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NHD Annotated Bibliography
NHD Annotated Bibliography

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Annotated Bibliography

Victoria Shen and Nithya Prakash Junior Division Group Website

Primary Sources American-Phillipine War [Photograph]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.documentingreality.com/forum/attachments/f226/237190d1293338707philippine-american-war-us-philippine-war.jpeg This photograph was taken during the American- Philippine war. This picture shows american troops during the war. This was used to provide a visual for Servilliano Aquino's pardon. AU SPExS. (2013, December 12). Presidential Pardons: A discussion with Jeffery Crouch [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vdPNlNj3G78 Interview with Dr. Jeffrey Crouch of American University's School of Professional and Extended Studies that gives background information on pardons. Taken from the university's youtube channel with permission. This video gives background information on pardons and how to apply or a pardon, even including Dr. Crouch's opinion on pardons. Clips of this video was included in our project under the "Presidential Pardons Under the Constitution" page. The Bank Panic of 1907 [Newsgroup post]. (2011, June 6). Retrieved from The Finance Professionals Post website: http://post.nyssa.org/.a/6a0120a8cdef2c970b0147e35fbef0970b-200wi This article was used to find more information on Charles Morse's pardon. Some of the information on this page, such as what Morse did and who pardoned him, was used in the page titled William Taft's pardon to Charles Morse. This photo on this page was also used in the pages William Tart's pardon to Charles Morse. This photo

was used to provide a visual of what Charles Morse looked like and the text on the website was used to find more information on Morse and his pardon. Barack Obama [Photograph]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/barackobama This photo of President Obama was used because it provided a visual for the timeline included in our website. This photo just shows President Obama and his years served as president. This photo was used on the Timeline page on our project. Bettmann/CORBIS. (n.d.). Oscar Collazo [Photograph]. Retrieved from http://www.corbisimages.com/stock-photo/rights-managed/U958951ACME/portrait-ofoscar-collazo/ This photo was taken off of a photo sharing website. This photo shows Oscar Collazo in a car supposedly going to his trial. This photo was used in Oscar Collazo's pardons page on our website. Blair House [Photograph]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.whitehousemuseum.org/images/blair-house-1951.jpg This photo shows the Blair house, the house in which President Truman lived at when the Whitehouse was being renovated. This website was used on Oscar Collazo's pardon page to provide a picture of where the shooting happened, the Blair House. Brown, T. (2007, December). Soviet Union- 1983 [Photograph]. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/spiesfly/phot-04.html This photo, taken from the PBS website was used to show one of the photos that Samuel Loring Morrison leaked. This photo can be found on Samuel Loring Morrison's pardon page on our project.

Burdick v United States [Burdick v United States] [Document Text]. (n.d.). Retrieved April 7, 2014, from Justia US Supreme Court website: http://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/236/79/case.html This document was used to find more information on the supreme court case Burdick v United States to see if a pardon can be denied by a recipient. This information was used in the timeline and background page in our website. This website provided information on weather a pardon can be denied by an individual. The website's information gave us the conclusion that pardons can be denied which is found in this case, Burdick v United States. Charles Morse [Photograph]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://ecx.imagesamazon.com/images/I/51OA3eTeDWL._SY300_.jpg This is a photo that pictures Charles Morse on the street. This photo was used to provide a visual for what Charles Morse looked like. This photo was used on William Taft's pardon to Charles Morse page and the Timeline page. The Clintons [Photograph]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://ic.pics.livejournal.com/kensmind/1278588/10651/10651_320.jpg This photo was used to show what Roger Clinton Jr., William Clinton and their mom looked like when they were younger. This was also used as a visual for the project. CNN Staff. (2013, November 27). Obama pardoning Thanksgiving turkey [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.cnn.com/video/data/2.0/video/bestoftv/2013/11/27/turkeypardoning-white-house.cnn.html This video was taken from CNN.COM to show the tradition in which the president pardons the turkey. This is a video of President Obama pardoning the 2013

