disintegration.E. Any Omission or Error is highly regretted though every care has been taken while preparing these Sample Answers/Solutions. a new strain of liberalism was born. futility and sarchy that had engulfed the human thinking. It stopped them from understanding reasons for their esistence. alienation. new boarders and fallen regimes. "Theature of the Absurd" by Samuel Beckett went a long way in reinforcing this tendency. Virginia World and W. These aspects of life loomed large in the consciousness of the writers. Novelists possessed a strange sense of aimlessness. and the resultant uncertainties of the First World-War.M. The main characters moved along in life filled with a deep sense of estrangement and surrounded with servere mental pain. “The Liberal Imagination” (1950) by Lionel Thrilling called for moral realism that would embody the tragic sense fo life would embody the tragic sense of life that literature should relfect.B. risis-centred views of history. Modern English fiction exploded the long-preserved myth of universal human nature. Trace the development of modern English fiction with specific reference to the major shifts in literary perspective during the 19th century. Literature reflected the sense of bleakness. their workers reflected apocalyptic. N 2 . Sample answers may be Seen as the Guide/Reference Book/Assignment Guide. The result was that undertones of exreme-consciousness.G. Q. and variety. to come to terms with the height-marish destruction and desolation of nuclear bomb. The variability of human nature was one aspect of this strain. destruction of reason.-03 British Novel ASSIGNMENT SOLUTIONS GUIDE (2013-2014) Disclaimer / Special Note: These are just the sample of the Answers/Solutions to some of the Questions given in the Assignments.The realitities of the battlefield imprinted themselves on the thinking of human beings who had. widespread massacres.H. Novels dealt with agains the characterisitcs backdrop of the working or lower middle-class. Auden called the period after Second World-War “The age of anxiety”. Please consult you Teacher / Tutor before you prepare a Particular Answer. 1. It accepted the change from pre-industrial way of life and economy. Yeats. It was higher than politics anddeeper than report. Literature saw the world in its human multipilicy. It was capable of portraying the contradiction and ambiguity that lay beyond ideology and certainity. Elments of the antirepresetnational came to the fore as poetry revelled inverse libre of free verse and the novel took to the stream of consciousness narrative. W. introversion and scepticism entered into writing. The modern English fiction was influenced by urbanisation. The possibility of sensitive expression of human scepticism lay in the fiction. With the death of literary giants like James Joyee. Ans. These Sample Answers/Solutions are prepared by Tutor for the help of the student to get an idea of how he/she can answer the questions of the Assignments.

. It was an experiment both in form and style. Fielding very consummately gives Prefatory on Introductory chapters at the start of each book in Tom Jones. Fielding uses the method of Introductory or Prefatory essays. In the anti-novel trend. a sustained plot was not to be seen. 2.. and shall prefix not only a general bill of fare to our whole entertainment. which tries to offer fresh perspectives of the human being’s position and function in the universe. “. Fielding’s way of taking the reader into his confidence further enhances the justness of the chapters. Q. Fielding’s sincerity and integrity as well as realism become quite evident in these chapters when a good spade work for study is done through various theories. Marcel Proust and Samuel Backelt are post-war writers in this regard. the novel of 1950 was experimental and had shares of anti-ideological and the realistic. Would it be correct to say that in Tom Jones. Ans.. narration. Fielding himself says. which we have here made is no other than Human Nature . Chapter 1) Richardson had used the Epistle method to write his novels... we need read just the following two excerpts— “The provision then. They give a dramatic tinge to the novel and act as dramatic prologues. The element of chance plays a significant role in it.. Franz Kafka. It was charactrised by detailed analysis of objects. realism was no longer a leliable thing. Modernism in literature reveals a breaking away from established patterns. Plot. or may depart to some other ordinary better accommodated to their taste. action.It revolutionised trends in the writing of that period What cannot be expressed in finite terms of number and quality is known as 'Surd' in mathematics. This type of feeling as refelected in the literature of this period. many repetitions of the time sequence.” (Book I. To understand the utility of these chapters. At this stage. His such chapters are like the chorus in a Greek comedy. Moreover. traditions and conventions. Techniques like expressing randon. Postmodernism reflects symbols of authority and adopts and electic approach. but shall likewise give the reader particular bills to every course which is to be served up in this and the ensuing volumes. The novel is treated to be a medium that depicts the individual verson and vision of things. James Joyee. we have condescended to take a hint from these honest victuallers. This seems to be a justified method and a step higher than Richardson’s. unaccountable experiences are there which imitative understones.It hath been usual with the honest and well meaning host to provide a bill of fare which all persons may peruse at their first entrance into the house. may either stay and regale with what is provided for them. and having thence acquainted themselves with the entertainment which they may expect. As we do not disdain to borrow wit or wisdom from any man who is capable of lending us either. and analysis of character are often seen to be irrelevent. We shall represent Human Nature at first to the keen appetite of our reader in that more N 3 . The novelists amde social happenings the theme of their novel. Postmodernism appear in the form of “Noveau-Roman” and the anti-novel. Fielding considers marriage to be a mere socio-economic arrangement under which women feel continuously suppressed? Discuss. arousing sexual desire.

