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**Water Drive Oil Reservoirs
**

Daylon L. Walton,

Roebuck-Walton Inc.*

Introduction

Water drive reservoirs are those reservoirs in which a significant portion of volumetric withdrawals is replaced by

water influx during the producing life of the reservoir.

The total influx, and influx rates, will be governed by the

aquifer characteristics together with the pressure-time behavior along the original reservoir/aquifer contact. Ordinarily, few wells are drilled into the aquifer and little

or no information concerning the aquifer size, geometry,

or rock properties is available. However, if sufficient

reservoir pressure and production history is available, the

aquifer properties may be inferred from solutions of Eq.

1, the radial form of the diffusivity equation.

ap 5h.b~

ap ..I..........,

a% 1 ar=k

p+;

-$

.

(1)

where

p = pressure,

r = radius,

4

p

c

t

=

=

=

=

k =

porosity,

viscosity,

compressibility,

time, and

permeability.

**during the time of interest.
**

Finite outcropping-aquifer

**is finite with pressure constant at exterior boundary (i.e., aquifer outcrops into lake,
**

gulf, or other surface water source).

Basic Conditions and Assumptions

1. The reservoir is at the equilibrium average pressure

at all times.

2. The water/oil (WOC) or water/gas contact (WCC)

is an equipotential line.

3. The hydrocarbons behind the front are immobile.

4. The effects of gravity are negligible.

5. The difference between the average reservoir pressure and the pressure at the original WOC or WGC will

be assumed to be zero if unknown.

Basic Equations

Definitions

Aquifer Geometry

Radial-boundaries

are formed by two concentric cylinders or sectors of cylinders.

Linear-boundaries

are formed by two sets of parallel

planes.

Nonsymmetrical-neither

radial nor linear.

ofthe original

chapter onthis topic

m the 1962 edltm

**Infinite-pressure disturbances do not affect the exterior
**

boundary of the system, during the time of inrerest.

Finite closed-no flow occurs across the exterior boundary. Pressure disturbances reach the exterior boundary,

Mathematical Analysis

**These inferred aquifer properties then can be used to
**

calculate the future effect of the aquifer on the reservoir

performance.

‘Author

Exterior Boundary Conditions

was Vment

J Skora

**Van Everdingen and Hurst ’ obtained a general solution
**

to Eq. 1 for two cases: (1) a constant water-influx rate

(constant-terminal-rate case) and (2) a constant pressure

drop (constant-terminal-pressure case). By using the principle of superposition, van Everdingen and Hurst extended

these solutions to include variable water-influx rates and

pressure drops. Mortada’ further extended the solutions

to include interference effects in homogeneous infinite

radial aquifers.

Constant-Terminal-Rate

Case. If time is divided into

a finite number of intervals (Fig. 38. l), the average water

influx in each interval can be used in Eq. 2 to calculate

the pressure drop at the interior aquifer boundary. Eq.

2 shows that the relationship between the pressures and

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

PO

e

ew

aewa

w3

e

w2

e

wI

P

I

i

I

P

p3

4-I

I

I

k

I

Fig. 38.1 -Water

%

--------

P_

2INTERVAL

.“OI

NUMBER

influxrates-constant terminal rate case.

**is a function of a constant m,. and a
**

variable po. The constant m, is a function of the aquifer properties, whereas pD is a function of aquifer properties and time.

Fig. 38.2-Pressure

AP..,~ =mr

AP,,.,~

=mrc [c,,,~,,+,+~,

-el,.,,r

,,IPD,

3

j=l

.

i

=mrIelv,,

where

for radial aquifers,

n

drops-constant terminalpressure case.

e,, ,,,,+,-,,ApD,

40,

e,, ? MD,,,

(3)

n-l

NUMBER

.

. .

j+l

.(2)

where

P w,, = cumulative pressure drop to the end of

interval n,

e ,,,,r,+,-,I -- water-influx rate at interval n-t 1 -j,

PI1

3

**For calculation convenience it is recommended that time
**

be divided into equal intervals and Eq. 6 be used.

n

= 0.00,,27kha

2

INTERVAL

water-influx rates

m,

--

40,

‘PO,

fe,,,,,

,, APL)-

,, +e,,.,

(7)

APD,~ 1,

-PO,-,

**Constant-Terminal-Pressure
**

Case. If time is divided

into a finite number of intervals (Fig. 38.2), Eq. 8 can

be used to calculate the cumulative water influx for a given

pressure history, using average pressure drops in each

time interval.

,I

m,

PM

= o.ool *27kh

..

(4)

P WL

= 0~00,127khb

. .._................

**for finite linear aquifers,
**

pi

e,.

pI(,

k

h

=

=

=

=

=

=

L =

FL,, =

cx =

b

**dimensionless pressure term,
**

water influx rate, RB/D,

pressure at the original WOC, psi,

permeability, md,

aquifer thickness, ft,

aquifer width, ft,

aquifer length, ft,

water viscosity, cp, and

angle subtended by reservoir, radians

c

Apcrr+,-,)

w,D, , .

.

(8)

j=l

where

**for infinite linear aquifers,
**

m,

WC>,)

=mp

(5)

**w,!, = cumulative water influx to end of
**

interval,

+c,,,har,,.’

____._. ._. .(9)

=

0.17811

“P

for radial aquifers,

= 0.17811 $r ,,.,hb 2

.(lO)

MI]

for infinite linear aquifers,

AP(~~+I-~, = average pressure drop in interval

n+l-j,

W PD = dimensionless water-influx term,

rw = field radius, ft, and

c.,i = total aquifer compressibility, psi - ’.

The solution of Eq. 8 requires the use of superposition,

in a manner similar to that shown by the expansion of

Eq. 6. A modification presented by Carter and Tracy3

permits calculations of W, that approximate the values

I9 (for equal time intervals). (11) where p.APD(A. Next. The pressure drop at Reservoir A now can be calculated by use of Eq.. the cumulative water influx at time t..P’D.3~Infiniteaquiferbounded on one side by a fault. pressureinterference calculations are limited at the present time to aquifers that can be approximated by a uniform.. . for example.=p..) J=I . . infinite.~. or APoA. > ... .-.> I.. . . I I. .. . ...+.. and PO.4).. each mirror image will cause reservoir interference at Reservoir A.. n The total pressure drop at Reservoir A at any given time is the sum of the pressure drops caused by all reservoirs in the common aquifer. 14 or 15..A . ..B). . . Fig. PD. Nonsymmetrical aquifers will be discussed further under Methods of Analysis..B).. The influence function F(r) can be defined as the product of m.. .-tDd”D.. . 59 and 60 to calculate the future performance. F(r)=m. with Rexrvoir A’ causing interference at Reservoir A... . and Ap..!+. . For example.WATER DRIVE OIL RESERVOIRS 38-3 obtained from Eq. . . .. Because e .. .2 the procedure for calculating reservoir interference can be extended to the case where one boundary of an infinite aquifer is a fault. APIA. . .. (13) Reservoir Interference...A=e Lr. c j=l e)+. . (16) Since dimensionless pressure differences are available only for homogeneous infinite radial aquifers. and e. . To calculate the pressure performance at Reservoir A.W.. (14) and for equal time intervals.AY. therefore. 38.. . radial system... This method is advantageous when the calculations are to be made manually.D =pD. . +. . . . .. . The total pressure drop at Reservoir A.. first locate the mirror-image Reservoir A’ across the fault.~ .mj .. .(I3 Hicks et al.IVo.. . 4 used the past pressure and production history in an analog computer to obtain influence-function curves for each pool in a multipool aquifer. . Using Carter and Tracy’s method. .. +AP~(A. . ..(l7) and can be substituted in Eqs. .B) = dimensionless Reservoir B with respect to Reservoir A. ..... . ... . assume that the fault does not exist so that there are two identical reservoirs in a single infinite aquifer.. 8 but does not require the use of superposition.-rD. By use of the images method.. 2 and 3 with modified subscripts.-[I+....-. Method 2.-pn. . .JPD(A. . Nonsymmetrical Aquifers. 4\ FAULT 0 + bpA~. B. Eq.3 shows Reservoir A located in this type of aquifer. *P~(A. (12) ID.. 1 J=t pressure term for PD(A. will be the sum of the pressure drops caused by each reservoir and each mirror image (see Fig.... where =mr 2 [~NzA~.. . APO... j=l APIA..A I. . +AP~(A. ... =m.. Where two or more reservoirs2 are in a common aquifer. . since fewer terms are required. .. . 38.pD. is calculated directly from the previous value obtained at t.. j [APO. (1% If other reservoirs in the aquifer also are causing reservoir interference at Reservoir A..r~. . =m. .. A e MB..-.. .cJ.. . .~(~.....I..J) = pressure drop at Reservoir A caused by Reservoir B. The water-influx history for the mirror-image Reservoir A’ will be taken to be the same as Reservoir A. . -APD(A. =AP~(A...A.. . using Eq. it is possible to calculate the change in pressure at Reservoir A.... -enB. 1 Fig. A~Pnwo. .. AP.B = Water inflUX rate at Reservoir B.. .. . These are Eqs. . .. .R). For unequal time intervals.. . ... ..B). =tnr Ii [~doi‘.. ..+.. . . . 38. .-.. . . caused by water influx into another reservoir. -pD. .. 1....

21 Table 38..D are functions of dimensionless time rg (Eq. Infinite linear Finiteclosed linear Larger to Interference(infinite radial) Larger to where AZ.. 21 Table 38. or W.(24) 3&l--REFERENCE Aquifer Type Infinite radial Smaller t.. Table 38... .. infinite. .... ft = We... . pD=o. . ft.(21) . . ft §r .6 Table 38. rw rw rw r... Method 2 is not limited to homogeneous linear or radial aquifers because the final Z is obtained by adjusting previous approximations to Z.. WeD=0. .5 the product of m.. ru = aquifer radius. There are two methods for obtaining the coefficient m.(26) where to = dtmensionless time. ft communication OBTAINING from Allant~c Refining WeD AND PD Table 38... .1 gives the substitution for d in Eq.. Methods of Analysis Fig...3 Eq. and APO in Eq. . . = 2 j=l (20) . The following equations are used in conjunction with Table 38... Eq.7 Table 38..4 pDcA.5 Table 38. rw = field radius...E) Table 38. or equation to obtain po. Ap~=-$Aro. HANDBOOK . Larger t.1. Method l* is used whenever the aquifer can be approximated by a uniform linear or radial system. “b +P*D (27) e. 38. Larger t... .3. 0... ZO).r .006328kr tD = ~C~.33333. 6 from the past pressures and the waterinflux rates from a material balance on the reservoir. 21 Eq. =Zi -Zj..... 22 p. radial system.~Values..6 Table 38. rw b” Lf L r(A./T. rD = dimensionless radius =T. .Bj =distance between centers of Reservoirs A and 8.AZj.. po=l. .B).. . ..3 Eq.~?ftL.. 20 to calculate tD and the table.. Finiteoutcropping radial Smaller t. ‘Personal TABLE FOR Value of d in Eq... graph.7 Eq..1. 20 * rw rw rw r.. In Method 2. . 23 Table 38. .. and aquifer size (to for radial aquifers). 26 Fig..B15 ‘W) *r* = radus of pwl bang analyzed.PETROLEUM 38-4 ENGINEERING .80!?07)........ TABLE _... aquifer geometry. except for unusual circumstances.8 Eq.(23) . = width Of aquifer.3 Eq.. and pD is replaced by Z (the resistance function). 38.5(h pD=h . 24 Eq. Apwj... P&A-B). Techniques for applying Method 2 to the case where reservoir interference exists are not available at this time. 22 Table 38.... . ...8 pn and W. If the aquifer can be approximated by a homogeneous..d2...(22) tD+0..... therefore.. 1 = length of aqwfei.. published values of pD are used. . f...l284JtD.. WC?0 Table 38.5(rD’-I). ft..D for various types of aquifers..and W..4-Dimensionless pressure drop forinfinite aquifersystem for constant flow rate. Rigorous Methods..A. . Reservoir Volume Known.. 21+ Co .. fn+. Values ofpn. (25) ID and pD=tD+o.. 25 Eq. PD(A. the method can be extended to handle reservoir interference.-D.. and d = a geometry term obtained from Table 38..3 Eq. Finiteclosed radial Smaller lo Larger t.