Thanksgiving Turkey. This video was then trimmed and used on our website under the Background Page. Collazo [Photograph]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/puertorico/collazo-shot.jpg This photo was taken off Latin American Studies website that shows what happened to Oscar Callazo the day of the Blair House attack and this was used as a visual for our website. This photo pictures Collazo lying on the ground unconscious after getting shot. This photo was used in Oscar Collazo's pardons page on our website. Collazo, 80, Truman Attacker in 50' [Collazo, 80 years old, Truman Attacker in 1950]. (1994, February 23). New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/1994/02/23/obituaries/oscar-collazo-80-truman-attacker-in50.html This article was taken from the NY Times archives. This article helped us gather basic information on what Collazo did and the assassination attempt in order to use the information in Oscar Collazo's pardon page on our website. Constitutional convention of 1807 [Illustration]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.whitehouse.gov/our-government/the-constitution This is an illustration of the Constitutional Convention of 1807. This picture was used as a visual on the "Presidential Pardons in the Constitution" page. This was taken off the White House's webpage. Constitution Text [Constitution Text]. (n.d.). Retrieved April 9, 2014, from Archives.gov website: http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/constitution_transcript.html

This website shows the full Constitution text. The text from Article II, Section II, Clause I of the Constitution was used on our project under the "Presidential Pardons in the Constitution" tab. This provided information to the viewer on where the president gets the power to pardon people. Day, D. A. (2012, January 30). The geometry of shadows [The geometry of shadows]. Retrieved February 1, 2014, from The Space Review website: http://www.thespacereview.com/article/2013/1 This website helped us understand more about Samuel Loring Morrison and what he did that got him a pardon. Some of the pictures (2nd and 3rd from the top) was used to provide a visual for our project. The information about Morrison and the pictures were used in "Samuel Loring Morrison's pardon'' page in our project. Felony charges [MD Felony Charges]. (2008, December 1). Retrieved April 10, 2014, from Department of Health and Mental Hygiene website: http://dhmh.maryland.gov/mha/Documents/offensetable.pdf This document found on the DHMH website for Maryland shows the felony charges for different crimes. This information helped us find criminal sentences/charges for crimes such as burglary and sentences for a murderer. This information was used to compare the charges people would get with a pardon and without. This information was used in the Background page in our project. Ford pardons nixon [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://mitchellarchives.com/wpcontent/uploads/2008/10/ford-pardons-nixon-article-2.jpg This image was taken off an archive page. This is a photo of a Washington Post article on Ford's pardon to Nixon. This photo was used to as a visual on the Ford's pardon to

Nixon page in our project. This photo pictures the article along with a photo of Ford signing the document that legally pardoned Nixon. Ford's speech [President Gerald Ford Speech- Pardoning Richard Nixon]. (n.d.). Retrieved March 7, 2014, from History Place website: http://www.historyplace.com/speeches/ford.htm This website, the History Place, was used to find the text of the speech that President Ford gave on live TV that pardoned Nixon. The text of his speech, was used on the "Ford's pardon to Nixon" page in our project. Franklin D. Roosevelt [Photograph]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/franklindroosevelt This photo was found on the White House's website under the section Franklin D. Roosevelt. The picture on the top of the page was used on the Timeline page on our website. This photo was used to show the viewer what Franklin D. Roosevelt looked like since he was mentioned as the president that currently has given the most pardons. Iva Toguri [Iva Toguri]. (2006, September 27). Retrieved April 6, 2014, from NPR website: http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=6154827 This website, npr.org, helped us find more information on D'Aquino, what she did, and her pardon. Some information was also provided in the article and in the interview text. The information in this site, such as who pardoned her, was used in the timeline page and D'Aquino's pardon page in our website. Jimmy Carter [Photograph]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/2002/carter.jpg

This is a picture of President Jimmy Carter. This picture was used on Oscar Collazo's pardon page. This photo was used to show the viewer what President Carter looked like since he pardoned Collazo. Kotowski, P. (n.d.). Whiskey rebellion [Whiskey Rebellion- George Washington's Mount Vernon]. Retrieved March 11, 2014, from Mount Vernon website: http://www.mountvernon.org/educational-resources/encyclopedia/whiskey-rebellion This website helped us find more information on the people pardoned by Washington in the Whiskey Rebellion. The information found on this website, such as details about the rebellion and who got pardoned was used on Washington's pardons to the Whiskey Rebels page on our project. Levinson, S. (2013, November 24). [Letter to the editor]. The New York Times, The opinion pages. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/25/opinion/invitation-to-adialogue-presidential-pardons.html?_r=0 This opinion page from the New York Times was useful for us to find quotes and other people's opinions on presidential pardons. The author of this article, Sanford Levinson, a visiting professor at Harvard University gives his opinion on pardons and how different presidents used the power to pardon differently. Some of what he said was quoted and added to our project on various pages. Morrison [Morrison's case report]. (n.d.). Retrieved March 1, 2014, from FAS website: http://www.fas.org/sgp/jud/morison040188.pdf This document was used to find more information on the crimes that Morrison committed that got him his pardon. This website also gave us background on