the clerk began to invade the power and assume the dignity of his master. But all of them had to make use of humour.” In that age by nature. Hence. very easily mistook mere form for substance. it must be admitted. he certainly liked him the better. Pope and Fielding were occupied the middle point. Bulstrode is neither a thorough going villain like Fagin nor a simple Dickensian hypocrite like Uriah Heep. he is described in the following manner– “Mr. George Eliot is in no hurry to draw his character and even upto the end of the novel we do not get a full description of him except for certain traits of his character. This office was all which the critics of old aspired to. but not malicious at all. and in ages of ignorance. Discuss the metaphor of the web in the context of events and people relating to Bulstrode in Middlemarch. The following comments on “the critic” seem quite apt— “The critic. nor did they ever dare to advance a sentence without supporting it by the authority of the judge from whence it was borrowed. for being a stranger in Middlemarch. 3. though they applied methods slightly different from one another. for these critics being men of shallow capacities. But in process of time. as Rosamond did. and perhaps an unavoidable error. In Chapter 13. Many readers may just regard Bulstrode the villain of the piece. Ans. indeed. Book I. is no more than the clerk.” (Fielding mentions ‘human nature’ her explicitly. though. irony and satire in varying degrees to castigate sin and vice and reward virtue.” (Tom Jones. without whom much of the charm of the story will be lost. and Addison and Steele were gentle and polite. or Pecksniff. but less witty and satiric than Pope. it was meant “human nature.” N 4 . The clerk became the legislator and those very peremptorily gave laws whose business was. but it is certainly a hasty judgement. All the same. Fielding was more humorous and realistic. was the aim of Pope and even Addison and Steele. arose an obvious. at first. whose office it is to transcribe the rules and lines laid down by those great judges whose vast strength of genius hath placed them in the light of legislators. That may be true as it goes. Bulstrode perhaps liked him (Lydgate) The better for the differences between them in pitch and manners.plain and simple manner in which is found in the country. we have to assure that he is an essential character in the novel. While swift was bitterly satire and even cynical and misanthropic. The laws of writing were no longer founded on the practice of the author. in the several sciences over which they presided. only to transcribe them.” Q. rightly considered. but on the dictates of the critic. Chapter I) We should try to understand that Fielding lived and wrote in the age which is called “The Age of Pope” or the “Augustan Age. and shall hereafter hash and ragout it with all the high French and Italian seasoning of affectation and vice which courts and cities afford. One can begin so many things with a new person !–even begin to be a better man.) It means Fielding’s avowed aim was to represent human nature (with all its vices and virtues) and this.