Possible Remedy increase decrease constant. Fig.3(NilAtD)0. is constant until about Interval 9 and then increases. 20.500 3. = 1 was calculated (Curve 2). increased with n (Fig. 38. Because these aquifer properties gave the best match to the past field performance. Using Ni.6 shows an example of the calculation procedure for n=5 using equal time intervals. .2) can be duplicated by assuming a finite-closed aquifer where AtD = 1 and rD=6 (Col. 29 gives a first approximation of 7 (rounded from 7..6 cp.. is the time interval number where m. they should be taken as the best set for predicting the future performance.236 55 136 318 478 581 55 135 317 477 584 2.Af~)“..389 1.100 3. 3.476 2. In this example.1 for the substitution of d in Eq.672 2. (29) and r~=3(A’i. 2 and 3 in Table 38. An examination of the m.828 3. (2) production and pressure errors. rD=m 1 AND 2 FOR SAMPLE Z” 4PW” Method 1 fi (psi/B/D) (Psi) CALCULATION Mzi%d 2 (psi) 478 581 1. n increases from a constant value.1 shows that pi is to be obtained from Table 38. as a function of n will be constant. AtD was decreased from 10 to 1 (large changes are recommended) and m. Fig. .2 are. (3) incorrect aquifer size or shape. and the aquifer geometry is infinite radial. m.. as a function of n (Curve 1. vs.16.. 20..3 (also tabulated in Table 38.646 2.651 1. corresponding to k=91 md. Calculate ApD as a function of interval number.723 2. ..25 days) by varying the permeability (if necessary) in Eq.732 2. (28) where Ape is the known field pressure drop at original woe. Method 1. A check of Table 38. 0.4. 76 md. and this results in a constant value of m. Calculate a convenient value (to minimize interpolation) of dimensionless time interval (AZ. 6. 0.887 2.606 3. respectively. 3. = h = 01 = k = q5 = r. 4).147 2. If the AZD selected is the correct value..At. as a function of interval number using Eq. Value of m. 38. was selected. Therefore. calculated for AtD = 1 and rD =7 is rem duced after Interval 9 (Curve 3) but is still too high and therefore indicates that the aquifer is still too large.518 for N. =9 and AtD = I in Eq. for At..550 2. (Curve 4). Variations from a constant can result from (1) incorrect AtD. aqui- . Col.960 2. the pressures at the end of each quarter and the average water-influx rates obtained by material balance for each quarter.851 2. 29 or 30 is used to find rD.900 761 803 858 928 949 The procedure for both methods can be illustrated best by an application to a single-pool aquifer. Table 38.5X10-’ psi-‘. m. plot will aid in the analysis of the cause. For a finite-closed aquifer or finite-outcropping fer.000 2.2).812 2.449 2. 27~ radians.000 3. Then calculate m.800 4. 28 and plot m..2) for rD.2. Now m.WATERDRIVEOIL RESERVOIRS TABLE 36-5 38. = 5. The m.770 2.282 2.000 1.270 ft.600 663 616 599 652 733 11 12 13 14 15 3.873 761 803 858 928 949 761 607 860 934 946 55 136 318 8 9 IO 3.100 3. An rg of 6 is taken for the next approximation. This shows that the past field behavior (Col. or (4) aquifer inhomogeneities.30’ . Assume that a reservoir has produced for 15 quarters and that Cols.) for the quarterly interval (Ar=91. Example Problem 1. increase AtD finite-closed aquifer finite-outcropping aquifer c. with II with n then increasing then decreasing . Table 38.600 3. check Table 38.162 663 616 599 652 733 672 630 614 664 739 2.2-COMPARISON QuaXer or Interval No OF RESULTS MZtLal Balance (B/D) 500 1. 38. Eq.(30) for NirAtD 63. .. In this case. AtD = 10).i. = /. . m APS.5..414 2.100 APf” Field (Psi) OF METHODS PO 210 AI.921 3. AID = 10. ~3. constant. ?I= ). rD=2.5).317 3. From the following assumed best set of aquifer properties.4. . 50 ft . where N. .615 2. indicating the possibility of a finite-closed aquifer. decrease with At.464 3.742 3.

520 0.113x104 10.0x 10 -' 0.100x10' 1.897 4.5x10* 2.0x10-' 50x106.315 0.0x10' 8.0x10* 5.928x10' 7..17xs100'" 1.087~10" 4.16 x106 11.0x IO" 7.0~10' 9.24 18.0x10* 1.0 x IO3 7.0~10" 5.362 6.758~10~ 7.299x10" 4.5x 3.0x lo4 7.455x10' 1. W c?D 0.510x108 5.388 8.911xlO~ 5.503 0.0x IO' 7.5~10' 2.0x104 6.757x10' 2. 20 or 30.69 x104 14.47x 10" 5.0~10'" 6.0 x 103 4. the plot of m.0~10~ 2.120x10' 10.991 x103 5.0~10~ 25~10~ 15. Example Problem 2.0x107 8.0 x IO4 l.0x10-' 1.0~10~ 7.229x10' 1.604x 10' 2.5x10' 2.0x10* 6.0x IO" 4.376 0.838 3.112 0.424 1.442 2.315x10" 6.684 x10' 3.251 1.267~10~ 7.359 1.398x106 2.0x105 40~10~ 5.064x lo5 5.26 x105 14.96 x102 3.909x 108 8.032~10~ 5.0~10~ 9. The first few values are particularly sensitive to errors and generally may be ignored.31 x10' 3.0~10" 4.942x 10' 2.33 x104 4. log time indicates an infinite radial aquifer (Eq.570 2.0x10" 6.5x 2.60 24.0 5.Ox1O'o 1.0x10* 1. 25 and 26) and therefore the extrapolated slope is constant. If it is possible to obtain a relatively constant value of v?..0x10' x103 x103 x103 x103 x 103 8.301x10' 5.750 x10' 3.544~10~ 7.921 3.865~10' 1.0 x106 8. time indicates a finite aquifer (see Eqs.0~10" 8.0~10'~ 1.066x IO4 9.0x 2.0 x lo6 3.604 1. 22).220~10' 2.984x10' 6.02~10" 2.0~10~ 60x10' 7. in general.0 8.0~10'~ 7.965 1.608 x.5~10'~ 2.112 0.77 29.406 x10' 3.5 1.590x10' 9. Note that.0~10~ 1.0~10' 4.42~10" 4.517x106 4.0x107 2.173 5.436 1.5x 10 -' 3.404 0.0 x 2.681~10' 2.5x10' 3.75xlO'O 4. If it appears that the production and/or pressure data may be in error.0x lo6 3.5~10" 8.781x lo5 8.0x 4.10' 3.0x 10' 10.0~10~ 2.0x10-' 8.0 x lo3 8.140 0.0 2.95 15.0x10" 2.56 x104 2.772 0.0x10* 50x108 6.586~10' 9.725x10' 1.5~10' 3. it may be desirable in some cases to predict the future performance assuming first an infinite aquifer and then a finite-closed aquifer having a calculated rg based on the best estimate of AtD and setting N.5 x IO6 2.88 13.866x10e 9.0x10' 4.891 x IO3 1.550 1.0x106 1. (2) a constant slope of Z vs.469 0.771~10' 3.0~10'~ 1.860x10' 3.816~10~ 8.482~10' 2.03 x104 12.89 x105 13. and (3) a constant slope of Z vs.564 0.948x10' 1.020 1.62 x105 2.282 3.0x IO' 4.136x10' 5.538~10~ 3.147 2.0x107 5689x10' 6.541 1.103~10~ 2.606 PO ~___ 0.645~10' 4.427x lo5 4.0 x103 9.5~10~ 2.5~10" 2. . This method is based on the following principles: (I) the slope of Z (m.0x10' 5.0~10' 8.634~10~ 9.278 0.0 1.00 19.5 3.466x IO2 7.0 x106 3.0x IO" 3.95 x 106 1.342x103 11.661 7417 1.761 x IO5 2.0~10'" 9.3-DIMENSIONLESS WATER INFLUX AND DIMENSIONLESS t.5x IO3 3.659 5.817~10~ 6. will not be a smooth plot because of errors in basic data.0x 102 80x102 9.829 1.0x10" 2.263 6.697x10" 2.368~10' 6..58 x10' 4.616 0.689 0.95 x104 17. check the production and pressure data for errors.0~10" 7.99 7.228~10' 3599x10' 3.101 1.89x 10'0 6.0~10" 40x10' 5.92x10'" 229x1o'o 3.5x 10" 3.809 x10' 3.088~10' 1.97 21. equal to the last interval number in Eq.0~10'~ 7.615 1.0 1.0~10'" 2.0x107 1.0~10~ 6.5x 2.0~10~ 2.0 x IO" 3.980x10' 7..960 2.0x 10' 7.898 1.0x10' w eD PRESSURES tD FOR W eD ENGINEERINGHANDBOOK INFINITE RADIAL to AQUIFERS W 1.55x 1o'O 1.860 lo4 lo4 lo4 lo4 IO4 7.5~10' 2.169 1.749 6314 6. If the production and pressure data are correct.OxlOJ 13.651 9.OxlO~ 1.0 x 103 2.505~10~ 3.5x10" 2.0 7.5x10' 3.288~10" 1.747x10B 1.183~10~ 7.556 1.679x103 4.148 5.23 26.0x10' 5.5x102 3.927 1.229 0.066~10' 7.032 0.34 x106 12.0x IO" 9.469 1.802 0.5~10~ 2.5 x 3.0x107 6.699x IO4 9.0~10" 2.275 1.0 x IO3 4.08x10" 1.0 2.0x10' 6.209 3.0~10" 9.643~10" 6.48 16.961~10~ 3.067 2.500 1.0x 5.0x10' 2.313x105 6.58~10'~ 21.0x 102 2.38-6 TABLE PETROLEUM 38.0x10-' 9.516 x10' 3.071x10' 5.0x10'" 5.0~10~ 8.0 x lo4 7.146~10~ 4.610~10" 1.868~10~ 7.965x10' 10.0x10' 9.020 1.672 2.99 18. try Method 10" IO" 10" 10" 10" 1.0 x lo3 11.723 2. times J>I)) as a function of time is always positive and never increases.0x10" 1.51 x105 3.5x103 2.108x 10' 2.0x IO" 8.0x10' l. Extrapolation of this constant slope continues to simulate an infinite aquifer.476 9.797x10' 9.0~10~ 7.0x10-' 4.607~10' 3.735 0.0x10" 5.0 4.0 9.0x107 4.0 x 2.0x 1.0 x lo6 11. Method 2.429x10n 9.28x IO" 1.702 0.52 x106 If an infinite aquifer had been indicated.414~10~ 7.064 4.0 x103 6.126~10~ 2.828~10~ 2.308x104 4.758 0.0~10~ 1.19x IO'O 5. refer to the following discussion of Errors in Basic Data.