Morrison. The information found in the case transcript was used in Samuel Loring Morrison's pardon page on our website and on the timeline page. Naval intelligence center [Photograph]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://nmio.ise.gov/images/nmic.jpg This image was found on a government website. This is a photo of the Naval Intelligence Center located in MD. This photo was used in Samuel Loring Morrison's pardon page and was used to provide a visual for the viewer. Neyfakh, L. (2013, March 17). The untapped power of presidential pardons [The Untapped Power of Presidential Pardons]. The Boston Globe, Ideas. Retrieved from http://www.bostonglobe.com/ideas/2013/03/16/the-untapped-power-presidentialpardons/cseZPMSu2Qxm7Lg2lRshSM/story.html This article written by Leon Neyfakh was used to find people's opinions on pardons and quotes that other people said about presidential pardons. His opinion was used in our project as quotes. The quotes are on different pages of our project. This website was helpful since it also gave us information on his opinion on other pardons given out. Nixon has suffered enough [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://mitchellarchives.com/wpcontent/uploads/2008/10/ford-pardons-nixon-hf.jpg This is a photo of a Washington Post newspaper published on September 9th 1974. This photo was used as a visual for our project. This photo can be found on Ford's pardon to Nixon page on our project. Nixon's Resignation [Nixon's resignation]. (1996, March). Retrieved from Nixon's Resignation website: http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/american_originals/nixon.html

This website was used to find more information of the Watergate Scandal and Nixon's relation to it. We used the information and some of the pictures (Nixon's resignation letter) on our project. The picture of Nixon's letter can be found on the Homepage and the information found from this article is displayed in Ford's pardon to Nixon page in our website. Oscar Collazo [Photograph]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.news.dm/wpcontent/uploads/2012/11/Collazo.jpg This photo is a portrait of Oscar Collazo, one of the 2 people that tried to shoot President Truman. This picture was found on a news website. This website was used in the page titled "Oscar Collazo's Pardons" in our website/project. The Oyez Project at IIT Chicago-Kent College of Law. (n.d.). United States v Nixon [United States v Nixon]. Retrieved March 7, 2014, from The Oyez Project website: http://www.oyez.org/cases/1970-1979/1974/1974_73_1766 This website was used to find more information on Nixon's relation to Watergate. This website also gave us more information on the trials Nixon had to go through. The information found on this website was used on Ford's pardon to Nixon page on our website. Pardon [Photograph]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://michaelcorey.ntirety.com/Portals/1101/images%5C/Ford%20signs%20Nixon%20p ardon.jpg This is a photo of Ford signing the document that pardoned Nixon. This photo was used on Ford's pardon to Nixon page and on the Timeline page.

Pardon letter [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.legendaryauctions.com/ItemImages/000044/36111ii_lg.jpeg This is an image of Ford's letter that legally pardoned Nixon. This picture was used on Ford's pardon to Nixon page and on the Homepage of our project. This photo was used as a visual. pardons [pardons granted on January 21st, 2001]. (2001, January 21). Retrieved March 13, 2014, from Justice.gov website: http://www.justice.gov/opa/pardonchartlst.htm This website included the list of people pardoned by Bill Clinton on the last day of his presidency. This list was used to find people pardoned like Roger Clinton and Samuel Loring Morrison. The people found in this list were then used as examples of pardons that we included in our project. The information found on this page is included in Bill Clinton's pardon to Roger Clinton page, Bill Clinton's pardon of Samuel Loring Morrison's page and the Timeline page. Richard Nixon [Photograph]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://content.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,1859513_1859526_18595 27,00.html This photo, taken from Time.com's top 10 unfortunate political one-liners, was used as a visual to show what President Nixon looked like. This photo was used in Ford's pardon to Nixon page. Richelson, J. T. (Ed.). (1999, April 14). U.S. Satellite Imagery, 1960-1999 [U.S. Satellite Imagery, 1960-1999]. Retrieved April 3, 2014, from http://www2.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB13/