what about the second direction of Lydgate? It is that alcohol should not be served to the patient. neither a God. But the housekeeper pleads with him– “If you please. Robinson. I’m sure. a big glass at a time... a human being on the lower plane of life. does not intend to violate this direction. should I have no brandy nor nothing to give the poor creature.. without inconvenience deduce that Bulstrode was only human. Else I should give him our own bottle of rum as we keep by us. “He was simply a man whose desires had been stronger than his theoretic beliefs and who had gradually explained the gratification of his desires into satisfactory agreement with those beliefs. It is Mr. But this is how the matter was taken and it changed into a scandal.” Mr. I had to give him port wine and brandy constant. may be. prescribes the cessation of the doses of opium at a later stage which he had ordered at the earlier stage and also forbids alcoholic to Raffles whose condition is serious.The authoress does not seem to be quite hospitable to him when she says about him – “To point out to other people’s errors was a duty Mr. Bulstrode rarely shrank from . According to the former kind of life. Bulstrode tries to ignore the housekeeper’s pleadings. he ruins along with others a charitable hospital where Lydgate is an honorary physician.. of course. There is no doubt that Bulstrode who is attending on Mr. However. we can say. but he is accused of being a miser by the housekeeper– “It is no time to spare when people are at death’s door..” We can. ” We get a true inkling of his character from the epigraph of Chapter 61– “Inconsistencies .” N 5 ... both kinds of his life that of religio-charitable kind and the shady one are true.. Bulstrode. the latter must not be solely held responsible for the happening.. Sir. As regards the second type of life. cannot both be right. Sir. talks of “the susceptible nerve of a man whose intense being lay in such mastery and predominance as the conditions of his life had shaped for him. Lydgate.. George Eliot. Mr. When I nursed my poor master.. in all sincerity. even though Raffles who had exposed his shady deals might have been an object desired to be got rid of by Bulstrode. nor a demon. Thus. Raffles who discloses Bulstrode’s past life and shady dealings. It may be just a chance that Raffles falls ill due to alcoholic poisoning and Lydgate is consulted. In a highly psychological way.” Thus Bulstrode leads a double life–one of the religio-piety and the other of a sort of shady dealings. Bulstrode deals in stolen goods and its fact is not known even to his wife. Raffles keeps back from the housekeeper doctor’s directions that opium should not longer be served to the patient and on this count is liable to be faulted. nor would you wish it. but imputed to man they may both be true. George Eliot herself tells us in Chapter 61 that he was no duping hypocrite. Thus. in Chapter 71.” Bulstrode succumbs to the stingy pressure and allows alcohol which hastens Raffles’s death.

(d) It means that even if the central principle (Caves) in the novel is “negation. (2) Antithesis. E K. is further confirmed from the fact even in his prayers he said. The epigraph of Chapter 85 which is taken from ‘The Pilgrim’s Progress’ brings on the surface every man’s tendency to sin. (iii) The meaningful scenery of Chandrapore acts as the prologue to the novel. concerning his qualms of conscience. petty or otherwise. (c) Thus.” (ii) The novel A Passage to India has a scriptativestructure– (1) Mosque (2) Caves (3) Temple (b) They may be characterized respectively as : (1) Thesis. Who have been spending their income on their own sensual enjoyments. The whole matter takes the shape of a scandal. (i) Mr. is neither a hardened villain or criminal nor a crass hypocrite. deserve some credit marks. acts as not only as “synthesis” or reconciliation. but also his loan for £ 1000 given to Lydgate quickly come into focus and he is accused of being no longer fit to sit in the house. while I have been devoting mine to advance the best objects with regard to this life and the next”.” yet because of the positivity of multiplied negatives. “Who shall be my accuser ? Not men whose own lives are unchristian.The idea that Bulstrode is not a hypocrite.” Bulstrode is certainly unaware of self-delusion. it is based on the generalized principle of general laws movement and development of nature and thought). Thy garden rescued here and there from the wilderness. just into the bargain. Bulstrode. may scandalous– not men who themselves use low instruments to carry out their ends. he probably regards such matters as a part of business. His conduct is certainly within the range of humanity. He tries to defends himself saying. (3) Synthesis (or Reconciliation). In the meeting in Middlemarch not only his shady deals. but also as an Epilogue and hence Forster himself says that it was “architecturally necessary”– N 6 . the net value results in positivity (Reconciliation) which is close Temple to Thesis (Mosque). Ans. and least at least. 4. Brown has described A Passage to India as a “singing in the hall of fiction. He prays to God with a truly religious heart– “Thy will be done !” As far as his shady deals in stolen goods and manufacture of the inferior quality of the dyes made in the brassing manufacturing are concerned. Suggest the political and artistic implications of placing the conclusion of Passage to India within the Orientalist paradigm. the novel has a Dialectic structure (that is. “Though knowest how loose my soul sits from these things–how I view them all as implements from tilling. But is unquestionable power in the novel Middlemarch and his dauntlessness till the end. Lydgate had also to suffer along with him and not even his wife stood by him in his hour of need. (iv) Thus “Temple” section which is sometimes considered redundant. on the lower plane. Q. Thus. may be. though certainly a committer of some crime. It is a pity that Mr.

