Chapter 1


Historical Background

The use of lift by the man can be tracked back to the earlier ages. Man lifted heavy objects to a certain height by using a wooden pole rested at the center & applying effort at the other end thus we can lead to the references the earlier man using some kind of machining to lift stones or tree trunks. The Egyptian built the pyramids by making mud ramp & then rolling the stones ever the ramp in the earlier ages the simple rope hoists were also used to lift the object to a particular height.

Our knowledge of the earlier lift from the writing of the Roman architect Vitiuvious the engineer here of Alexandra both of whom in the first century A.D.. The simplest of these lift was no more than a single pole. One end of which was sunk or fixed on the ground. This beam was raised & held in the position by a part of back stays attached to its upper ends. The pulley vlock. Which held the halling line by a windless fixed to one side of the pole near its base. The windless

can be used by working on the back stays to raise the beam into position. In medievatiange steem were a common feature at building construction at the docks to loads the large ships which were merely rope & pulley hoists the working of the crane heavy relied on the manpower until the advent of the steam engine which powered the windless. CLASSIFICATION OF LIFT

Lift can be classified according to working principle into three types,

a. Mechanical lift b. Hydraulic lift c. Pneumatic lift

a. Mechanical Lift : -

In this ropes chains belts & an electric motor are used to lift the objects

B: Hydraulic Lift :

This Type of equipment consists of an electric motor or internal combustion engine or hydraulic pack to drive a pump which feeds fluids into a hydraulic operating cylinder through the lines with control valves. It provides for speed control over a wise range. Ensures smooth operation of the mechanism without impacts. Employs simple means of protection against overloads & is compact Consequently the hydraulic drive enjoys ever increasing popularity in hoisting installation, especially traveling lift unfortunately high cost of certain constituent components limits the application of the hydraulic drive on a large scale.

C: Pneumatic Lift :

Here compressed air is admitted into the direct acting power cylinders under pressure. The piston rods of the cylinders are linked with the business end it displays low efficiency in handling light loads & limits the radius of action of movable machines by the length of the air hose.

This spur gear is transmit the power from movable spurgear. 4) Rachet :-In our mechanism we required one side locking movement .these mechanism is connected 1st shaft to 2nd shaft for power transmission. 1)Elevator (Base plate of left ):-These plate is mounted on frame with help of two supporter. 5)Sprocket and chain mechanism 6)spur Gear small 7)Movable spur gear 8)Big spur gear .CHAPTER 2 CONSTRUCTION AND WORKING As in our mechanism we used mainly Eight Parts. 1)Elevator(base) 2)Winding Rope 3)Winding pully 4)Rachet Process of manufacturing:1st we made a frame as our required size. 5)Chain &sprocket mechanism:. 6)Spurgear:-On 2nd shaft near sprocket we arrange the small spur gear. 3)Winding pully:-On these pulley we wind the rope easily. 2)After connect the winding rope at one side of the elevator and another side of rope is connected winding pully. We used the rachet for controlling the movement.

The Force exerted by the compressed compressed air moves the piston in two directions in a double acting cylinder. on these spur gear. the stroke length is .This gear is moving on 3rd shaft easily. (ii) Double acting cylinder :-Here we have used double acting cylinder. The pneumatic power is converted to straight line reciprocating motions by pneumatic cylinders. which is actuated air. The return movement of the piston is effected by a built-in spring or by application of an external force. We connected the piston in the center point . the compressed air is fed only in one direction.In a single acting cylinder. PISTON AND CONTROLLING UNIT:-we used piston and controlling unit to providing power to the our mechanism. 8)Big spur gear:-This spur gear is connected to movable spur gear. (i) Single acting cylinder:. using It is the pneumatic actuator. Hence this cylinder can produce work in only one direction.7)movable spur gear:-these movable spur gear mounted on 3rd shaft . air cylinders can be sub-divided as (i) Single acting and (ii) Double acting cylinders. In principle. According to the operating principle.

rod length and stroke length. 4) Bronze rod guide.unlimited. rod packing of ‘O’rings. It is then made smooth internally using method of honing and lapping. Piston rod. 6) End covers (flanges) 7) Port connection. which reciprocatesto and fro with the application of high pressure air. 3) Double cup packing on piston. although buckling and bending must diameter. 8) Cushion assembly. It contains piston and piston rod. be considered before we select a particular size of piston The double acting cylinder consists of 1) Cylinder tube. The cylinder is manufactured from aluminium solid bar with central bore on lathe machine. DOUBLE ACTING CYLINDER . The piston is fitted withthe piston ring which is made of Teflon rubber to make perfect compression of the air. 2) Piston unit. The material used for various parts differs for different types of cylinders depending upon applications.