This website was used to find pictures of what Samuel Loring Morrison leaked. We used the 4th photo from the top. This website provided a photo of the Soviet naval shipbuilding facility that Morrison leaked to the magazine. This photo can be found in Samuel Loring Morrison's pardon page on our project. Roger Clinton [Photograph]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://ia.mediaimdb.com/images/M/MV5BMTUwNjg4OTg2NF5BMl5BanBnXkFtZTcwOTcxNDQzO A@@._V1_SY317_CR3,0,214,317_.jpg This photo taken from the amazon archives page shows what Roger Clinton looks like. This photo was used on the Bill Clinton's pardon to Roger Clinton page in our project. This photo was used to show what Roger Clinton, a pardon recipient looked like. Roger Clinton [Photograph]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2012/09/26/article-2209084-15385199000005DC543_634x659.jpg This photo of Roger Clinton and Bill Clinton was used to show the viewers what Roger Clinton Looked like. This picture can be found in the Timeline and Bill Clinton's pardon to Roger Clinton page. This picture was mostly used as a visual element in our project. Roger Clinton [Photograph]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://4.bp.blogspot.com/nQChISzBd2M/Ts_CChr_h1I/AAAAAAAAAdc/Q3RJEoxR4QQ/s320/roger-clinton.jpg This photo of Roger Clinton was used to show the viewer what Roger Clinton looked like.

Servillano Aquino [Servillano A. Aquino] [Fact sheet]. (n.d.). Retrieved March 7, 2014, from National Historical Commission of the Philippines website: http://www.nhi.gov.ph/downloads/mp0017.pdf This document was used to find more information on Servaillano Aquino and his pardon, his sentence and his involvement in the American-Phillipine war. The information in this document was used in Aquino's pardon page on our website. Servillano Aquino [Photograph]. (2010, August 27). Retrieved from http://angkangpilipino.com/2010/08/27/all-in-the-family-the-aquinos-of-tarlac/ This photo (4th from the top) was used to add a visual for the viewer to see what Aquino looked like. This is a portrait of Aquino. This photo can be found on the Timeline page and Servillano Aquino's pardon page. Spitz, J. (2014, January 1). Presidential pardons [Presidential Pardons]. The New York Times, The Opinion Pages. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/02/opinion/presidential-pardons.html?_r=0 We used this newspaper article to find out other peoples opinion's on presidential pardons and to use them as quotes on the website. The quotes found from this article are used in different pages on our website. Supreme court judges 1914 [Photograph]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.oyez.org/sites/default/files/imagecache/600px_wide_profile_image/courts/wh ite/whit5/photograph/whit5_photograph.jpg This picture of the supreme court judges in 1914 was used to provide a visual for the timeline. This photo can be found in the timeline page of our project.

Taft Again Refuses to Pardon Morse [Taft Again Refuses to Pardon Morse]. (1911, December 25). NY Times, p. 1. Retrieved from http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archivefree/pdf?res=FA0D10FB395517738DDDAC0A94DA415B818DF1D3 This article was important since it talks about Charles Morse's illness and his sentence and about him being transferred to a different jail/hospital. This was a free archive article found on the New York Times website. This information was used to find more information on Morse's pardon and his sickness that got him pardoned. This information in this article, such as his jail sentence was used in the timeline and the Taft's pardon to Charles Morse page in our website. Theodore Roosevelt [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.old-picture.com/americanlegacy/006/pictures/Roosevelt-Theodore-Reading.jpg This image was used to show what Theodore Roosevelt looked like. This photo was used in Theodore Roosevelt's pardon to Servillano Aquino's page and the timeline page. Tokyo Rose [Photograph]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://4.bp.blogspot.com/CRgAtxryja0/UcGHRC0sRoI/AAAAAAAAATs/poHZ0BhloSM/s1600/Sugamo.png This photo was used to provide a visual for the project and showed what Iva D'Aquino looked like. This photo was used in the timeline and D'Aquino's pardon page. Tokyo rose. (2013, June 7). Retrieved March 7, 2014, from http://pdxretro.com/2013/06/themicrophone-of-tokyo-rose/ This website was used to find more pictures of Iva D'Aquino. The pictures are included in our website on the page about D'Aquino's pardon.