Thus. intuitive fidelity. infinitely graceful. all his diverse qualities are to be seen deftly and fastidiously translated into his very choice of epithet. Reduced to the barest terms. and the secret understanding of the heart is easily dominant. and in the intuitive fidelity of Mrs. early and late. But there ought to be more after it. there is no eloquence and burning passion in it.. in the contemplative insight of Professor Godbole.K. and the characters of this and Paphance would none of them exert their full force they would none of them breathe as they do. and very dark.” (v) Forster says about the “pattern” or the“aesthetic sense” in a novel as under– But whereas the story appeals to our curiosity and the plot to our intellingence. War and Peace. We just have a pleasure without knowing why. but yet meets an opposition. banging crooning melted into a single mass which trailed round the palace before joining the Thunder. Three big blocks of sound—that is what A Passage to India consists of. and spectacularly. The lump sticks out a little too much . In it. but unyielding. indecisive in some ways. the plot. The braying. that good has merely obliged evil to recede as good recede before evil a little before. the pattern appeals to our aesthetic sense. Rhythm is concerned not so much with the external form as with the internal design of the work. which seems so fluid.” Beethovan’s Fifth Symphony is pertinent in the sense that it is heard when the playing of music has already stopped. We do not see it as an hour-glass-that is the hard jargon of the lecture room which must never be taken literally at thin advanced stage of our inquiry.“It was architecturally necessary. infinitely dexterous. “Three big blocks of sound–that was Forster’s account of rhythm in the Fifth Symphony. A third block in which evil is forced to recede. A second block very long. Moore. the structure of A Passage to India has the ‘rhythmic risefall-rise that Forster found in what has been for him. “Beauty is sometimes the shape of the book. that is. Forster’s is not the grand style. and when the pleasure is past. and it gathers up some strings. a geometrical simile such as an hour-glass will be found helpful. with its texture. I needed a lump. it causes us to see the book as a whole. Pattern. Brown.” (x) According to E.” (vii) Thus. or a Hindu temple if you like a mountain standing up. but it has other merits– “Not in any sense it is a grand style. which seems so rigid. If it was not for this hour-glass the story. (viii) About pattern Forster himself says.. but they strength on which the secret understanding of the heart depends. is connected with atmosphere.” (vi) We have the following significant lines in Chapter 33 with which section III starts “Murio there was but from as many sources that the sum total was untrammelled.. section III begins with the description of a crowd chanting “Tukaram. in which evil streams forth from the caves and lays waste almost everything about. Tukaram. summarily. not by the secret understanding of the heart. the very lilt and N 7 . and our minds are left free to explain it. But it is infinitely sensitive. It is well placed. (x) According to Lord David Cecil. contemplative insight. Then the final reminder. as it is now. the greatest of novels. A first block in which evil creeps about weakly.

