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, www.anistor.gr/greek/index.htm,
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1: Part of Reference Map of Ancient Greece. Northern Part. Shepherd, W. R. 1911. Historical Atlas.
New York: Henry Holt and Company (http://goo.gl/g8GsK).1

Shepherd, W. R. ( , 1911). Historical Atlas. The University Of Texas At


Austin.

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Titus Livius ( ). History of Rome. V.III. 10. : Haystack. Electronic Literature


Archive: Meantime, Amynander, with the Athamanian troops, seized on Pellinaeus; while Menippus,
with three thousand Aetolian foot and two hundred horse, marched into Perrhaebia, where he took
Mallaea and Cyretiae by assault, and ravaged the lands of Tripolis.

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46

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William Smith (1813-1893)


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Smith (1854) .. 354-355. Azorus (, ), a town in Perrhaebia in Thessaly,


situated at the foot of Mount Olympus. Azorus, with the two neighbouring towns of Pythium
and Doliche, formed a Tripolis. There was, also a town of the name of Azorus in pelagonis in
Macedonia. ( ) ,
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, VII.9. .

104

1984
( , 36/1984, . 391). .
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105

Leake (1835), . 342. If Pythium was in the situation which I have indicated (. .
), we may with some probability place Azorus at Vouvala; for, as Strabo
remarks that Azorus was 120 stades distant from Oxyneia on Ion, which was a branch of the
Peneius, it may be inferred, whether the distance be correct or not, that Azorus was the most
south-westerly of the towns of Tripolitis which agrees with the position of Vuvala.

47

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, 1928
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117

Leake (1835), . 344. At the northen extremity of this ridge are some remains of a fortress on th
summit of a peaked hill, which we leave a little on our right, and a few minutes afterwards
arrive at the small village of Duklista, situated at the foot of the same heights, where in a ruined
church are two fragments of Doric columns 2 feet 8 inches in diameter, and in the burying
ground a sepulchral stone, together with some square blocs. These remains, combined with the
name Duklista, seem to indicate the site of Doliche, the third city of the Tripolitis.

118

Smith (1854), . 797. Doliche (), a town in Perrhaebia in Thessaly, situated at the foot of
Mount Olympus. Doliche, with the two neighbouring towns of Azorus and Pythium, formed a
Tripolis. Leake identifies it with the small village Duklista., where in a ruined church are two
fragments of Doric columns 2 feet 8 inches in diameter, and in the burying ground a
sepulchral stone, together with some square blocs.

119

Heuzey (1860), .. 41-4. En meme temps, des ruines beaucoup plus recentes nous montrent

51

Friedrich Stahlin (18741936)


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.121

que Doliche, citee une seule fois dans l histoire, resta pourtant, au moins jusqu a la fin de l
empire romain, un des remparts de la province.
120

Sthlin (1924), . 21. Wenn Azoros bei Vuvla lag, so mu Deliehe stlich davongesucht
werden, da ja ungefhr bei Lakudi die Wege wischen beiden Stdten sich trennten, Ferner lag
Deliehe im N der Tripolis. Denn es grenzte an die Elimiotis.

121

(1880), . 272.

52

ii.

G. Cohen, ,

. Duluk, ,
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, , ( 7).122

7: (Google maps)

122

Cohen (2006), .. 155-6.


[. ( ), , 7,22,5]
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[. Cohen (2006), .. 155-6].

53

Mogens Herman Hansen Thomas Heine Nielsen


(2004)
, .123
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Smith
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134

Smith (1856), . 688-9. Pytihium (), a town in Perrhaebia in Thessaly, situated at the
foot of Mount Olympus. and forming a Tripolis with the two neighbouring towns of Azorus
and Doliche. Pytium derived its name from a temple of Apollo Pythius situated on one of the
summits of Olympus, as we learn from an epigram of Xeinagoras, a greek mathematician, who
measured the height of Olympus from these parts. Games were also celebrated here in honour
of Apollo. Pythium commanded an important pass across Mount Olympus. This pass and that
of Tempe are the only two leading from Macedonia into the north-east of Thessaly. Leake
therefore places Pythium on the angle of the plain between Kokkinoplo and Livadhi, through
no remains of the ancient town have been discovered there.

135

Leake (1835), . 341. Of these (towns of Tripolis), Pythium appears to have stood exactly at the
foot of Olympus, as well from its having been the point from which Xenagoras, a geometrician
and poet, measured the perpendicular height of Olympus, as from its having been in the road
across the mountain Petra, since both Livy and Plutarch couple Pythium with Petra in
describing the route by which Scipio Nasica crossed Mount Olympus into the rear of the
position of Perseus on the Enipeus.

58

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1: Part of Reference Map of Ancient Greece. Northern Part. Shepherd, W.
R. 1911. Historical Atlas. New York: Henry Holt and Company
(http://goo.gl/g8GsK)............................................................................................ 11
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