Draw ~ J'lrmn' 0,1 <It'll t r'g<HIIlD.Hlun ~(;iL4 n= "~11 Iamuinr wlth~rh.tl.~~ where }l{}tJ' e \\'nrkc-J or \ he Fe nu" L;: been .I member.

Lt ~'Ou 'an' [ think of .lJ]othl! r e :r.::am.pic, 1,J.. ... '4: ~ nUT C'fhlkyc La w:ti\,en.it). \'Vaal J~ tbe orgiHu.z..tkm look like ~ll you" Wh~lllre ill' rnam tcatures? \~ hal ~lmM§ the organuannn together"? \V.h:u is "solid" Or J;;lIrt about the crgamzation? \\rn.H pmu. ('II 11l~ crearnzation are -fU7.7.lrCr"-mon: llllid or mart chanaeable? VI,h-~.re do you locatio: YollIT>CLf and hoy, du y'llu fJ.:·pn:liJt:nl ~G.1IJF mit: I.TI Ibc- urgai'Hl .uon? is your picture n "snapshot" of rhe urg1ffiT.7.,alllin at nne s,peci , c time, QC doc's it capture some of the courinuel process tlfpE!:n.kipaoL~ ..... L1rking together" These question are fun to ask. pu't th.- J gl![ til dIT~f" I'1!d more .im.portam questions about th iifc of any organization_ In uur consulting in recent ye:rrrs, \\ e U5e till- exc~~ wi h nrg:rmim[.irmru m Inbc'!'s r all levels Df aJ:I crganizarion. Ifs ~ good. w::!y to p:rnmpl d.iM.~un itt ;:m inlelVie\~ because, as }QU draw th 'Orgauiutio.ll.,You art: forced In put some thiags in the fcreground and other thjllg~ in tim background •. :\1S(l, the resulting picture m?-~' reveal a If.'ll ilhmH how the o.r~auiz.ation 1; m.1iiCTIonillg--or nor, as the case may be.

For esample; ;,] ( W ~. ;ap;; :igCl one llf G o.g :'s mrerviewees l:[] a eonsultiag prnjed drew his organizarion ;IS a. ~( of L'llltifh' ith quite a bit of distance between am) feil~ ..ep<lr.J!ifl~ th ern. ~ embers lived in tents and the camps were transient. Ve])' ~Dliall), a member of me camp would drif lruo ano her. these drifters were not wJJ n:tt:in:cl and were regarded as strangers. This picture said a 10'[ about how 'Ihe: inll.."f\iii:\~.e unders: od ark and life in the rtrganiL": .. arion. Departrnene ... and proj~ut groups W~Ie 110t well mf~-...i.lfeod: there we-re '.:nJlli or 01;1 ·tl:Ld~ ~t\\"li:It'U IheITi~ tbe grmrps were insular: the: relative iOCall(ln~ of ih ~.n1tlpS w:MlI n:spen to one snother dlaage'd ~oIll"Un[Oust;. there ~I{(L'" liule Sl<lbiluy in group rn~mbers' work

• Wl'r;I"lL'fNlh, _:4t.i i flitt' {lrwlh~'T !t/.,!c IJ.! lhJJt r,(.;rgli1mwtilllll~I(llJ ~-

L:.\pcrit:: rU:l::.":;; .uul (fH: nw·r.iJ I -.h~pc uf rhe t1 rg"HII:l,:,t t~.., fI \\ <IS, S'llbjCCl to constant rt'vlsien. Nm\, , tbl'i wns JUS! mil::: member's p1clun; ..,r the mg~mi':lalion. Hv pUllin!!. n l,ng;L:th~r wuh (he dFm:~'in!J,!o of m.<lll) nU!~r norgfoL.tli:l:.1Lt.ional mC:lnlb~r;:o" une could ~ <I.I1J I.]nJeTht!rnJ much heucrwhere i:llidnldual:,: pcrcepncns differed ami ~TI:1t they had in COnlIUl1[,L Wu:b this Slllllp!e exerose T '" t;: Can bcgu:I HI learn moreah l~!.ll t""" l oil hem nst hili SJ C duaensions o r any organiza non: .5lnlCHire i:lnd jJJVCO!S3_

Whllt do \.I, E; mean b) structurc jn ~-ofic~cl"Dl:") Think of ;) huilding or the human body. for just m'l) ,e:&;ampies. CDffi~e;: the ssrueture of a skyscraper. \\e mIght l~)rJ'l:d\',t:' nfth'l: strucrure w; the architecture: or the building=-the mainpsrts that make the t>l:lUdi'n~ What.ll.IS;:me! se rv ~ m hold II [Qgc:to~CL BUlrhl.:l[ Ql~'C') norhing (lbmn what's going OIl Imide the buil.ding u. its relations to the surroundings .. The same i~ true ()f lht: human hodV'. We 'CaD d'~50..ISS thebasic structures ofthe human bodv, the

. .,

contours of ic We can see _~liil_ for JtX1J!]'jTpk. :JS >l1mc[h-rng uf .;1. COIl miner for tile: body,

We can [alt. abour the skeletal ~"Mem. the rnuscular ;-ysrem. and varions (ltf'H.:r -~y~~ terns f)f the human hmfy.Blu if we just describe the boody ln structural rerms, W(: haven '1 ~;lid m 1;11;:11 about the processes !fling an imide these different ~"S1em.s-I~t alone wh:u·s OCiCUm.ng htyumllhc 00dy'~ humuLTrie>- ITl Ihlf: remainder of rhis chaw tet we are g,oingw hetalking about lb.,.;. rdiillorr:.hip b~lWe~n Dl:gam.mtinrml !il:.rri~. rure nnd process: what; the terms mean. haw the)' Me ,i.J:nerdepe:mJ.ent. and what their 11'111 Lie nces are un the I' r a[ neal pmnkm~ W~ fllce Til 00"1 em pori! ry organrzationalHfe,

1]] one se me. s aru cture refers to Mile solid p<irl ~ of illl orgaruza wjri-tht~ from e· w(lrk [P'" Ii\Wi;S, the orsuruzanon OJ shape, Dol just at ths moment IJw JIw over nrne,

AIl orgaJ1iuliunril ehart g~c us. a apshot 01 the organization'. structure . at least in terms nf different members' posnion- .... rarions depanme rs, and me hnes IJ( authority LH cham of command. WI? knrr;!o that Un: orgamzaeonal chart IS not the whole stnry, hut We :11 ... 0 sense that Tf!> I' porsam, I.t gNl'S us an rdea of what to .expect in terms nf hm\ the orgamzation and ns members fil tozetber,

Mure specificrdly. the structure of an orgamzation indude. rlwlI! lllJ""cn of 'Ill or;gam1:UlJOfj ,hal ar« PfY·,rpl'J7fiNi rot" lJ gi ... ·/:IJ filU(11um . the agenda of u meet ing g,ivt:~ srructurc II) a group's th~.:u"l inn 11~' laytllg out exped.ali~lI\~' of tnpiC'i ami gl1'al~ :lUld relevant llJ"l'co> I ~ f i n Iormaeion t' or.g.iln,.lL.lt iorml ell m m u mea linn researcher Bob MePh '- f-.c,: hl)~ 2...1) c~rain:r. . .,~rul.'turi: IIflcn hc-l.nml:'!> OJ fufmillllit lrrr ~Fnm,,tu:mJ~ or unplanned commanicuion 1 fn Ihh WjJ~. we can thlilk nl struct ure as u ~ Im1 or ooJ:nml.lni~'lliLll"l .. hurtcul

Wh,u v. c rCru.:1Vt' .t.~ structure In ,m~' gn lur or n~:anl1;"non W<lS LIt '>lIme: rime ilJXfdrUIJ{,rrn ami I'.~I in JllfltX In other \~ l1r-d!-. mgilfllzOluona! structures emerge trurn eemmunicauon llHKL~~~:' and ma~. In turn, replace tutun, commumcanon proee ~ is, TmJII)t'lo tu I~':" and B: ~u I,;L t ions, or L~ I:: It the ~ eehnolo tha t sh pes b I IW ""'I: J.u ~ nrk, were 11'101' gwen GO foundw!! member» 11 of these rhings emerged ;1'" ~.kE:illBJnJ; made

bey lm.ljvidtl dL~ and gwups .. \fl~r dt:1".'Mun,< Iw\'C' been rC;H:hcLi. components LI 'tiLL' org'lnj:rll.1iOfl seem mote stolid J.Io.",pt~tl p.iiul·m~ .Jwpe (If gLl'licm hchavlur nnl,;c rhe lYres 0:[ i~~lLl!]\ ttl IlC l1iSt:us"I!'U ~t rcguJ. I staft mCelln&" ar J~Lermim.:"lI. 'Lh~~' ~COrn(! part uftlu; hUCt.UfC' fllr future l1ltl;rn!:'linn J.mILDlrn:DJ!ln1l..":lf"'.m .t it wurk flu! structure wmb lite OlIn iron on the \:1 unpulef l.Io.lh III m L un..:. all lh" Il1lc'rfld~,j s!JLrrlC·UI. Tl!ic iWll tnk~ "'p~ IH the pn-'gTd:lT1; the: structure elrminates the Tl;;C-=~ity to repeat dtsru.~~inl1 III ~~~' meeting. ThB be t'h1lh gooU. sud '"1-11 &."i "''e Q'l.ll sec.

Slrur.tiln: gn'c!3:!i1l IX lu nur iiL.1h)!h over lime- If \\ ~ ktlflw thnt every \\ ed ,H our \.tIlrr meeling wc~1 di'~-L:u:~ recent '"::rpc[lc.irore:s.,.. tht:n v,,"l:! don't need 10 dcclde eacb time 10 lIdd 1'1IIrl~et J..i¥..'lIMions 10 the a~:;: nda, The me~tin.,,·5 fermat become .. predict:lbh~. rdl1lh!e. and perhaps even muali~uL:. Eslabl.Js.hca structures like regular .lgeCl·

-

: Bax 2. r Functions of Org.mDation<di 'Cornm'llfliiation 5tnmc:wf1e5!

OT~~rt!l grnCI:Ul"1;i serve a ~ of iuflaiDM ,~ h:;;"". ~ "'IJi1r.'[)" of e.~-:ts. 50m2 welUltn@.and ~ unwe:!~iOm!!..

;!f -g.cn- p::m: at' rrr{ftfe.llCe:. '~ f'b W ,rof:i".~ ~ o· 'b.UC"'l;l!""'~CY. wtllch [s m.O$!

ctimmo.;Jj;;: m'Ord'/!lc =-~oo-m! ~JU'-' re,

• lIn~ng mwyti1J!il'i'[ ~_ :!: =n-drlrd ~~ procedure tm{ h pt= ",' lem~.Ge:!1 'Wid";;:. n!O';Y" .~ .. < ".," ~"

" ~ jixm::.~ :;:n (ljp~ ~~~ m!OC.-eJ eli Cf1E':m~O':I';"i:E tr..u~ s...=a 'me n'Iatr), p"sts of an l:I~tlD g, i;r~IDl M:t!.e:di. c.srWn w:!r-

•. ,A~u,.tQ~'~ power. ~g.. an ~~ c:nt pl"EC!!Jd~ discu~i'IS ili;;[ mi~ Ch~l.,re~2 the P'l\W"...tl lilm: ~

• Ii .:aJllU lifbd!;~ ,11i'id ofitnfe!: W1 the; ,dMdtnl ~ies 2.J"1XIil'd; ~.~_ a. la.), dJ~ ;abocllJt

"hO"I'Hll'i"~ warku that ~n:s one.'$ tn;;~~,t <l.p;prmth .

• , .It -Ii'll af~ Ifo-=l)i;, U!llrJte:M~ ~ -c;~.rtt E.g~~......rd1l1g A. ..... 1l.1~ hopng for Ei

• ~~UFcmm.nidr~~.& ~ (rrfT~Yl ~3 or J~IlFl, ill d~!On.

• ~am~ . g; ~i~ W ~ ~ or $OfIl{ld-oi~ t:Q EJI!o'e:n;ome. Il.:)l •• ~I: dlain

Ii! ~ whitt.! ma), p- ~?lo~e from aJlr,mg il'Jrectfy dtc bo~·~ bas.E.

lU Chapter Two

das nfien bypass the need for elahoralc C'lin\i"C'~b0t15 or discussiens, Structures save us nrne and trouble. while 1ht:y J] " lIS build on past experience, 111 th~ sense, strucrures !'UilSllhHC 1m cnmmumcanea, \Ve lkni't n ed w 11:\ ~n. discussions of policies ih,!1 h.r ... e OJlrc:il.h been decided, But he TCpe:.HCd use of an agenda for a meenn mily lll~n l11: a powe r strate gy. as ~ugg:esl 00 in hm: 2_1 , because it an tH:: ased ~~1 L: matte.ally hi prewru m: .... , "nicc'" ur l~!~Jl.~ rrolJil being heard. AJ ernatively. those who usc llw agenda min' mnpl~ lack Ih~ lTCaLn.it. [D com up ""TIl; .1Ih::-muJlvt: trucrures=and 1 hlJ~ arc Ie>. .... pm a ul than llii:\ ap(X:ar

. !I urgam7aIHHt~ IHJ'.IC stnmurcs, arnl an~ nrg;a.ruzarjon needs a ccrtaln altluunl of strucrute in order 10 maifil ttln IL',C'lI nn.:r time OlhtTI\,~ the hunlen of o;pmu<lllelly nrul "rcirrs entinn" i"ICWll1t:fo 100 great, rJ].is is 'l,i,°h~ t.ll'"l!".ml:2<1liun~ d~"n!ll>p ~t<1 ndnnl npCT ,Iflng pruced u rt:~ nr purcha: ing "gn::cnlctlb, ft., I!'villulJiting ne", research pruposnls. for considerine 1fI1I:"nlal (Ii Imorlun.\. tnr clcahl1g l'. i h til. .. lnl11.cT cPltllllairlll., etc, h n,m:all\. ""orne urgaruzanons even have f(l'1l.iUW.f mr hamJlirag nnl1fJl.. I mn ncl d"wnj,ll: {~IO;' ehaprer 1 'II,