but one of the outstanding literary accomplishments of the 20th century. the final expansion for which he has always sought. In it. the expansion which is the novel as a whole and which occurs within the reader after the novel has been finished. The novel achieves. His very vulnerability is a kind of strength. And yet the tentativeness. E. moral judgement–all flowering swift and high. with variations. the work of most other authors seems obvious and monotonous. sets the whole shimmering and foaming and frothing with an extra-ordinary and varied vitality. Such passages as the twelfth Chapter of the novel in which Hinduism is seen historically and a wonderful sense of age and mutability is achieved by “placing” India geologically. of a theme—more perfectly to prose than he has ever managed before and he has even utilized that return itself (in the form of the echo) as one of the major expanding images of the novel. more fully than any other he has written. Forster has wedded the rhythmic devices of music–the return again and again. of tough and abiding insights. we have earlier noted Forster as saying. are completely successful. but for which his liberal agnosticism has no place. The “perhapses” that lie at the core of his novels. hardly a sentence but gives us a little shock of surprise and interest. Every inch of surface is continously animated by the play of mind. for all the diverse elements are fused together in charming harmony by Forster’s use of language.” (xiii) In the opinion of James Mc Conkey. Nor does complexity ever obscure beauty. who has never been afraid of the big issues or the difficult ones and has scorned to hide doubts and weaknesses behind a facade of wordiness and selfprotective conformity.thmpo of his light tuneful unpredictable rhythms. He seems to me a writer of scrupulous intelligence. “A Passage to India is not only Forster’s greatest novel.” (xii) However. “mainly (though not entirely) by the relation between the three big blocks of sound which the orchestra has been playing.” The three sections of A Passage to India correspond to three such blocks. Forster is like a dancer who can execute the most complicated steps easily and without making a single ugly movement. Forster’s style lacks “concrete artistic force”. The agnostic attempt to get the best of both words. live iridescent pages. For the concourse of so many streams–intelligence.” N 8 . he fails to give the concrete artistic force which alone could make it play an effective part in the novel’s pattern. But when Forster attempts to give to Mrs. hinting at the unpredictable element in the most fully analysed relationship cannot be brushed aside as mere liberal pusillanimity. Moore a kind of significance which his own method has already undermined then the novel stumbles. the initial Chapter in each section serving to introduce the basic themes which are to follow. Each novel delights. but he too thinks that it has other merits– “Forster uses Mrs Moore and the Hindu theme to attempt to achieve a dimension of which he feels the necessary. The distinction between mystery and muddle itself becomes uneasy. fancy. in the opinion of another critic : “After reading one of his packed.” (xi) In the opinion of Arnold Kettle. constantly pricking the facile generalization. observation. Such an expansion is produced by Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony. to undermine mysticism without rejecting it.K. Brown points out. the humility of Forster’s attitude is not something to undervalue. But because he is sceptical about the very material he is using. lies behind the difficulty.

an inherited liberalism confirmed among life-long friends at Cambridge and never altogether discarded which stresses the authority of the individual conscience. and stressed also the qualities of sensitiveness and lucidity in personal relations within the setting of a civilized private life.” seems to have been used ironically.” (c) Even Godbole’s “Come. however much we may defensively pretend to be. Lawrence as Joyce. How far is Forster offering—and not just within the Indian framework of the story–the sacred contagion of Hinduism as a spiritual corrective to the limitations of individualism. and as not adopted to our powers of understanding. on the one side. The function of art is to take men outside the compound of conscious awareness. with its intriable structure and unusual pattern. morally : it drained a whole tradition to the dregs. Grandson examines the spiritual and moral aspects of the highly complex novel as A Passage to India is. an all inclusive salvation for a world doomed to fragmentation by its own ignorance and selfishness ? How far is the final message a despairing judgement on the thrust and assertiveness of western man since the Renaissance ? The terrifying insights of the caves. beyond their moral anxieties. emotionally. seem to be put forward as not morally between but as more sensible than the constantly failing simplifications. Mr. (b) The word “echo” has been used ironically at places– In the Bridge Party.M. but he is a fine and enduring artist and the only living British novelist who can be discussed without fatuity against the highest and the broadest standard.” (xv) K.” (xvii) We can find a tinge of caution in dealing with moral vision as in Forster. the joyous ones of the temple. if those foundations are insecure. the crude techniques of the will to power. “E. the division is between. and to find expression for the deeper rhythms in nature from which we are otherwise disconnected. unlimited. We move through it entranced that uneasy. half unconsciously aware that at any moment the whole delicate structure may come tumbling about our ears. a division of allegiance. for we are. we have the expression “echoing walls of civility.(xiv) Arnold Kettle’s view cannot be ignored when he says. come. so also is the building that rests on them. runs through all of Mrs Forster’s writing and shapes the developing style and structure of his novels.” (xviii) We must not ignore Forster’s own comments in the novel irrigated by his poetic vision as well as the comments which we get from certain renowned critics– (a) The word “extraordinary” seems to have been used in the novel in an ironic sense. more attained to music then just an ordinary piece of fiction– “A Passage to India seems to say the last word (not technically as Joyce seemed to) but spiritually.” (xvi) Stuart Hampshire points out that “An underlying argument. The novel poses infinite speculations. come. On the other side. and we are left with the choice between contemplating an empty cup or refilling it again from the past. come. “If that vision is incoherent. Forster has always represented the natural order surrounding this little compound of cultivated ground as sublime. unknown. N 9 . Roughly stated.W. for instance when the learned critic Lord Davi Cecil says.H. Forster is not a writer of the stature of D. We cannot be safe and at home within the compound.