APf. In these cases the errors may be eliminated by smoothing the basic data or may be adjusted somewhat by using Eqs..(32) 6Apf. In many cases a solution for m. .2 (Method 2).7). extrapolate Z at a constant slope (Principle 2). then assume that the aquifer is immediately bounded and extrapolate Z as a straight line on a linear plot of time using the last known slope (Principle 2). Errors in Basic Data. The first approximation to 2 can be obtained as in Method 1 or by arbitrarily using the square root of the interval number (Col.8 m. n=5 I5 m 581 =--0074 r5 7828.5 = 53.2 (Method 1). j=l However..(old Z. Fig. As in the first procedure. Fig. 2. . The final 2 curve then is extrapolated to calculate the future performance as follows. . pressure-drop calculation Fig. Therefore. 38. 32.7 D4 II *P %I = 148. New Z. If the final slope of Z as a function of time is constant. Because Z becomes a straight line as a function of n. m is used to calculate the next approximation of Z by use of Eq.7-Estimation of Z for data in Table 38. extrapolate Z as a straight line using half the last known slope. Table 38..“““““. and Ape in Method 1 or Z in Method 2 is impossible because of errors in basic data. (33) m.5-Estimation of m.1 6 4 -3 AP e i = 467. 5. 38. “. Good results were obtained for both methods. -m Apf.+.‘. e *p. . Table 38. =m. mn= (31) n c e. time is divided into equal intervals.10 = 1050.18 e. shows that the final Z’s will duplicate the past pressure performance and therefore may be used to predict the future performance. and a smooth curve is drawn through the points. If the final slope is not constant for either time or log time. Z can be extrapolated as a straight line to calculate the future performance. 1.).2. = -0.m. and Trial 1. “0 2 4 6 8 IO 12 14 ” n Fig. instead of m being plotted.7). 38. N. Fig..2.. Col.AZ.6-Sample . l- The new values of Z are plotted as a function of n (Trial 2. e 0. a finite-closed aquifer is indicated (Principle 2).WATER DRIVE OIL RESERVOIRS 38-7 e l-l “15 0. making certain the slope is positive and never increases (Principle 1). 38. 38..087 I= 7828..06 3 5 7 9 II 13 TIME INTERVAL YUMBER Fig. A fitting factor m is calculated as a function of time for Trial 1 in exactly the same manner used to calculate M r in Method 1.. 33 and 34. This procedure is repeated with values of 2 from this smoothed curve until the fitting factors are relatively constant and equal to 1 (Trial 3. 38.14 ew t %+I-. 5 0. . and roP fordata inTable 38.6 D2 ApD e E 3. 38. since accurate water influx and pressure data were used. first assume that the aquifer is an infinite radial system and will continue to behave as such (Principle 3) and extrapolate Z as a straight line as a function of log time...5 0.08 u 0. If the final slope is not constant as a function of time but is constant as a function of log time.7).5 1 Apo I AP *2 0. 7.7 shows that three trials were needed to obtain a constant value of 1 for m.12 =6 108. 3.8 Fig.5 .

average aquifer pressure. since Eqs. Eq. ..(34) I j=2 where @f” = correction to Apf. 33 and 34 to Method 1.i. 35 or 36. 38....)] Pd . = P W’= -p. Large errors may be obtained if the method is used to predict the behavior for large changes in reservoir withdrawal rates.. . . . If the water influx rate is constant for a sufficiently long period of time. The selection of the best curve to use in predicting the future performance is difficult because of the fluctuations in the curves caused by variations in water influx rates.. the use of these equations should be limited to short-term rough approximations of future water drive behavior. Note that. the increment of influx over a time interval t.F . psi.. 38._......4 for function and aquifer type.. ..8 shows a comparison of mF as a function of time for various values of F and the data in Table 38.006 TIME ( QUARTERS 1 Fig.. In applying Eqs. and pressure at the original WOC. .___ (38) . Note that this difficulty would be compounded if there were errors in the production and pressure data. Since the method assumes a constant water influx rate.m. the following equations can be used to estimate water drive behavior roughly.4-WATER ENGINEERING DRIVE BEHAVIOR Type Aquifer 0. and ti = average value of m. . B/D..0 I 0. B/D-psi. and extrapolating m. In a manner similar to single-well performance. =mFervr. 25 22 21 23 or 26 0.. . ..1 is given by Eq.8-Estimation of mF and F function for approximate water drive analysisof data in Table 38. which may approach a pseudosteady condition quickly and in which the aquifer geometry and physical properties are known. Eq. 37.).. aquifer productivity index.. . -t. AZ. This method is best suited for smaller aquifers. some judgment must be exercised when making these adjustments.. (37) water influx rate. .06 EQUATIONS Basis Infinite radial Infinite hear Finiteoutcropping Finiteclosed 0. the rate of water influx is expressed by Eq. plotting mF as a function of time. See Table 38.. Combining Eq.=Ja(Pa where e wp= J.i+.. whereas the more rigorous analyses indicated a finite aquifer. .04 EL 0.V.)‘((. These curves seem indicative of either an infinite linear or radial aquifer (the curves for these assumptions more nearly approach a constant value). . Aw = wet[Pa(n-j) e -p wn [l -. 37 with a material-balance equation for the aquifer. . ..02 0........ (36) ’ where F is an approximation to pD and a function of the type of aquifer and m. = p. ew..V to predict the future water drive performance. and AZ by ApD. .PETROLEUM 38-0 TABLE 38._.=- 1 ‘2 4M..r s mF.*‘. A P w.2. 6e% = correction to eM? n . AZ .G is a proportionality factor. Li L t t Eq. psi. .. The procedure consists of calculating mF for the past history using Eq. . - F The equations for the infinite-radial and finiteoutcropping aquifers are commonly referred to in the literature as the “simplified Hurst” and “Schilthuis”6 water drive equations.2. and --!---&e n. I .. 38. ..1 HANDBOOK lo .. (35) and W e. Fetkovitch’ presented a simplified approach that is based on the concept of a “stabilized” or pseudosteadystate aquifer productivity index and an aquifer material balance relating average aquifer pressure to cumulative water influx.l. Approximate Methods. Eq. 33 and 34 imply that the last values of Z (or APO) are reasonably correct.~...-.(-J.. replace m by m. Fig.

. calculate the reservoir voidage and expansion rates as a function of time. U’. .I’.. .F(t). Using the best available estimate of OOIP. aquifer conductivity k/m/p. The minimum variance from a plot of variance vs. . (45) where 1 A= V’V.... 1 . . (42) / This procedure is repeated for various estimates of permeability until it is possible to obtain a minimum of the minimums. bbl. 44 gives the minimum variance for this permeability. (39) RESERVES IN) . = total aquifer compressibility. -R. 6 to calculate pressure drops Ap.)~ and . (40) Fig. .. 38.. c2=i -$ (AP.1P.)~. The pressure performance and the variance are calculated using Eqs. It is possible to calculate the best estimate of OOIP for each selected permeability by the following procedure.. .75) . . psi. . i W~+P~. Also. and diffusivity kI(@pc) are unknown.. . psi. and Jo = 3(1. . This method’ assumes that the OOIP and the aquifer permeability are unknown and that the reservoir and aquifer properties other than permeability are known. In the three methods to be discussed. c j=l . . van Everdingen. . . Eq. (46) (47) .. +N. In general. . . and McMahon Method. . .9-Estimation of reservoir volume and water drive (Brownscombe-Collins method).~.~.JvB.(ln .. . where A~. .WATERDRIVEOIL RESERVOIRS 38-9 where WC. the aquifer will be assumed to be infinite and radial.127x IO-‘)kbh (41) tiplied by the factor X calculated by Eq. n j=1 . IJ’. psi -1 . . .. . . PY [ C j=I *PC.l. . . .(R. . (43) (APE. .. since the expansion of the reservoir above the bubblepoint is relatively small. 7 and 42 for a given assumed aquifer permeability and various estimates. .08x Jo = ~. = total pressure drop at WOC (calculated using reservoir voidage rates). Ap. psi. x=“- n Original Oil in Place (OOIP) Occasionally. Brownscombe-Collins Method.._. 4. bbl. PJ -*of. .9) will be the best estimate of OOIP for the selected permeability. Select an aquifer permeability and use these rates in place of the water influx rates in Eq. 7.=p~j[l-~].-XA~~. . . . . 43 gives the best estimate of OOIP for the selected permeability.(48) . . and c . the methods available are very sensitive to errors in basic data so that it is necessary to have a large amount of accurate data.d . ... PO1 = initial aquifer pressure. N=A +m/.. and ApE = total pressure drop at WOC (calculated using reservoir expansion rates). total aquifer expansion capacity.. Timmerman.. 38.t. . . it may be necessary to estimate the OOIP and to make a water drive analysis simultaneously. . . for a closed linear system. This method9 assumes that the OOIP. . .P.)...~. . . II 1 F(t) = CFVmllBoi F”=Ph-P -+I.. . -a~.. 10 -’ kh rD-0. 8 and solving for the OOIP yields Eq..)& + w. .5. = ~C. generally only the data obtained after the reservoir has passed through the bubblepoint will be significant in defining the OOIP. .z = total pressure drop at original WOC (field data).. . psi. . . and APE. The estimated OOIP mul- WPE.. .+ 1-j) Wa/. . ~~~~. OOIP (Fig. . The permeability and the OOIP associated with this minimum should be the best estimates for the assumptions made.= initial water volume in the aquifer. for a closed radial system. . . Combination of the material-balance equation and Eq..