'~1~ undersrand SU'1J.cttUt·~. '" c need to I.:uns"jq:r what ~lc!d1!l}gis~ /l,.nl~Hmy (ildlilO;'tl~ referred LlI ... till:' thwUIl' of ~f,un,m.~ This iJ,~, rn Iudes two cnucal ructs r rrst, It is unp ,rHHlI W remernbe r Ih~fl "lru"Un i!, bUIll an /.JWI..<lfllt' uf and :'1 I(~OW"H' for inter" .u:Ii'1 11. '\\"hilc -tructure cllle.r~($ om (If rbe cemmurm .• diu!\ rrut:~~. it .iliu helps to IfInl.:n.:ncc: rUWIL patter tL~ uf rnrnmul1iC':lti~lI"1. t\ -tructurc ~lIcil as a set of M·-l;n" ..... t"ur ,I student Intramural !OPOrl1l< team l! rolR ,11:1 L!ui·~JcIm.: If fuuIIJ.ing members' ,jj",u..~i(')n::: ,h wl'll .... a ~1"l1d.c ' ur resource or th~ team t> tuture ITHCr.H:timL If the hy-Ltlw"\ include an Alb:.nJ.litH~': J)(]IH.}' l~j ~ ru c;,m'l rm ...... more than 'EVIl ot £1:0 gam~ ref eason}, IDLS \\1lJ t'O:'I.ImL: a point u n:icttrnc.c fur lb~ members, ami it will h!...d~ bl;: [be tot..<I.l porn! of some futi.]$e argumeers, Some members will J~\dup r~.i:I:!O~m.~ \. fly lhc rule shuul d or shou Idn 'I a p ply In specu J c (:::l!SC _ Oe.u:llin~ or length requiremen L~ for class papers provide .:.Inothcr exanrple: rhe e tahlished e:\l)~c[;.!tiol1.~ become J. poim uf reference for hnth defenders and rnucs of the policy

Tnt: ~L,(lmllI\1pont!nt fact is that rructnre i<. hoth c.7J.abliTl and LYJII5m.lm11lf!.. Glt!· th.: ns ~ uggpm:,j that strucru re helps L1S lu .u;complhh tl1ings.~d it some times gets in Om way.' Ce rI aia saucnrres, I LIte rul ,,~ or lmhir&, rend to take 0[1 01 lif~ of lb~1.T own. 11'1 ere<Iring u DeW campu, ... club. fot instance, be careful no' III burden the organjzarion with 1(10 m.t.ny Slll...:'tuto, such as m1~5... procecurcs, and furmal posirloru A well-conceived rule: makes it easier to iniriaie n "0;0;' m embers ",ilhoU[ ronrinually n;ass~'iing hl..l\\ tu du thins .but ovcr-rcliunre ufl :.tIdl rules mal co{1l:nbll. to the 11~1 members i~Iin~ "[ust like; numbers," Gidde.1l5 used the re mucrumciml Co mean the process by whi.ch strnclure.' em erge from in lemC'~ ion nndth=il become resources for arid eonstraints 011 future inreracnon. Hi .. com:~cpl helps It see h(l\li structure mid process Me imerdepe dent, Strucrurcs enable us to do things. 1; !.~ily-li te nmning a meeting-sand hind :-r us b~1 keeping our future talk fI[lO ,L1ca:, within L"crtruD boundaries Thisis wfn..' a mnnoor of socioiogists use metaphor» uf [,"J.g=~and webs in their theoriesc rrJl:tecli the' fact [bat we creme trurture-, that tht:n conssrain us is oneof themam II1Jrue uf socl(!t: itself, ~

\\~Ih r.::o,;~c! ttl urgal1Llal~oru_l\'e commonl .. loul<: at the fiJUowmg strucnrral elerncnts: Ilit:mTlh). ,hffi'f'<lIIllJ/W J dJ 11 ~r:ffiJc.milln. and (offlIall:mwn Each 01 these

aspects, of structure shows up in th org<:lnizaliOIl.iil chart, bur each 01.1"" hn important implications for ccmmuniranen and the flow of rnformution.

nien'lrch~

lfu:ran.;/n USlliilUy rdcl1' til Ihe \<:11 ical le v d~ L,r ll..!'l crganization.It represents the [[iMrihlJlillll nf !\ulhYrit~ amung ~rrganizalioIl.a.I rnles or ru';Ttrnl'l"i,~ One of the nm>:.f i."OIlU/1Ilm nna.gx of LIn nrganuation i the pyramid placi~ snrne persons and group." in pcsiut fl5 nr P"""CT with respect [('I ofht:rl- m the organizanon, Gctlc{Zdtlo' speaking, We expect larger m,!;;al1l~Mmrr.5 to have more k'Ye1~ than smaller ones, !·lowevt:r. then; have been efforts 111 man) IIlclU'';;1 nalized counrnes rl:'!Ccnll~r [Q reduce the IILJln· ber ul' hicurrchical levcls of Lnge i'pi1IL;~tlol1£--throUf!h s,[fn!c~lc" .. uell "-'" "flattenjilg, H "rcsl ructurmu." <Im:t "ream-based' mill1a~l.:mCTlt nli~ Ch,U1gc in .. trueillre i~ int~nJ!td ro mike OI!1.lIUJ.1_.illun .. mol"L~ nlmhl~ nJ .. dap~n~k {O 'hilnge~ In Ihdr mar-

cts and c [Ji.l.mnmC'[1t!o..

I !icraKh~ h;1~ huge implic .. UflO., rl,r c xrmmunjcarinn p,mctn!> and the flow or infol'mkL'ti'Lll1 \ \,a;ry .. r[III' 11:,g;1m .... atjnn, ""11111 many h1C!an:ht(OJI 11!\'ch, can hhl,'k Ihc 11liw llf rrDL.: ....... !g· LlpwunJ (:>e&: box ,:..:).

0111' r IiIl11atlon ~Ifid I1U~da l1!mtJJo n

iJi ~1t"rjll . ..I1WI1 dmi _~l'u~rtJlunl.,m an:: h:nm l1uI describe till! drvrsron of labor ill all \II' "Ltli7.B·lintl. Sp\,:cdi 'ilJ~ tbe} r~ er i I thi:! dcgn.-c to \!o hich 1111 :r is; (II .. u,kd IJ'HU

-- --

Box 102 Why B~d N'ews Has Tnmb'le Going Up dle laddcl"~

Th~~ ME ~ 111f~ of r!!'.l.SQft!. ....n,. blz,d noe.-.. ("1'1 ~) tru. lJ"'QlJlble ~~ 113 wtl'i upward In ;u'I C!~.:l!!:tLl:ln:l.1 hi~ One ~j)llll\l!ltJO{I !! tl\!: sheeif numl:l..r Cl.f I~w Uta~:), m~s~e I\H [Q p85 tihmugh At ~ - ~ -UU!J"!(! 3Ji o~ it')' far at!10rnon of t.l'ie ong· [Ilal m~i! or th~~s~ibj[rq. tim. lh!! m~e II .Ias;:: -!;-. ,::!-~t!- ;md gQ I'Ig fUrthe:r In :m [rrter~ mJOy. Arun~ f~ me f~loW'lng r'1il!B:!;13ll!5i fo-r til" "upward dinon:io.n- Clf n~ga1JV2 mfS.!i"..:gi!! [1'1 1li~r.tliO~

A. roClOTrl Dr poor F'erfm'l'fllm~1! ill Uw! par;! or t~ ~1!i1'K! ~~ tb~ bw f~Wi - -nat?.s;,

.sl.n~ ~e' ~ ~ Ul'l'IltlllCt' aI~ [;~~. Jrn-erpt',ttll1ii!lm ~rrN: it~

Wti aj".5ff].[tit]o'.lIn,1:! t.I'Wt '011 til .. p.iiIfi of 'm" Employ~ m- tf"~.emiendJl'IJ thr2. fI;!o~m.<! m~

'. O~--m. fHlr of 1'"Etrrbutioo by tm~'1 "boss" or fn~-L~ who might re~-c;t. "l~:rm;Jy ;;0 thli!~!:! i"i2!wS

• Amlm:.1;!<n; , ~n man'lg"'1'I""...tt:!;. or a ~w""r ilI~Fe!!;l ~~t Cln~1f m"J:d Ch .... ~ IJfIf~ 'in

the.~Lgh.

• &!d eJ:'P'f.'l~Kes from lhe pa;;;: ""'Ltll -. S5\ m.ng of ~ n~

• Laei arM ~MJ'pof,,-l' [TI r.~ ~fi.5 of'~ OT"J1C.~

leader!> ~1t!:! ~Eero: r.:lIWl!l W b;;;: e;~~1r7 ~'!.!I ~ hQW dre.y rBaft to FIeI~ d prob!~tn!l in ·thE g,~ i.iI.tlOO, k ls v<:5) F!!t!!Sy tl;; dis-wu~" rne u?,~i'd triEln:=mi55lQ"l1 or bad news, In.fua. we ..... ~ ~)' 'm[ an ~-" leadu m~, ~.o hep-Dli:l ~ il'1 5l:1lit~Jng if)f~ iIIId opinion .IDout orp.nifitir;m1l1 prui:> ~ wtlite!! ill the ~ WlJe m"'q: me ..... fsf:om i)J: d'fiml'l,gals" h~'NeeIl "normal f~!:~ ;m~ wh,a( ~ [omul~flt$ holve ~ed - .. o[d~F"I gri~e.!;·'-~ prohltimS that really ~..er rt)" m~ o~~-; .rod k> members,

Now rake ~i1e' ~m ~il'JWgc ponVJt. Ccm ft'U .~~ ~ _ S'l1'r= !1'i:(lW1Jf 'aM ~ ,'M rlie up~rd' ltammllOOn or good' ~1lil

varIOUS urnts, dr;:lInl.m::nl5.. and Qld5ions in pertnrm . fi" [asks. In an entrepreneuriul, -stan-up organization one (IIr -.vupcupl~ may do e .. ,tlrything, thus reflecting r low level of specializaricn ur diff r ~l'HJ:aU{)n.. However, m lar~c corpcrauuns, we rypiCi1Uy fmJ ..! t'ilgh level of speoaluanon, reflected m dcpartmems like prcducticn, phlTlnLng. el1!:lHl.e~!"ing. ilcOOvntin.g_ fm;;rncC'. personnel or human resources, rnarketiag, publie reI;HlnTl~. and ~!1 r£H1l1_ Specializaticn has a fignffiC';lnt imptlcl on cernrnunication, primarily t·U':l';I1.l.~C each ~dOlII~ has 11-.;: rrwn langQl~~,t:: nr jU.q!on. While tilts ~,Iwrcd lan~~g~ hinds together people In rhet drs iT I \! often my,;liu($<lnd C;''tdll JUIi· those ill ul her I..h:parl m 'ot . C411mpuh:r t:'~n"~'W1d .. ·err different from uccounl;Jnt~. and both ba e treubl L31 in!! leI pU~UIn!.'l ~r human re: rurrc triallilge:r..

The-e dirT'- rent W.tlY" nf La.lkHl~ and seeing th ~vdd rdnforce the 'rCrI'>C riM! tlif~ ferem lorrn \~I peeiallaauon, 'r ezpcmsc. nre dnmillfl"" unto 1IH!ni5elv~5r making [ulllihul urve projects very dl.lfitult. rcM,,-IJ!) un rhl' t- '1'1 In :111'1) ficlld ~n be .'1 barrier hI' ~ Ill. p~u IJ~'r;uinn lIr l]l1wr 'I:mpltl) ees rn the onl.J.xuz..atlon, who rl'J;LX horn: !;U'\ld qJI.::~~ (~hmH polin hl,H luck the cn.:dcl1l1IJl~ ~lt I be ll("o:::'ptC'd ~UCil~lularv 10 reel confident L11~(~!Jl purricipaune in collaborau, C >t'hHLtm~'- Sr'!.e'n:tlt..t;uiLln. ur cuurse. [It ... ] ;~ftr:Cls r",mmU!liL.:".O.llttJrI lw i!c~Llbh~hill~ ph:-,,'~-:;]I lmunJJ.ric~ boeol~ e n L1.1ffefl'1'I1 departrncn rs, Ihe m;;trb:"lm~ people, fur "'~mpk . .iFt: !~'rit;~ill:w located If' t.hrf~B:I1I qU:H1cr~ Ih~I~I~ Ih\iM' ill finance.

S 1i.1H1Ilgi"1 ;,mil- Durkhcim I b~f\.cJ W,\:F a 't:IlU.lIf) (that one of t1k- princi-

pill h;>!U.lft::! 01' lll00frH S jUO ~p.:d.:ilLl'~t~illn Gene: .. 1.1 I} ~fl'L=.lb.in~ m lih:1"Il :-.nLi~Li~ .. i1T~ umn: het,:!' ~g'r' 0 ~ Ib .. an p!'t"-Iudusmru or tnbal ~II ·lcUe" and mre II the most imporram [ltew"," th;!1 boltL the :'<Jrh:r~ t ,t:cth~r I. the inlt:rd,,;pcnJ~n..:~ fesic red Il}" Jon" pccuI.llt.auon. \\ t call t;lfl rhe expe rn .. 'oC nt nthen, \'II hi::' n \\ It need ~p~d fi c hdp-JJ plumber ,m dCClriC1!111 ~n. auWm~UI\'C ruechamc; ru:ld so forth Durkhdm SIlW such speeializauon l1.5 t1ull1 :l; bk=i .... ing and ::L CUI""II! The interdependence at people wh: I rdy un others for tunruens ourside thctr c"(pcrl.l.'OC l WI!J:il be called and WC" <till u.:,dl ~lbc Lin l~iull of labor") IS all advnniage "" hell U holds society together ;lml :~ disadvantage if it leads W ali nation. ~ SpeLi ... lizaucn C"JJ1 ICJd In H licnatinn when it

eparates ]X.!nph:.. (film n anather, pulls them 3.wa~ from the pruducts uf I.ht:'ir labor, lind nt:[.d~ .:! Jj\ bion benveen rhe ~prllfe~innl!ll- JaS -' tlf so ~i,ety and those who an: ·ull1pli.r.liti\ d~ uneducate unJilll .. (I. Or ururaincd. Scholars and politicinn .. imply

th c sc :>orl!. of di isions w he nih ~ U: .: terms, I i.l c - riign . nde. _,t

1i(:I'I1l'taJllutio n

Finally, fonnt11izafiGI1 rerers m me. degree 10 '3inch mteracuons inthe organization iff~ chararrerizedlw rules, n::~hlflons. and norms. Formal comruumcation ~5 highly specified and presrrihed, ~n the extreme form. members of ~h~ mg;mi1:ntlt1!\ know what's going to happen before it doe5--me pattern becomes ;! ritual. This isn't riecessarily a pruhlem; b nh forma) communication [Ill ritual serve important funclil .11S in organizations tsee di~p't"~ ·fI.