of course.’ And if the two extremes cannot quite meet. Brower finds something deeper in the novel when he says. there have been many to say that the English are not like that. and though proportion is the final secrete.” (g) John Beer. never as a spirit. believes that “If the caves represent on extreme of India.K. that does not mean that mankind ought to turn away from both and seek a compromise half-way between them. though less ambiguous than the other symbols. Moore’s curious experience and to express a significance that goes well beyond the immediate dramatic moment. The vision turns out to be nightmare. M. symbolic and ironic. he could not have chosen a worse representative. and although all of them have charm. none of them has dignity.(d) The very character of Godbole seems to be ironic in essence. that older philosophic and religious orders with the values they guaranteed have dissolved. All these visions are—with differing emphases—the results of various kinds of over-exposure. to too many civilizations (which seem to make nonsense of one–another). for Lord Acton was right. to espouse it at the outset is to insure sterility.” (e) According to Middleton Murry : “Forster doesn’t understand his Hindu. that too can be judged here only on prior grounds. Forster’s success in making it so convincing and so meaningful arises from his handling of a complex design which is at once dramatic. It was only to be found by continuous excursions into either realm. While presenting a seemingly personal crisis Forster has expressed the vision perhaps most characteristic of the twentieth century. they touch our N 10 . Although the Indians are conceived in sympathy and affection. “The echo. devoted and humble officials. was not half-way between anything. As an artist he has earned the right to attribute large and various meanings to Mrs.” (f) About Adela. absolute power does corrupt absolutely. The vision of A Passage to India has its counterparts in The Education of Henry Adams and in Gerontion and The Waste Land. Naik : “If Forster wished to project Godbole as a worthy representative of Hinduism. its other ‘reality. has a dual value for the reader. But if Forster’s portraits are perhaps angry exaggerations. been dispute in England.” (h) Preulien A. As an image linked with the reading arches of the sky and with Mrs. anger can be illuminating—the English of Forster’s Chandrapore are the limits towards which the English in India must approach. the discovery that the universe may not be a unity but chaos. however. Even without knowledge we must suppose that the Indian Civil Service has its quota of decent. As for the representation for the Indians. One is reminded again of the vehement assertion in Howards End : ‘No. Forster says. being alive. Thus says. they are conceived with these emotions alone. to too many observations of complexity in the mind in the physical world— ‘After such knowledge. “She would see Indian always as a freeze. truth. what forgiveness ?’ (i) The all out indictment of the Englishmen and likewise presentation of pettiness among the Indians to such an extent seems to be in the ironic strain says Lionel Trilling– “Forster’s gallery of English officials has. power does corrupt. Moore’s glimpses of in monotonous meaningless ‘bou-oum’ the echo brings to the surface uglier levels of experience already associated with the Marabar and hinted at in the less sinister symbols of Mosque and sky.