586 9.656 3. .5x10m' 1.0 8..060 8. The equations for obtaining the least-squares tit to Eqs.554 4.20 2.5 70 =2.75x10-' 2.272 7. 50: Y=b+m.580 6.6 0.0 6.0x10 - 0.00 18.165 1. weD 5..8x 10 -' 3.3 0.999 4. i J=I F(t).533 0.004 7.516 4.25 3.0 --~~ rD =4.848 0.00 24.623 9.491 3.00 2.3 1.611 5621 5.340 2.507 3.895 1.75 x IO -' 5.083 8.0 1.50 3.493 3.321 5.106 2.622 2.098 3.997 2. smoothed values of Ycan be calculated with Eq.0x10-' 2. = W.0x10-' 0. bbl/STB.00 2.404 0.679 1.25 3.985 3.464 1.2 1.242 3.25x10-l 0.8 2.645 3.035 6.487 1.444 2.414 0.50 7.20 2.023 1.0 9.684 5. .75 4.999 3.00 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 20 25 30 35 40 4.932 4.526 1.835 3.749 4.50 4.024 1.0x10-' 9. = B.50x10-' 0..00 11.440 1.75 5.60 1.0 4.574 7.8 4.5 6..00 16.00x10 -' 0.761 1.50x10-' 0.582 7.40 2._.0x 10 -' 3.624 1.75 4.402 1. Y is calculated with laboratory-determined values of FV .).751 0.0 1.00 6.50 7.034 2.00 3. .140 1.00 7.680 2..4x10-' 0.870 1.. FINITE OUTCROPPING fD =3.958 0.00 2._.886 2.7 1.0x10-' 7.278 0.563 1.8~10~' 1.2 2.541 0.330 1.00 7.497 3.790 5.247 4.2 0.25 4. cumulative oil produced..5 5.00 7.283 9.681 0.174 1.-m.00x10 -' 0.353 2.446 0. bbl.50 1.0 1.60 2.385 5.0 W eD ENGINEERING RADIAL rD =3.1 1.5x 0-l 7. OOIP.084 3.560 7.458 0507 1.047 4.0x 10 -' 2.348 1.75 5.481 9.295 1.00x 10 -' 0.432 1.5x 0-l 8.00 0.785 0.00 5. and n data points are II nN= c j=l A.40 1.0x10m' 4.809 3.677 6.358 1.20 1.PETROLEUM 38-l 0 TABLE To =I.6 2.189 7.' 2.468 1.2x 10 -' 0.0x 10 -? 6.0x10-' 1.742 3.594 9.0x 0-l 5.638 0.276 6.5x10-' 9.588 8.50 3.50 3.0 7.431 0. (50) where h= intercept and m =slope.612 9.111 2.747 1.50x10-' 0.758 3.968 9.] = R.273 2.500 1.453 1.0x10 -' 1.75 5.574 2. p is generally a straight line.0 3.553 0597 0.755 0. bbhscf.509 0. tD weD tD weD tD Generally.00 3.395 0.00x10m' 0.5 7.00 1..767 3.75 4.408 0.0x10 -' 9.0x10-* 7.439 3.6 5.5x 0-l 0.850 3.624 9.997 3.4x10-l 0.50x IO-' 0.00 3.621 6.599 1.922 7.454 4.5 t.00x10-' 2.507 2.5x10-' 3.551 5579 5.444 1.00 9.5 9.551 2.598 2.50x10-' 0.2x10-l 2.0~10~' 7.203 1.0x10m2 0.772 3.00 10.000 8.809 3.486 3.792 5.442 2.581 6.(51) .476 5.5-DIMENSIONLESS WATER FOR rD =2.253 1.0x10m 4.5 3. ~.4 2.50 9.363 1.4 1.599 0.457 7..241 5.50 4.246 15 16 18 20 22 7.25 4.617 1.565 6.8x10-' 4.624 6.089 6.00 20.892 6.00 6.571 1.380 2.940 2.00 12. FV = ratio of volume of oil and its dissolved N = N.5 HANDBOOK AQUIFERS rD =4.0x10-' 0.653 5.613 1.80 2.3x10-' 1.894 3.715 3.0 10. STB. ...0x10-2 8. and bubblepoint pressure. Because Y vs.605 3..00 x 10 -' 5.0 9.5 3.905 0.50 8.178 2.982 1.345 0. scf/STB.097 9.404 9.490 7.5x10-' 5..624 5.248 1.0 2. At.932 0.4 3.~.070 1.434 7.138 5.304 0.381 3.484 1.678 0.196 3.75 2.811 1.00 1.330 0.928 3.504 10 11 12 13 14 6.25 1.75 2.976 3.00 14.846 8.717 3.50 7.715 2 649 2.5x10-" 1.2x10-' 1.611 8.00 9.50 3.0x10-' 11x10~' 1.623 1.382 1.7x10m1 1.951 4.5 8.0x10 -' 1.986 5.50 3.525 0.00 6.108 1.951 3.332 7.334 3.924 4.5x10m' 1.276 0.75x10-1 0.962 1.0x105.982 5.184 2.565 9.621 1.0x 0-l 4.50 8.365 8.932 5..930 7. = B.537 3.00 5.143 1. STB.229 1.625 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 20 22 24 26 30 34 38 42 46 50 6.40 2.4x10-' 3.559 6.0x10 -' 8.8 2.6x10-' 1.3~10~' 2. cumulative produced GOR.791 1.825 6.00 22.5x 10-l 5.0 4.491 2.222 6.829 0.5 1.50 4.7 0.75x10-l 0.506 5531 5. psia.50~10 -' 2.425 6.1x10-' 2.0x 0-l 7.0 to INFLUX W eD t.859 4.200 9.143 1.625 weD and y= ph-p P(FV-.241 2.0 5.170 3.1 0.975 2.343 5. gas FVF..2 4.0x 0-l 6..00 3.0 6.231 5.646 2.497 24 26 28 30 34 38 42 46 50 60 70 80 90 100 8.893 3.5x10-' 2. oil FVF.474 3.0 3.606 1..00 9.068 4..0x10-' 1.465 1.0~10~ 9.80 2.0x10m' 6.6x10 -' 2.25 4..317 3.5~10.078 5.4 0.495 1499 1.00x10 -' 1.169 5.00 5.6 1.817 0.532 9.170 3.1.461 1.022 2.967 3.613 2.628 4.50 x IO -' 4.8 3..00 3. 46 and 47 for a given dimensionless time interval.727 4.748 2.453 2. 36.599 2..50 9.917 6.50 8.25x10-l 2.00 2..464 7.621 9.507 3.50 2.294 2.323 4.25 3.009 5.00x 10-l 0.395 1.570 2.5 2.0 4.60 2..639 4.517 4.q = p/1 = original gas at a given pressure to its volume at initial pressure.198 4.5x10-' 4.712 6.25x10-' 1.619 2.494 7.5 w.779 4.603 1.481 7.990 3.0 5.50 3.195 1.435 5.9x10-' 0.25 x 10 -' 4.256 1.843 3. cumulative water produced.6~10~' 3.50 10.525 2.200 7.0x10 6.379 3.00 4.427 2.D t.0 2.60 1.0x10 7.993 3.354 0.880 8.897 0.377 7.25 2.00 3.076 7.028 8.548 0.0 8.378 4.375 5.00 4.5 4.50 10 11 5.

53 10.14 42 46 50 60 70 11.39 35.26 22.5 6.92 14.350 7.5 9.71 11.148 5.5 10 6.10-Estimation of reservoirvolumeand waterdrive(van Everdingen-Timmerman-McMahon method).895 10.[F(r)].26 21.40 45 50 60 70 80 26 28 30 34 38 10.92 17.0 5. Ato Fig.WATER DRIVE OIL RESERVOIRS 38-11 TABLE 38.42 22.875 4. 53.07 23.93 31.063 9.67 33.07 21.50 200 240 280 320 360 38.58 13.417 9.49 17.29 30.00 2347 23.85 80 90 100 120 140 26.398 rD _-_ 10 15 20 22 24 and J=i weD 9 10 100 120 r.63 80 85 90 95 100 31.77 39.10 17.0 140 150 160 180 200 17.44 39. 51 and 52 to solve for the best estimate of N and m. BEST ESTIMATE OF At.620 16 18 20 22 24 ___~ rD =8.42 28 30 34 38 40 15. =lO.48 17.760 6.50 13.21 45.930 13 14 15 16 17 a.02 29.0 tD to W ell tD W eD 3.09 14.79 11.48 27.28 28.920 12 13 a.731 10.27 19 20 22 24 26 11. 38.13 16 17 18 19 20 9.24 20.32 13.854 8.5 6.59 10.36 26.98 440 480 49.861 7.66 34.09 38 40 42 44 46 19.97 39.80 10.O rD =9.829 10.861 7.13 45 50 55 60 70 20.49 31.19 19.0 6..71 23.341 9.40 24.97 46 48 50 52 54 21.82 23. IO).389 7.13 I u Id I 02=1 i {A.5-DIMENSIONLESS WATER INFLUX FOR FINITE OUTCROPPING rD = 6.93 16.85 11.69 22.49 17.0 r.22 14.5 7.533 8.85 12.5 10.60 35.88 240 280 320 360 400 46.791 10. .65 14 15 16 17 18 9.91 17.127 90 RADIAL AQUIFERS (continued) (53) The minimum in a plot of variance vs.0 10.59 17.91 11.22 18.06 11.04 37.0 7.-N+m.440 5.31 30.273 9.195 3.61 11.46 39 51 60 70 80 14.45 17.51 21 45 22. (see Fig.50 17.18 30.48 29.39 24.63 23.50 IO 11 12 5.99 12.36 23.46 80 il.5 4.61 32.33 24.82 11.767 8.16 18.0 6.00 160 180 200 240 280 30.50 j=l weD rD 13.91 49.88 25.}? n /=I weD 15 20 22 24 26 I 6.35 17.542 3.0 6.27 34.98 11.75 44.5 7.0 weD tD 7..65 20.902 6. and can be used in Eqs.91 31.52 19.28 49.79 15.456 18 19 20 22 24 11.46 23.71 24.339 8.945 12.0 3.17 39.5 4.59 16.96 90 100 110 120 130 17.19 10.92 23.67 28.26 26 28 30 32 34 7.54 48.34 31.92 37.36 17.0 rD = 7.49 90 100 120 140 160 22.94 39.51 40.94 25.53 15.36 320 360 400 500 31.23 15.547 6.5 5.37 21.91 13.26 27.537 6.293 7.98 56 58 60 65 70 24.89 48 50 52 54 56 23.074 5.43 19.08 75 80 a5 90 95 28.47 31.002 6.52 58 60 65 70 75 26.605 5.56 39.07 10.76 22.89 42. = 5.00 9.41 17.0 9. various assumed values of At.53 18.220 8.58 30.706 8.39 1749 8.965 11 12 13 14 15 11 12 13 14 15 7.499 6.56 16.96 24.345 5.38 18.094 6.325 6.16 12.792 5.724 6.48 180 200 500 23.795 7.50 220 17.651 9.047 7.193 4.95 14.43 100 120 140 160 180 32.11 26.98 9.035 8.26 13.85 120 140 160 la0 200 38.36 J=f The variance of this fit from field data can be calculated by Eq.35 22 24 25 31 35 il.23 10.00 12.74 14.876 9.05 16.78 16.46 11.74 14.41 18.27 17.879 9.74 12.95 7.0 3.418 9.12 31.361 10.14 400 440 480 39.397 11 7.26 il.0 a.50 31.0 9.36 30.82 28 30 32 34 36 15. will be the best estimate of At.11 29.5 8.94 48. 12. 38.89 11.431 8.50 36 38 40 42 44 18.338 9.95 47.965 12.11 16.0 7.70 12.85 20.5 9.16 26 28 30 35 40 13.48 21.0 4.

906 1.0x10-' 9.0x IO 0.682 0.5 2.636 0.087 1.349 1. lo the materialbalance equation is written as tire equation of a straight line containing two unknown constants.7 1.565 0.056 1.8 2. scf.0 5.0 1.0 10.4x10-' 4.5x 10-l 1. Combination of the material-balance equation and Eq.0 0.9 1.8x10-' 2.124 6.0 1.0 1.662 0.710 1.649 3. s. (54) EN.832 1.123 1.5 6. N and m. .0 11.2x10 5.116 1. according to system geometry.0x 10 -' 5. .50 0.994 10.715 0.0x10-' 1.551 0. as shown in Fig.0x10-' 0.355 0.927 2.459 0.2x10-' 1.0 1.634 0.0 1.3 1.8 1.11.5x10 0.806 2. cumulative gas injected.0 3.5 4. 54 then may be calculated and a graph plotted.1 3.0 1.645 0.e.548 3..792 0.8 1.0 5.5x10 9.977 2.316 4.6x10-' 1.865 2.927 0. =4. 38...2 0.782 0.0x 10 8.135 2. if the reservoir is below saturation pressure.688 1.6x 10-l 4.102 1.420 0.2x10-l 2.387 2.527 1. Eq.0 4.647 0.) Nfm.0 1.791 2.D are obtained from Table 38.127 7.1 1. = B.3 2. where E.2 1...4x 10 -' 56x10-' 5.6x10-l 4. using different estimates of TD and/or Ato until a straight-line plot is obtained. It should be noted that more than one combination of i-o and AND may yield a reasonable straight line-i.0 2.752 1.598 0.403 1.476 0. a direct solution is possible. I/ VR.0 2.578 6.0x10-' 1.740 0.2x10-' 2.) cumulative voidage at the end of interval II.392 1.849 0.6x10-l 3.644 0.tr =B.0 8.007 2.0x10 75x10 8.683 1.830 0.657 7..8x10 -' 3.9x10-' 0.4x 10 5.221 3.516 0.7 2.492 0.6x10-l 2.727 1.2 2. .0x10 -' 3.328 5.452 0.460 3.484 0.4 0.4x10-l 3.0x10-' 8. = formation water compressibility.6 3.-B. The summation terms in Eq.8x10-l 3.5x10 -' 4.5x10 0.5 r. the values of mp and N are obtained from the slope and intercept of the resulting graph.401 1. STB.5 6.0 2.072 1.044 1.5.638 0.8% lo-' 0.= EN = B. If the reservoir is above saturation pressure. cumulative expansion per stock-tank barrel OOIP.757 1.948 0. (cf+Sw~w)(P.8x10-l 4.666 9.621 0.6 2. two-phase FVF. PD 6.0 PO tD PO __.964 1.6 1.0x lo-' 5.75 0. psi t .579 1.648 6.0 1. (See Fig.443 0.PETROLEUM 36-12 TABLE 38.2x 10-l 5. 54.5x10-' 9. however.0x10-' 9.0 -P..612 0.0 0.447 1.o 0.0 3.023 1.968 0..6-DIMENSIONLESS ID=1.5 tLl HANDBOOK PRESSURES FOR FINITE CLOSED RADIAL AQUIFERS r. = formation water saturation.144 1.130 1.536 0.0x 10-l 8.0 4. cf = formation compressibility.6 2.731 1.5x10m' 6. An increasing slope indicates that the summation terms are too small.5 rn =4.) WA.4x 10-l 4.719 1.457 1. The procedure is repeated. RB.0 3.25 0.154 2.9 0.804 4..5 5.tD -~- tD PO -- PO t. a trial-and-error procedure is necessary. bbl/STB.246 1. a straight-line result does not necessarily determine a unique solution for N and mp.0x10-' 0.025 1.618 0.721 0.269 4.6x10-l 2.0x10 6.5 1.0x 10 -' 0. cumulative water produced.5x10m' 5. RB.580 0. 2.3 or 38. STB.579 5. psi t .292 1.0 5..=25 rD =2.565 0.034 1.929 0.8 1.0 4.0x10-' 8.0x10-' 0.2x10-l 3. = W.0 1.. = +p Bf. 38.982 5. bbl/STB.059 1.0 9.4 2.040 1. fraction.4x10-l 2..882 0.724 0.10.9 0.158 2.596 1. EN.522 0.0 2.994 1.0x IO-' 0.076 4.0x10-' 2. and m = fitting factor.. while a decreasing slope indicates that the summation terms are too large.0 14.587 0.861 4.6x10 6.8x IO-' 5.0x 10-l 6.171 1.920 2.0 9.772 0.1 2.0 3.2 3. 54 is the equation of a straight line with a slope of mP and a y intercept of N. ’ I-S.951 0.176 1.2x10-l 4.510 2.8 1.0 13.823 1.197 1.0 2.607 0.615 1.649 5.660 1.6 1.0x10 -' 0.0 PO to ENGINEERING PO tD rD = 3. .251 0. .594 1.0 6.608 5. cumulative water injected.0x IO -' 7. 8 yields Eq.184 1.812 0.130 1.255 1.0 0.973 0. Future Performance The future field performance must be obtained from a simultaneous solution of the material-balance and water drive equations.343 2. In this method.828 1. Cl.5 1. = Wi = G.0 2.083 1.5x10-' 8.884 0.857 0.324 1.014 2.4x10 -' 0.6 0.507 4. c j=i *PW I -.576 0.0 rD = 3.4x10-l 0.593 0.4 1.288 0.5x 10-l 7.031 12.0 1. vR.0 3.092 1.222 1.703 0.988 1.0 8.0 15.239 2.758 0.627 0. water FVF.776 1.0 1.4 0. Estimates of TD and Are are made and the appropriate values of W.915 0.215 1.0x 10-l 4.2x10-l 4.358 Havlena-Odeh Method.7 1.2 2.5 5.322 0.973 3.802 0.5 7.0x 10-l 7. If a straight line results.