1. and reversed with a predetermined sequence in a pneumatic system. 3/2. A direction control valve has two or three working positions generally. valves are used to-(i) start and stop pneumatic energy. To achieve these functions. the air energy has to be regulated.5/2 means 5 ways / 2positions. (ii)control the direction of flow of compressed air. They are: 1) 2) Neutral or zero position Working position The positions are mostly numbered as 0. Direction control valves are designated to indicate both the number of ways as well as the number of working positions such as 4/2. Similarly one has to control the quantity of pressure and flow rate to generate desired level of force and speed of actuation.2. . controlled.3) 5/2 Direction control foot operated valve: Its basic symbol is as shown To control the to and fro motion of a pneumatic cylinder. (iii)control the flow rate of the compressed air and (iv) control the pressure rating of the compressed air.

While laying out the pipe line for the system.Here we have used 5/2 direction control valve. 5/2 DIRECTION CONTROL VALVE 4) Air circulating devices: The compressed air is stored in an air receiver from which air is drawn out in to the consumer point by means of pipe line. In this design of direction control valve. it is always better if the total drop of pressure is kept limited to a maximum value of . ON and OFF.e. This ensures easy exhausting of the valve along with the two positions i. 5 openings are provided. For economical reason. one should take sufficient care and pay attention to see that the pressure drop from the generating point to the point of consumption remains as low as possible. Here the spool slides inside the main bore and according that the spool position is made ON or OFF due to the fact that the spool gets connected to the open side or the closed side of the air opening.

5) Length and diameter of tube or other pipelines. .0. 3) Permissible pressure drop in the line.1 bar or even less. 2) Total flow rate per unit time through the line. The following factors are taken into account while selecting pneumatic pipeline and other air. 4) Types of tube material and types of line fitting.line installations:- 1) Pressure of compressed air in the lines. Spur gear train: We used to spur gear train mechanism using rpm increase. Considered the above factors we have selected the flexible hose tubes of 1/8”diameter. 6) Working environment. Big spur gear is mounted on shaft or shaft is mounted on single bearing mounted or small gear is mounted on conyorr shaft.

It forms the robust support to stand the machine vertically. It holds the weight of the vertical post and supports the direction control valve. It is made of mild steel channels of size (25 x 25 x 5)mm cross section and 600 x 300mm of rectangular base with the vertical post and the horizontal channel at the top.1) Frame Base :. .


It could be observed that the basic components involved are similar to a hydraulic system. The basic differences between hydraulic and pneumatic systems are that in hydraulic system the input mechanical energy is .CHAPTER 3 WORKING: 3.1 Basic principle of pneumatic system: Basic Pneumatic System The basic layout of a pneumatic system is shown in fig.

1. 2. the mechanical energy is imparted to air by a compressor. whereas.imparted to the oil is by pump. 4. 7. A compressor of appropriate capacity to meet the compressed air requirements. 5. Further. in pneumatic systems the working fluid being air. Air distribution lines to distribute the air to various components of the system. Filter lubricator regulator (FLR) unit for conditioning of air and regulation of pressure. The major components of the pneumatic systems are: 1. An air cylinder consist essentially of a tube sealed both ends by covers and fitted with a . Pneumatic control valves to regulate control & monitor the air energy. a hydraulic system usually operates at very high pressures to transmit the large force and power while a pneumatic system operates at low pressures of about 5 – 7 bar for industrial applications. A receiver to store the compressed air. Pneumatic actuators. 6. Air driers. AIR CYLINDRES: Air cylinders are the means of converting our pressure in applied force and straight the motion. 3.

although the usual operating pressure is of the order of 3 bars. P = applied pressure. An air cylinder may be single acting capable of developing in one direction only. . acting capable of being pressurized fro each and alternately developing an output force in both directions. The theoretical force of thrust available from a cylinder is directly proportional to the area as available pressureFORCE = 0. The majority of air cylinders are designed for working with maximum air pressure of the order of 10 bars. or double acting. D = cylinder bore. Compressed sir admitted though a port at one and produces movement of the piston displaced air exhausted though a second port at other end.piston and piston rod.7854 * D2*P Where.