Torresola [Photograph]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/puertorico/torresola-1.jpg This photo was used to provide a visual for what Torresola looked like at the time of the Blair House attack. This photo can be found in Oscar Collazo's pardons page. This photo was used because Torresola was part of the act of crime Collazo was pardoned in that got him pardons. Truman [Photograph]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.kingsacademy.com/mhodges/07_Special-Documents/HistoricalDocuments/Photocopies+Illustrations/1947_Harry-Truman-at-his-desk.jpg This photo was used as a visual for the Oscar Collazo's pardon page. This is a photo of Harry Truman. This photo can be found on the timeline page and Oscar Collazo's pardon page on our project. U.S. Const. art. II, § 2, cl. 1. Retrieved from http://constitutioncenter.org/constitution/full-text The text of the Constitution of the US was used to find what the Constitution stated about presidential pardons and that the president got the power from Article II, Section 2, Clause 1. This website gave us the full text which was used in "Presidential Pardons in the Constitution" page on our project. United States of America v Samuel Loring Morrison [United States of America v Samuel Loring Morrison] [Document]. (1985, March 12). Retrieved February 13, 2014, from Middle Tennessee State University website: http://capone.mtsu.edu/lburriss/morison.html This website/document was important since it helped us gather more information about Samuel Loring Morrison and what crime he committed. The information

embedded in this site, such as the outcome of the case, was used in the Samuel Loring Morrison's pardon page. Watergate [Photograph]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/history/acentennial-history/image/watergatefromair2.jpg This photo was used to provide a visual for the project and shows what the Watergate Building in DC looks like. This photo was used in Nixon's pardon page on our website. Watergate Hearing [Photograph]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=12&sid=fd028331-1340-4eb0-a3fa5a893124d37f%40sessionmgr113&hid=24&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d% 3d#db=mih&authdb=imh&AN=imh224812 This photo was used to provide a visual for what the Watergate hearing looked like. William Taft [Photograph]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/firstfamily/masthead_image/27wt_header_sm.jpg?1251138625 This photo was used to show what President Taft looked like on Charles Morse's pardon. This photo was used on the timeline and Charles Morse's pardon pages on our project.

Secondary Sources The Bank Panic of October 1907—A Spectator's View. (n.d.). Retrieved April 8, 2014, from The Finance Professional's Post website: http://post.nyssa.org/nyssa-news/2011/06/the-bankpanic-of-october-1907-a-spectators-view.html

This website was important to us as it was used to find more information on Morse's pardon and the banking violations he committed that caused him to go to jail. The information is included in the page about Morse's pardon on our website. Burdick v. United States. (n.d.). Retrieved from Federal Presidential Pardon website: http://www.federalpresidentialpardon.com/2009/11/01/burdick-v-united-states-236-u-s79-1915/ This website was used to find more information on Burdick's pardon and how a pardon can be rejected. The website also helped us understand that by accepting a pardon, the recipient is acknowledging their guilt. The information was used on the background page of our website. Caramel and Popcorn [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.vanityfair.com/online/daily/2013/11/president-pardon-turkey-popcorncaramel/.i.1.turkeys.jpg This image was used to provide a picture of what the turkeys Obama could have pardoned last year, 2013 and also shows how pardons are used for trivial purposes. This image is on the background page of our website. Clemency Recipients. (n.d.). Retrieved October 29, 2013, from Justice website: http://www.justice.gov/pardon/recipients.htm This source was used to find the people that were pardoned by presidents from 1989. The information on this website gave us the background and list of names of people that were pardoned. This information was then used to find more about the people pardoned. The information found on this page provided the base of our project.

The pardons from this source that are included on our website are Roger Clinton and Samuel Loring Morison's pardons. Clinton brothers [Photograph]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2012/09/26/article-2209084-15385199000005DC543_634x659.jpg This photo was used to show what Bill Clinton's half brother, Roger Clinton Jr, looks like. This photo is used on Roger Clinton's pardon page. Constitution [Photograph]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.jmu.edu/constitutionday/wm_library/WTP_Image.jpg This photo was used to add a visual effect for the "Presidential Pardons in The Constitution" page. Crowe, C. (n.d.). Presidential Pardon Machine [Cartoon]. Retrieved April 9, 2014, from The Phoenix website: http://cache.thephoenix.com/secure/uploadedImages/The_Phoenix/News/News_Stories/P residentialPardonColor.jpg This cartoon shows the types of people that are getting pardoned and how sometimes presidents don't really think before giving pardons to people. The cartoon was used as a visual for our website on the conclusion page. Felony gravel [Photograph]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://defensehelp.com/legacy/images/Felony%20Gavel.jpg This photo was used to provide a visual for our project. It is on the background page of our website.