'Ve ~a~i1~ rec .. ·ugnizc a VCI"}' 11 rma! meeting {If social ~ tuatitm. Wi: tM.L" rues from the way people lnnk. and art and tna~ even notice el m '!11.!- 01' lilt room itself.We can tel] f.lp,ht i.I",-a~ H the atmosphere ill J ITiGclmg R1I4.lm b:illif or relaxed. A me trng with [ow.') Llt ~;HS. facmg a raised plertorm. ~! ~P'':<l1~f m1 the raised platform Wlt.1l Oil pod rum and or zave], aU e ntl\ C iJmhet.lct: members d rC" sc J 10 busanc ,$ ~ nits, the use of rigiJ rnccung procedures ~uC"h as Robens RIIb.', or Urdcr-~hcst:' art' all elements thM tqll1hJ mdicate a J]ig.h]~ fnrm<ll sen rTJ.!:!,

14· Chapt eT Tv.'O

commuuieatlon nci~Hu·k and that of the fnrmal on "111 tudies of how rumors spread tlrrcugh OJ 11 orgamzanon (as th~ i rH.~yilab!y wiT!! 1_ mrlnl'l~E: m t:: itt researcher Ke it h Davis found that utc organizanonsmest ffccti\'e in rerrre uf their rnmlalcmnmUllication also bad ncah.hy patterns for band1mg inlnrmal ornmtrm ("".d.ltll n These nrganiz;ation~ l'Oubl tt!adiIy SC't: Ih~ interdependence L~f toe twn 1)1'ri$ of ~Qmrrl:Unk.uinn 1111: infurma] n lwmk h~lpe'd the orgamn.LtlOn accornplu hils fnnni:lJly sJKaEit:d plan: nnd ~ while [he Iurmn! network kepi the orgarnzancn on track The i!>Su,:s surrounding infnrrnal mteraction and t.h . ~-ap.e\lnC In arry urganlzanon rerrnnd U~ nr;,lltn ~"):f the Wi.l.~. 11'1 whidl formal structur .. and l'U111mUII!~(ron pwc~~~ IIrI: t'O""O sld~~ 1)( the !llIme: coin

~rn.ll:hH L: rI::OIJ1\1 on]}' make ... ~I'I~ In ~t!1;:!1 ~on W rnn·l~. '" h:n we [t1ight tlL-"";Tjh,.; a~ the un!illi'l1~ (lIM' 0 inreruetion Slrulturc I li"~ thr -ft~urC''' HI the ~g,r 'lJi'hr L r rWL:C~S; ,I- ,r c;t;IITIplc, 11IL: I'rg,Jm~[[()n\. chan i., .. 11I .. fI 11.0;.:.-11 .15 an ~'l:~tmp'..:: nr qnu::turc, yel We klnm I~JaI' Ihlll ch .. rn ~.h,~ ... nu~ n:,pr~ .. cnt .III l[Jill I~ l!.~)ing un. Al Il.~ \'c.:ry best, the urg..HU/.:iIttmml than b J. :'\lllir".hni !If certain .u.PCLd~ of [urmalh deBnc~1 rdadollshlp. ui lbc L rgatliz::!tinn J n ~ ~11."C tbL" rh In n:pr~-'>Cn! a ~ ruciurc that spedfics ceruun processes, such as \Ii'hl, reports tu \\ h. rru,

·ib Um:krS'!~d seruciure m term .. of prm.-"" ..... uullk. l.l! lhe Jifrcn:n~ funns :thou Wilt r lukc~: oceans.Iakc- s, rivers, streams. mel ... !!:_ The \~!J,t .r t1u\'\''S ~unlj'l'lul ll.'i.l~, ,II1J we kl10w inat ~h.:pping MHO ::I stream £j; second ume rs m;'\cI lJ,t ... t.: ttlt-' !',r~J11~ ~~ncm't' <I" [he time before, Yet, UU~ river nJ.S J shape, even I' thor: iarm changt':. graJwill}1 u'!~r time, 'The . bape is rdiabJc and recogmzabte \\'e can I. unguish (lIlL mer from another; 111..: D nuhe. the 'ila= . and rhe AJ11Jzon h.lII.lk dLffereru--ha1;c diffcrt:t1.1 shapes, paw;m;", and srructures, But. lilt:' proecss=-the tlow-·ui a river 15 fl ar der to explain, draw, Dr capture,

urI! is Like t hal- We .Jj\l': in ~ fl(N, L l r esperien ... _ bu l u hen ,.., t te 1!1 Oil r - hIe's story" we ean U'w~ highlight certain [hingi.. cresting <l.. narrative 1.I.[l.lihal tJarr~ned. \~Ii! thus ~i'" structure ru our lives h~ discussing "rnaia .\ ents," "rurnmg points," "principal characters . .'- ere, We punctuate or srrucrure ow- lives b.'\" highllghting these leaturcs ~Jl eur ~tory- "i¥ben W~ !!lIe asked in a jot1 irrterricw ED expia.i.il hew. w~ chose our major area lIE study, decided on a tid and picked :i career p;uh_ our n"~-p..lllSt! i far more- orderh in most 1 ... ases than \Ii hal really h ppened, l'uirl \Veick. an erganiza- 110TH1 \ r~yd.mlo.:. - t, describes this as 11"mJ5pf'ctm~ st'mC171iiiang. I: GilLe we:'" e lOrd the

rory a lew rime th« lU/17'ati['e becoeus (i'fln ofus:. art of v.hn w ur -_ and \Ii' dr.iW on that story line agpin and asain as resourre for ccnversanon wid) others,

The same is true when we ~' W describe an (I rg;mizallC:m. This ]s priC'("J~ I)" why if... hanl to r~n.lize: tha t a 'ieemin !!lJ- 'i11lid 0 rg:mi=t:tunal structure has sllb"lamia 1

hange going [Jt1 ~"illall it, But DO p. cess ean ,em'L \\o'W:!out SOm~ degre ol structure, Once" strurrure-c-likea dre ende in a c-'()mpiln~i~ created, h becomes parr or the process or acti\"11y In the organization: i[ lidp!' to sha • I.h life 111' the o~~TIJ1.;;ilion rrnnl then OJ] Bur the rrnct:s.. .. C3II also alrr!f rile lruc Uf-=. as when sorrn, >mployee5 decide nne: tim to \010];.1[1:: the dre .. s code ill Invor nf more cnsual, less. specified attire. .~ the rhetorical arnl literary c:nHC Kcrmeih l:Iurke onrc filii Il. tructur an prt;)Ct::-.~ ,In.: like "the cul'H.:J.lnCI" Hml the 1.1un~ [onratllcd, d; They ace {he sHlid ami the "'Vllnta-

appeared much earlier; Recail. rrcm chapter 1 theuse of the term in Chester Barnard's famous definitinn of O~311mJtion: ~.a system 01 consciously DnordHl<1t~d i3iEt~·~· tics qr fmt."1i::S uf twu or mOW fR:tsullS .. ·l~ Barnard's definmcn was important beL<U..ISC III:' l:Ji:plk'ltl} recngn ized the fact U!.J.l the organizauon ';:OI15.L!HS of ~'Ul~·JTOIm.tXl.r,'li ilUeT', uctimM und c~ngit'1'. 111C o;ystemo;: idea eni:'~1;uro!1-C'~ ustn 10nk <It H1t: parts. nf L1 whnlc and the whnle in terms 'If the parts, cmph:l.sbrjtl~ th~1 neither can be fuUy LmJ~NUl)tl W'ilhl"1ul reference In the ~ll~H:r

S~I~I!.:n1~ lrll.'-.clr) ha~ been InlP'Ir/,II'IT in 1:.t\I~in~ the au"minn uf'''I:i1ul<lr'', and rmlj;ti~ nnners to such thmgs 015: [he mfi:rJ(!pt'lldmn: Gf the vanous POlI1S of :m O~il.mZl1Uf~rI~ the f;lC'1 thar :]Tl nrgarrizntion has n;olfl'tinn." with it..~ 1,1I'gcr ~n~ .. ~tnlln1(;:m and ntl1Y be \ .. !CWC(~ em ;1 ~~ln rm uurn [rom ~ d u'SI:d' til' ·ope n": I he id ~<I ~l r 1'l/lajinrj·IIn'---l.hc P nncipk~ that 1 here arc multiple p~Lhs to Inc snmc outceme: and 1.'~lm~Pl'--[be' p[1rLCLp~e [hat Mr~s...,,",~ the need fur arr mg.mu~uiun In "import" f:Qt."'" energies ill nrd.:.r [D Ll ... o~d detertorannn and dr~lIllqtti]IWn I see hm: ~3) .. \VlI.ile rarly ur~tntz<1.non:.l1 theortes tlp[l~n:±lh~u the m'~llllir11' ~llll ~ d do~cli ~~"lcm. lhrougJnoul mml I,r the hl.~h1I')' nf !~rg;mi,l'.;nlll nal ~I ud i C~, rc~t' <l rl h~ l"'> hil\ l' ~ mph:l.~l/..t:'d ~;>"!O[I! rn [' ~~ I m I!:-.!o. ~d~ L\1I1g OJ' e;arH<l'.!Hwn.li '[1..1 be .'Hnmcd ~O ~h~lf C'!I'1rtHl.!11Cr.!L;;flu; IdC'.<J of .~ complete nmrk~l,illg ul'g,miJ...ajJi1h" 'I.::u:lup]Hll!~ th.: iJ':.o:I1 L't lir~nI:H;"'" rn Ih.tt Ihc nrgrH1l.'-utlun i~ C'.'~-pc~lcd W '~~h.,.p'~ ~ ('I1l~I.m tl.~ I I) wl1<11 11., ''ll ~lumC' r, wa n t .lItJ C\'~:J1 ~'u IJUlln/ml(' IJI h,.t~ th I:ly wil] wiwl in rh, future.

I .i~ tc I ~ ]"Q>I;:l. reh cr.~ hu\ L:;' Jli ~II:.a.I t hI: 1~1 H~ 'Llf .... Hllc lh:~n:l: 'l f :<iys tl: ttl "du>~J 1lL:;'~};," hom (Jf'n1l.aJl ~.~OIOgL"f and system rheonst !'-lkJru Lahmann,'? we Jearn th,ll organi~.amm~ ntu .. ~1 not become rOI'l open inward Ihelr environments. or lhi!J WIU lose cohcrcnee. buundanes, nnd identi l~ It s ti k c usmg .:t. :'1.0. C Or;1 lil r t.: r Mt b holes ~hlll :,m:- [LlO hi!,!: ~H'.iIU can't retum the ihnlg:; you need .. Tl:us IS what happens, [0 ~.m.e eellgJULlS ,jf~I.Il.:.1Uulli that JHi!mpt tc bend too much to rhe aultm.l.:s and ~'l.lhle~ M those aroend [hem. l[he~ mii~ "'lco:ei.l P:- espanding, but rhejr ml:--~:.tgt: becnmes \VOl u,: n.! ~J Ju ... rn, ..md lh~ ir rnembe rs.hj p k~ L'iHllJIiJ.n:cO_ Orgailiutiull5. In.:ly be open H.lW.JFJ their ~UITlilillJin[!~ ill LhI: I.'.ily I.b~ ['~11la:[ informanan hutclosed in the way rhey interpret and use it, or "in' versa, Tobe open ill all these prucesses is impossible, LI\. Openness and closure. Ibu. s, are dt~I)' n,;.l~tt~~J....

AJl..b(1lugh [hI:: term equifoLf1.~· JDL":S[I'l rnll uff liIe .. tongue with C<L~. H b a Vie.y practicel idea th.<:!.t t:mrh~~:;r!t.':S me po.~lbHity (If .arli.!t'\lng we SJ.JlIe goal. mmany Wi:ly .. s .. 1111.1:;'" if LOS~ euning Is [he-goal Ul your office. you .may well find dHU [here 1S more than one w~' IO achieve it, I .... Ikewise, if encouraging Innovation is the objective fur your organize t io n, you may eonsider n Cll ooly ltl: tradi li onu] solution-e-investi l'Ii\]; more in th t:: research and cl.c:~ t:' lupmen l (R&D) depanmem, hut also srimularing other pa:rl~ ai me organization 10 contribute IO the Um01',-arWeI!ic.ss efthe company, Thinking along these Li.nC3 is 'helpful to break ,Jill of accustemed parteras flf dealing witn Issues .. Remembering the principle nf equifiri.m~, can tit: \'cry u:;cfu.l HI harul fi I1g i~\IC' .. ~ W;;. Ji"'!:.T~ a..';. curdljcL~wnros.... ::!:rId It::adtnlup ..

The s~ stems metaphor can bias us toward assumptions nf h1lfITL.Cl [I!o' arid u n i ~r. simplr because It suggests (bill alJ the parts should necessarily b, W0rUl1¥ tug1!:Wcr. EJ Thai is, simplv by c'tIHin.!l a collecnon uf.diiTert"fIt msmunnns n $j'litl::m may obscu~c the hU;;liJ:u:lt lOt')' don't really \\I_n!: l~lU all rhar well, sa me sense of ruordiin<ltLng 1 heir effnrL~~ fm mstuncc .. tne L·_~ .. Iu.:Mn:t:' systrm mIlS.L51:li of vaned org.anlZ.auons and inSlilL.HiLm~_ including the police. -arwmeys. CX111.l1:'i.. pTi~.m~" and orber corructionul instirutions, ln practice; ]](1'IQ,r\1:'r. these are often ~l;Id,Jin~ '1l cress-purposeswrth one

tulnl her. The court frequeatly warn to limit the Dum t'lf cases they bear. Silt pollee mHy be n:"';m:jt'tl [a] Jci.lslinfolIDaUyl [Dr bringing more J.l1 g J ,,··in-ll1Iofl' 111ln the systern, lUtQm~.5imilarl~. iiU~y. e m(1lJl: rather than f~ r cases. Within the , .. ngt: [If correclinnal instnurions, we ""11] also find dilferenoes m g1JL1.~ ~DJ perspectrres, Some rac:iJi~ies For ~'CL:ilh, tur mstance, mar be gela,mneJr mteresred mrcfnrm, ~hilc must uf toe. aJd ul t Illlst:itul:ions are prim ~ 012' PUil iti\'c_ Since I he prisons elll rIt tle to re habmtah: offemJcll!.. Tlu:my become rC'pcill or:fend~_ further bttrdenioL "the system.-

Orwmib:~t:i(lI1"] comnnmieation scholar ~hush:ln" u PII\)It: surnmurtres tJ;\, n uf tile: majur aumntagc.. ... of !hifll.ing.fium ~ term \oj!.:"". "tir-I f"1. tern. theory1 ~U!:mF'r tn explain 110\\ uninten lclll;' .... 'I'l'll:4UcnCt-s are generated ~ our la..:'k of kmj\\ Ic-dgc 11 [11~ irapheancnv of our I [\1''''' C~ md, it attempt- ro unt Iur rropc:i1i!:~ CJi1:11

&1d:gfotllitld:

GClfIllr.d ~'Y~~ metlF)' bepn lU itn l1Rmpt ~o unlf)' .tI1 ~. Ii!: of'rklUil)' I!n ~oclOl •• ~tn.lt". 'Ui:t31 '1,J!,!C~N.t~ "nem,pt~ Ul und.t<nard UlI! suu tHErl! ~ furn;:uon or Ii!;td'! !:OI't1'to--Wlit'l~ pilrl: elf ~OCleq'. Synouns: m~ry iMCii'poIlr.ltt!!. 1~5.ooS fl-om both Il:II'Frlliml ~ru! mld1,i~ MId ::t plle~ lhem Uil· ·~etf.

