# Machine Design II

Prof. K.Gopinath & Prof. M.M.Mayuram

Flywheel

A

flywheel and the

is

an

inertial as a

energy-storage reservoir, is the more

device.

It

absorbs during

mechanical the period releases than the

energy when it

serves of

storing than the of

energy

supply the

energy when

requirement energy is

and

during

period

requirement

more

supply.

Flywheels-Function need and Operation
The main function of a fly wheel is to smoothen out variations in the speed of a shaft caused by torque fluctuations. If the source of the

driving torque or load torque is fluctuating in nature, then a flywheel is usually torque engines called time with for. Many to or machines vary two have the are load patterns that cause the

function one punch

over

cycle. a etc.

Internal typical are the

combustion Piston systems

cylinders rock

example. other

compressors,

presses,

crushers

that have fly wheel. Flywheel absorbs mechanical energy by increasing its angular

velocity and delivers the stored energy by decreasing its velocity
T 2 T m T 1 A ω max ω min C D θ B C D θ
1 CYCLE

A

B

Figure 3.3.1

Mayuram Design Approach There are two stages to the design of a flywheel. Then moment flywheel of geometry in a must be defined sized that caters and is the safe required against inertia reasonably package failure at the designed speeds of operation.ωmin Fl = ωmax − ωmin We can normalize this to a dimensionless ratio by dividing it by the average or nominal shaft speed (ωave) . M. the amount must be of energy and required the for the moment desired of degree of smoothening found (mass) inertia needed to absorb that energy determined.Machine Design II Prof.M. First. Cf = ωmax − ωmin ω Where ωavg is nominal angular velocity Co-efficient of speed fluctuation The above ratio is termed as coefficient of speed fluctuation Cf and it is defined as Cf = ωmax − ωmin ω Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Speed fluctuation The change in the shaft speed during a cycle is called the speed fluctuation and is equal to ωmax. Design Parameters Flywheel inertia (size) needed directly depends upon the acceptable changes in the speed. K.Gopinath & Prof.

M. M.05 for like precision crusher machinery applications hammering machinery.01 to 0.20 for 0.Machine Design II Prof. EK = E K = E 2 − E1 ωavg = ( ωmax + ωmin ) 2 EK = 1 I 2ωavg 2 s E 2 − E1 = Cf Iω2 Ek Is = 2 Cf ωavg ( )( Cf ωavg ) Thus system the in mass order moment to of inertia selected Im needed in of the speed entire rotating is obtain coefficient fluctuation determined using the relation Indian Institute of Technology Madras . angular This velocity. Design Equation The kinetic energy Ek in a rotating system = 1 I ω2 2 ( ) 1 ⎛ ⎞ Im ⎜ ω2max − ω2 ⎟ min 2 ⎝ ⎠ Hence the change in kinetic energy of a system can be given as. and is a ωave the average parameter or mean to be speed coefficient design chosen by the designer. The smaller this chosen value. the larger the flywheel have to be and more the cost and weight to be added to the system.Mayuram Where shaft ω is nominal desired. However the smaller this value more smoother the operation of the device It is typically and set as to a high value as between 0.Gopinath & Prof. K.

Gopinath & Prof. fluctuation wheel is to be added and the fly wheel energy needed is computed as illustrated below Indian Institute of Technology Madras . M. K. θ @ ωmax Tl − Tavg dθ = E K ∫ θ @ ωmin ( ) Computing the kinetic energy Ek needed is illustrated in the following example Torque Time Relation without Flywheel A typical torque time relation for example of a mechanical punching press without a fly wheel in shown in the figure. To smoothen or positive or enregy is avalible energy speed fly initially during intermedialty and be absorbtion A out large the negative of punching can stripping magitidue speed fluctuation noted.M. In the absence and of fly wheel and surplus enery operations.Mayuram EK = Is = The Im above equation to can the be 1 I 2ωavg 2 s Ek ( )( Cf ωavg ) obtain change appropriate Ek for a flywheel specific inertia value 2 Cf ωavg used to corresponding known energy coefficient of speed fluctuation Cf.Machine Design II Prof. Torque Variation and Energy The required change in kinetic energy Ek is obtained from the known torque time relation or curve by integrating it for one cycle.

K.3.M.E@ωmin =(-6 032)-(+20 073)= 26 105 Nmm2 Min & max ω ω min @B @C max Figure 3.3 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .Machine Design II Prof.2 Accumulation of Energy pulses under a Torque.3.Mayuram Torque Area +20 073 C rms Area +15 388 D B A 34 200 A 7 020 0 Average ω min ω max θ Shaft angle time t -34 200 0 Area -26 105 Area -9 202 360 Figure 3.Time curve From A to B B to C C to D D to A Area= E +20 073 -26 105 +15 388 -9 202 Accumulated sum =E +20 073 -6 032 +9 356 +154 Total Energy= E @ωmin.Gopinath & Prof. M.

05 Average 0 360 Figure 3.3. Indian Institute of Technology Madras .Gopinath & Prof. M. K.Machine Design II Prof. with are a solid and disc of or hub may and of be rim of spoked by construction spokes or like arms As the conventional Small the fly connected circular discs size hollow of the hub cross section. energy requirements changes to flywheel peripheral increases rim geometry by webs central and connected and to hollow wheels with multiple arms.4 Time t Shaft angle θ Geometry of Flywheel The geometry of a flywheel may be as simple as a cylindrical disc of solid wheels wheels material.Mayuram Torque Time Relation with Flywheel Torque 8730 7020 Cf =0.M.