OF WAYS ACUATION RETURN MECHANISM PRESSURE MACHINE SPOOL TYRE : 1/ 4”. Bore copper piping nylon tubing is commonly employed with flexible lines at the take off points.HAND LEVER VALVES PIPE SIZE MEDIA No. AND 1 / 2” BSP : AIR : 5 AND 3 WAY : HANDLEVER : SPRING PUSH-PULL : 0-10 Kg / CM2 : 2 AND 3 POSITION WITH OR WITHOUT DETENT VALVE BODY ALUMINIUM 3. .2. For braid pipes or smaller lines up to about 25 mm.PIPE MATERIAL: Steel pipes are normally used for air mains. 4.PIPING: The function of the piping in either a hydraulic or a pneumatic system is to act as a leak Proof carrier of the fluid. 3/8”.

which are too small. tubing is not for rigid installations except where adequate support by pipe clips can be arranged. since pressure drop is .D. Rubber house is used for flexible lines where a wide working temperature is required or larger size is needed.AIR LINES: The efficiency of any pneumatic system fed through pipelines depends very largely on the pipe size adopted. will choke the how.Flexible nylon tubes may be used directly for smaller diameter house or reinforced with braid for larger. Piping may be divided three classes: Rigid Semi rigid Flexible 5. Pressure drop figures. resulting in excessive pressure drop is directly proportional to length. however is relatively insignificant as a design control parameter compared with pipe bore size. Pipes. in fact are commonly quoted in terms of pressure drop per unit length. A plain (uncomforted) polythene tubing is more flexible than nylon tubing. Typical maximum pressure rating 7 bar for 15 mm O. Pipe lengths.

It has unique capability. 3. No electric contact to machine so it is safe for shock. Where as even doubling the pipe length will only result in doubling the pressure drop. Easy to assemble .4 Advantages In the assemble process.inversely proportional to (bore) 5 approximately in other worlds. It is multipurpose machine. Easy to operate. Unit cost is very cheap . It is pollution free . a small change in bore size can have a marked effect on pressure drop. It is profitable . It die or punch is damaged we can easy change so it’s maintenance cost is low. It is ideal for exercise . significant productivity gains can be archive by utilizing energy source that is easy to able handle. .

It is not self prime . More space is required . Pressure control device isn’t control press at working because speed is not constant .3.5 Disadvantages . If any leakage efficiency is suddenly decreases . .


SCHEMATIC LAYOUT OF A FLUID POWER SYSTEM . Such a system avoids the mechanical linkages such as gears. to a great extent of a conventional power transmission system. The transmission of power by fluid power system is most convenient and highly efficient. Due to this. the present conventional transmission systems are being replaced and changed over to fluid power based systems. ropes.1 INTRODUCTION Fluid power system is a power transmission system in which the transmission of power takes place through a fluid medium.CHAPTER 4. FLUID POWER 4. belts. chains etc.

The various parameters such as pressure and flow rate of the fluid can be controlled by using various control valves.Prime mover supplies the mechanical energy to a pump or compressor which is used to pressurize a fluid. This is quite evident from the fact that in olden days simple machines like Pelton wheel were developed to . The pressurized fluid is now transmitted to different parts of the system through special pipings or tubings. The mechanical energy supplied by the prime mover is converted into the pressure energy by the pump and it is stored in a fluid. At the desired places of use. the fluid energy is converted back into mechanical energy by the devices called actuators consisting of cylinders.2 HISTORY OF FLUID POWER In history long ago. 4. man has recognized and accepted fluids as a source of power. therefore such a system is called as fluid power system. the mechanical energy has been recovered back in a more convenient form. motors etc. Since the power is transmitted through the fluid as a medium. Thus the energy supplied by the prime mover has been transmitted conveniently through fluid medium to various places and at these places.

all make use of hydraulic/pneumatic systems. tippers. engineers started using fluids for power transmission and basic elements like pumps. Because of this a new branch is developed called as ‘Industrial fluid power’. in various mechanical systems. Both hydraulic as well as pneumatic power finds . clutch systems etc. It includes cranes of very high capacity. material Handling is the field where fluid power is used in a really big way. In recent times.transmit irrigation water or water head was used to transmit the power. Large lift belt system could be operated by hydraulic components. for their efficient operation. Huge material handling trucks. In industries. chains. gear boxes. In addition to the main system of loading/unloading hydraulic and pneumatic components are used in brake systems. cylinders. etc. fork lifts. electric drive motors etc. Now a day in industries.. loaders dumpers. were experimented and perfected. control valves. Closely related to the field of material handling is the field of automation. Slowly oil hydraulics and pneumatics assumed a place of importance in areas of power generation and replaced many mechanical elements like line shafts. fluid power is used for various purposes. Such huge crane handled by a single miniature control valve by an operator.

