9 -..$-,$6 -" "*$ 0-, '2 "*$ S$&-"$
-&6 4-6$ -&%($, "' "*$ %$5$,-# A,"!1#$% '2 I4.$-1*4$&"9 -% 2'##'(%@
DA&%($, "' '&#3 "*$ 1%"9 K&69 A,69 -&6 11"* A,"!1#$%9 -,$ *$,$ +!5$&9 -% "*$ K&69 A,6 -&6 11"*
($,$ "*$ '&#3 A,"!1#$% ./" "' 5'"$—-## '"*$,% 0$!&+ -0-&6'&$69 -&6 -% "*$ 1%" A,"!1#$9 "*'/+*
&$5$, ./" "' 5'"$9 1'&"-!&$6 .,-1"!1-##3 -## "*$,$ (-% '2 "*$ !4.$-1*4$&".E
ANSWER TO ARTICLE I.
F', -&%($, "' "*$ 2!,%" -,"!1#$ *$ %-!6@ T*-" E6(!& M. S"-&"'& (-% -..'!&"$6 S$1,$"-,3 2', "*$
D$.-,"4$&" '2 W-, '& "*$ 1?"* 6-3 '2 J-&/-,39 A. D. 178K9 03 A0,-*-4 L!&1'#&9 "*$& P,$%!6$&"
'2 "*$ U&!"$6 S"-"$%9 6/,!&+ "*$ 2!,%" "$,4 '2 *!% .,$%!6$&139 -&6 (-% 1'44!%%!'&$69 -11',6!&+ "'
"*$ C'&%"!"/"!'& -&6 #-(% '2 "*$ U&!"$6 S"-"$%9 "' *'#6 "*$ %-!6 '22!1$ 6/,!&+ "*$ .#$-%/,$ '2 "*$
P,$%!6$&"> "*-" "*$ '22!1$ '2 S$1,$"-,3 2', "*$ D$.-,"4$&" '2 W-, (-% 1,$-"$6 03 -& -1" '2 "*$
2!,%" C'&+,$%% !& !"% 2!,%" %$%%!'&9 .-%%$6 '& "*$ I"* 6-3 '2 A/+/%"9 A.D. 1I7N9 -&6 !& -&6 03 "*-"
-1" !" (-% .,'5!6$6 -&6 $&-1"$6 "*-" "*$ %-!6 S$1,$"-,3 2', "*$ D$.-,"4$&" '2 W-, %*-## .$,2',4
-&6 $<$1/"$ %/1* 6/"!$% -% %*-## 2,'4 "!4$ "' "!4$ 0$ $&='!&$6 '& -&6 !&",/%"$6 "' *!4 03 "*$
P,$%!6$&" '2 "*$ U&!"$6 S"-"$%9 -+,$$-0#3 "' "*$ C'&%"!"/"!'&9 ,$#-"!5$ "' "*$ %/0=$1"% (!"*!& "*$
%1'.$ '2 %-!6 6$.-,"4$&"> -&6 2/,"*$,4',$9 "*-" "*$ S$1,$"-,3 %*-## 1'&6/1" "*$ 0/%!&$%% '2 "*$
%-!6 6$.-,"4$&" !& %/1* - 4-&&$, -% "*$ P,$%!6$&" '2 "*$ U&!"$6 S"-"$% %*-##9 2,'4 "!4$ "' "!4$9
',6$, -&6 !&%",/1".
A&6 "*!% ,$%.'&6$&" 2/,"*$, -&%($,!&+9 %-3% "*-" 03 2',1$ '2 "*$ -1" -2',$%-!6 -&6 03 ,$-%'& '2
*!% -..'!&"4$&" -2',$%-!6 "*$ %-!6 S"-&"'& 0$1-4$ "*$ .,!&1!.-# '22!1$, !& '&$ '2 "*$ $<$1/"!5$
6$.-,"4$&"% '2 "*$ +'5$,&4$&" (!"*!& "*$ ",/$9 !&"$&" -&6 4$-&!&+ '2 "*$ %$1'&6 %$1"!'& '2 "*$
%$1'&6 -,"!1#$ '2 "*$ C'&%"!"/"!'& '2 "*$ U&!"$6 S"-"$%9 -&6 -11',6!&+ "' "*$ ",/$ !&"$&" -&6
4$-&!&+ '2 "*-" .,'5!%!'& '2 "*$ C'&%"!"/"!'& '2 "*$ U&!"$6 S"-"$%@ -&69 !& -11',6-&1$ (!"* "*$
%$""#$6 -&6 /&!2',4 .,-1"!1$ '2 $-1* -&6 $5$,3 P,$%!6$&" '2 "*$ U&!"$6 S"-"$%9 "*$ %-!6 S"-&"'&
"*$& 0$1-4$9 -&6 %' #'&+ -% *$ %*'/#6 1'&"!&/$ "' *'#6 "*$ %-!6 '22!1$ '2 S$1,$"-,3 2', "*$
D$.-,"4$&" '2 W-, 4/%" 1'&"!&/$ "' 0$9 '&$ '2 "*$ -65!%$,% '2 "*$ P,$%!6$&" '2 "*$ U&!"$6 S"-"$%9
-% ($## -% "*$ .$,%'& !&",/%"$6 "' -1" 2', -&6 ,$.,$%$&" "*$ P,$%!6$&" !& 4-""$,% $&='!&$6 /.'& *!4
', $&",/%"$6 "' *!4 03 "*$ P,$%!6$&" "'/1*!&+ "*$ 6$.-,"4$&" -2',$%-!69 -&6 2', (*'%$ 1'&6/1" !&
%/1* 1-.-1!"39 %/0',6!&-"$ "' "*$ P,$%!6$&"9 "*$ P,$%!6$&" !%9 03 "*$ C'&%"!"/"!'& -&6 #-(% '2 "*$
U&!"$6 S"-"$%9 4-6$ ,$%.'&%!0#$.
A&6 "*!% ,$%.'&6$&"9 2/,"*$, -&%($,!&+9 %-3% *$ %/11$$6$6 "' "*$ '22!1$ '2 P,$%!6$&" '2 "*$