Key CO:lW",pU m-.d PtIJlO,tNer

'. III pUL TltroughlPt.l'L llnd Outf1'Ul= ~ ~t!fl synem td;:e1> in ;t, ;:me.1t5 h-om Ih e.r'Il'onm~.f1Jt (inpunl, lJU1 ~d clunges.·1:Iem. III $QIt\'ilJ ~"1 rlil~ u). .nd pu~ t=1d'i\!:iI\LlI mm t.h efi'o'.rcmment

• hlU!.I"d~pMIden~ gf IPt!cra; The pw'U-ot' w~n'\S-lnu:r.u::L !w::llllh:u ~ pxt ;Jjfl!.f;t'J; ~Ii1<115 ~ecte;ljj Dy d!'re m,hi.'r pY"liL

• HolIsmff oulty. The wnor e IN)' ,M; i"fitJH'. I~£r. gr the ~~ ~ tl1.~ ~;u:m I:I~ un. p;lrtl1 " E~lJliir1l~nty" ThEl'"e ate rI'It,lIu;!),lt! _~ liii tho!! !!<!me ~ome..

Eq~lJlrlmu:n'- ~ SYSIermc m ~ CI! In lfite{, •. mml b~-.;;e11 the SYU!em dfld its Btl ..... romnem:.

• Homeo~~: Th~ [!~ntiElIC:Y Ofr ~ sy;tems I.o ~~ ~.O rrg-m:ajn ~l.!llibril.lm.. Of' =,n:tt;lnt

C:tJ/l.d1Ul;m~ '"""'~ fn the bee - Cif'1m€mO!l ~

E"tn:ip-T- There is it natural temdi!nq cOW'Mid c!i!otrlEr", ran;iQcTtr.e;;o, iilnd me tras.ip.!t:Icn of ene.TID'"_

• F,ce-tiru.dc Opa...tl $~ imVE. '~..Jl~ iQr mlJ;rloo:ri ,g. ;ut;:i'~-~.dJu~mu!nl.

• V~I~ CCOJ:flbo~ Th'2.re m::=y ~. "'.!Xlt'",;;;- or -o~i:u" f~J\~ OOt'1o'llr,OOt'l pam o.f '" o/-"~

• ContmlJ'iJ:!Tl trOo!T' d~' m f;;t." Sys1:vn> such ~ O<~~ iii~ aJr~ .~ wmplacl:r.

OjpI;9l 0'- ;:IQ:S,~: rasher, mey m21 b'!! .~~ .~, i~.Bin!: '0;' ;:, ccmtEnr u;l, ·~.t 1~. ~ Ojlw or dosoc.

• Pro:r:~Ptrue or Sta-,F-S of I)5't~p;r;:Ierli: O!;).e.. ~ :!IlI"e dyrro..J!'l1k.. r";O:!. =tit:" mety rnafig~ som2tim:s i odiKn-· I;; ~es 01" ~~

Sl!mp!~A~o£

• SoctiIl- T ec.fmo]'Q&iGl1 J il[.ernC!£!!!;. Fm- ~12. ~eElfiE f>BCVE ~,- ~.2 ~dmol ~a: rl;~ 1J56 as 'd syn~_ ~ Tn c.cmplJt!y,~ted :;rQ,~ ~~.fI 5~ S)"5tl!t'T1l!.-

Cordltcl. ~E!nt: For ,~~ ~Ji!lg YllSer of c.onful:,t m Iti~ N.!11;!~!, S)'Ste:n. ta.thBr mijJ)"] fl;l!O.J51~ OR indtvldml Ol.~ or ~OI"I2l.iu~ a; ·the ;;ol:lr~'e (;If '"-Onflia.

• wde:rshij;l;·Ftuf e;(;!mp1e.. ..nmwll'l.i lca.tf!!nhip ~ d~W"1MM ;;.~ ltiie OfgiilliHtiOJ1 nother chan r~fljling In :LI'I fndl'l'lduaL

cm~rg~ at 111~ mll~l;'fh,'c level from the inreraction of many inml~idlJals,,··~' I.[J other wOlds. lupkmli!.11t an entire ~1'Slem helps us ro apprecrare that mere are "side effects." Or sL:tom:l1lr;.' results, of :m:;my OlIC1·kHl.'" One word of eaunon=evcn with fau'i~ cornplt'lt.: kn(l\!o h:u!il1C' llr a :~illHJ!iQlI, 'I.'C\nll ,<!Tv.'rys be '!!llbject til tminlen.ded eoesequeaees,

So. Jar U'~ have emphasized the -big riL"1.LLn:" wrthrespect tt'l sy~tem~ ~d.c1'[~, e<,p-r;:~ l:iHI Jy[ he i ntc rre lat edn ~s~ of pan ~ l.Iu'&e"'e r _ Mid connec uuns an" !!.CldnID I:'qua~ ilil srre nglb within an organiaauan, Prm..~ 'I r an ~~r~:ilim::lilltit'n-'illt:h ilS, J E!p1U1 me fl!:.<;,-mayhe [igiHI~ or ~i:h'~~Y ~Ct~uph~.J 1'1'1 1~fTI1" n( nw I}n:r.dl·~~nu;"u:~{¢ TIghl~ coupled parts of a system mfluence eai:h \1tha uh\',~]":o and '.~~' JiITcr]y-lh<l~ i~. -rn~dlRllli·· C';'II'ly:· Irk!.: pullmg a ICVL:f ur rrC""'ll1,!; <l buunfl un a cliuly d1~pen!fmg rnachme and hJv:ing ::I rreat imp OlD! Unh man-made muchmcs <LTC t:nmpl~[~y tigl:u1: .. mpled . .>\11 [jvj ng "YS'l i: m ~ arc It 'CI/l.C' Iy 1.':!.n.1 pled - >:I t le<l~ I W !\.O'iillt.: de ta~c.: I Lr)usdY coup lc d part!'; of a system are ~mt"""tml ~l,r even 1ru!.!.~Jr ~rlth:pcntLcm ut uric .i1HUUWL nanJ.. uf llic m~~apb,~~ of uuin .... u'!'· am] huv; tht:~ lire linked or wup~~>!.L if rhey'retoe u~lull' couple ... 1. ~h~ traln kl~e.~ i1..'l. tlh~~il;' lo n~guHJh.: ClJf"IJc~, Hut ff th..: "it.,,· are h'" It~j ... .:I.~' ~uil· p Il!tt t h L· I r.1 iII "" 111'1 ~.!. Ly ~ i ukul " 11 i I.: gL l Ul ~ LJ I' LI .1111 ThC! m:k ~ ... lu fi fltl IMJ ,I n ~'t:. nr n b·'~PPY[.UI;(,hunl,

II nth: lh:jl;Ulnu:nl j~ C:!I.flI.:FIc:m::mg .. .:r1!i.L~. In \\ h>~[ J;JI:h.:n! should II!.bcr~ Ifl [hI: same orgamzanonshare th>r: disturbance ~ i-or .'iumt' IS'HJC5. pwbtcm sharme IS Jcfiflit'l:ly,j g.C1nd Ilk-a, panicubrl: u Ibl· ~lrg.;mlzliIinn\ long.rcrm .~urvl~:ll h.n ~v.tk ... For many dav-to-dax business d1tllcu1ultS. however. rhere is no wilily m h:lv;ng every de p~1 st Ill'e B t reart tl1.~ t U l.lIllltliGJ·!> W I ubi&:''' HkL: ;.t k. U t:' ball hilting l j ~ hi:l'" bi I h~ rei h,j U~, Think of a rbameleon A. chameleon chang~s Il~ 'lll~rc; On the L1I..u~iuc tLI OlJapl lu ttl; SIUTmH1c1tng~,. bLil i~., Il'l:.<.idt~ "Id,~ Il,~ \oO!J]1.l:.~) survive U1 ~ c1u.nging t:m"i,nnm..::n!., ln~ chutncleon I!. J~J1 coupled. And the Lh:ln£i.~~ Li Wlder.g.I1C·.~ nn iu ~urlao;: e>tn he llmL'lgh I of a~ I:h.mg~~ in order flOI to ..:hiillg~ I!>C~ abl p.ag~ 3~J} ~~ t onsidcr \'.;lnnU1>< Ij'P~~ of orgarnzatioas- a u[lI\'ers:uy 1'i: hospital, 3. gm emmental agency .. u. manulacturiu~ ~·nmrJ.ny. <:tc "'", hnt arc I he .uj~'amages and dJsad~llm~~s (or urg<lnu<luol1tl.l subusuts hcing Ily:tH 11" n:rsus.liJw.c1) oolJpri!d'~

BUrreOll:llCnlllC}:

Thle 8tmctUIr(~ We ,know Be~t aliud~ U~e the L.east

Nm\_ kfs turn to the mast common structure fur an organizatiou aml ~:\.f11ai.n 1:t~).l"V it arose. its am anl:ag,t:l>, rind its di.~<illIages. and ",~biIL mT~hl be reasonable altemauves to it. ~,1.a.", \\'d)f~.r. the German theorist most often efe-oited with :e.xp!am.ing the. dynOlmic.s Dl buseaurracy. ",,"or].;c-,J tor avariety ef prrvate amj public organhat:~uns, (j rten asa OO[l"'.dLiJl L He: ",Lhm ! m.~d2d e ;l,l';!Il.'iin! 1:'. His experiences and hls HlJ dies god. ~ e him a verv broad vi~"" of the JJif!i!:'iCnl possibilities for organizational srroerures and processes ar different I:ht!~ and in different ,<\}ljeii~, \1,;e-bo:!r ",'3$ interested .LI1 what he ccnsidered ua • .: Ill' thle: m(I:-1 lr.t.~k lloc~11m:]5 in m~t:'~ How. and under 'll,il1].1: circumstances. do' people obey Mht'r>. 1:'-"P-",-,:aUy in~'litu[i('lfL"" even when no force is applied'? Weper Wf'fllc exte Llst~ dj em tht· tVpK 11t power an d ~;:;iiKally !J i1 what he called legitlmate power nr i:luIJlurily, He' disnngmshed 'three basic authority types: chansmatic, traditional, and lcg<:!I-r-<llillilaJ LeC!!: ~U: .. bout rhe ii.':'St two brlefi".an.cI then spend more tune on the tlnrd hl understand 11'1{:: routs and dvnarnics nf bureaucracy

T)fpeS oif Aufhorit;,r

'\Ve,ber":;; rmtinn n chansmaac IllJflumr; was based \1TI the pt:r:"nn;l! rhararterisncs and power (if an mdrvidual or OJ ..-millJ group+au the sam nsc Ih:u w(; nn" usc the rerm r::liw7.m7G The me ...... ;I~C~, I'lW1 I1UlU~r in an orgamzanon n:lyi"llg Ulli charismatic E1IJlI:UJrily arc hjghJ~ -peTs-una!; 11'1[;'1.' emanate from one J'1=r<:nn and feature m .. pirill£ '~'IlIl1es and gftn.'~ :] .'\uth"rily i,. c.,., rci~d in a hjg,hl: rJt .. NHlal WHj', Fer wchu, the pm'll lYI1(: of ch;U\~ITI,HK power was tlJ~ reiigil''Iu<;, ~1.'tl Each Ilr Iii Wo(1rf!l'r~ rnaj. r n~rl-

i~ln~ (:J~ Wl!U CI}, '>IT1.t1lcr nnev] \"I~ Hngmall:..l"lCIHcn.·JnMrl.lI .... rharnctensnrs nr perI\.tl fit WL:f If an mcividual. Tha per ... nn 1!,:D oft!:'ll ~.:rcCT'l,crf :1';, nUlnih:<4aHnn nf s- mille:;;:., .1 pr\lrh .. ~i ri,;rhap:- '\ .n til 'Hl!: ;.md tlie nr£:IIllZ'ltlon developed through lh chunsmanc power 0.1 that rndividu 1

1 hi!;' !;.Illatc"', ~lI:lnr.:ngc rC)r rharivmauc .uHh~'rHi lX-'JJ . when rhe leader dlsap· pwrs I rom the ~~I!1t.: IJ!:C;[lJSC the authoritv of the 1In:!.lIu;r;-1111 111 i" "tl t:C'n'~·rL:LII rn ltM[ ~. rS-Ol1, hr~ til h~r abxcnce ~1rL;'" nh.1 rn,i~ In ~u'fKJr.tlinm, ~ 'I,'H:1l ,L~ rn m.ln:, other kind:i uf nrg;mil;l! j lln.~ today, t lu~ pr~,bJ e rn i ... "-nnw n jl,,~ I h c: (1 r~ d~ le III \ II IIIIY'l"HitlIP The lhmcu!i:v in mj!~\iJ1g Ihl. trun-nion lhlm the 1:.11 ~rI~m;HiL·lnuml!.:"r nr ~!;rl'lip" t'c;.undt:r::; If an mganil:luon 10 a atw ~~1UTC " lhrt".ltl:f1:- ttu:: ~tl.lhl!llj r r]' the nrg n nl/.IlIHHL