.large no of application in automation. Robotics is another field in flexible automation where pneumatics is widely employed.

Works at very high pressure. Clean system due to air.3 COMPARISON OF HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEM No 1 2 3 4 HYDRAULIC SYSTEM Working fluid is a liquid.4. Several Mechanical movements could be achieved. replacement of oil developed It is more bulky. No reserve oil hence no return line. Mess and dirt due to oil. Frequent required 10 11 12 Heavy tubes /pipes are needed. Fire hazard . Very high forces could be PNEUMATIC SYSTEM Working fluid is a gas. No self lubricating effect. Only Moderate forces can be developed. No fire hazard. 5 6 7 System is more compact. . No need for fluid replenishment. Working fluid is compressible. Self lubricating effect. Working fluid is incompressible. Movement is limited. Light tubing/piping is sufficient. 8 9 Return line is required for oil. Works at low pressure.

linear-rotary and linear-linear is possible. PNEUMATIC SYSTEM 5.1 INTRODUCTION: Pneumatic systems form the most primitive and distinct class of mechanical control engineering. This stored pressure potential is converted to a suitable mechanical work in an appropriate controlled sequence using control valves and actuators. The simplicity in design. In a pneumatic system. transmits. durability and compact size of pneumatic systems make them well suited for mobile applications. The working fluid is abundant in nature and hence the running and maintenance cost of these systems are exceptionally low.CHAPTER 5. aerospace technology. All fluids have the ability to translate and transfigure and hence pneumatic systems permit variety of power conversion with minimal mechanical hardware. Pneumatic systems are well suited for the automation of a simple repetitive task. distributes or controls power through the use of pressurized gas or liquid. production and assembly of automotive components . the working fluid is a gas (mostly air) which is compressed above atmospheric pressure to impart pressure energy to the molecules. which describes any process or device that converts. These features make them versatile and find universal applications including robotics. Conversion of various combinations of motions like rotaryrotary. They are classified under the term 'Fluid Power Control'.

During the industrialization process in the 19th century.(power steering.3 PNEUMATIC LIFT: These consist of pneumatic cylinders. And this is not all.2 HISTORY OF PNEUMATIC SYSTEM: For thousands of years. In the year 260 BC. food products and packaging industry. the Greek word for "air".g. In addition to a tight sinew. a bellows for lighting fires. CNC machines. It is even possible to program and control these machines with a computer. Pneumatically powered machines and robots are to be found in numerous industrial processes such as assembling or arranging components. machines powered by compressed air were used for mining and building roads. e. Pneumatic technology has become indispensable in modern industry. chassis and engine assembly). man has used air as an aid in doing various tasks. "Pneumatic lift “combines two fascinating pneumatics and computing in one single kit. areas of technology. 5. a Greek called Ctesibios built the first air gun. So it is not surprising that "pneuma". bomb deployment units and fabrication process of plastic products. Thus. 5. he used air compressed in a cylinder to increase the range of projectiles. or packing finished goods. has given its name to the technology known as pneumatics. manual valves and a mini compressor. .

Compliance is due to the compressibility of air and. There is no fire hazard. Hydraulic and electric drives.4 ? WHY WE USED COMPRESSED AIR PNEUMATIC SYSTEM We used pneumatic system. Light tubing/piping is sufficient.Pneumatic actuators. Several types of pneumatic actuators—e. bellows. in contrast. But in our . Thanks to compliance a soft touch and safe interaction can be easily guaranteed. One of the major attractions about pneumatics is the low weight and the inherent compliant behavior of its actuators. pneumatic engines and even pneumatic stepper motors—are commonly used to date.g. lift as well is starting to use pneumatics as a main motion power source. as it has some advantages over the hydraulic system. can be influenced by controlling the operating pressure. are widely used in factory floor automation. Their is no need for fluid replenishment. This is an important feature whenever there is an interaction between man and machine or when delicate operations have to be carried out (e. have a very rigid behavior and can only be made to act in a compliant manner through the use of relatively complex feedback control strategies. cylinders. 5. Lately. as such. usually cylinders. handling of fragile objects).g.