776 1.897 22.631 1.817 1.5 10.142 26.225 18.401 2.016 19.638 9.0 2.556 17. __~ 12.638 1.531 9.0 1.983 2.238 1.732 1.0 4.5 13..0 15..5 3.5 6. it will be necessary to know (1) the saturations behind the front from laboratory core data or other sources.351 35. .0 1. FG= 0..0 1.750 1.469 15.0 1.931 15.757 13.0 12.0 1.974 17.5 8.9 1.0 34.167 1.5 1.560 2..0 10.0 2. However.5 8.192 1.0 RADIAL AQUIFERS (continued) PO t.045 20..0 25.0 5.0 PO 1.244 2.5 1.0 20.847 1.364 1.0 8.0 6.446 2.675 1.322 1.604 2.0 rD = 5.641 1.0 16.808 1.6 3.5 8..919 19.5 5.267 30.380 12.0 rD = 10.0 2. 38.0 2.917 1.0 12.063 4.586 1.345 2.725 1.5 1.0 14.831 1.0 5.0 18.576 1.0 10.0 2.11-Estimation of OOIP and mp.0 3.0 30.5 11.851 19.404 1.0 7.511 1. 00 0 1 AP%.0 1.340 11.717 1.750 1.5 7.142 2.0 1.0 1.2 3.0 2.768 1.5 14.835 18..321 10.0 1..270 6.0 60..890 12.0 30.955 1.0 14.607 4. The linear frontal advance is given by FG= L.0 7.436 8.817 28.____.424 14.0 1..813 1. and (3) the pressure gradient in the flooded portion of the reservoir.5 1.892 12.496 36. 55 shows that the difference between the average reservoir pressure and the pressure at the original WOC is a function of water-influx rate.227 1.0 2051 22.517 45.0 rD =8.217 2.0 3.0 30.378 13.319 2.059 2.711 1.693 1.862 1.2 4.0 1. PO ‘0 PO rD =7.803 1.795 1.621 70._.544 1.0 13.658 2.5 15.5 16.0 28.0 40. (2) the water production as a function of frontal advance.806 24.737 1.090 2.0 13..0 15.3 3.0 2.559 10.0 1.598 1.986 20.5 1..0 rD = 9.0 1.697 1.108 2.0 1.0 17..259 1.0 15. e EN where FG is the reservoir geometry factor.0 28.____..0 1.0 2.5 1.180 26.499 2.968 1.0 tD PD 10.0 9. only one combination will be used to illustrate the general application to (1) a reservoir above the bubblepoint pressure.5 11.017 1.5 16..943 1.582 1.768 1.274 2.651 1.0 11.477 1.215 7.0 6.281 9.5 9.0 19.5 12.746 There are several methods of solution because there are several possible combinations of the various materialbalance and water drive equations.832 1..0 38.653 8.278 2..975 2.4 4.0 1.0 40.5 12.0 15.441 6.0 1. Eq.0 26.873 170 1.0 t..501 9.0 3.0 2.0 17.0 2.926 24.340 2.5 14.732 t.0 2.668 1.160 2.00708ha : (-57) Fig.0 1.5 1.849 15.275 1. and (2) a reservoir below the bubblepoint pressure.0 2.0 1.0 1.8 1.249 1.0 50.0 2..698 1.116 24..0 11.0 1..0 32.6 4.0 6..I 0.008 50.470 8.867 20.0 11.757 1.801 1.151 2.845 14.f .0 PO 1.0 1.784 1.5 1.204 1.0 11.434 40.0 7.0 2.5 13. aquifer fluid and formation properties.5 1.0 9. 10.607 1.184 25. and aquifer geometry.1 3.5 7.0 13.194 2...801 13.0 2..7 3.713 1.888 14.058 21..663 1.931 18. .0 4.001127hb (56) and the radial frontal advance is given by 27r In@.0 1..0 1.0 13.613 1.0 1.0 t.556 1..0 34.988 19 0 2.673 1.513 16.0 45.0 2.0 2.5 1..0 1.0 38. In either case.0 14.0 30..819 14.193 2. 3.180 1.100 23.037 2.103 22.846 2.WATER 38-13 DRIVE OIL RESERVOIRS PRESSURES FOR FINITE CLOSED TABLE 3&G-DIMENSIONLESS rD =6.236 2.0 1.360 2.786 1.301 1.8 3..757 12.4 5.0 1.815 1.0 2.’ Pressure Gradient Between New and Original Front Positions. irf) .

516 1. semilog..051 1.620 0. q.662 0. .0 4.5 and solved for the water-influx rate: Note that FG is a function of distance traveled by the front so that.8 4.606 0.815 0.0x IO-' 9.087 3.0 12.0 20.900 0. F.5 rD =3.5 5.386 1..0x10-' 5.0 35.0 1.0 4. Fig.344 0.0 PRESSURES FOR r.774 1. and the whole procedure is repeated for the next time interval..190 1.8 W tD can be combined with Eqs.. where *P.552 0.0 1.= 2 +(*tlv.705 0.5 0.981 2.0 7.8~10~' 3..0 1.2 2.0 16..106 1.375 0381 0.252 10.4 2. 38.0 16.370 18.0 4.0x lo8.913 0. V.0x IO-' 4. (59) The calculated water-influx rate now can be used in Eq.667 1..130 6. it was assumed that (1) uniform saturations exist ahead of and behind the front.0 1.647 1.0x10-' 3.183 1.6 2. and (Y = angle subtended by reservoir. = total production rate. mr= 1 and ApD is replaced by AZ in Eq.591 5.704 1730 2.5 4.0x 10-l 8..042 1.784 1.. 6 and 5.247 1.904 0..405 0. 59.4 2.6 1. PO ft.0 10.0x10m' 8.639 0. Future values of FG then can be obtained by extrapolating FG as a function of frontal advance on some convenient plot (linear. %*PD.0 10.=1. may be evaluated as a function of frontal advance.2x10-l 2.615 1.693 6.692 0..0x10 -' 6.4 1.8 1.386 0390 5.490 1.4x10-' 2.6 2..0 0.393 0. .908 2.0x10-' 6.0x10-' 0.385 1.242 1.616 5.0 24.850 0..693 5.0 26.0x 10 -' 6.955 0.5 7..B/~I. . .660 0.0x10-' 0.5x10-' 0. .DIMENSIONLESS r. .728 0.858 0.0x10-' 4.945 0.688 0.253 1.6 0. = total reservoir PV. .. psi .069 1.000 1.781 5..347 1.424 0.0 5.749 1.887 0.0 1.0 3.892 0.905 0.r/V.0 12.5x10-' 1.0x10m' 2.) APO.0 2.673 2..2x10-' 1.. The following equations will be used in this method.0x10-' 0.0 10.0~10~' 7..8 0.2 1.123 1.5 HANDBOOK AQUIFERS rD = 4.654 0.080 1.PETROLEUM 38-14 TABLE 38..561 1.6 2.799 0.804 0.0 3.5 6.916 0.)-mr Reservoir Above Bubblepoint Pressure.630 0.5 7.5~10~' 7.0 3.4 1.7.0x10-' 9.665 0.. .0 6.. tD e w..5 4.5 6.0x10-' 0.659 0.527 0.6 1.0~10~' 0.158 1. Above the bubblepoint pressure the total compressibility can be assumed to be constant.016 1.0 8.398 1.5 8.8 1.564 0.0 1. and (3) the changes in pressure are selected small enough that the changes in oil FVF’s are very small. .0 1580 1.1 during time interval n.356 3.361 1.905 0..640 0. 27 is used instead of Eq.6 0.591 0.FGlk. -(p.6 0.2 1.0 1.787 1.5x10-' 0.~.266 1.5 5. bbl..8x10-' 0.789 1.’.986 4.309 1.5~10~' 6. -e.2 2.791 1.2 1.F.152 1.457 0.4 2.0 3.4 1.0 0. 1 .6x10-l 0.0x10-' 7.400 0.0 8. = total reservoir compressibility.0 7.0 2.762 1. .405 0. To simplify the calculation procedure. .292 0307 0.0 0.0x10 -2 8. .0 16.098 1.702 0.441 0.915 0.249 2..0x10 -' 9.741 0.2x10-l 0.895 0.) ” .8 2.502 0.013 1.5 3.099 14.0~10~' 0.0 9.266 2.0 6.690 0.0 18.094 1.+-.0x10m' 1.. FINITE OUTCROPPING RADIAL rD =3. .0 PD PD t. = PO (58) 2 oil .777 1.405 1.842 0. RB/D.386 28.2 1.0~10~' 3..405 0.0x10-' 3.4 2.0 40.462 1.. = *P (.097 1.5 4.4 3.097 7.5 rD =2.) +(*tqr..755 9.861 0.0 1.0 1.0 9.876 1.8 2..947 0.0 2.361 1.290 9.087 1.6 1.0 5.498 0.2 2. .0~10~' 7. 6.682 0.916 8. .619 0.5x10-l 5.106 3.0 rD =6.4 1.396 0.6 3.230 2.6 1.771 1.0 0.5x10-l 6.665 0. so the material-balance equation vl7co.382 1.0 1. if the pressure gradients between the reservoir and the original reservoir boundary are known for the past history. and c 0..0 1.251 1. ‘D ENGINEERING PO tD +Apo.539 1..030 2.0 50. . ft.0x10-' 0.916 5.472 0.4x10-' 1.0 5. (qr.0 1.5x10-l 6.275 1.0x10-' 0. Water influx rate: II .096 1.6x10-' 0.091 1.0 1. (2) the saturations do not change as any portion of the reservoir is bypassed. 58 to calculate Ap(./.328 0.0x10-' 8.240 1.232 5..0 1.)+(ll.0x IO-' 7.0x10-' 1.. Reservoir Below Bubblepoint Pressure.0x 10-l 1.325 1.8 0778 0.041 1..0 12. If Eq..5x10-2 6.5 5.376 1..0~10~' 5.ApD.0 22.404 8.215 1.0 1.. .916 0.240 2.857 0.738 5.052 1.0x10-' 8.617 0.5 1.253 where Lf = linear penetration of water front into reservoir.5 1.5~10~' 4.080 1.2 1.8x10-' 2.12 shows the saturation changes as the front advances into the unflooded reservoir volume I/.0 30.573 0.I - (60) m.8 0.4~10~' 0.5x 10-l 9.0 to PD to ~___ PO 5.0~10~' 7.927 1.770 0. radians..0 2.432 9. = total reservoir pressure drop from initial pressure at end of interval n.980 1.0 14. .5 6.5x10-' 4.0 14.802 0.638 0. =2..320 1.222 1.0x10-' 7.0 8.*PD.282 2.692 3.696 0.669 0.. etc.5~10~' 5.402 0.535 0.065 1.6~10~' 0367 0.2 2.0~10~' 4. rf = radius to water front after penetration.0 0.020 1.5x10m' 4.910 0.4 1.485 3.792 2..