Flanary, P. (2011, December 13). How the Nixon Pardon Strained a Presidential Friendship. Retrieved March 14, 2014, from Propublica website: http://www.propublica.org/article/presidential-pardons-how-the-nixon-pardon-strained-apresidential-friendshi This website was used to find what other people thought about Gerald Ford's pardon to Richard Nixon. The website was also provided a quote from Jerald terHorst, which is on the page about Nixon's pardon. Ford Pardon's Nixon. (n.d.). Retrieved October 3, 2013, from Watergate website: http://watergate.info/1974/09/08/ford-pardons-nixon.html This website was important since it helped us to find more information on Nixon's pardon and why Ford felt it was necessary. A quote of the exact words from Ford on the pardon is used on Nixon's pardon page. Iva Toguri d'Aquino and "Tokyo Rose" [FBI- Iva Toguri d'Aquino and "Tokyo Rose"]. (n.d.). Retrieved March 7, 2014, from FBI website: http://www.fbi.gov/aboutus/history/famous-cases/tokyo-rose This website helped us find more information on Iva Toguri d'Aquino's pardon. The information found on this website, her life, trial and pardon, were used in the timeline page and D'Aquino's pardon page. Lerner, A. W. (n.d.). Tokyo Rose. Retrieved March 7, 2014, from Faqs website: http://www.faqs.org/espionage/Te-Uk/Tokyo-Rose.html This website was used to gather information on Iva Toguri D'Aquino when she broadcasted propaganda statements for Radio Tokyo. The information is used on D'Aquino's pardon page.

Longley, R. (2001, February 21). Presidential pardons. Retrieved October 3, 2013, from USA Gov Info website: http://usgovinfo.about.com/od/thepresidentandcabinet/a/prespardons.htm This source was used to find how presidential pardons came to be and to find more information on presidential pardons, in the Constitutional Convention. The information is on the "Background" tab of our project. Newspaper [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/section/learning/general/onthisday/big/0908_big.gif This image of a newspaper article on Ford's pardon to Nixon was used to provide a visual for the project and is on our website on the page about Nixon's pardon. Notable Pardons. (n.d.). Retrieved October 30, 2013, from http://usgovinfo.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://jurist.law.pitt.edu/pardons 6.htm This source was used to find examples of notable presidential pardons. The pardons from this source that are included on our website are: the Whiskey Rebels, Oscar Collazo, Richard Nixon, and Tokyo Rose. On this day: Washington pardons whiskey rebels. (2012, July 10). Retrieved from George Washington Wired website: http://www.georgewashingtonwired.org/tag/whiskeyrebellion/ This website was used to find more information on the the pardon that Washington gave to the whiskey rebels. The information is included on the page about the Whiskey Rebels' pardon.

Oscar Collazo. (n.d.). Retrieved April 8, 2014, from Peace Host website: http://www.peacehost.net/WhiteStar/Voices/eng-ocollazo.html This website was used to find more information on Oscar Collazo and his actions in the Blair House event. The information is included in the website on the page about Collazo's pardon. Oscar Collazo. (n.d.). Retrieved April 8, 2014, from Federal Presidential Pardon website: http://www.federalpresidentialpardon.com/2009/11/14/oscar-collazo/ This website was used to find more information on the crimes committed by Oscar Collazo. The picture was also used for a visual on our website on the page about Collazo's pardon. Pardons [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2011/12/19/opinion/1219RFDjaso/1219RFDjasocustom1.jpg This image was used to explain an analogy on presidential pardons and a balance and how presidential pardons can cause the balance to be tipped over. The image is used on the "Home" page of our website. Presidential Pardons. (n.d.). Retrieved October 30, 2013, from Us Gov Info website: http://usgovinfo.about.com/blprespardons.htm This source was used to find what the code of federal regulation on presidential pardons. Presidential seal [Photograph]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://servicewomen.org/wpcontent/uploads/2012/01/gt_presidential_seal_pen_630x420_111201.jpg