‘I don’t believe in God. even of the artist. with A Passage to India. Aziz is represented as ‘full of civilization . Very possibly this is the effect that Indians make upon even sensitive Westerners: Dickinson. even subtle. or though they had seen their own gestures from an immense height–dwarfs talking.. was bored by them. at his vindication feast.” (m) According to Frederick C. we have to be sure that Forster could be ironic. To represent the official English as so unremittingly bad and the Indians as so unremittingly feeble is to prevent the story from being sufficiently worked out in terms of the characters : the characters. They spoke the same language. at least by exaggerating and by resorting to the Dickinson art of caricature to a certain degree. in this sense. and generations of subjection can diminish the habits of dignity and teach grown men the strategy of little child. honest. Forster thus seems to announce the end of the traditional novel as he found it. as he has said elsewhere..” A Passage to India. and held some opinions. rather hard’ and for the first time Fielding treats him ‘with diffidence’ but this only serves to show us how lacking in dignity Aziz usually is. between pathetic futility and absolute mystery no middle ground remains for significant action. and the variety of age and sex did not divide them.” N 11 . tries to refute the very thought that our race is comprehensible and manageable. (l) There is explicitly satirical irony in the meeting between Fielding and Adela. When they agreed. shaking hands and assuring each-other that they stored on the same footing of insight..’ the words were followed by a curious backwash as though the universe had displaced itself to fill up a tiny void. Crew. “Suggest a more comprehensible and thus a more manageable human race .” (j) Even if we feel any indictment of Forster by Trilling for not representing the English and the Indians truly. a weightier Indian than Aziz. In writing one novel which pays full deference to the unknown and the unknowable. Once. are in the events. Both man and woman were at the height of their powers–sensible. though Dickens lay stress more on characters as individuals than on individuals as members of a race with a distinct and particular culture as Forster does : Thus.” (k) To be sure. as Forster says about it– “A friendliness as of dwarfs shaking hands was in the air.’ or. says Trilling further : “These are not matters that we can settle. Forster’s career as an artist comes to an end and with comes “the end of the traditional novel as he found it. they give us the illusion of perspicacity and power. dignified. as we have seen. to supply the full context of human action. that they should have arisen at all is no doubt a fault of the novel. though it tells us more about its characters than they themselves know. even though Becky Sharp in Vanity Fair is a much more lively and living character than any of Forster’s probably in any of his novels. ‘I want to go on living a bit. complete. for the characters of a novel.hearts but they never impress us. yet even Thackeray had to exaggerate to some extent to drive home his point. Quite apart from the fact that questions of verisimilitude diminish illusion. the events are not in them : We want a large Englishman that Fielding. that is.”– “It is perhaps significant that Forster’s career as a novelist comes to an apparent end at this moment of development. they indicate a certain inadequacy in the conception of the story. Yet they were dissatisfied. it casts doubt upon the claim of anyone.

The novel itself assumes a similar unity. come. they are suffering from a deficiency of meaning. to be sure. Or. . Peter Burra says— “This. having. The suspension of not in the large circumambient sphere of story. a tendency. introvertial. the novel takes entirely different shapes. the modern equivalent of the classical unities. come. then. the story is an impulse. ” Lionel Trilling finds certain faults in the plot construction in A Passage to India.” “What comes instead in the sun in April. come. and muddle turns into mystery into art.. The cities of muddle.. apprehensible by love. he comes”.. which cannot be cured until love takes upon itself the form of Krishna and saves the world in the rain. as it becomes highly psychological. is the result severe imbalance in the relation of plot to story. indeed a deft ironic device that when Krishna is being called to “Come. The lack of this coming is felt by the guests at the party who hear Godbole’s song. says a satirical Indian. for example. with some malaise of privation . It is. becomes a mystery. our one orderly product. requires some of the subtlest manipulation that any novel has ever had. created by the plot. It is. hard.” Commenting on Forster’s use of Rhythm and Pattern in A Passage to India. Thereafter. it is true. in fact. The unity he makes in an image of art .(n) We see that even in A Passage to India. The story is beneath and above the plot and continues beyond it in time. instead of Krishna. The characters N 12 . is what gives to the raw material of his stories such distinction—the quality which he comprehensively calls Rhythm. which means the use of left-motif phrases and images to link up separated parts. crystallized and far simpler than any Forster has previously conceived.. an invention of the greatest value. the echoes of disorder. and the sun spreads not love but lust and muddle. but says that Forster was able to “transcend and even put them to use”– These faults. This relation of plot and story tells us that we are dealing with a political novel of an unusual kind. The relation of the characters to the events. revelation of wholeness. the source of life and of Marbar . with the additional function of dramatic irony and symbolism. This it is which gives pattern to the most diffuse of all forms. till it reaches the dead end of decay of the story. but it is greater than the plot and contains it. the importance of character and plot has been minimised. a perception. The plot is precise. This will not happen without the truth of imagination which Mr. We continue to have our illusions of order and clever faking . they are unwell. plot and character. a British magistrate arrives : “He comes. nothing is excepted or extraordinary. but this book reminds us how vast the effort for totality must be : nothing is excepted. the expansion of the story from the centre of plot. the excepting and the excepted. irony. all the classical advantages and none of their so severe limitations. and does so without disturbing the story or the parable . Forster calls “love”: love cheats. it is the plot’s manifold reverberation. The plot is as decisive as a a judicial opinion. Plot and story in this novel are not coextensive as they are in all Forster’s other novels. for a moment at least all in one. and Forster is the one novelist who could commit them and yet transcend and even put them to use. the extraordinary is essential to order. The device–of motifs. and so on.We cannot know too much about the remarkable inclusiveness of the book.. and symbols–is. he comes. are all to made meaningful in being made one..