{\m rher Ch'lllt:fl~C lur d1ilrl. mall, . uthoruv 1,!, hech '''I.:f'l.I;r called 1 bt: I'HlUIIHllJ {IWI tit dmn.vn;1 I~ ho .... · hI cu ture SOUl!;' 01 rhe Spiral, ·11,:r~. I.lFIJ ll\ nannsm n1 ihe [oum!t: rs 01 I hI.. I Hg""II1Lt~lllml and P[ =1:> I."' dl1..1'4;: lhln~·. In Ihl; Ill~UU.i.Uon.11 structure lIllhc nruaruzanon t\n\ Ol'o::JnlLlUOI:I b.,-..cd un n ml ...... ILln. If ...... ct III L'IHt:' values, h~ 10 dc.11 with rln-, {:I I)H:~ pt OUl: solunun L ..... It 1 .111t:mpl ~I j ~n' ituuonallze the actn tneof th~ Jjig,-UllZ;lUOo-to Iill lhL: .11' cnce 1 tlu, or 19in.11 charismati, .mil.iurit,:. b} crcaring t~H~ nf pu~j&jjl1b. rules, and r~guL1t1)nbo Irvnicall~ whar \.\c preserve IlhlV nrn 1-,.: willa we i11 ten d~d The ,'}rg::mi.;rn.l:1O n Vol II chn nr-~ a~ 11 r ~ uh • ..1 f lb~~ iHJdill.lLHl I ~, hicn, r [h~, [h:d i:I 11lll! ion, and i~ mnaliza UOIL

l'hc S.~I."'i,lT1ct type or Ll1ltilonl)' th i \~e~r Idt:'fl!Jll!:rl I~ rn:uluj.llmd am/Hmo' TIl~ '1as;;11: example rs the I'Wl1llrchy \"\,ruk [[IUIl~IthIGd ~y ... IC-ITl:S or ..,on;!.mm~m.lI~ gradI.!:llly thsapPl,;armg from the wortd, hIS ~pc of O!llthnrjl~ ruinated fU1 ceruunes, Thillk nf the film Tlu. List Empt"rur \ 1 <)8- •• Iur t.~mpk. ~-h re " fmJI'-Yf:l1'-IJ!.:! child come "·10 the throne as the last member U[ rhe '"h-Til1'. dyna ,,' ill China BIt the turn Id the twentieth ~DtU~. In the rum. m;m~ people. lncludin!: gcvernmemal otfieuls. tr:.. 10 do tile bidding ofthe child hCl'llIL"''': auth('lTll] r~ belies ed [(1 reside ill the Iamthal lineage, The C'hild Wt~lr:b lhe repo mcry fill authorny

If.!:. easv for us to dismiss itradJUonal".ultluTil)' as IITel~\<IJ1i 00 [he modern 'IIoGdJ until weemmine om experiences III or:garu:clliom. Think 0: 'iiIr- ~D you enter an organ [zanon for the -fum time and bC'g,m to le m th c rn~. One of t he most important arti\l rLi .~ yO!! engage iTI is EO ask questions O[ the people ill the organization about what ro tlu and what 1i0[ tv do .. After YOU'\'C een there ,..ix mcrn h or so, ynu ma~ begin 10 feel like y~TU can prol'of <I hit further, rrups I:' 'I:'U qUl:""4i~'TIin~ so e .olthe practices of the organization" Connnon respons " to! rur qm."'l'firlns may be: -D(1I1'[ wor~' about that" nr vThar's the \\a~ '" ~ do tilills,L a; uml hen; 3Ud that'sthe way we've aJWJ~S ilo;-,t iL'" This I~ the logic or uadltional aUlhnn1y III the organizanon, it is authnrity fDr autho riry' sake: ClutborHy based in traditiim and a desire 1)()'l10 rock the loom, ',\ iih lilt: mtunbon to keep thJn~ gomg:t~ thL:Y\'!:: .lh\""fJ'iil'; gone.Messages that ilpfX':d tu ur n:m[(TITC rhc ,ilk:a Ilf tit!: JJi};'HI.tl.aIHlIl",I. t'OlltmmU' are pan of the lo~ • I!f Wldit~nnal <Lutru,ril) The idea dS, 1'.11<11 L~H:' ut!fLLnil';'ll rIm has J"OV'"lT ip if~lf and th<ll P'''''''d' b \~u;rt11 Fn:: .... ~nill.~

jig Ch!lp~c:r T!Wu

-

The third tvpe of atrrhority, ~§1l--llItlCmlJ/. ]s best ~empli!Eied by bureaucracy.

Weber observed several worldwide treads just after me rum of [he twentieth century; further industrialization, increas se ed use cf ne\"\o-tedm(lt~ iII the autamation of industry (like Henry Ford's a~.:.e:mh]y fine. Vl'hich firsl <lp~red in 1.91"2]: greater 'reliam:1;l 01'1 record keepmg; and especially ;i push toward me S-'l'and~iz-lJitioD of work proceSS~~3. Ru] es <III d P meed u res WCIe lui ng precedence OVeT arbllTary deeis ron mak i ng and .i ntuiunn. \:l, ebe r prcchclN that th~ ". m arch of raue naJity'" f the' ge ee rod log rc by which an orgamaanon or a SO("Jel~ operates) woulu mean 'that bureaucracy wou~,t,l hecume the' UUiTIlll.aIH Jorm o( organiza[il1[1 regardless o'r th.eccof.lllmic basis of any parricu hit rut'i~l:y

IKey nem'e'f1i[.s (1;1 RIIII realtClmC)

Given 1 h~ rnulnple IC)"O'iimplc:<; of red tape snd pWhkrm \\,~\ c encountered or n:L'!d a boutwe etten equate bureaucraeywrth l$it:Hlcl"en~:y. lh.n n's unpcrrant to pnlhr; mmr cl:;cpl~'. w ask qu.;~[jum. <t~lUI ..... hy""',"!,· 11m'\: hlItC::J.Ut.:ruc;.'. '1,;·11:11 ~I~ n~.L~!t; i:lemem~ a.n~. and whn~ Lt~ ~d\-":!n.[ages. and di~d\'am .. g~~ <:lJe"_

Sum!; iJ'r the 1.!:~ d~fl!l.(:nt!o ul bUf~:.n.u:ra{."y ff'-HH \\'cocr\ PC:f"iIH,:C!I~''';: {nllu\!'

-/Ii. fixed c!i.\1510n of labor t that j~ ~'PC:Cla~iz.tHun. .. dJ'C' o;pcciflCd as juh~, pesmons,

nr mle~1

..... '1, d~arly d.:finc.d hi"fiUt'.h.} uf posmons, each wirh Ib own sphere 0] competence

• Juh applicants selected on lh~ basis of technical qunlific,a(illns-

• Fmpl(l)o'l:clI remunerated fpJid) to:-fIx1:lj ~Iam:"

• ~1.1lC pll~~lion Lt.,> OJ prlmarl! occupauun ul the ~)ffiCI; ~Llldl.:f. whowill make u ~,,:H:rr;:n in lihlHp!i:\.i ~ !un

• Prcmotion gr~:m.t'd. arcllI,d.i.ng to Scn!Dm~ and Or achie ... 'emem and j~pE'ndc[H un the j m.1gm~n r. Uf~UperillI'!>

.' $ep£ITIIUQfI of dOl.y-m-dil~ werkers from hlghe. authonties through the creatiou

.or managemen ( or a drniaisrrarion

.' Separation of work from .. h C1ru~ and famil~f life

~Wrju(::f!I. rides g,ovem!.ng. the performance of duties and behav ior 3E "~'ork~~ 1;J~eli:leL these elemerus !l>IT!.l90i:;.aI \Yebe,r called ., an ideal type" of bure JU-

~-f1Q[ ideal In the sense 01- something perfect or an ultimate good bur 1.1] rerms of somethingina pnr;t form. Weber l!ndE·~toOO: well mal 00 complete or pure bureaucrac.y could ever exist. He also knew [bar some oJ its features would cba..nge. even ili.ough be rom.an.'r Imagine me Spec1ft"'S (.for example, now-rdernmmlrring - would alifect em:plo~ee5· relationships with their erganlaatlons]. I.I:k."1e3G. he $<1\\ m~ bureauO<Itk:.moliel as; d.. I:emp]ate" one oC"u-t~]d place aver an 'orgamzation when <!D~.dng it tosee whiLlJ parts were bureaucratic and which werenot ·We.ber expected that <lny ~iN bureaucratic OI,g,aoo_atioD wouJd also have other chart!crerism::s_ uu:·luding Qtnl}I forms of authorhy, C OIlSj de". me m a:!.I~' I arge cnrpetat ions 1 hat arem anaged hy ~lati.c CEiQl;, (I ike IBMm ns first f t:W decades ~ 0. :1 bureaucrmic rel i ~Q L1.'i organWiffiio:noom as the Roman CathLllir Oll:rrrh s;[~cpcd m rraditional ::Il1l.htJri~_

Soci-\')liJ~~ Alvin Gouldner's ,",,'ork on bure<luLr.!l0· ~n the ] 9jfJs, helps tIS under!t1.fJJ'1d tboe rclartinnsb.ip between pn'lc.~~ 3iJld structure In Ihl!:' mnrcxt of hureaucraefe.s;& GGIiLlllm::f. wbOfe work foliO\'. ed (tom the wrinngs 01 Mall: \~I~ber. conducted

Organizational St ruc:ru re .and Process .3 J

~115 .':itudy 01 ItmreaucmCj' nn n ~'pstlin plan! outside th village uf "Oscar Center" in the SW[C of Ilhnuis, In his ~[udy. GouldiJ-cr identified .. everal typt'~ of bureaucracy present in that OD~ lflc!nryand iLlt::il.l"rlied several proeesse th.u. led £0 the tmmaticn Of;y bureaurratie structure. Spedfic.ill~. he lnundthcr bareaucratiaarjnn ""a" <Ii fC"31.11t of mun .. gcriaJ succession and the de~II''C' tu ~l\'e problem ... The l'Ie', m3T1IJ,ger 01 tho pI an I. " 'intent Peele," implemt":ntcd a range uf rule .. rn order to cut .:Qlljt. ... incrca !J productivity, and rn1vc himself to the h~l\d office rn uu.e:pon: .. Gouldncr also :iiuribl.u~d hllf~lJLJiJ.q TO the influence and power fli particular LIlJi ... ldu.m and w. a rcsprmse TO MWi--gcnc .11r.:\.1 1~Tj;510DS. 111 his ,Iud. ' [h~ W<IS p~.r'Jrularl) . ihle In E"l:elc'!; dfrarls, hi U)' to nd the fm.:1. '1 of rne "old guard," (' . .l'flsisling mlli:l1rr of fon:men wi1u had been nrnund Ell lune. urne and omwlkd ~:IIN'" things wt.'U.: Illnc in lln: r'aCiery. J-mall}. GuulUncr found thui bureaucranzaucn I.XGI .... when al] the- people concerned ~l'\ C equal unportanc .111Ll value 1.( oil rule i]"lld rhu~ film! n ~fC'pfe!>Cnl'jlLIve" bureaucracs. A'!> J! cm<!.: in p.Jlnt hi: di .. i:"LL'>}.D ~hc ILmrlilfL(lil of :lfcly rules In the plnn! thm U ~II: implemented 1'1, t IItJ) "!"lHl,r.:r.. and manag,1:[';

111 IL'nn., ul rornrnuniennon. ItU: m 'Itld I hLUcalJCTIil~ l! nory unportam, TII~ ~wcralJ !:(hIJ.I ur l."harHl-1 er of WcbL"r"s. mood i~ r;H.in[)lWlt) \\ebt.:r'!' theory ~l""' tlrg:lIliZQ'!i(H:1~ ,L~ a mC'iI1~ It' [1\'\:1' me mtl'\"1Juai cngnil.ln: .umli..ll1l1l'L~ .uul hu-~ bv "ppealIll:! h,1 i.1 higher!>'}' tern ~lr r li..Il.! .. and procedures. In Ihi!> .... ""i:!~. bureaucrncy i~ 19.Jlt:'U tu protecl U!> and our gmup from UlO much \licl~ht hem..: c,l'Iell U) LI:J~ whmL'o uf om; per'i(lll. who mfl~, ~ply be acung nn munuon or rur..uill~ K'U·imcre!>l in prrnciple,

bun-aurmc» 1.... mtrnilL"l.l !Q promot« (GlffleIS: it is designed . 0 treat e:'.-cryn~ tht: ~meul least \\-ilJrin thc= houmh nf COT! ideratirms uf merit, 111 [h' cnse, bureaueranc prineiples, such as hinng and prClmotm_ on the h'l<;.l!. u( NlruJ fid~ OCCII[!lltWtwl qutJ/i/it·atton» ~ ur BFOQ~) have often ix-ndih:J WOITh~t'i and mJOOtn:y groups n:JlII~ to brCRk into ccrtam Imll!ulHlIfI~ ni pruf~~ 11111., tlMl were n.ldirinllWUy run hy ~HJJ b~iyS' cl ub.~. " On the other h and, e v en with <L well-ru n b ore;:Ju.;r.tJ:\' , I hI; ~IJ]~" II t fatrn~~~ m::d Y be llnLilh.:J m scope and exclusionarv in ruhcr ""~,,,,-Faimc"'<i is ~H1c Llr the most unpnrram tearcres ot t<l.I[e"llJCHK'1' ;'i '!['a~ur~' fllll:l1 lu~r in l1.mtemrurn.ry d&u..~lon~;~

