ZIGBEE

Erkan Ünal CSE 401 SPECIAL TOPICS IN COMPUTER NETWORKS

OUTLINE

ZIGBEE AND APPLICATIONS

 

ZIGBEE PROTOCOL ZIGBEE ALLIANCE ZIGBEE APPLICATIONS PHYSICAL LAYER MAC LAYER
NETWORK LAYER SECURITY IN ZIGBEE ZDO AND APPLICATION SUB-LAYER

IEEE 802.15.4 PROTOCOL

ZIGBEE SPECIFICATION


SENSOR/CONTROL NETWORK REQUIREMENTS

Networks form by themselves, scale to large sizes and operate for years without manual intervention Extremely long battery life (years on AA cell),
 

low infrastructure cost (low device & setup costs) low complexity and small size

Low device data rate and QoS

Standardized protocols allow multiple vendors to interoperate

WHAT IS ZIGBEE PROTOCOL?

The IEEE 802.15.4 covers the physical layer and the MAC layer of low-rate WPAN. The ZigBee is “an emerging standard that is based on the IEEE 802.15.4 and adds network construction (star networks, peer-to-peer/mesh networks, and cluster-tree networks), application services, and more”.

ZIGBEE ALLIANCE
• •

Organized as an independent, neutral, nonprofit corporation in 2002 Open and global

Anyone can join and participate Membership is global Specification creation Certification and compliance programs Branding, market development, and user education

Activity includes


2002 (5+X Growth) Includes major names in the Semiconductor. 35 Dec.ZIGBEE ALLIANCE • Is a growing community of companies • • ~200 members vs. Software Developer. • Has made its specification publicly available • • • Has over 30 compliant platforms • • . End Product Manufacturer. and Service Provider Industries including major Telecom Carriers ZigBee is open to all-ZigBee 2006 now available 38.000+ downloads to date Many certified vendors make choosing ZigBee a safe choice No dominating elements or companies.

WHY ZIGBEE?         Standards based Low cost Can be used globally Reliable and self healing Supports large number of nodes Easy to deploy Very long battery life Secure .

3 802.16 WiFi 802.01 0.1 ZigBee standard uniquely fills a gap for low data rate applications 1 10 Data Rate (Mbps) 100 1000 .1 WPAN 0.15.The IEEE 802 Wireless Space WWAN IEEE 802.22 IEEE 802.11 802.4c 802.15.15.4 Bluetooth 15.20 Range WMAN WiMax IEEE 802.15.3c WLAN ZigBee 802.

ZIGBEE PROMOTERS .

ZIGBEE APPLICATIONS security HVAC AMR lighting control access control TV VCR DVD/CD remote ZigBee Wireless Control that Simply Works patient monitoring fitness monitoring PERSONAL HEALTH CARE TELECOM SERVICES PC & PERIPHERALS asset mgt process control environmental energy mgt m-commerce info services object interaction (Internet of Things) security HVAC lighting control access control irrigation .

SOME APPLICATION PROFILES  Home Automation [HA]  Defines set of devices used in home automation      Light switches Thermostats Window shade Heating unit etc. .

SOME APPLICATION PROFILES  Industrial Plant Monitoring  Consists of device definitions for sensors used in industrial control     Temperature Pressure sensors Infrared etc. .

management. and monitoring Telecom Services/M-commerce Automated Meter Reading  Addresses utility meter reading Very low power unattended networks Wireless Sensor Networks    Vendors may form new profile groups within ZigBee and/or propose private profiles for consideration 400+ private profile IDs issued .MORE APPLICATION PROFILES  Multiple profiles at various stages of completion     Commercial Building Automation  Building control.

In-Home Patient Monitoring  Patients receive better care at reduced cost with more freedom and comfort  Patients can remain in their own home  Monitors vital statistics and sends via internet  Doctors can adjust medication levels  Allows monitoring of elderly family member  Sense movement or usage patterns in a home  Turns lights on when they get out of bed  Notify via mobile phone when anomalies occur  Wireless panic buttons for falls or other problems  Can also be used in hospital care  Patients are allowed greater movement  Reduced staff to patient ratio graphic graphic .

light commercial and commercial Extendable networks  Lighting network can be integrated with and/or be used by other building control solutions .Commercial Lighting Control   Wireless lighting control  Dimmable intelligent ballasts  Light switches/sensors anywhere  Customizable lighting schemes  Quantifiable energy savings  Opportunities in residential.