013 bar (14. 21% oxygen and 1% other inert gases with moisture by volume.4.2 Advantages of Compressed Air Pneumatic Systems: 1. Boiling point at 1 bar = -191º C to -194º C. It has self cleaning properties.96 kg/kg mol. Clean system. Unduplicated exhaust clear air which escapes through leaking pipe or components don’t cause contamination. Freely available from the atmosphere. R = 287 Nm/kg K. M = 28. Easily transportable in the vessels and pipes. . we have used air as a working fluid.pneumatic system. 2. 2. Simple construction and ease of handling.3 m of water pressure as measured by U-tube manometer. Air exerts pressure at sea level of about 1. 3. 3. 6. It is equivalent to 760 mm of Hg or 10. Explosive proof. Because air has the some advantages over the other gases. 5.4. 5. 4. No return lines are required.7 psi ) called atmospheric pressure. Freezing point at 1 bar = -212º C to -216 ºC. Molecular mass.1 Properties of Air: Air is a mixture of 78% nitrogen. Other physical properties of air are: 1. 5. 4. 7. Properties of air are very suitable for pneumatic system. No protection against explosion required. Characteristic gas constant.

To operate pneumatic tools 2. Some of its applications are: 1. Overload safety. speed and forces required can be controlled easily. Spray Painting 3. 4.Pneumatic tools and operating components can be loaded to the point of stopping and are therefore overload safe 10.4. Air enables high working speed to be obtained Low cost of maintenance. 5.4. High forces can not be transmitted. Creates noise pollution. It is inaccurate in operation. Compressed air systems are used for many industrial applications. 2. It provides non-uniform speeds. Conditioning of air is needed. Expensive.8. 5. 6. 5.3 Disadvantages of Compressed Air System: 1. The pressure.4 Applications: Usually air at low pressures in the range of 5 to 7 bar is used in pneumatic systems. 3. Refrigeration and air conditioning systems . 9.. 11.

In Robotics . Supercharging of I. Conveying materials like sand and concrete. Driving the mining machinery 9.4. Pumping of Water 8.C Engines 6. in pipe line 7. Gas turbine power plants 5. In Blast furnaces 10. coal mixtures etc.


. Since vacuum systems offer superior leak containment.CHAPTER 6 TYPES OF PNEUMETIC SYSTEM Positive pressure system: Positive pressure dilute phase pneumatic lifts are typically employed to convey bulk material from a single source to one or multiple destination. to individual or multiple destinations. Unlike positive pressure systems. vacuum system allow easy pick-up of materials from open containers using wands. trucks and rail cars. Vacuum system: Vacuum dilute phase pneumatic conveying system are generally employed for transporting material from multiple sources as storage vessels. process equipment. and do not impart heat to the material. particularly when handling hazardous materials. they are often specified on the basis of cleanliness. over longer distance and with greater capacity than possible using vacuum system.

The machine tool drive is an aggregate of mechanism that transmits motion from an external source. Mechanical Transmission and its elements: 1) Belt Transmission . The external source of energy is generally a three phase A. Transmission of the motion from the external source to the operative element can take place through Mechanical elements such as belts. To the operative elements of the machine tool. Gears.CHAPTER 7 TRANSMISSION SYSTEM INTRODUCTION The mechanical power produced by prime over I used to drive various machines in the workshop and factories. A transmission system is the mechanism. chains etc. motor. When the required motion is rotary. The rotary motion of the motor is transmitted to the operative element to provide an operative working or auxiliary motion. which has a rotary motion at its output shaft. the transmission takes place through mechanisms that transfer Rotary motion from one shaft to another. which deals with transmission of the power and motion from prime mover to shaft or from one shaft to the other.C.

The power may be transmitted from one shaft another by means of . which is mounted on the shaft to which power is to be transmitted is called the driven pulley or follower. Gears and chain must be used. This largely used for general purpose on mills and factories especially when the distance between the Shafts is not very great. When the belt moves over the pulleys there is always the possibility of slipping between the belt and pulley and hens the character of the motion transmitted is not positive when positive action is required.2) Gear Transmission 3) Chain Transmission 1) Belt Transmission: Belt drive is one of the most common effective devices transmitting motion and power from one shaft to the other by means of thin inextensible belt over running over to pulleys. 2) Gear Transmission: Efficiency of power transmission in belt and rope drives is less. When the center distance between the two shafts is large than the tight side of the belt should be the lower one the pulley called driver is mounted on the driving shaft while the shaft while the other.

printing machine etc. They are now generally used for transmission of power in cycle. milling machine.e. 3) Chain Transmission: Chains are used for high transmission number. Lathe machine. The format are known as stepped drives Ex. . It is general requirement for any machines that they should provision for regulating speed of travel The regulation may be available in discrete steps or it may be steeples i. continuous.mating gears with high transmission Efficiency and a gear drive is also provide when the between driver and follower is very small. and agriculture machinery in workshops. They are mostly used when distance between center is short but the center distance is as much as 8m. motor vehicle.