R1Jrc<ll1cm9-hkc PIJIt:'T l(JTTIl.~ 01 "i.iUC'ture-15 a tope: at commururancn shortcuI. BUl'c,mcr.iuc_' glH:. lIS:I!OJ stem li r\JI,,~. n:gula~jnll!' and PWo.;dUfC'S. fnr dt:;dm ' ..... HIt II varictv ~Ir ",H.llllion.r;, .It helps 11.," set standards Iha[ 'I,lilliapply ;lCT()Sl., the board. 'Ii :11 lea ... t in m,-'I\! in~l<'IflL·~'" th.'ll \'C' C n illmgil1l:. Th rule \\C' usc i .. an uuto rrne ~~r mnny delibe rations .• Htd WI: don'r ha~1.: I~l n:pc.i.l .II! the JisC'u ..... ion ~n;!1 VI en imu ere•• 1 iug h ..:mJ~ link: ~c ; r ~. In uprl~ II (On ITw ijlhl:~ hand, the rCci'iOm lnr tht: rule c ra n g~t 1t1.~t II~cf urnc ....... m.iD"t' <lml mi~iC p..:nrlc 'ippl~ ir,.1 ~J.~nJ,mli ... ~d ~;-",h=n1 ill\'iI~lihly I mtls1alCl~ l,u il 10 .... , ,)1 mdi'ltidu;lln~ C'C' thl: discussion rJ1' dj!I.Jll~·::mt;IJ:~·~' ~hm I

i\d"f3 nl:ace 0 f Btl reancra tic 'bnu:tute

~Q..]. there an: !!L'f.OU reasons "h~ we have bureau r;.jJl;) n;,~,.on!> ,JmI gr1 l[)~l 1mb)' Ifl OIJl ru ... l1 ltl Jcmoniz~ ,'L '"'loCI IlnglS! ell rrl ~ PcrTIM summarizes. bureaurrucv !!l.is!s in, 1,lrgl.' r.n1 hI Imrkm "l'll UflI\C'I3".lli .. hL II! u .• mmon .. r..!JlJau.k .uul Jl I'm·'" tu pu 1 gc: PI~rtH.1.d.an~lil! unc~ ~hilI .JIr;; t!L'd LL' speouc Ind.", idL..LJh or situatluns ~~ rhi. .. llI£.i~' i- \I~ry TDlIIJem. J.J.nJ h L:c.buc~ Lll-l· ldJL...~nL~ of lI:rl~," (PI IJlh:ll\'~ nng g~ IH:.r d la .... ~ ,[111,1 prinelples b.1 explatn the \\~'rld In the ~.l'.C III hUrl:.ml,."JA') ,L~ Wcllc:r him~dl r[:~ug" rJ.lJ'~d. \\~·r~ :'<:I.:'k.i[lg g~ncnLlq]uhk. T~l't(~md prim .. ,pICli tor ,tnu.;tlu:inJ'! LlW' \\;L:lr!., acuvines Listed b-elow arc ~umc or Ihi: pl1[1CIplE"o t.h.tl1: made bureaurraci '>LI dJ.]i)ICdltl~r

,. H urea UJ.. TIl.CI\ is based ua mert L. I!.S. nen-arbirrarv, and is s~51em:a tic This J ilfcrs driiIflD.1J,,".iH~ iJHIJl !III urganizatlon gc\.lh:InC-.l.! b::- Ihl. (]l. ~in;::'1 Llf LTn>! P'.;!["i, m WhLl happens 10 be in charge,

• Bureaucracy can bud In organize I[,rgc ~",[/.:mr... h:~r example. govemmental agencies, multinational c irporauuns, aml glt baI religious J<::nUlnioa~iun. fin: usually run according hi bureau !1l.l1r- prmnp!t::-. The principles of bureaucro!.cy £lfC gJ='nerdlii:atd ami -an ~ used ln maaj different eonrexts,

• lIur,;::am:.-rnc: ofT~n;; u . et of rules and prartiees mat can be learned, applIed t\(lnsi~h~fl.rl~', and passed down over time

[Jiisad.\\8Iltages, lO'r 8ureau,cratic ~'tru:ct~) re

Now let's tum Ln I lrrec m jor di"lI1:hwllllgc. (lI b au -;,:uy i 1) 1..11 ~ bureau-

l.'1',:uk l>t.rurrur~ ili31 t:xi:!.u. 0\ r time, there's a great risk n] n .... .ercentralizarion of power 111 the top of the pvramid, I~) There's a threa '0 i.ndi\'idml.lil,}. the danger HI everyone becoming. in \Neher"s I)'I'."D words. "merely 3 cog. 111 the rnacbme," t3) Bu reaucraey elevates what \Veber called form :11 rati 1Ji1il.1 h~ 0\ t r sucsranu \ e "mona lilji~pe(lp1c: become more cnnccrned a:ho!.H. C'''dlru.tOl.l!fi~ liul lru.k.~ and less aware of the big pirtu re _

The lin:t di",,1(ivl.lnlage. thr:: 0\ errentralization of pol ... er .. mav be seen in nenrlv :m:r' largl!' nrgan,izatitm that bas 1.'~.i~tl·U fnr.l number nf year. ~1'rHl~ I<lrgc l :·.S. cnrpurations in the 191J(1s rule] !~) lis are parncn I <I, I;; ~Th.l'd ~mph,: _. '\ l,m t· u I th L~L: I I'l;l'Ul i-

zatians, ike Ford and General ,Mn lOr.;. had (k1. c:1l"Jred m [lIrt:' Ui~J1 10 ~'~V"E: 15 i n ~h'E! i r Ofl'lillru.l.atinnal hierarchies. c[ealing a huge gulf bt:f\\~~11 those :H ~ht: !nr 1:IIld those III Ihe hou om nf I ill:': h i~"iri;,hl'. <Ill d an COOmlOl15 nmeu m ofpocwe r for those a L the top. ]l'~ nul ~oU1cid'Cntal l11:l1 -'ptBnnL.:d nl;~.t"lk~n£r- ---!:n!,';: idea Iho'll prnduets <Ire designed In have a limited 1ife so th~ hsve to he r~pl<!!:ee~W'i!O umu.:-J withm mdU:-iIrit,~ interested m mnsnmem g sales.

'r(~ I1TlLJcr.mll1cllh~ !>Ct:Clrt{! di"'1~h'HlIi1~IJ;. rhe rhrcill tn Lnd1,,,ulu<l1ily,, ijmagrl1c yours.c.!r as a ~luJ'~'nt rn Ih~ rnl~m\-ing srtuntion. You mteud W apply- for financial aid foOl' ~.ml: nexr semester. and ~;Ol.L\·J:: J(ti.~ learned rhut the ileadlmc ~-;'l-~ y~~:l~fLhl~'. 'I,\IUmul m;.'i~.~t;mn'. ~ nu":n; n I ~ ~ s Ll re you 'rr guing tube al'l k [0 ~ () mitn..Lc. in ,;.t:lw() L \VhcTl ~"(! u go to the Iii1;JrIo-;J1 ard ulfi'~.IA:hiU «oil ')r .JPPCill. do \O1:.l make "nlLl'lk ctlre'fil.lJl} bcl.."1J.u~!': ~~)Uf ~I1WIII imrul~L ml!=tll h!:' III '1111 .. hl1Ul jjlirn ..... 1 RUI ~h~ deadline W='l~ puhli..~hl.:'~L~r y!Jll~n\'u~, t;' ! be r-nnl"l p II;' ,I ,'r j uirne ~"'. I he n'~ pOflK mi!~ bt: \''"''l! !'I m ple: -,~ t)m be i n~' fait. The deadline ... \'<1..~ i~LlbJu,hed, .. md I rn 'Ippl]'tn~thc rul ... hl }\llU H~ rw t'l.f1f1hcd it to I:;l\!t; I)'hnd} dM:_ H ,.om Ip,!CIhnh Iy hOI ~'L: .1 t11;UL'l:-C hanc, if ~ L '\JU: .. ~- m~ 1 i\ iiI UfI.l.L}UC Clfl r~:~ b" "My dog (lied ~·t·!Ju~nLlj' ';""1 """<l!l s.I·d,-: or, ·'~Iy partner lust len me." Thll!':'\!:' parncuIlId~Uc jll)pLml~ locus on you .I~ a PCr'iun.. tL" utl InJiyidul~I-.dinlc.;nslnlb normuBy ig;[Jnrcd[h~· hU~1;.-I]~C'f311~ pcr.-.~"II!:~I\' .·\mJ [he rc .... r find 1 he: '[hw.;..t tu 1nd.I'm.lui:lljty~ th~ ront1~C:T ~l.lr'l,u::t:~ because the 1)~gOlni7~nitUh!1 rule- become rl1nn:o imp" .rlan! than LIlL.: im.thHlullL~ the) \~C[!;.: lk~a!'H.:J W !><l:rv~. \,VhL:u \H' un:.r ,I),. t'mplu}I:'~" lIr mcmbcrl> bf an llrg~.n.iLJtioI'J tha: ~c re replaceable. W~ are disturbed !hOlt urn I.I..IliqUl;l.Il,lllJ· iti C~· seem lL' 1M\!. .. 110 r i,! k~ u nc ...

Th~ IlmJ ai::.JjJ~.llI1LI~gt" im Il'~'IC:" ':l'llnl~t he 1\\ ern [urm .. 1 ,rl1J MJrnl.lntl\IC rauonaHty, "fL, pur L! another W\l). rcupk txCt!m~rrlt~)<L-cI!plcJ wuh tiw rm;.a.~ur.lbh; nlt'c:m,\' [{1 m:hil:\,\. ~~nitm g., .. h.,--H ~y~I.:'J.I1 fur fLlmg ... l~chnLd'Ugy Dr Ji ~P~I.fi!.." ,""ud. pr4L:t.lcc-Wr:!J lL::. ... ~ cuncerned "',1111 the content Glf those larger goals, The rrudlite crisis IS Of[~ll the result (11 this \yplt 1 )fi:onOsC!..: 0\ person whn L"i busy g\lln~ llP1lIU the da~IHO" day rounnc of his or her lilt: sudd~ttl! bib ::!I (:nf,lJ> uf mcarnng. Wt:. sometimes saructur, our \~'udd and orearuze our rune to make deadlines, show up at rneenngs . and so on, ·"o'~lhm.H Ihiflklng :jbmll the ulrirnat .. ~LJ<l~~"W~ can become Ob5CS$~d wiLh squeesr[);g in a number Uf·l:!LWl'llic':.!> withuut ::L,,-'L:.ing nLln.d\c~ if th~) an.! really important to us, :r:f: w~ evenrually recognise that wi: .ha;",~ ~lruClun.:'J om [jve ... af(lund Ilicti\.il~es thai aren't fLJl(j]]iIn.c~.' ,...~ can experience J CTl6i.:t Many orgaD.lL:H.lllru. M1ffit'TWc ~mi: SDr~ of rn1~J(jdy dud need W reflect on ....-b.at"s I"~al!~' Importanr, Consider, IPr example; [he bospiti! I HUll i" sn concerned OIr.cUi processing forms L;oTI~(tl;. that it lOIII.::e:" patients W wail h~for~ being treated. Wni.k there m2lY he Ic~] and institutional pr~So5lJre5 on hospital ernployees to ·'gel the forms done rrght," that concern h1:l~ tn be balanced against the larger goal of o[f~rillgne~ss:a~i rrearmear to patients.

From "c~.-.'i pcrspccrrvc, ('or~aniz.at:ioj]~ :shOljM experience crises of meaning.

On a. daily basis. the members of an or:g:!!1'rl'.::nhm arc: WT<lppt:'d upin (k~r"g \II-]-].'1t Ihc~' de, w'O! rie d abou t the I ilde details uf gert i ng their job L1one. I he' sarnc rsn be [rut: fM the crganizatirm as awhole 'Ii.\llen a person N a department l~ concemed p.i:ma.riiy ~'hnut im\,\' & ~ 1 m rrvc ,~ "lack uf papc r from nne o;;ilj e n f 1'11;; de;;}; tn a 11111 her. ir i <; easy fn r them 1 n ~U'4: ",gJl l • \I WhIl t rn ig:ht ~1; rbe 1 il '1:er pu rpese iIr~ .olve d in rhe if W;JrX This Is exactly what \\d~~r w(lnN:d ligaiIL~L the .. tructurc nf ~mr.; .l~,tiv~tk~ 0I11 (I'H'f'o'.-hdnn tlte rmpn"t" and the hit~k f1'rrK'~~~~ llf '''>11ft. \;J,.'dlCT u-cd the metaphor of the iron cage to depict bureaucracy, showm~ 110\\ rl oOlh PfIJh~r(S and traps us If'L~H::Ie .:! Slmch.Lrc wc bi<l\'C: CrE',1t1:::<i.

--

BQ;lI; 1.4, 'BulI"'e.a.U.c:rraq: ·"C;m'·'t JWe w1tb ~ Gm",t'lhre widlgi.lt: II:!"

VVihe:fl Ge-o~ 'Ni6 a new- ii;51i~'~~" il't the LlTI!V<:r:>1Q' of TIIrlliObi m the T111d-J .~. Ile .......a~ ::t~!rod ~'(l boI! ~fI lnifQmW o!:~farl;t for ShJd~ flJ'r Mutw!! Arms 'Ft~ducW" T ~Ik~ (,-SMA-RTI. AI: 2; tltI':;l!!. wt'mnrnn~ ll!mJt '~(l. rnmu of ~ wari;!"t! tletwren mil! Uni~eQ 'St;lte~ god! th~ ScM!:t Un'.I;If] .... = "b.rm;IIlg!y hiKn. ikE!; ~ of ~:t/iern a.~~ was 11t,~r-· 11S[l!d In. ~ 01'1 (ill:!: prohlr:m ,It m'l!~cJ oj' cirnl<l'l ~~tioFl, W'hCFi G~rge ;!<ttg,nded 'I~helf ,tI1r<_kou~ m.~~;ti.n-il!. Of11! ~ ~ if!!3j MIOf\i::!,"~ ,:!r~ q:j,(! c:lrg;.nI.l<Iti!:lfl'~ ptlrpr:;til? it:5 n,w:!:ure,. ,lfid ·fiow It w~t :gbtR.rt ~:!l1t.!i wo,1.. dorl£. T1-oe o~nlZiit.inn·~, le;l~r outlined on (hI! 1:I~:I;~o:bo;J rd thr~~ h reranhlal ~_ ~j.;( d'~~. ~rd ~ml'l !n"'uaed,]l po~oon-of ·'Xnrn,:>:!!.,.-[cr CfI~ ofrnl! d"uD n~n m.1:!m~r.I, wTro!l;!! ~ WOlJttll:H!: W I'I'Ukc pootQ~!:Ipl~5 fe.-· ;III ef u"il C't;i1.:..-:rn~ d .~ Oi"g;rril'lT.l1lliDfl TIm'1oif;Io!i an O~rlll:Jltftlln ~ only '[Wd~'l:! cor!:: rn:~~1'":!. ~ ru:l ~bout i:.5 CI'Ihen II ~SO;::;l;Illll(l' wi~ i::. :rrt ttl;!!.!)' W~II'C I fltl:flt !lin tm ~I!l'mi!rn.lng ~ nJBf'r'r ru"'IlIC~LI:rot!od1 but'1!'.lu<;nq, At~I".I"L. G~ ~. ~t1C1l:ked bythl;l;. tJu~ u:pon fllll~!;:lliOr] ~r;rhed- "Wfr.!'· nl;!l' b,n't ~ Wi!! !ii1tl~~ ~1:!1TIl1'1tIirI "'11I".li111;!wi:tJCfl'~J R.T1J'tlIJ1'"~ il.rlll'· ~blll:;l" Sool'i th~ ~II group of :t~U W1.~ !iP~h,IllO ~i! Al'a.T 'Of' rBM No rln'l.lb;: Ii'll! d!U\",;rI~ted Xe~cr >;'oI'M1lIf1'~ Dr dI-m !im. CD be: I:b~u#tf:d UI-~ dod 110~ ~em;!J1'1 ~~c~ tg ~ho O~lI!:tl!~ 'I'm)"longl In f;J.a.., ~ o~'prll.r,njol'l I'~' p!'ob.1bl; ~14n't l;:r.n !Qn,.Il ~ •. ise It Wt:l.~ ~EI ..... eighl!tl. dcwl'l il)' iu:, O\-.;n IDut~