It is foreseen that. and moving devices with no battery or very limited battery consumption requirements typically operating in the personal operating space (POS) of 10 m.15. portable.15. depending on the application. .4 STANDARD  IEEE Std 802. a longer range at a lower data rate may be an acceptable tradeoff.DEFINITION OF IEEE 802.4 defines the physical layer (PHY) and medium access control (MAC) sublayer specifications for low-data-rate wireless connectivity with fixed.

15.15.4 standard (2003) defines the device types that can be used in a LR-WPAN which are Full Functional Device (FFD) and Reduced Functional Device (RFD). The RFD can be used in simple applications in which they do not need to transmit large amounts of data and they have to communicate only with a specific FFD .IEEE 802.4 DEVICE TYPES   The IEEE 802.

15. .IEEE 802.4 DEVICE TYPES  The FFD can work as a PAN coordinator. or as a simple device. as a coordinator. It can communicate with either another FFD or a RFD.

LR-WPAN TOPOLOGIES  In keeping with the application requirements. the LRWPAN operates in a star or peer-to-peer topology. The star topology the RFD communicates with a single controller. but it is also responsible for controlling the PAN. the PAN coordinator. The PAN coordinator can perform the same function as the RFD. “it initiates. terminates. or routes communication around the network”   .

however. allocated by the PAN coordinator. The combination of the PAN identifier and the sort addresses allows communication across different PANs    . All the devices in a LR-WPAN have a unique 64-bit address. this topology also has a PAN coordinator. can be used inside a PAN.LR-WPAN TOPOLOGIES  Peer-to-peer topology supports ad-hoc mesh multi-hop networking. Each PAN has a unique identifier. Any device in the peer-to-peer topology can communicate with any other device within its communication range. This or a short address.

LR-WPAN TOPOLOGIES Star and Peer-to-Peer topologies in LR-WPAN .

15. Clear Channel Assesment before sending the messages and provides LQI for the received packets.   . the transmission and reception of the PPDUs.4 standard specifies two different services that the Physical Layer(PHY) provides.PHYSICAL LAYER  The 802. The PHY data service controls the radio. and thus. The management service performs Energy Detection in the channel.

4 BANDS  868/868.5 MHz worldwide .6 MHz for Europe  902/928 MHz for North America  2400/2483.IEEE 802.15.

PPDU PACKET FORMAT  The LSB is always transmitted and received first  The PPDU size can be up to 127 bytes .

 . the MAC layer supports two services. Similar to the PHY layer. The MAC data service is responsible for the transmission and reception of the MPDUs through the PHY data service.MAC LAYER   Interface between the SSCS and the PHY layer.

It is also responsible for PAN association and disassociation. and acknowledgment providing “a reliable link between two peer MAC entities. frame validation. Supports device security. if the device is a coordinator.MAC LAYER  The MAC management service.” Uses the CSMA/CA for channel access and handles and maintains the GTS mechanism. manages the network beacons.   .

15. acknowledgment.   . The frame control field describes and specifies the above different frame types.MAC LAYER FRAME FORMATS  The IEEE 802. All frame types are based on the general MAC frame format.4 standard defines four different frame types: the beacon. and MAC command frame. data.

Different frame types have different MAC payload fields. sequence number.MAC LAYER FRAME FORMATS  Every MAC frame comprises a MHR. and the information field. It also contains the MAC payload. which consists of a frame control.  .

 The data in the MPDU follows the same order as the PPDU: the least significant bits are left in the frame and are transited first. which contains a FCS.GENERAL MAC LAYER FRAME FORMAT  Each frame includes a MFR. .

.BEACON FRAME FORMAT  The beacon frame is transmitted periodically by the PAN coordinator.  It also synchronizes the network devices and indicates the proper communication period for them.  It provides information about the network management through the super frame and GTS fields.

DATA FRAME FORMAT  Encapsulates data from the higher layers. .

it is not obliged to response with an acknowledgement packet .ACKNOWLEDGEMENT FRAME FORMAT  Does not have a payload.  When a device receives a packet.

 The command identifier specifies actions like association. . and data. GTS or beacon request.COMMAND FRAME FORMAT  Useful for communication between the network devices. disassociation.

The super frame uses network beacons. every PAN has its own coordinator. it suspends the beacon transmission. it has two options.SUPER FRAME  In the LR-WPAN.   . If the coordinator does not want to use a super frame structure. to use or not use the super frame structure. The PAN coordinator manages the communication in the local area.