Although they generate noise. Roller chain drives is used in two wheeler for transmission of power. All automobile especially two wheelers the chain drive is used for transmission power generated by the engine to rear wheel is used for following reasons. Pin 2. The chain drives requires proper maintenance particularly lubrication and slack adjustment.CHAIN A chain device consists of an endless chain wrapped around two Sprockets. However chain can be easily replaced. Bushing 3. Outer plate . 1. they present no fire Hazards and are unaffected by high temperature or atmospheric condition. 1. The chain drives intermediate between belt and gear device. Chain drive is more compact then Belt or Gear Drive. Inner plates 5. There are five parts of roller chain. 4. A chain drive dose not slip 3. Roller 4. The efficiency of chain drive is high at times as high as 98% 2. The C plates Chain consists of a number of links connected by pin joints while the Sprockets are toothed wheels with a special profile for the teeth.

75 18. The pins bushes and rollers are made of alloy Steel.2 .70 8.51 7.CONSTRUCTION OF CHAIN The pin is press fitted to two outer link plates while the bush is press to inner link plates. The bush and the pin form a swivel joint and the outer link are freely fitted on bushes and during engagement. turn with the teeth of the sprocket wheels. This result is rolling friction instead of sliding friction between the roller and sprocket teeth and reduces wear. 1 ISO chain Pitch P Roller diameter D1 Width B1 Breaking load for Single stand chain 08 B 12. Usually in automobile 08b (ISO chain number) is used the their dimensions are as follows Table No.



Availability of the raw material 2. The cost of materials In our attempt to design a pneumatic lift.8 DESIGN SELECTION OF MATERIAL The selection of best material in one which serve the desired objective at the minimum cost. Factors which should be considered for the selecting the material . space requirements. Mechanical Design System design mainly concern with the various physical concerns and ergonomics. 1.CHAPTER . we have adopted a very careful approach. number of . Total design work has been divided into two parts mainly. System Design 2. 1. Suitability of the material for the working condition in service 3. arrangements of various components on the main frame of machine.

the components are categorized into two parts. The parts are to be purchased directly are specified and selected from standard catalogues. DESIGN OF CHASSIS INPUT DATA  TOTAL WEIGHT = 10KG  NO OF LINKS = 4 2 LINKS OF 900 MM 1 LINK OF 600 MM . The various tolerances on work pieces are specified in the manufacturing drawing. Design Parts 2.controls. Parts to be purchased For design parts. detailed design is done and dimensions thus obtained are compared to next highest dimensions which are readily available in the market. ease of maintenance. 1. positions of this controls. The process sheets are prepared and passed on to the manufacturing stage. height of machine components from the ground etc. In mechanical design. This simplifies the assembly as well as post production servicing work. scope of further improvements.


75 T1 2 .B1 = 2. B1 = 3 x T1 2 AREA = 3T1 MI OF LINK 3 I = 1/12 x T1.25 T1⁴ LET.AREA OF LINK = T1 x B1 ASSUMING WIDTH OF THE LINK = 3 x T1 HENCE. K = RADIUS OF GYRATION A = AREA K=√I/A 2 K = 0.

768 MM ≈ 2 MM .LINK – 1 L1 = 300 MM PR = 500 N RANKINE CONSTANT = a = 1 / 7500 CRUSHING LOAD ( FY ) = 325 MPa FOR MS NOW. BUCKLING LOAD 2 PR = FY. A / 1 + a (L / K ) 2 975T1⁴ . A / 1 + a λ WHERE λ = L / K 2 PR = F.500 T1 – 7980 = 0 T1 = 1.

P = pitch D = pitch circle diameter of sprocket α = the pitch angel α = 360/Z i.7 Z = number of teeth on sprocket. 360/13= 27.97 MM HENCE WE TAKE THICKNESS T = 3 MM Where.e. Sin α /2 = .44 MM AMD T3 = 2.SIMILARLY CALCULATING THE THICKNESS FOR LINK 2 AND 3 T2 = 2.