I(~ ~~~~ for .d to look ~t <'I elSe bkc th'" lfid 1il1l,C"", lfun.foun.!l, uu~ Uli! l:Ifg.:tl"la::lDot\ \o<II'3JI'I'( ~~ sm., I"t iIIher all E4J~ tile I~ i'"il:e:r I~n ~~J".r= ~1l'pHe~ ·w I'TQrrr Cilfp~~tiClm~l1t1 t.C ~ cd OLIF cJ(,!J<~ril=l'l~.e.. IT iVr'lI mliL ml! $tudml lClrln.!lt &1"'0 lip n~~ ~ "'mel (If '~tI'.LIo!: t!If'f', OO"'¥ do yE1L1 think thl!Y !hElI,,tt! h~vi!o ~.tru~ Ui.I!ir !Nerio!:' ~i'id..t.l)" wh:ll. wo ulld you ·r~O!'1;\~ndi (oOlr l1J"I ~'l;IoI:iO"r::IeJ~rn~ wir.h at.1'I c! t1roil !ot1o ..... u'og dir:m~oom: oft:he o'"gwr iBthCr.a.i l~~' UJI ~~. EiperJaJl)- ~tin§idel" how JJI ~a;n..M ILk~ dl~ ~ QI1 t:o€~.t 1:rI~'Pire J3 m~bef5 ..... hn~ a~ ~i!r"',oing ~uen

A~ O.rlt)! ;mel l-iiem.rt:nr D~IsIDfl-'m3ki['!g M~th(;lct£s Pi..ub~!!l f;DC Ac!:Jye M2!1'[1 ~ers

Job Sp-=d~tJ:=;md Spectf:.a::<ioom

Degr .... of Form;Jl~ ~n By- ia""", ~ M~L':I~ R.e.......-...rt! StTtro.--wre: &n~fitoo IDd p,~~

T( l cl!;:!IY m;;,:i.i~' ob~roJt:'.Th s,pe..ai uf "non -bureaucratic - or ~pOst-b me...a ucraric" orgaIllz.:a.tion~_~ In Califcnea's Silicna \'alley, for example, there are many hi~-iet;;h firms !ni'll organize thcrnselres arounda "i.:![ nfplindpl.. .... lhat inr:~t!d!.::

• ;J: n;l#tll<-d~ n~H of~JTliult:ioml!l :jlmClun::

• a hi~h level of r:A1Jll"<1lior! and training for mos.l or~:;mimti(maJ members; I ~lLJ fixc'lI posi t ions f ur Individuals ~ except, perhaps, the rounder ~ t

'. project -cente red organrzation t in contrast to atradrncnal functional stru crure );.

• ili high lh: gre eo (J f inte rdelYll(:I~ nee:

• little regard tor seniority; .' i nnm"O'I ljnn <15 pn (l rity:

01pmiz:HioIlIlI Structure Ed .ProC'e1;S J5

-

• rewardstied In performance: and

., :l>lrfling GmphL1s.i~ On ndhecrales, plOCf'dlllralflf:::'i:ibility, and adaptation to the rnarket cnvrnmrncnt.

TIns U$ tile '''..!rJ- kind of urg<:lni.?.<J1Bm ptJf1uJLln7.t'd Hi the c.ui~ 1 q.sOs bv U(lC'I Kid~fr's book Till' SVj~' of a Ncv; Muchin£. '" hirh JC'1:rinL'U the jn:- .. onrl th~' pressure- uf "dlfk life in ~ i lit' iI high Ij Jy narnic .tIl J J ernan d.ing wmpu! c r 11 C1rdw:ar~; firm.~ Orgaju- 2l:I,ti[l11.'> that fQII('J" lhC'_~ principle .. h':1111 II he rmm: nrmj.,h.: than ~r.lditinn;~1. hUn:<lL~" U<llil: mg;mi ,; a 1 i oru I rnl Us I ri ~.~ rna: hi g: h tech, :nkcrt"lTI ng, and rese a ITh and deve fop mi! n t, '\ hl:'f I: \U H k 1!. [undann-n 1 .. 1l~' ;)hml t !ll.;"\~ i de:1:'" nttnn i ~~!C' 1 h i .. flliml 11 f organizatlon. <IS do IT.· a rn-hus ... ~·d M~':Wr, In ~\,'~'~mm~~nf and edur .. non ln sortie ~J)"S. nan-burcuucruuc OT:!!'-I.nw.Ju~m~ arc nnthHl,!! nL"W, Oq,!!am:r.:lt1on." nmgmg [rorn ~lCJal move mL!JlI Sit I srudcn I gl'1.J u p~ tu ~m:i [1 1 •• tour 1J mOil!>. to wurkc r C(HJpS have expe n Ilflu:nlcu with ~llH ~1nu.""tull:" LLnt! n~",hlt. rrIJu::",>ot:~ hlI..L lung rrmc. A~ ..... t:ll di~L"U~~ J!,! t.bJ4ph~r R, n(]n·IH)f~-m~"f.fli!': mudt'l~ ,m.' 'lfh::-n -cen .i~ r.CTI'lJ: (,-.mp;HJbJ~ \":~HI i:~;]lI.L'[ar· ~[ljlli and democrauc ptuh"";L 'pluL:I> L1f qrg.;lnwng, \~ ill~ r!,;~J1"" U II' ",,\lnllllLl.IHt,1 i I~ Ill, 1l11nhu.rc..Hu:r.alit' w~ IJd~ I If ! lr~.lJ1in~lIl m~ ,t'rc lc .... prc~h{'l:tbl~ arul ml..lfl: lluld than \\~b~.'~ ml.~d.(' J N~l\'i". let ~ 1\),1 k .U -"t J ·",,J,l!cJ .ill.: rt 1.11 n (' nh.,;h..l .. 01 I )tg; mi J:;L t li III rnore ~r("fuJlj', -nlq'r-c L...l]ka:1 ~.:.!h~mO!IlH;· pn-f.;I-.t:ly hl:~'alJ~ [h~':; "'am ttl be ~MkfC'nr fIIorn hl.ln::<lum..lc~' '\:" \~ I.:'JI ~ct!. I h;11 I" 1101 ;m 1.!'<l,S~ gO:111, I .i~~hi\!H:

A, we- dc::pmt [rum the huruanrranc Inrm Th~ nr~nlt::moflJ.1 structure !!{·t~ more fluid, more nt::XJ.bJ~_ Ihe hJ~r.J.rch_~ becomes f]_m~I •. arlL.! r~nrle arc n:l&!a.~'I,.~d {rum Ill!.! !]luunug~ ... f IlH: tradrtnnial dl'.j:!\ltm.:J.J1J..l-t1~p~I.rLml:'rH ",~ruLU.uC, A[ the !ramc nme, lxJwe\'e;. lhe b-OU.I1d.J.nc, ul [bit or ganizauon .r. .J wh Llk, :IuJ I.ll c I~u\'m LI.mc ~ ~"lf r ndi\Ild IllII U II [l~ .... i tluu t11 t: 1! g.aJ uzauou, he ... lHDC rrtuc] I 1~·_ ...... ~L rr.ittnL 1"0 us, 1 h t.:n; 1~ lc ~ prediq;tability rn people ~ work behavrcrs, .-\1.0. th~u:: :m:- much higher .J.:m.md ... ptm:ed nnl,h~~ lin] i\ jdual II'i re rrns pf hL:Ul,~ able ttl ~\ nr], \\ hh :.I "3.JlCl} [If dlffen:n1 pnlpte and nor necessarily the samepeoplerodav as FS[f'rdajT Or as toruorrow.

()rg;im,w~lnJ1al ~hr.:onsl G-',H'Clh Mmgan l see hox :.5 ~ u.~.s. dli.:l~f<lmS w help us ~~IQC ~I)m~ ui !h~ kl;Y dil terenccs mstrurrurc and what t~ mean In terms 1][ "",ork and comrnunicauon patterns 'l'irithin. the UTgnn izstinn. N1,,1f~ that th~ hierarchical Sl:rllil'Uln:' uf I h i;:: m~,"n iz;" li L H1 bi;~ "Om~~~ less structured from the fi51[0 the last model. Work is n:fl'rg;l[dzt~tl.!~livili~~ !m.'llm..; centered nol '\0 much on traditional departm~tlts, bUI On important pro,~i;(I.'j; <li1d taeks 1.t131 need W get done 111 chapter I we ttlkt::d ahUUI recngincermg as Of theory of (Jrg:a]]iz.in~_ \lomt and organizing pcopllO: ':. ~l:EItion.'i.hir~ 'l"iUui'i the organization rv' Hammer and Cbampy point out, zhe ~ru::c ol the H..iL':a or reengmeering is to consider (he basi .. work processes oj' the otgEniza[iC)I1"~m:lt.hen organize "'n~Ii; and employees' relanonslnps around those bask fU.nni OIl s.

Procurement. developing new pUJoUUCb_ ~[I. ing the custurner. n:pr~.sC!'lnl1g the: nrganization to outsiders, and 'so forth are all basic arriv lUt:"_ \\'~ cnn lhink ;lr.nl1! Li:lC:5-'! <l5! wllrl prIIU'5.~5 thd1. might bring mg;::lilcr ~l:'ptl..:'~:I1LdD\t:~ nf rmmy [r.H.lilinmd departmenta in <L bureancracv, Thus, under n;~f!resefnjng the flt,ttan:iJ_<lliml h:l nutsidess, ~ we mi gill hrin ~ ll1g~i.,b E' I pi: r~nnlld [[1 un a r<0:I ~ traditn 1tlal.~ Lhuu~h t of ;j!; L:'JI I er nal cnmmn nic a tioafunctrons-csales. adve rtJ.:5IIlg_ pub II c relauo ns, an d I'll ar k I:t, n g, iBilH ~'¥.~ could ,d~ include empioyces from '1L \"a[]eI:Y L~f tm~mi.lU~ {ucu~"'[j dcpanmems ~ ~~kc human resources, producucn. qualm'. flccllunluil,~" NC_l_ lmlccd, iL rn,.y 00 argucrl Ih,1I I L)(J<l~ these Tau~1 lk partrnents art" a~ important .J.~ the former \\ ht:n

36 Cbap[~r TW(l

-

,~ ..... ..

n1i]:RIIi7.atinns represent themselve to OU15ld~l3 The f"UiIll I[I l.J1olIlg toward [I project-based ~~ rueturr I~ W :.illn.," the orgamzanon [0 onem rtself toward its must fundnmentul concerns at a gJ:\-eo ume and tn brmg logcuhcr iJ.1I It; necessary C.\pe'l"use and resources.

In movmg from rnodel tumodcl, we sec tht;; need for different relationships ill'JJ dtfrenmt communiearion, Each model C1iIII be ViL-Wl:"d a ... a pnth::rn for mmrnuaicarinn, The r(~iJ ~mrr.UIU"run h~ghlTght~ st [I mhll ~ uPCI"<ltintt procedure ..... emphasizes rules end 1:ji.["llllishct.l Pl'lIIxJun: .... mtl relic: Oil stable posinons nnd deparlmc.ntal hound· aries, ft,'I,uch II f til e wj,1.1 t hat gnC'~ I In in q;lI::h an (1r~l\n U.l'l1 illn I- Ii ely In Iw ~~ .. rried

111 lhmll£h form!!1 rcl"llilln.JJir~ and m "'-lgc The matnx (r~OIlUlIl(l1i COi[!::;; tor 11 hreai.. 101m 1:101!l'hh51l1.'d patterns of interdepartmental Oltntnumc:!TJO(1;m i requires a ~iCat deul u! <l,U hnt'. un-t hC~'f'lll nrp.:Hlliring In Ilu" Inrm, \\!: "." uuld e "c1 OJ cllmpll::I; '\'I7~nl,l.: n] Iormal and Ln1unnal rL:obu(JTI' and m~~~" 1'1;] the l'l"Ojetl Qrglun';;£lW>n. bound .. nes between departrnerns are Ia.rgdj elmunuunl; mernbcrv nr rmjt:cl: team .. uhen L1.1mc from \Jmh::J~ JiffcnnlJ. PllulJo of ~hc ~lr~ai'1lz;.ullflfl In some instances. the IWlir1,; mE!anu[Ul[Hl may runcnon as ,1 t~..o.m_ The h1gh pr!!m[um. placed nil cocrdrnunon mecns tl1M '[hl!'f(.! Wtl'Uld be fcll1l i"l!h huh: pn:Ju::tabiHl~ m rd~ljon~hjp .. " "Hal adi ui .~, und 1lll:~"Llg.t:':"--OlHhrlLlBh Ji<,.\1IK:l P'I! terns ~~f cmp!~ e rel: tions mIll' de\"dllr wi!hi'l'lI ,md across prejeees. The projC'ct org:;ulIl.ll.ti 1" ma\ nul I.h~ O~·'Cr 'I inu., Thb trpt: ,L or team-l used -arucun e panrll +, I, h.:.it management s::lUlbr n'rU) Mlnll~ J~l"g calls ·"uLlluli.Cml...,)' ,,; The I, ~,\dr mllpl'd dn:lUW' rlt'm Nk has [10 kJ:J blur::pmu; ... ,[11il. t.illd 1 urguruzaunnal structure cmt:r~p .... hen iJ :o..e'l (II grou nr i1rgaUl.l;;Lliolh with common inLerl!M.lo tr) In tonn 1111 iilIiruu."'t:" ur <i. Ja:rgi;f" , .... nrl iug grnup transcends WJ;: sptrJi"k urf,l.m i:l.ti t inn .. I hat rna ke II u P

We ha~L: emphusized n.n.\ the structure MId ~"mX"e::s:s of an orgaruution tin: interdepmdent. It's easy to mrge[ LItis inh=rdt."p-.cndt:nCJ: when ",,"hal WI! e« of an nrgamza- 1i0Il ~ nne architecture, the formal urg3.Wnl1l:mal chart, logo--" "'lIT handbooks of rules and procedures. These things C'3D keep us iron I <bcm". how orgrHUZ<1lI0m; ,d~lop over tJ.me and !:'.:-lJe.c.ll1!ly how I rue ure emerges through rnmmunicatien Jlr~s. ""llith today'ssiress Oil <!idaplab;!n~ ][I I;l: nrrbulent envtrnnment. researchers a.s", ~U ;;~ s pra critioners Mit beginning 10 pay close artention to l he ""~""S vari U LJ5 or gal1iz.uj.O'rt3.t structures emerge and ~speciall~ to hLM' urga!1!i:zalioru an learn h) Ultouify tbeirSlnlctures uvcr time to meet cb;.U1_ - g needs and a host 0:[ sausnces.