5x10 40.285 2.0~10 2.0x10' 14.070 2 076 2.5x 10 17.583 2..688 3.5x10 12...0x 10 16.619 3.=20 .0 3.0 70.707 2.0 60..214 3.0 50..142 80.846 26. h’w.0x10 2.0~10 2.0 to 38-15 OIL RESERVOIRS FOR PO PO tD FINITE OUTCROPPING r.781 2.685 3.812 12.0 1.0 8.0 90.t .5x10 2.558 2.0 16.0 2.219 20.0 2.0 70.0x10 3.550 12.024 3.5x10 15.704 2.527 1. Al’.12-Saturation change with frontaladvance.302 2.0x10 11..0x 10 3.434 80.0x10~ 16. .0~10' 3.0 2. .0x10 70.0x 26.126 3.0 10.724 1..0 1.475 2. ..707 2.958 2.810 20.936 30.651 1.658 2.0x10 16.992 2.388 70.482 3.672 3.0~10 50.592 2.389 70.301 2.0x10* 3.440 3.0x10 2.0 22.109 3.At.0x10 2...260 2.0x10 3.057 3.224 2..0x10 12. + fRAv&.747 2.016 2.0 22.0x 10 70.0 90.002 2.> 1 +q B KI.0 2.965 2.0x10 45. -‘<v.580 1.0~10 50.0 7.0 10.0~10 2. I.0 26.0 40.681 3.043 2.006 3.5 8.0x10 12.943 1.857 28.=25 PO tD AQUIFERS r.0 45.0 35.0 50.379 60.0x10* 18.219 55.0x10 2.706 2.-.0 2.547 2.0 2.) .0x 10 45.218 3.0 1.1I1 2.0 25.640 50.0 55..226 3.0x10 14.WATER DRIVE TABLE 38.=30 r.5x10 11.0x 10 90.723 2.807 20.0x10 55.0 50.906 2.245 2.0x10 2.-.0~10 14.648 1.886 2.588 3.0x10 3..302 2.0x IO 14.837 20.055 2.0 40.856 1.=40 to PO to PO 7.399 3. S (61) “.303 22.823 22.975 30.0 2.0 x10 3. W.0 65.0x 10 2..5 9.655 2.689 14. s Oil saturation in V.5x10 14.0x10 50.0x10 16.0x10 2.967 1.0x10 35.655 3.0 1.391 3.0 80.040 2.290 2..-sor-s~. -AL’.0 80.0x10 13.0x10 24. At jj !I .297 2.0 95.207 14.5 10.=I5 tD PO PRESSURES RADIAL PO tD (continued) r.995 60.387 90.259 18.0~10 20.721 18.0 24.0 28.0 45.7- DIMENSIONLESS r..0x10 14.300 12.338 65..: On-l S T' r + ~RAV.455 2.689 2.0 85.’8.043 2.0 14.888 2.671 2.0x10 2.0x 28.“’ % and On-l n-l Siw V.0x10 2.0 80.796 10..0x10 3.0~10 3..677 2..003 2.. .197 30.0x10 60.615 2.0 2.0 10.4 it .279 60.0 75.614 2.672 2.0x10 26.078 2 079 11.293 2.0 24.0 30.0 40.0 2.=lO ID =8. 38.0~10 40.953 3.332 2.080 2.952 2.0~10 16.171 90.351 70.0 16.191 3.0~10 28.0 40.786 1.950 2. = f~(I-sj..728 2. [So.=V.0 1. (64) .0x 10 17. B C’.394 3.0 60.0~10 180x10 200x10 240x10 28.0x10 160x10 18.331 3.063 9.0x10' 12.0~10 2.0 30.332 65.0x10 2.0x10 30.992 22.‘.643 2.697 2.219 3.397 3.0x 30..152 3.054 3.306 60.929 2.0x 24.200 12.0~10 18.0x 10 40.0~10' 3.907 20.513 2.0x10 2.499 1.708 16.0~10 3.697 2.0~10 50.107 3.0 45.011 3..189 10.160 2.730 1.609 2.701 13.764 2.064 70..282 60.0 35.813 2.0x10* 3.0~10 12.146 2.516 28.148 50.0x10 80.401 10.271 2.217 3..0x 10 13.0 80. .0 x 10' 25.150 3.551 2.984 35.0 90.914 1.0 1.476 90.0x 10 10 10 10 10 3.0x10 2.0x10 3.0x10 3.0 12.0~10 2.114 300 35.514 10.0x10 Flooded and unflooded volumes: (e I\.876 2.0 2.? 1 aGPft = B Fig.0x10 45.0 2.878 25.986 45.835 24.554 1.980 2.545 3.798 1.707 75.302 2.0x 10 3.218 2.0~10 200x10 2.0 12.0 14.568 3.604 10.279 2.0~10 16.375 80.0 2.619 10.0x 10 3.879 1..0x10 2.401 3..0 35.627 1.085 3. I -q. (63) Gas production: L: gn-I S S On Orn s4'" S Siw wn % Sii (b) vrz[s.960 2.0 26.0x10 2.0 700 800 90.269 35.vm. -S..0 16.0x 10 2. II.687 30 0x10 40.979 2.0x 10' 3.0~10 14.0x10 18.0 2.0 20.-s.

0 x 10' 4.0 x IO2 80.0x 10' 16. At.792 3.0x 6.0~10~ 18..579 4.434 4. tD AQUIFERS HANDBOOK 6.368 4. These models have the capability to analyze performance for virtually any desired description of the physical system.328 4.211 4.0~10' 30.803 3.739 3.0~10~ 55.806 3.297 4.=----qo.593 4.595 18.854 3.937 4.0x 102 40.058 4.0~10' 50.257 3.0x103 12.0x 102 3.603 3. 2.0x102 10.0x 1.588 4.0~10~ 4.0~10~ 35..285 2.5 x102 4.464 4.0x 2.376 4.630 20.0x10 28. 61 and 62. Calculate the GOR with Eq.0x IO3 4.0x 3. PD 3.0x 10' 18.5x IO3 8..0~10~ 25.0x 10' 50.746 3. (continued) PO t.0 x10 60.500 4.248 45.0 x103 2.379 4.735 3.0 x lo3 4.0x102 75..478 3.0x10 85.303 4. = Sj.0~10~ 1. Calculate the GOR with Eq.0x 10' 25. 5.228 4.676 5.0x IO2 6.946 4.0~10~ 14.857 8.247 4. = r.0x 102 16.0x10' 10.0~10' 4.988 1. fraction of reservoir swept. Calculate gas production with Eq.382 11.0~10~ 11.552 4.0x10 95.111 3.245 4. The capability of mathematical simulation models to calculate pressure and fluid flow in nonhomogeneous and nonsymmetrical reservoir/ aquifer systems has been thoroughly described in the literature since the early 1960’s.394 4.092 4. One method for solutions using equal time intervals is as follows.=50 PRESSURES t.181 4.8x 10" 103 lo3 IO* IO3 3.0x 10' 40.0~10~ 4.0x 10' 30.054 4.0~10~ 70.0x10' 5.900 22.0x 14. 66 for average values of pressure and saturation.0x10 40.380 4.680 3.0x10 45.0x 10" 450x10 50.0x10' 1.5~10~ 15.248 4.0~10' 3.0 x 10 3.0x IO2 3.0 x lo* 9.0x IO2 60.0 x10 26. Reservoir Simulation Models.0~10~ 3.0~10~ 4.0 x 103 3.0x 16.3 x IO3 3.0x IO* 7.805 3.5x 4. fraction.0 xl0 50.510 4.0 x10 35. 3.771 3.PETROLEUM 38-16 TABLE 38.5x IO3 18~10~ 2.949 3. = S.0~10~ 4.0~10' 60.0 x lo3 10.598 4.0~10' 65.959 55. gas saturation.0~10~ 4.601 70.. = S.5x 5.084 20. fraction.095 12. for the predicted oil production during Interval n with Eq.=lOO r.859 3.604 4.0 x 10’ 7.0~10~ 35. . with Eqs.0 x10 90.0x 10 24.603 GOR (production): .0 x lo3 7.248 4.908 3.237 20.0~10~ 4.382 4.0x10' 9. estimate a new pressure drop and repeat Steps 2 through 8.747 3. Widespread availability of computers and models throughout the industry has helped to remove many of the idealizations and restrictions regarding geometry and/or homogeneity that are a practical requirement for analysis by traditional methods.401 3.949 4.0x 102 14.661 25.0x IO3 IO3 IO3 103 lo3 4.499 7.094 4.247 4.605 3.0 x102 3.090 4.360 4.=80 PO GOR (relative permeability): R.064 3.071 4. and interstitial water saturation.0x IO3 9.0 x103 8. Compare the GOR’s obtained in Steps 6 and 7 and.193 3.0x 10' 24. The remaining steps are unchanged.904 3. 8.094 45.0x lo3 7.0~10~ 4.242 4.5x 103 IO3 IO3 IO3 lo3 4. 48 for more information.051 4.382 4.0x 10 3. Estimate the pressure drop during the next time interval.5 x103 4.0x 10" 8.0~10~ 14.248 4.347 3.565 4.0x 10 65.0~10~ 20.0x10' 8.787 12.5 x103 5.=90 PO t.754 3. 4.405 3.144 4.907 3.229 3.023 4.043 4.6x 1.0x10" 6.0 x10* 9.0x 15.668 30.0~10~ 3.349 4.909 3. oil saturation.0~10' 9. if they agree.512 8. If they do not agree.556 16.0x10* 3.0~10' 40.092 4. fraction.0 x103 4.0~10~ 3.446 4. and V.248 90.498 4. including multipool aquifers. fraction.713 3.200 4.0x 5.680 3.662 3. If the water drive equation for unequal time intervals is used.150 10.0x 10 700x10 75..0x IO2 3.461 3. See Chap. water saturation.0~10' 26.4~10~ 1.0x 18.0x IO3 10. Calculate AL’.5x 6.892 3. 6. This procedure calls for selecting a given pressure drop and estimating the length of the next time interval in Steps 1 and 8 and this program.130 1.192 4.154 3.263 3.747 3.583 4.0~10~ 28.491 4. 1.996 4. 63.0x10' (65) AGn RADIAL r. Calculate the water-influx rate with Eq.2x 103 1.496 4.500 12. 65.0x10' 14.0 x 102 10.0xlo2 12.080 4.339 3.512 3.858 3. the need for re-evaluating the pressure functions for each trial in a given interval can be eliminated.025 4. .127 4.5x 3. 60.482 4.426 4.0~10' 3.881 3.0 x IO* 7.=70 rD =60 PD tD FOR ENGINEERING . FINITE OUTCROPPING r.602 3. 64.003 4.0~10' 12. 7.0 x10 3.0x 22.2x 1.0x10 10.0x102 80.0x IO" 102 lo2 10' IO' 3. Calculate the oil saturation in V.0~10' 4. PO to 20.0x 10' 30.534 4.0~10" 80.832 3.0 x10* 3.0x102 55. (66) equations. proceed to the next interval.026 4.833 3.171 4.499 4.0~10~ 9.381 6.910 10 35.7-DIMENSIONLESS r.4x 1.019 4.512 For these fR = S.093 4.