U&!"$6 S"-"$% /.'&9 -&6 03 ,$-%'& '29 "*$ 6$-"* '2 A0,-*-4 L!&1'#&9 "*$& P,$%!6$&" '2 "*$
U&!"$6 S"-"$%9 '& "*$ 1A"* 6-3 '2 A.,!#9 178?9 -&6 "*$ %-!6 S"-&"'& (-% "*$& *'#6!&+ "*$ %-!6
73
'22!1$ '2 S$1,$"-,3 2', "*$ D$.-,"4$&" '2 W-, /&6$, -&6 03 ,$-%'& '2 "*$ -..'!&"4$&" -&6
1'44!%%!'& -2',$%-!6> -&69 &'" *-5!&+ 0$$& ,$4'5$6 2,'4 "*$ %-!6 '22!1$ 03 "*!% ,$%.'&6$&"9 "*$
%-!6 S"-&"'& 1'&"!&/$6 "' *'#6 "*$ %-4$ /&6$, "*$ -..'!&"4$&" -&6 1'44!%%!'& -2',$%-!69 -" "*$
.#$-%/,$ '2 "*$ P,$%!6$&"9 /&"!# "*$ "!4$ *$,$!&-2"$, .-,"!1/#-,#3 4$&"!'&$6@ -&6 -" &' "!4$
,$1$!5$6 -&3 -..'!&"4$&" ', 1'44!%%!'& %-5$ -% -0'5$ 6$"-!#$6.
A&6 "*!% ,$%.'&6$&"9 2/,"*$, -&%($,!&+9 %-3% "*-" '& -&6 .,!', "' "*$ ?"* 6-3 '2 A/+/%"9 A. D.
178I9 "*!% ,$%.'&6$&"9 "*$ P,$%!6$&" '2 "*$ U&!"$6 S"-"$%9 ,$%.'&%!0#$ 2', "*$ 1'&6/1" '2 "*$
S$1,$"-,3 2', "*$ D$.-,"4$&" '2 W-,9 -&6 *-5!&+ "*$ 1'&%"!"/"!'&-# ,!+*" "' ,$%'," "' -&6 ,$#3
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78
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"*$ U&!"$6 S"-"$%.
ANSWER TO ARTICLE II.
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*$ 2/,"*$, -64!"% "*-" "*$ %-4$ (-% %' !%%/$6 (!"*'/" "*$ -65!1$ -&6 1'&%$&" '2 "*$ S$&-"$ '2 "*$
U&!"$6 S"-"$%9 "*$& !& %$%%!'&> 0/" *$ 6$&!$% "*-" *$ "*$,$03 5!'#-"$6 "*$ C'&%"!"/"!'& '2 "*$
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-% S$1,$"-,3 '2 W-, -6 !&"$,!4.
ANSWER TO ARTICLE III.
A&6 2', -&%($, "' %-!6 "*!,6 -,"!1#$9 "*!% ,$%.'&6$&" %-3% "*-" *$ -0!6$% 03 *!% -&%($, "' %-!6 2!,%"
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79
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81
CHAPTER VIII 0 ORGANI3ATION OF THE COURT
ARGUMENT OF COUNSEL
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CHAPTER 4II 0 WAS IT A PARTISAN
PROSECUTION6
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2

CONTENTS
PREFACE. CHAPTER 1. — THE PROBLEM OF RECONSTRUCTION. CHAPTER II. — THE BALTIMORE CONVENTION. CHAPTER III. — MR. JOHNSON'S ACCESSION TO THE PRESIDENCY. CHAPTER IV. — FIRST ATTEMPT TO IMPEACH THE PRESIDENT. CHAPTER V. — THE TENURE-OF-OFFICE ACT. CHAPTER VI. — IMPEACHMENT AGREED TO BY THE HOUSE. CHAPTER VII. — IMPEACHMENT REPORTED TO THE SENATE. CHAPTER VIII. — ORGANIZATION OF THE COURT ARGUMENT OF COUNSEL CHAPTER IX. — EXAMINATION OF WITNESSES AND THEIR TESTIMONY. CHAPTER X. — A CONFERENCE HELD AND THE FIRST VOTE TAKEN. CHAPTER XI. — THE IMPEACHERS IN A MAZE. A RECESS ORDERED. CHAPTER XII. — WAS IT A PARTISAN PROSECUTION CHAPTER XIII. — THE CONSTITUTIONAL POWER OF IMPEACHMENT.

PREFACE

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