Ideas about emetg.i.TU1 structure run rrmrner to the definition of vrrurrure ..... e e ff:ie.d It oar the h~g1rming nf this chapter. ~hidl emphasized h.a(, pre's,xctifa I~r U DtIUlnar;!. Structure In l1l<:lll ~n~c: s eo - ~ "JOe rarryaround .."ilh - 10 help !ihap~ -nev. SItuations using familiar moll>. Still, ~ .. we have Soet:n •• rru ture doesn't ~ply eome : \"'11 from anf1l\"c'; il is created and 11<1:. <I hl.!i.tOl'}'--likc a :.cl n rules thill '!,;e appty faithfully tu the W;l! w c design public speeches .. In talking about emergent structure, V;"e. are being deliberately arnhrguous, \/i'c"n: frying to cap ur~ some recent trends bat bin organize t J(1 11. ... a rid III reo searchers undcretan din j!'5 uf t h em t hal are 11 bu mmpHcatctl. h~Jt W1; see them as nnpcrtant not onlv theoreucalh bu.l ahtJ pmclical~'_

We mean "cmergcut structure" in ~H lcasr three senses, TIn: rm[ mcaning if; tD:1:" ij,ku thai a faid>' unstructured. inlorrnal, and "i:pnnlaneou~ ~t [If ""-oik relariunships

can become ail ·f-ft:'£tive: strncrure that 'IIolJrks for lht' people tIIVOb'e{\ and allows them h! Hdupl1 hat strucrure ll!Ji needed. This i" [he idea 0 . ()1~krf1risilJI! Old ofrrwlIT-1! dlsurdrr. M~J]ll:[inlC:~ even nut of chaos .. ln iJ. SC~. <Ill nrganizatrous begin thlj, "..a~, 1i\lth this point. li\ C (""AU .:lit 'I'll inn 14 the fact that irder md di"llmCr Hl"C Interdependent. o n c i rn r' ic ... non of c h ~ O~ t ht"QI) for r~nlZi!lL(m<tJ communinu ion, Il fur i n .. tance _ is Uwl certain h:n.J.. fl, .U~J.." of ilu: I~.dlinll m;J~' he less strucmrcu than IJlhen;.. lhf:r:eoy Jllo"lil~ ~H"J1~r tTemi'll). Those p .. rts nf the Ilgantr.1I inn then act <IS incubaiors fnr new unci potentmll~ lI<;cful structure Mono >Iway fmm Ihl; rn:1~d that e\'t:"r} level anu t:\1:1;> depanrnent nf an t~r};iHillt<1linn needs ui have the same ril!.l?rt!1' Llf ~lrL1\.:lllle allow;; mtuauvcs Il'! be IncJ ,.md tested. 1\l('w pauerns nl wnrk mJj emerge lnal win h!':l[l UlL_. enure orgaaization ,u:hu:\.; n~ common purpesc

Ihc l'oC'v'mJ ~.(l'''~ IIf cmcl1!cnt ~TU urc m v uh~- .. (he Id1:.::t that svstems, !>lIt-h <I..., nr!:HIrI i/,;III~m .. , m~n1k!!1 It:ndcn~it.. .... to -knuu." theIr re II:"'. .II'LL envlrnnrncru :IIlJ help to derermine ,11(1'\\ 1111: "'''lem \,nll .1 , >tnJ rLi~l III .J riIllfe Dr ~nLILlUtln~_ An~ ~"v""lcm. from .! hm~ngJj.-:'\l ·ell '(U ,j l>1JCicly. has ;J -f,:,uWr;!lj'd! rncchantsrn" 111:11 ht:lpl> W .. hape Lo:\,L:1l lIS :'L:1:mJO~_h- Uf1!: "c~'!cjl hch;l~ I Ir' Cdl .. bal. burlt-tn mcchauivm .. (nr -....:r1.~CL1~ lb~'fllS~-~V\.:~ Htld rcp",:ult:d[y clan~"In~ lihl.:lr ,dalRHbllip ~I[h the ~n\,lwnmC'nl. E~L;lh· h"lu:J s~'~Il:ms h:n ~- certain ~IU~ic!> th;;Jl mav 1"11,1 114: t:\ Itk1H ,II rir~t.ll l ~n t'!\.j.J'l,ph~. think of twu, SOllIe: upt:ralmg [m.x~Jun;:" til .m or aD.1L.lldl'n ,j r..: II!:\'I.:I f,",:dl~ <;l,ncd but :liI.: ~rrJ1tCrll [~1llT1 nut .. "ldc ubserver whu "iltLhl.~ hn .... thl:" ,)rg<LiUl.dtll~n u:L1L:L~ hi newS hom he .. dquxrrcr», When ... ~ cd,. ur~ ... mzauon .. d rnemher-, U~UiLU) UVL..Lt1l th~lot' rnechunism« h~ ~~yJ1l_g "lh:H ~ 1U.~t bm\ Ihm~ happen around here." An:!> ~ -II!Ul mOl.) reveal ;1 h:tllkiLt:) h.1 bccurne marc or~Il"lI!~J In parnculcr wa'!s. l br; movemcrn trom in Iurruul to formal procedures in org.mILlUl:illS .~ the mi' ,,1 'l~n hl1.JS ;J~peCl ortlns. Hut there n1:1} ilL!' !-owl! in {l'iU! nnl1-u!:n.1ulb 1 \\ :1\',,", in y,;tlldl J group L!r ,II ~:.ttlllamm re~pnflw. tu the envlronmern. deals wnh ... ·h.J.I!~l:_ .JI.IJ lC'*ih L.:1. C:T1SC&,

'I he third mc..m.iog ur CUlt:fgr..m vtrncture is that curnmunlcation pmdlrC:; them~d \'c ~ r n 1du,_'c certain strucurres .mJ I hal ~ I rgan in uonal fr:l m co "" en ~_ -11,.'\.~ mJ i nglv _ arise rrom extended lmL!rm~tioll [or speCIfic purpese . Thu, .... n.l[bt'.1 (han ~cin~ cummunication as happening. in or~ani1.alLnIlST we sl:!ouhLll"'l ll'nk 1~1 1 h ... nrgaruznional prupernes 01 communication it...di Fur ~xilmrk. the pl ':ern~m uf nuun .Jfi\,L prunouns in tal - :U '" ark often h:nds IQ r.:rj)' (In.;.,,tll:I:. "real"] ~LJ.lhnn[~'-as when -,I cnmmince unneunces" some conclusions, Repeated use ~.lt [h~ -..<illk~ \O:~ InlItr! eorntL: rted from n nun ~ I.. like ,. rnal.Cl~ - Dr "brarnsro rm Inj( or .. confercncmg," has [he effect oi w:,s._ ingeertain proc _ ses, ,:1 rrvities, ~md procedures seem IITIpD!'1an- ana well e~t.:;}hH:.hcrl.. Ccannurncarton scholar James R. Taylor and ~lIS colleagues urge 1lS, to cunsider .not just nu ... eommunicaricn occurs \\ i hin rlTg.!!1lz3.i[[ons OUt .. lso how ~ ~rga!"lfzalio[i ITl .. A., ..... , llut of eommurncation-c-as when groups of people bL"g.LJ] [~ rl':m~nile Ihal lhc~ are an orgRnn:.aIlun IlRly after lh~~ .3tarI c ;illing [hem ~h-.;; iii -cn:lIi~ non" OT a ~~aDll- rrr a ":""!Oikfor"(~ - or a ~nd\~ 1.1.k -;:0-.

We hrrpe the i:\ampl~., in .nl' aapter b;!1<'l.: pruvuled a li ...... \ perspectrve 0[1 strucrure and IL .. 1I11':'ffil;;tJ0I1 w;ih pn 4..l.: ,,~" ·;;;;;tnJL1:urL:' often serves :Ilo 1I symbol \VL II"'~ tt W convince of her- ! •• nd I'UJ!--d\C"S I ifi<lT w..: arc tlllmg Ihm~ the ri,gfit W;:I'>;" h.ctng ":~lcrnutlc. Structuring ~\~IIW ;U"II' 11i~~ flllm\i"S \I) the mewl 'fli tL' i,;L,nh:mpl:ue others,

Orsanizationel Structure urul PnJCI,;s.s 39

Effccrivc nrurtures enable choice and ::U~ ~]j-atl.J.ptp. _ If 111 re : re built-in mech a - msms for rcflectiun in the llrgnni7.alinn, member; call influ om:\:, rhe LUITl:Ii! -rrucmre tUI ml[lpl ~[1 needed changes, 5ttul"luTe' ran be refrarned bUi it requires careful analy, L~ ;md ~ he ;J.hi'Ii~' HJ set: t>'cl'ood accustomed response ...... "·nw chatyml arc more tanrilIar wHh structure and ]JT1 IL ~. W<:! hope y~lLJ \~ if1 rhm d hil Ji.fft.·n"TItJ: about nrg;.mJnl~ rnn<l1 srructu re ~ han yuu tlu.! m d'll:pOl~r rerogninog [bmwbat may appear lluil t: ~oHd T~ ;l-CiU.uJ:; more fluId and ",'Iut ~1:~m)o malh::'i1h!c m::i) In f:1C"T be rigid

• .~'lrucluTt!'. IhuM:' a_"'l1c'1.:t~ of 10 nrgi.lFlrr.afUm rim! -ta f1rc-"'rc~H1cd ror ;.l ~~n sit· LHlli111l: [h!;....: l1('l~mH! .1 ~1d'i~Jimu tl,loponl<lnt"(fU5 or unplanned C\lmml.ll1l1:tI!iuu

.' Proccss: IhC' nnlloUlg flu'" III interuction; C\L"L~ in an mtcrdcpcndc nt I'd'l~itHl..,ILl P iJ! 11 h slru 1:1 LIn·

.' UUlJJU~ {I'r '-~nlrru.re·; Inc:: nonon that structure I" bnlh au mUCOf/"lJ;· ~lr and ~I 11',Wta'1.l rnr U I[ era cilon, .I..~ it h,~ii .. rrue, ;Ii I ruct urc be I ben ~I blcs .L ml co I'1;sU arns inrcractmn

• Ui.c-ntreb~~ u .... u.ally rclcn II the ~crlu,:~d I~vd of an Ilr!l,Lllli:r .. ruon: n:pn::>("rn~ the ,li~HihutillJ1 iJi 11lJtholll~ . .!.mung: urg mzanonal roles or POSItJ.Ons

.' f,)il'f('ife,iIUiar.lillUi or Spl'Ciali.w.l.i(JO~ dl!~ri!lli!' rhe dj,.i~.ulI of I~.lhor in an 1Jf,tj<iljil,!llillll, til\:; I.: li. II.;" 11 L fll!,.ll hieh la~ i:. JjviJ,t:J utlu ~.p::cl.llil.cd ururs, t.lcp.Htm~nl~, <l sul drvisiuns

.' ,FilI'.rllmlIz.nUo[l: the tlc!:!n;1: tn wnu;;:h intcractlons JJl the urgmlWll1u.il M~ rharaclCmcl.l by rules, n:guhlt!uus .. and nurms; Iurmal ccrnmunieuiun is bighJy specifir LI arul pn::>o-~ril1t'u

.' Opern ,~~ CIO'-ed I~'~ terns I: amount I'lf influen ~ Llf [he ti'l\ tromnent un :I S} tern: applied [0 urgaou::!lIorn.... lIpel1 systems rc onen considered the: ideal in [hal they adapt constantn [0 the euvlrnrrrnent, ~ .[ some dc~ree of "elosednt=S'! - mOl~· he desirable to amid losing coherence .. boundarscs and itknrity

.' Au:thor:iq: 1h.c h~1S or securmg people s comphance in orgamzanon .. 'J; \1t,·<.:kr dj • tlaguished three ba.~,ic authnn~' types charismatic rradirional, and Icgal-ilJ:ilw3:lJ

"Blilrmaucra~': tl:i e most ('{1mrn [1 n 1~1"C of tj r~.a nizstional structure ia cotHcmpoHI T;>' .organizariens: based un te.g:ll-~[i(lnal anton ril)"-;; Inc! 11 des (am o ng o [be r r~~:mJ"iJ::'$ ~ tTTfr2:d divi ion of labor all d a cle all) d enne hH:run:b~' ()! posi rions

• P:oS;L~bnn~am:·.nttil~ "lTDdlrre: comempa:rill:y organizational forms based om principles such as a .relati,. ~J~ 11<£1 lH"gClIluatinnal rucrure, nu fixed positicns rUT j[ldilidu:!h. pmjeCl ntered organizarlun. and lilt! n:.g-.udrDr 5cnTurify

·E.m~~eot rruem e: the idea lim! srrucrares, or order .. may ~rnC"rg.e j.jlmewna'i spontaneousty frum intc , .. clinn: ;!ISoO .. unstructured, informal. and spun tanecus set of work relationships ("'.m b~m~ :111 effective structure tbat wo& fa; the people in volved

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