PO to PO t.0~10~ 5..239 6.0~10" 14..0~10~ 6.139 6.072 50.0~10~ 10.0~10~ 12.0~10~ 6.5~10~ 3.991 18. psi initial aquifer pressure.0~10~ 5.430 6.0~10~ 24.105 16.0~10~ 9.5x lo3 3.0~10~ 12.983 9.0x 103 5.211 6. = cumulative pressure drop at the end of interval n.356 5.=600 rD = 700 to PO t.514 6.0x103 2.759 6.088 18. ft fitting factor (see Page 38-7).517 5.0~10~ 4.996 40.0~10~ 5.264 5.0~10~ 14.li = cumulative expansion per stock-tank barrel OOIP.5~10~ 2.988 5.0~10~ 25.703 5.700 18. psi-’ formation water compressibility.7-DIMENSIONLESS rD =200 rD =400 fD =300 fD = 500 RADIAL AQUlFERS(contlnued) r.982 6.213 6.636 5.0x10" 5.0~10" 5. bbl/STB formation compressibility.0~10~ 5.545 6..0x104 5.754 4.0~10~ 6.468 5.0~10~ 6.290 80.991 5.129 60.905 5.559 5.212 5. ft j = summation of time period 1 fo.094 6.0~10~ 5.810 35. 46 b = intercept B.702 4.0~10~ 50. period i .317 4..762 5. psi = = = = P ‘I = PN.0~10~ 6.387 20. B/D e WB = water influx rate at Reservoir B.5~10~ 5. bbl/STB water FVF.0x103 35.205 4.326 6.975 5. n N N.979 5.0~10~ 5.845 5.0x104 35..0~10~ 3.055 16.177 1. psi -I total reservoir compressibility.0x104 2.702 200x10" 5.949 30..530 6.676 5.0x104 10.0~10" 5...0~10~ 6.357 6.0~10~ 80.550 6.652 5. psi .829 4.345 6.0~10~ 6. ft linear penetration of water front into reservoir.0x10" 6. psi Ape = known dimensionless field pressure drop at original WOC = dimensionless pressure drop to time APO.0~10~ 90.041 6. J. bbl/STB oil FVF. = water influx rate.0~10~ 40. = ph = bubblepoint pressure.0~10~ 12.395 50.202 6.0~10~ 14.214 6.183 30.540 18.397 70.0~10~ 14.957 4.0~10~ 7.696 16.299 5.0~10~ 6.282 5.781 2.0~10~ 12.061 4.B) = dimensionless pressure term for Reservoir B with respect to Reservoir A P II’= pressure at original WOC.0~10~ 7.552 4.408 4.156 6.203 5.606 5.294 15.1 e.0~10~ 16.491 6.0~10~ 35.556 5.0x10' 12.0~10~ 5.0~10~ 6. B.980 5.0~10~ 6. bbl/psi (see Eqs.0~10~ 6. cf (.0x104 8. 3 through 5) interval OOIP.0~10~ Nomenclature A = constant described by Eq.0~10~ 6.5x 103 4. bbl f~ = fraction of reservoir swept F = approximation to po and a function of type of aquifer FG = reservoir geometry factor F(r) = influence function FV = ratio of volume of oil and its dissolved original gas at a given pressure to its volume at initial pressure G.0~10~ 7. bbl/STB two-phase FVF.0~10~ 60.356 5.5x104 4. = total water influx rate at interval n.0~10~ 4. B.960 6.0 x lo4 3.0~10" 7.374 6.942 5.0~10~ 30.299 6.0~10~ 4.814 5.0x103 8..704 26.0~10~ 40. = cumulative gas injected.754 4.551 6.967 5. psi pi = dimensionless pressure term PD(A.894 1035.5x IO4 5.0x10" 9. psi P II’. psi -I total aquifer compressibility.429 5.991 5.010 5.0~10~ 18.0 x lo4 5.0~10" 5.548 6.990 5.0x10" 5.0x10" 6. B/D E.0~10~ 5.485 6.0~10~ 6.392 45.0x104 5.0~10~ 20.0x103 16. PO 1.38-17 WATER DRIVE OIL RESERVOIRS PRESSURES FOR FINITE OUTCROPPING TABLE 38..397 60. c.0~10~ 18. 9 and IO) rate constant.0~10~ 16.0~10~ 30.111.398 9.0 x lo3 8. PO t.0~10~ 25. scf !I = aquifer thickness.0~10~ 4..0~10~ 8.0x103 12.210 6.689 5.0x 5.227 40.348 5. = k = L = Lf = m = mF = mrJ = m. = aquifer productivity index.690 11.0~10~ 12. B/D-psi permeability.242 5.551 1035. B.894 5.~ C cwt d = = = = = = = = = gas FVF.0~10~ 5.0~10~ 30.164 25.5x104 2.0~10~ 140~10~ 5.0~10~ 20.896 5.0x 25.0~10~ 6.0x104 10.0~10~ 20. slope proportionality factor influx constant.5~10~ 13. y.920 5.484 6.013 8.0~10~ 5. B/D e I.214 1034. psiibbl-D (see Eqs. ratio of initial reservoir free-gas volume to initial reservoir oil volume.0x104 10. STB time interval number cumulative oil produced.0~10~ 9.0x103 10.305 6.0~10~ 4.0~10~ 12.0~10" 4.0~10~ 10.171 70.0~10" 28.262 10.048 6.0~10~ 14. md aquifer length.’ geometry term obtained from Table 38.663 4.0~10~ 7. BID c 1v1 ..814 5.977 5.904 5..0x 5.135 20. STB average aquifer pressure.703 24.195 6.704 40.0~10" 6.0~10~ 6. PO t.0~10~ 5.0x 103 3.I = water-influx rate at interval n+ 1 -j.0x103 14.0~10~ 8.101 5.889 5.

50516 0.681 6. ft field radius.0 x104 80.904 6.682 6.605 6.0x104 40.0x IO5 20.’3.751 6.0 x lo5 18.0 x lo5 7.2~10~ 1.837 6. @?f.244 15..0x IO5 3.373 7.392 6.. bbl aquifer width.056 7..0~10" 6.0 x IO4 10.06 0.244 42.0~10~ 180x104 20.-.0x105 16.241 7.038 7.895 6.378 7.049 6. psi total oil production rate at end of interval n.0 x104 10.8~10~ 6.0~10~ 7.0x105 22. bbl Y= constant described by Eqs.090 7. psi total pressure drop at Reservoir A at end of interval H...09 0.0x IO5 7.0 x lo4 25..049 6.0x 105 15. = Yo.72942 0.0x105 6.7rD = 800 to PO 7. PO tD PO 6.334 7.671 40.p.0~10~ 35.83187 0.18 0. total aquifer expansion capacity.704 6.090 7..0~10~ 32.33851 0.0x IO4 90.35682 0.8-DIMENSIONLESS PRESSURES FOR FINITE-CLOSED LINEAR AQUIFERS to PO o.013 7.785 4..0x 105 3.. ft W rD = dimensionless water-influx term we.853 6.57776 0.600 2.01 0.07 0.12 0.378 6.082 7.. = cumulative water injected.02 0.7 0.93279 0.229 7.0 x 105 6.630 6.0x 105 8.962 7.0x lo4 45.0 x IO5 5.8 0../r.47900 0.777 6.05 0.60055 0.24 0.11296 0.0x105 23.794 6.0~10~ 7.10 0.395 6.0x 105 4.0~10~ 9. = correction to e.13326 1.0x IO5 25.0x lo4 70.785 6.28 0.599 6. = J/..244 6.0~10~ 2..114 7..507 6.200 HANDBOOK 6.30 0.619 6. bbl w.161 6. = cumulative water influx at end of interval n.08 0. ft dimensionless radius=r. RADIAL AQUIFERS (continued) fD =1. fraction dimensionless time dimensionless time interval total reservoir PV. = W.0~10~ 550x104 60.i.0~10~ 33. fraction interstitial water saturation.0x lo5 9.) = AP.243 7.29854 0.868 6.0~10~ 9.781 30. scf/STB gas saturation.908 21.587 6652 2.0x lo5 2.5 0.983 ENGINEERING dimensionless pressure drop to time period j total pressure drop at WOC (calculated using reservoir expansion rates).0 x10' 24.854 6.161 6251 6.0x10" 8.364 7. B/D aquifer radius.0 x105 3.4~10~ 1.5x105 4.0x10~ 120x105 7.0~10" 6.0~10~ 7..650 6.046 7. = A.798 6.787 6.5~10~ 3. bbl cumulative voidage.19544 0.0x10" 6. psi total pressure drop at WOC (calculated using reservoir voidage rates).24 44.0 x 105 10.5~10~ 6.0x10" 60.0x10" 50.106 6.975 PO 8.901 6.376 7.0x105 5.800 6.0x105 6. = cumulative water produced.6~10" 1.B) = APIA. = fD = AIn = VP = VR = rD =1.684 6.684 70.0x lo5 7..0~10~ 12.0x IO5 1.123 7.03 0.4 0. w = TABLE 38. psi pressure drop at Reservoir A caused by Reservoir B.07979 0.738 6.27639 0.0x104 35. = water viscosity.42224 0..0x lo5 10.833 6.0x lo4 20.0~10~ 7.709 initial water volume in the aquifer.0x lo4 5.OxlO~ 20.0x105 20.5x lo5 5. 49 and 50 z= resistance function z.729 6.38-18 PETROLEUM TABLE 38.244 40.676 6.085 7.679 6.0~10~ 5.252 6.22 0..382 6432 6.0~10~ 7.766 6.6 0.080 5.0~10~ 30. fraction formation water saturation.25231 0. = new values of Z CY= angle subtended by reservoir.088 7.619 6.0x10" 8.0~10~ 6. = correction to A pi.5~10~ 3.005 0.0~10~ 7.0~10~ 30... = r.26 PO 0.663 6.03313 1.0x10" 6.494 6...918 6. fraction oil saturation.0~10~ 14.55436 0.474 6551 160~10~ 18..0x 10' 9.A.0 1. bbl w. = R .0x10" 80.377 6.0x lo4 120~10~ 14. radians 6e .026 7.089 7.0x104 DIMENSIONLESS rD = 900 tLJ PO PRESSURES FOR FINITE OUTCROPPING rD =I. bbl w.45147 0. = St.950 7.0x10" 9ox105 10. PO 2.400 rD =I.447 6.0x IO5 8. fraction residual oil saturation at end of interval n.089 7.33332 . ft cumulative produced GOR.108 6160 6.885 14. psi total pressure drop at original WOC (field data).31915 0. psi average pressure drop in interval.0 x lo5 5.0~10" 19.329 6.5x 105 4.14 0.0x lo4 100x10~ 12. radius to water front after penetration.090 10.452 140x104 16.507 6. cp 02 = variance porosity.16 0.0 x104 45..0 x lo4 100.710 6. scf/STB average solution GOR at end of interval n.0~10~ 7.0 x lo4 50.0x105 3.849 2.62284 0.23330 1.]..0x 10' 7.210 7.0x104 250x10" 6322 6.0~10~ 16. BID total production rate.067 7.0~10~ = APL = Apy = *PO.5~10~ 4.801 8.53021 0.04 0..20 0.0~10~ 9.503 6.327 APO.9 1.15958 0.090 31.000 tL7 t.39088 0. Pl!. fraction dJ= v = M.907 6.167 7. bbl t..22567 -!k0.0x105 6.813 6.907 6..0~10~ 25.0 x 105 7..+I-.090 7.177 7.378 7.249 1.0x10" 55.154 6.5~10~ 3.0 x lo4 300x10" 6.0x lo5 6.