This photo was used to provide a visual for our project. It is one the background page of our website. Pritchett, J. C. (n.d.). [Cartoon]. Retrieved April 9, 2014, from Dr. Frederick Cook website: http://www.drfrederickcook.com/gifs/pardon[1].gif This cartoon was used to provide a visual for how many people viewed Clinton's pardons and how the people he pardoned are not worthy of the pardon. Richard Nixon. (n.d.). Retrieved from National Cold War Exhibition website: http://www.nationalcoldwarexhibition.org/the-cold-war/biographies/richard-nixon/ This source was used to provide a quote from Richard Nixon on the Watergate Scandal. The quote is located in the page about Nixon's pardon on our website. Ruckman, P. S. (n.d.). Compartive Clemency Statistics [Chart]. Retrieved from http://www.rvc.cc.il.us/faclink/pruckman/pardoncharts/fiscreq_files/image002.gif This chart was important since it was used to analyze how presidents have been using the power to pardon over the past decades and as a visual to display the results and explain a point that they are being more careful with the power. The chart is on the conclusion page of our website. Ruckman, P. S., Jr. (n.d.). Acts of clemency [Image]. Retrieved from http://pardonresearch.com/prescomp/pardco1.gif This source was important since it provided statistics on how many pardons each president gave during their terms as president. This was also used as a visual for our project on the background page. Samuel Loring. (n.d.). Retrieved October 29, 2013, from History Commons website: http://www.historycommons.org/entity.jsp?entity=samuel_loring_morison_1

This source was used to find information about Samuel Loring Morison and the crime he committed tha led to him getting a presidential pardon. The information gathered is used on the page about Morison's pardon. Samuel Loring Morrison [Photograph]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://cd1.eju.tv/wpcontent/uploads/2013/06/morison_thumb.jpg This photo was used to provide a visual of what Samuel Loring Morrison looked like. The picture is used throughout the website, mainly on the page about Morison's pardon. The scandal that brought down Richard Nixon. (n.d.). Retrieved September 21, 2013, from Watergate website: http://watergate.info This website helped us find more information on the Watergate Scandal, which almost caused Nixon to be impeached and resulted in Ford's pardon to Nixon, which is also included in this website. The information is included on the page about Nixon's pardon. Speech. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.historyplace.com/speeches/nixon.htm This source was used to find the text of Nixon's resignation speech. Quotes from his speech are used on our website on the page about Nixon's pardon. Studying another man's urine. (n.d.). Retrieved April 8, 2014, from Doctor Zebra website: http://www.doctorzebra.com/prez/z_x27morse_g.htm This website was used to find more information on Morse's pardon and how he faked a disease to get a pardon. The source was important since it gave Taft's view on the events leading up to Morse's pardon. The information is included in the page about Morse's pardon.

Tokyo Rose [Photograph]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://forejustice.org/wc/tr/tokyo_rose_70603_html_m33a02abc.jpg This picture of a newspaper article was used as a visual for our project on the page about Iva D'Aquino's pardon. Whiskey rebellion [Illustration]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.mountvernon.org/sites/mountvernon.org/files/images/Whiskey_Insurrection.j pg This photo was used as a visual for the project and to show some events that happened quite frequently during the Whiskey Rebellion, such as rioting and tarring and feathering tax collectors. The whiskey rebellion. (n.d.). Retrieved from Archiving Early America website: http://www.earlyamerica.com/earlyamerica/milestones/whiskey/ This website was used to find more information about the Whiskey Rebellion, including Washington's proclamation to militia. The information is used on our website on the page about Washington's pardon to the whiskey Rebels. Whiskey Rebellion [Illustration]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.ttb.gov/images/image007.jpg This illustration was used to show the violence that happened during the Whiskey Rebellion. The illustration is used on the page about the whiskey rebels' pardon. Whiskey Rebellion [Illustration]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.gallon.com/prodimages/glpr-115.jpg This photo was used to provide a visual for the project and shows Washington and his troops departing to Pennsylvania to stop Whiskey Rebellion. The photo is on the whiskey rebels' page on our website.

The whiskey rebellion [The Whiskey Rebellion]. (2012, September 4). Retrieved March 7, 2014, from TTB website: http://www.ttb.gov/public_info/whisky_rebellion.shtml This website was used to find more information on the Whiskey Rebellion and Washington's pardons to a few of the offenders. The information found on this website was used in Washington's pardons to the Whiskey Rebels page on our project.

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