The length of chain is always expressed in terms of numbers of clanks.Z1 / 2xπ) x p/a .) Z1. n2 = Speeds of driving and driven shafts (R.M. Z2 = Number of teeth on driving and driven shaft the average velocity of the chain is given by V= π x D x n/60 x 103 V = Z x p x n/60 x 103 V = average velocity in meter/sec.P. L= Ln x P Where L = length of chain in mm Ln = number of link in the chain The numbers of links in the chain are determined by the following relations Ln = 2(a/p) + (Z1 + Z2 / 2) + (Zn.The velocity ratio of chain is given by Where I = nl/n2 = Z1 /Z2 n1.

Zl = Number of teeth on Smaller sprocket. But after some time the dust particle adhere on chain and goes in between roller and bushing and pins.2) Power retaining of roller Chain The power transmitted by the roller chain can be expressed by the elementary equation KW = Pl X V/ 1000 P1 = Allowable tension in chain V = average velocity of chain In automobile the chain is lubricated by oil and grease. a = P/4{[Ln -(Z1 – Z2 / 2)] + ([Ln .8 [Z2Z1/2Xπ]2)A1/2} 2.Where a = center distance between axis of driving and driven Sprocket. Therefore it’s necessary to clean the chain and re-lubricate it to improve its life. Z2 = Number of teeth on larger Sprocket.(Z1 + Z2 /2)]2 . .

For Rotating Shaft . Therefore. Me= ½ [km × M + {(km x m) 2 + (kt X T) 2} l/2] Where. Kt = Combined Shock and Fatigue factor for torsion. Km = Combined Shock and Fatigue factor for bending.The wearing of chain also happens due to the following reasons. 4.1 Design of shaft The shaft is subjected to fluctuating Loads. so shaft is under combined Bending and Torsion. The equivalent Twisting Moment. Te = [(km× M) 2 + (kt × T) 2] l/2 The equivalent Bending Moment.

4.5 to 3.1 Nature of load Km Kt Gradually Applied Load 1.5 1.0 with Major Shock 1. .0 Suddenly applied load 1.0 with minor shock 1.Table No.5 to 2.5 to 2.0 to 3.0 Suddenly applied load 2.0 So we consider the load on chain drive maximum 15kg.


4. 4. So we have used single row deep groove bearing.6 Principle Dimension Basic load rating in N Designation D D B C Co 20 42 12 9560 4500 6204 Where.6 SELECTION OF BEARING: As load acting on bearing consist of two components Radial & Thrust. Table No. This bearing has high load carrying capacity & suitable for high running speed. d = Inner diameter of bearing in mm D = Outer diameter of bearing in mm B = Axial width of bearing in mm .

400N/mm 2 ) 2. ALUMINIUM ( UTS -200N/mm2) DESIGN OF CYLINDERS: ------------------------------------- Let Di be the internal diameter of cylinder. (142344 x (Di )2 x 4 x105) = 5105 N .C = Dynamic load capacity in N Co = Static load capacity in N DESIGN OF PISTON CYLINDERS : ------------------------------------- 1. assuming operating pressure = 4 bar 3. a) C 7 ( UTS – 340 N / mm2 ) b) C 10 ( UTS.

2U) T= ---------.8 mm (From Pneumatic Handbook) Thickness of cylinder: -----------------------------Material C. Considering the cylinder as thick. Di 6+ Pi ( 1.* ------------------2 16 – Pi ( 1+U) . Di = 69.0637 m.7mm.Di = 0. WE take. m. yield strength. Sy=340 N/sq. Using CLAVARINO” EQUATION. Di = 63.50 .

9 * ---------------------16 – 0.6 + 0. of piston = I. T= 3mm.3) T = 1.32 times diameter of piston. we take length of piston in contact with cylinder =0.6) T = 34. we take thickness of cylinder as. .D of cylinder = 69.8 ( 1-0.85mm Considering the effective sealing and guiding the piston red inside the cylinder. DESIGN OF PISTON: ----------------------------- Dia .8 ( 1+0.38 mm By practical considerations.

piston material is GOI 30 as its grains are small and soft. According to Rankine’s formula. m.142) x E.7 is taken equal to 12.5 . = fc /( 3.142 x 3.The length of step of Dia .S. DESIGN OF PISTON ROD: ------------------------------------- We design the piston rod for bucking . Rankine’ s constant = 1/ 7500 for M.consider the condition fixed at both ends for piston rod. considering the size of “ U” --. Fc x A Wcr = ------------1: at L/K Where.cup seal . = Crushing stress = 320 N/ sq . Wcr Fc A = Crippling load . This helps in reducing wear of the cylinder and provides easy sliding it. 31. .