  . and to support low-latency devices it usually uses the super frame. beacons bound it. If the coordinator wishes to maintain close communication control in the PAN.SUPER FRAME  The beacon is important for device association and disassociation. A super frame determines a specific time period.

SUPER FRAME STRUCTURE .

Data transfer from the PAN. Peer-to-peer Data Transfer  The types differ if the coordinator uses or does not beacons . Data transfer from a device to the PAN coordinator.DATA TRANSFER TYPES     Three different types of data transfer exist.

DATA TRANSFER FROM A DEVICE TO THE PAN COORDINATOR .

DATA TRANSFER FROM THE PAN COORDINATOR .

  .PEER-TO PEER DATA TRANSFER  The devices are free to communicate with any other device within their communication range. In a peer-to-peer PAN the devices can “either receive constantly or synchronize with each other.” If they are receiving constantly. to transmit data they use un-slotted CSMA-CA. In the second case. synchronization must be achieved first.

The upper layers are in general responsible for device authentication and key management.15. including “the ability to maintain an ACL and use symmetric cryptography” for data encryption.    .4  Provides a security baseline. The higher level layers decide when security is need. The algorithm that is used for encryption is the AES.SECURITY IN IEEE 802.

a new standard which became publicly available in June 2005.15. security and application layer services.ZIGBEE STANDARD  ZigBee. It expands the IEEE 802. is based on the IEEE 802.15.4 by adding the framework for the network construction.4 standard.  .

ZIGBEE STACK .

network synchronization  Frames security  Message routing. addressing assignment.4 addressing schema by using the standard 64-bit and the short 16-bit addressing.  . Network layer responsibilities: Establishment of a new network.NETWORK LAYER   The ZigBee standard works on top of the IEEE 802.15.  New device configuration.

 Under the coordinator in the network hierarchy is the “ZigBee router. .” “ZigBee Coordinator” is the first type of logical devices.  “ZigBee End Device” acts as the end point of the network structure. maintaining.DEVICE TYPES   Uses notion of “logical devices. and managing the network.”  Responsible for controlling the message routing between the nodes.  It is responsible for initializing.

ZIGBEE NETWORK TOPOLOGIES .

and device management.SECURITY IN ZIGBEE  Security services provided by ZigBee: “key establishment. frame protection.15. key transport.4 AES mechanism provides the proper security.” The security mechanism covers the network and the application layer. the source and destination devices have access and use the same share key. The notion of end-to-end security is supported. In the MAC layer the 802.    .

   . The MAC frames’ integrity is supported by calculating and using a MIC at the end of the MAC payload. integrity. and authenticity of the MAC frames” An auxiliary header field in front of the MAC payload indicates if the frame is encrypted or not.SECURITY IN ZIGBEE  The mechanism protects “the confidentiality. Nonce is used to provide MAC confidentiality and authenticity.

For the integrity.SECURITY IN ZIGBEE  For different security aspects the MAC layer uses different mode of the AES:  For the encryption it uses the AES in Counter (CTR) mode.   . the CBC-MAC. Combination (CCM) of the above two modes.

SECURE MAC FRAME .

NETWORK LAYER SECURITY  CCM (a modified MAC layer CCM mode) is used for encryption. the above layers specify the keys and the CCM option for each frame. . The network layer security message format is similar to the MAC frame.    Although the network layer is responsible for securing its layer messages. Single key is used for all different security options.

SECURE NETWORK FRAME .

Other security responsibilities that the application layer has are to provide the ZDO and the applications with device management services.APPLICATION LAYER SECURITY  Uses the “link key” or the “network key” to secure the message. and key transport   . key establishment. Encapsulates it inside a set of fields similar to the network format.

SECURE APPLICATION LAYER FRAME .

Forwards messages between them. the application sublayer:      Binds devices based on their duties and needs. In addition to the security responsibilities. the ZDO and the application sub-layer. Discovers the neighbour devices for a given device. Maintains the binding tables.ZDO AND APPLICATION SUBLAYER  The ZigBee application layer contains the manufacturer-defined application objects. .

 Supporting security   Sub-layer that implements the actual application is the manufacturer-defined application object .ZDO  The ZDO is responsible for: Determining the device’s duty in the network.  Communicating using binding requests.

application services.CONCLUSION     Zigbee applications are in diverse areas Zigbee Alliance works as a non-profit organization which has more than 200 members.15. Zigbee adds network construction. and more. .4 covers Physical Layer And Mac Layer. IEEE 802.

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