Mayuram b b D d D0 D do Figure 3. Mass at largest radius contributes much more since the mass moment of inertia is proportional to mr2 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .M. M.3.5 b D0 D d a Arm Type Flywheel Figure 3.6 The latter arrangement is a more efficient of material especially for large flywheels.Machine Design II Prof.Gopinath & Prof.3. as it concentrates the bulk of its mass in the rim which is at the largest radius. K.

the mass moment of inertia I is Im = mk 2 = m 2 2 (r + r ) 2 o i The mass of a hollow circular disc of constant thickness t is m= W γ 2 2 = π ro − ri t g g ( ) Combing the two equations we can write Im = πγ 4 4 r −r t 2g o i ( ) Where γ is material’s weight density The equation is better solved by geometric proportions i. K. ω= angular velocity in rad/sec. Stresses in Flywheel Flywheel distributed being mass a and rotating attempts disc. ri and ro are inside and outside radii of the solid disc flywheel.e by assuming inside to out side radius ratio and radius to thickness ratio.Gopinath & Prof. stresses Its acts is upon similar its to effect those caused by an internally pressurized cylinder σt = σr = γ 2 ⎛ 3 + v ⎞⎛ 2 2 1 + 3v 2 ⎞ ω ⎜ r ⎟ ⎟⎜ ri + ro − g ⎝ 8 ⎠⎝ 3+ v ⎠ 2 ⎞ γ 2 ⎛ 3 + v ⎞ ⎛ 2 2 ri2 ro 2 ω ⎜ + − − r r r ⎜ ⎟ o ⎟ i ⎟ g ⎝ 8 ⎠⎜ r2 ⎝ ⎠ γ = material weight density.Machine Design II Prof. is the radius to a point of interest. Analogous to a thick cylinder under internal pressure the tangential and radial stress in a solid disc flywheel as a function of its radius r is given by: Indian Institute of Technology Madras . M. to centrifugal pull it apart. ν= Poisson’s ratio.M.Mayuram For a solid disc geometry with inside radius ri and out side radius ro.

Mayuram Radius σt Tang. Consequently ω F. the rotational speed at stresses for instead checking stresses. M. K. speed can some be calculated to or specified its based operation on a safety this Generally means preclude beyond speed is desirable. for example like a governor.S (N) = Nos = ωyield Indian Institute of Technology Madras .M.Gopinath & Prof. stress at What that can forces causes point failure flywheel typically and tangential fracture from where resulting the fracture originated fragments Since speed the also. explode causing of extremely are a dangerous function the of consequences.Machine Design II Prof.O. stress Radial stress σr Radius The point of most interest is the in inside a radius is where the stress the upon is a maximum. maximum which the stresses reach the critical value can be determined and safe operating factor.

2 *103 = 21. The rated capacity of the press is 20 kN and has a stroke of 200 mm.M. 960 rpm motor powers the cam driven ram of a press through a gearing of 6:1 ratio. M. Assume that the maximum diameter of the flywheel is not to exceed 0. Assuming that the cam driven ram is capable of delivering the rated load at a constant velocity during the last 15% of a constant velocity stroke.02.88Nm 960 2*π* 60 Energy supplied= work don per cycle = 2π * 21.Energy supplied Indian Institute of Technology Madras .6m.15 = 600Nm Energy absorbed= work done= 600 Nm Mean torque on the shaft: 2. K.Machine Design II Prof.727 = 72% 825 There fore the fluctuation in energy is = E k = Energy absorbed . Work done by the press= U = 20 *103 * 0.Gopinath & Prof.2 kw. Design a suitable flywheel that can maintain a coefficient of Speed fluctuation of 0.88 * 6 = 825 Nm Thus the mechanical efficiency of the system is = 600 η= = 0.2 * 0.Mayuram WORKED OUT EXAMPLE 1 A 2.

r − ri .0445 59.3 − ⎟ 9. M.556MPa or if σ t = 150 MPa 150 *106 = 7961.88 * 6 * π * 0.M.548ω2 ω = 16544 rad / sec2 N OS = ωyield = 16544 32π ω = 164.8 ro π 78500 2.6622 = 0.3 ⎞ ⎛ 2 2 1.9 * 0.304 − 0.075 ( 21.090 )( 0.86 = 59. K.543* ⎜ 2π * ⎟ 60 ⎠ ⎝ = 55667N / m 2 = 0.Machine Design II Prof.81 3.125 960 ⎞ ⎛ 0.4ω2 ( 0.t 2 g o r Assuming i = 0.24 + 0.3 ⎝ 8 ⎠⎝ ⎠ 960 ⎞2 ⎛ σ t = 0.805t I= ( ) ( ) ∴ t= or 2 .805 45 mm σt = σt = r 2 ⎛ 3 + γ ⎞ ⎛ 2 2 1 + 3γ 2 ⎞ r ⎟ ω ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ r + ro − g 3+ γ ⎝ 8 ⎠⎝ i ⎠ 78500 2 ⎛ 3 + 0.0376 )( 0.0331) = 0.Gopinath & Prof.125Nm Ek I= Cf ωavg 538.65 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .6622 kg m2 π r 2 2 .Mayuram 600 − 825 * 0.02 ⎜ 2π * ⎟ 60 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ( ) 2 = = 2.15 ) 538.242 ⎞ .6622 = * 0.244 t 2 9.4125 )( 0.ω ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 0.