.0x lo5 56.745 7.775 7..390 30.057 7. .0~10~ 35.200 9.0~10" 30.780 28.530 16.. k is in md.0x105 52. (9) .0~10~ 5.783 7.797 7. is in mj/d*kPa.0~10~ 40.794 7.0~10~ 50.0x105 14.000 PO t.229 20.002 8. .0~10" 8. L is in m.2x106 1.489 7.693 90.0~10" 64.840 2.495 7.775 7.979 7.0x106 7.526 7.312 7.0~10~ 20.495 7.5~10~ 6.937 7.863 7.656 7.0~10~ 7.0x IO5 7.566 20.0x 60.765 7.201 7.783 7.0~10~ 7.0x 80.75) - .0~10~ 5.677 70..930 7.527 x 10 -s kt tD = (#)(‘b.527~10-~ kha’ .0~10~ 16.= 3(8.013 7.0~10~ 7.0x105 7.668 7.686 80.0x10" 7. .?.0~10~ 20.719 7.0~10" 7.36x1o-4 ha.0~10~ 7. P 112 r II .251 7.746 7.579 40.0x 105 6..696 7..631 50..0x105 10.0~10" 70.400 rD =2./rf) FG= 5.407 7.“““’ (3) P .312 7.0x lo5 7.431 7. is in mPa*s.0x 105 54.0~10~ 7.132 7..0x105 5.0x IO5 10.0~10~ 9... PO tD 6.0x106 10.0x i05 7.0~10~ 1.0~10" 7.760 7.966 7.922 7.584 25..0~10~ 7.0x IO5 7.732 7.0~10~ 70.0x 70.0 x IO6 4...862 7.196 5.597 35..310 12. .199 16.601 50.0~10~ 7.0~10" 7.0x10" 7.0x IO5 7.0x 105 7.863 90.820 7.0~10~ 6.0x 50.0~10~ 7.36x 1O-1 kh Jo = p. m..0~10~ 6.0~10~ 30.5x105 8.0~10~ 18.651 7..588 7.480 7.506 12.0x 105 8.097 7. .0x lo5 24.955 7.’.720 7.’ .0~10" 8. is in kPa/m3 *d. FG is in m-‘.(41) .403 7.006 Key Equations With SI Units The equations in this chapter may be used directly with practical SI units without conversion factors..965 7.‘bar.Ox10~ 12.o-5 8.4 x IO6 2. ..870 7..398 7.0x 105 35.937 7.0x10" 7. b is in m.374 7.004 8. rD is dimensionless.0 x 106 150x10~ 7.5x106 5.5~10~ 7.800 PO tD PRESSURES FOR FINITE OUTCROPPING RADIAL AQUIFERS (continued) rD =2.256 24.280 7.0~10~ 90.0~10~ 12. r.0x10" 7.. (10) 8.966 7.661 60. . and 2a In(r.495 7.260 7..644 7.0x IO5 7.495 50.0~10~ 4.0x lo5 10.0~10" 7.0~10~ 7..0~10~ 7.845 40.695 95.0x lo6 7.527x10-” m.0x lo5 10" 10" IO6 7.0x10" 35.936 7.0 x lo5 25.0x lo5 9.871 to PO t.0x IO5 12.201 7.710 6.0 x lo5 40.0x106 6. These equations are repeated here with appropriate constants for SI units.0~10~ 7.000 r.0~10" 7..800 rD = 2.. p.854 6. and 01 is in radians..238 7.(ln rD -0.696 7.hb2.621 7.0~10~ 7.8~10~ 7.937 S. tnp is in m3/kPa.0~10' 7.699 20.854 6..0x105 16.=(l)& khb’ (5) “‘.495 18.8 x 106 3.495 40.0x 105 20..527x10-” kh’ (4) ..905 7.0~10~ 7.934 4. except for certain equations containing numerical constants.0 x105 80.057 7.L Lf FG= 8.J t?lr= hb.7-DIMENSIONLESS rD =2.054 7.“.401 8..0x105 7..259 7.0x105 30.“’ J.p.259 10..0x105 16.631 7.536 7.783 60. c.0x lo5 15.WATER DRIVE OIL RESERVOIRS 38-19 TABLE 38.403 7.0~10~ 7. h is in m..006 8.527x.0x105 50.0~10~ 28. .593 30. ~1. J..0 x106 3.0x IO5 6..0~10" 7.133 6. is in kPa ..542 1..OXlO~ 8.=(1)r#x. PD tD PO 7.312 7.0~10~ 30..935 7.0x105 1O.0~10~ 8.799 7.545 7.5~10~ 9.0x105 6.. (20) (40) .0~10" 7.0x 13.459 9.0x 12.134 7.134 8.495 60.0x lo5 7.167 12.200 rD =2..298 7.706 14..474 7.188 7.0x 10.908 7.0~10~ 7.0~10~ PO tD 3.120 4.p ’ 5....992 53.527 x 10 -5)kbh tLM..782 7.0 x lo5 lO. where !J .602 7. = 8.0~10~ 80.307 28.601 60.0~10" 7.6~10" 1.507 35.860 7.0~10~ 7.0~10~ 7.600 40.600 rD = 3.0x lo5 105 lo5 IO5 i05 7.611 7.. is in m.475 7.999 8..5~10~ 7.0x lo5 51.0x105 7.0 x 10" 2.0x105 10.4~10~ 1.=1.056 7.0~10" 7.0~10~ 7.0~10~ 9.0x lo5 24.I’ mr= 8.OXlO~ 9.

5.J. A. G.” 7rctn. 198.: “Estimation of Reserves and Water Drive from Pressure and Production Hratory. (April 1956) 92-98. R.” J.” J. 9.” J. Enx.S. 1963) 896-900: Trwrc. 2.” Eng. (April 1956)471-74.J. P.L. 305-24. AIME.A : “Pressure Interference Effects Within Reservoirs and Aquifers. J. 6. and Collins.D. Prt. 207.E. AIME.” . 1975) 385-98. Stewart. Twh.” J. T.. Per. Tech. Nabor. AIME.W. (Dec.: “An Improved Method for Calculatmg Water Influx. (Sept. Jr. (July 1971) 814m28. P. Hurst. Lowe.L. 1956) 256-61. 92-99.” Chatas.: “Comparisons ot Methods for Analyzing a Water Drive Field.: “Linear Aquifer Tdr. AIME. C. Trum. Enq. A. 219. 1955) 217-26. Trms. AIME (1949) 186. Prr.S. (Feb.s. (June 1959) 65-67.H. T&I. Per.. Tech. F. AIME. 1954) 105-10..: “Active Oil and Reservoir Energy. IO. AIME. (Dec.. Havlena.. 1961) 184-94.: “Oiltield Interference in Aquifers of Non-Uniform Propc&s. and Kemp.: “A Practical Treatment of Nonstcady-State Flow Problems in Rew-voir System-I. T. &f. Simulation-What Behawor. Mueller. 1960) 58-60.. 231.D. 207. Jr. Wooddy. W..T. AIME (194Y) 186.” J. Odeh. Tech. M. Tech. W. Eng..: “A Practical Treatment of Nonsteady-State Flow Problems in Reservoir Systems-III. and McMahon. and Moore. W. A.J.T.A. J. (Nov.” J. A.” Per. 1960) 55-57: Trms AIME. A.. AIME. Mortada. Torchlight Tensleep Reservoir.: “A Practical Method for Treating Oillield Interference in Water-Drive Reservoirs.F. (June 1953) B3Xlems in Reservoir System-II. P. 7. (Aug. A.. Wyommg. Twh. Schilthuis. and Rtce. and Witherspoon. Brownscombc.” J. T&r. A. and Barham. and Tracy.S. Trans.F. L. AIME. E. F.: “An Extended Analysis of BottomWater-Drive Reservoir Performance.. 1953) 51-60. 1953) B46- PETROLEUM ENGINEERING HANDBOOK Closman. Pc~t.” J. and Hut-Q. M. Beardon.: “Application of the Material Balance Equation to a Partial WaterDrive Reservoir. (July 1959) 169-78. AIME.E. PH. and Sikora. Fetkovich.. J. AIME. Per. 210 . General References Chatas.: “A Simplified Approach to Water lntlux Calculations-Finite Aquifer Systems. Trans. Tech. R. (Nov.” J. Van Everdingen. Is It’?” J.. AIME 11036) 118. R. Howard. Per. Eng.D. Jr.D.Soc.H. “The Material Balance as an Equation of a Straight Line.” Twns. Pet.” J.. Callaway.: “Reservoir 1969) 13X3-88. 3. Hicks. Twh. (Aug.M. F. Twh. Per.M. Mottada.W. and Ledbetter. A. 216. 219.: “Water Influx Into a Reservoir and Its Application to the Equation of Volumetric Balance. 4. (Oct. 201. D...L. W. 8. and Odrh.S..” Trans. A. Hutchwon.. 216. Per. E. AIME.. Trms. (Aug. (May 1967) 595-600. ( Weber.” J.” Per.” J. Twh.. R. Pej. 234. Per.: “Performance Predictions of the Marg Tex Oil Reservoir Using Unsteady-State Calculations. J. Pet.R.. 57-72.H. R.38-20 References 1. V. T. Tech..L. (Sept.D.: “A Numertcal Solutton to the Unsteady~State PartiallWater-Drive Reservoir Performance Problem. Pet. 222. D. M. (May 1953) B42Chatas. AIME. 33-52. F. 228. Trm\. Trurts.J. Trum.S.” Trtrnv.: “Computing Techmques for Water-Drive Reservoirs. (May 1964) 561-63: Truns.“J. Timmerman. andRachford. Tech. Trans. and Gladfelter. R.: “The Appltcatton of the Laplace Transformation to Flow Problems in Reservoirs. H. 204.” J. Prr. AIME (1943) 151. Tech..: “An Aquifer Model for Fissured Reservoirs.J. PH. (Dec. Carter. Hutchinson.” J. Henaon.G.T.: “A Practical Treatment of Nonsteady-State Flow Prob PH.. Sue.: “Performance Calculations for Reservoirs with Natural or Artificial Water Drtves. Trclns. 1957) 245-5 I. AIME. Trum..H.: “Comparison of Pressure Distributions During Depletion of Tilted and Horizontal Aquifers. Van Everdmgen.: “A Generaltzed Water-Drive Analysis.

Aquifer

Aquifer

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- History Match
- Reservoir Senior Project 2012
- (Reservoir Engineering Course)
- Heriot-Watt University - Reservoir Simulation
- Reservoir Stimulation HandBook
- Reservoir Characterization
- Khaled Aziz - Reservoir Simulation
- Reservoir Petrophysics Class Notes
- History matching Report
- Water Influx 1
- Tilted_OWC.pdf
- EBO 3 Exercises
- Chap 17- Water Influx
- Effect of Aquifer Size.pdf
- A Straight Line is Possible in Water Drive Gas Reservoirs Spe-103258-Ms-p
- Water Influx Eclipse
- Steam Flooding
- Van Everdingen hurst Aquifers
- wd dg
- Griggs Thesis
- Solution of Well performance
- Uncertainty Analysis of a fractured reservoir
- seminaronwaterinfluxandwelltesting-120622030930-phpapp01.pptx
- 00068666.pdf
- Uncertainty Reduction in Field Development
- SPE-172415-MS
- Water Drive Oil Reservoirs

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