L = Equivalent length of column = ½ for both ends fixed (by using Euler’s theory ) = Least radius of gyration.32 D – 988.68 Solving further we get.52 =0 D = 6.58 . D4 – 20. Thus putting the values in the above formula.2 x D 5105 = ----------------D 4 + 48 .142 /4) x D x D 5105 = -------------------------------1+ 1/75010 [1/15 x (4/ D)2 ] 251. we have 320 x (3.

( applying a F. D = 19.O. we take the diameter of piston rod as .S. D = 20 mm.Considering the impact load coming on the piston rod . of 4/3) .74 mm.


Part Name :Part size Part WT Part Qty shaft

:- 2 8x 650mm :- 8 kg :- 2

Part Material M.S.

Sr. No 1





Cutting the material as required size

Power Hack m/c

Hacksaw Blade

10 min


Make a turning the material both side make a dia of 20mm.

Lathe m/c

Turing Tool

10 min

Part Name :- bearing Plate Part size Part Qty Part Wt Sr .No 1 :- 60 x 10mm x60mm :- 4 :- 6kg Operation Cutting the material as required size Machine Power Hack m/c 2 As in one side after 10mm distance 41mmdia 3 Facing the Both side Lathe m/c Lathe m/c Drilling Bit 20./41mm Turing Tool 15 min 15min Tool Hacksaw Blade Time 10 min

Part Name :- bush Part size Part Qty :- 35 x 15 mm :- 1 1kg

Part Wt 6 :- M.S.

Sr.No 1

Operation Cutting the material as required size

Machine Power Hack m/c Lathe m/c

Tool Hacksaw Blade

Time 10 min


As in center 23 mm hole

Turing Tool

10 min

3. 2. 1. 6. 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Name of Component Quantity Base plate Shaft Bearing frame ( base) Pistion 5by 2 valve Spur gear small Bearing Big spur gear Rope Bearing housing Chain Sprocket 1 3 7 1 1 1 2 7 1 2mts 7 1 2 .CHAPTER10 LIST OF COMPONENTS Sr. 4 5. No.

4. Low maintenance cost. Easy Construction. 5.14 15 Rachet Compressor 1 1 CHAPTER 11 ADVANTAGES 1. Can be built up to various capacities easily. 3. Easy Manufacturing . For grinding less time required. 6. 2. Economical One. .

2. CHAPTER 12 APPLICATIONS In big industries. Necessity Of Compressor. Large Storage Space.DISADVANTAGES 1. Multistage parking Hospital mall .

We are therefore. Although the design criterions imposed challenging problems which. happy to state that the in calculation of mechanical aptitude proved to be a very useful purpose. however were overcome by us due to availability of good reference books. Needless to emphasis here that we had lift no stone unturned in our potential efforts during machining. The selection of choice raw materials helped us in machining of the various components to very close tolerance and thereby minimizing the level of wear and tear. fabrication and assembly work of the project model to our entire satisfaction. .CHAPTER . we had enormous practical experience on fulfillment of the manufacturing schedules of the working project model.13 CONCLUSION While concluding this report. we feel quite fulfill in having completed the project assignment well on time.

CHAPTER 14 COST ESTIMATION COST OF MATERIAL Part Name Material Wt Rate / kg Total Rate SHAFT1 shaft 2 BEARING MOUNTER BUSH Ms Ms - 2 6 4 60 120 360 60 240 - 2 60 120 COST OF MACHINE Machine Name Using Time Rate /hr Total Rate Gas cutting ml Lath m/c 30 45 200 250 .

Power Hacksaw Welding 15 175 60 250 COST OF STD PART Part Name qty Rate /qty Total Rate Pistion cylinder 5by 2 valve Big spur small spur gear Sprocket Phumatic pipe Pumatic fitting Chain Bearing 1 1 1 1 4 1mtrs 6nos 2nos 4nos 2400 1200 900 420 240 50 30 180 100 480 .

Small bearing Wheel 1nos 2nos 450 75 900 Cost of Machine Cost of project =Cost of material + Cost of machine + Cast of std part .

R. Design Data Book :. V.PSG . 5.Gupta . B. 4.Prof . Production Technology :. Jain .K.Hajara Chaudhari . Khurmi . Bhandari Tata Mc .Prof . 2. Workshop Technology :. Machine Design :.K. Design of machine Elements :. 3. J. New Delhi.CHAPTER 15 REFERENCES 1.Graw Hill Publishing Co.

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