The Christian Church at Rome was founded by the chief apostle of Christ. John Calvin and John Knox know to differentiate their views from the doctrines of the Roman Cathlic Church. The birth of protestanitism akrs the breakway from the Roman Catholic Church. where as tideolgy of her student is related to calvinism. In order to understand the divergent views. and it is so amorphous–no mountain in it to climb. Ans. Politics was replaced by a greater concentration on some religious and moral issues after the first great war.” says Aristotle.” Q.are of sufficient size for the plot. Forster himself says in Aspects of the Novel–“We need a vantage post. According to the Church. they are not large enough for the story–and that indeed is the point of the story. 5. that which is revealed by a chance. we shall first concetnrate on the doctrines expounded by Martin Luther. Peter. and this in the great difference between drama and the novel. When the Pope speaks is his apostolic capacity he always makes a pronouncement in matters of faith and morals. its teachings are infallible. not. no occasion to be hard on Aristotle. It is most distinctly one of the moister areas of literature–irrigated by hundred rills and occasionally degenerating into a swamp. ‘The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie. Its residence is in the Vatican City at Rome. Peter.” It will be worthwhile to study at some length Forster’s reaction to Aristotelian concept of the plot as envisaged in his Aspects of the Novel– “Character. “take the form of action. which each of us leads privately and to which (in his characters) the novelist has access. The Bishop of Rome have then onwardhave claimed for their office a direct succession from St. How does Realism find expression in British fiction of the 1960s? Base your answer on your understanding of The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie. St. Miss Spark has touched upon both an in Miss Sandy and Miss Boddie diverse threads of Christanity in her novel. word or a sign. where no doubt they hold true.” gives us qualities. no Parnassus or Helicon. a miner’s son in Germany became a N 13 . word or sign are just as much evidence as a speech or a murder : the life they reveal ceases to be secret and enters the realm of action. it took place in sixteen century. The Pope of Rome is the religious head of the Roman Catholic Church. but it is in actions–what we do–that we are happy or the reverse. however. “All human happiness and misery. He had read few novels and no modern ones–the Odyssey but not Ulysses–he was by temperament apathetic to secrecy. for the novel is a formidable mass.” We know better. Otherwise its existence remains unknown. There cannot be any error in the teaching of the Pope. A chance. Martin Luther . and when he wrote the words quoted above he had in view the drama.” says Aristotle.’ The attitude of students is releated to Roman Catholicism. In Europe. not even a Pisgah. And by the secret life we mean the life for which there is no external evidence. as in vulgarly supposed. There is.” have already decided that Aristotle is wrong and now we must face the consequences of disgracing with him. We believe that happiness and misery exist in the secret life. and indeed regard the human mind as a sort of tub from which everything can finally be extracted. In the drama all human happiness and misery does and must take the form of action.

John Calvin. This faith was drawn by Knox with the help of the colleagues. Calvonistic from the protestantism was furthered by John Knox. a Swiss religious reformer. Wh protrays herself to her students as a victim of the system that come in between her high ideals. authority of the Pope of Rome was abolished in Scotland and replaced by Calvinistic confession of faith. It got a firm base during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I. He urged the masses to follow these codes in day to day life and Chruch ritual. she went to bed with sining master. she adopts a psychological approach. Miss Brodie Sparks write in her novel. "the God of Calvin-Who sees the beginnings and the end" She believes that God is omipotent and sets about ordering her own life and also that of others.” She distances hderself from the Roman Catholic Church and becomes.priest and preached against the granting of indulgences by the Pope. Martin Luther drew attention of educated people of the society by nailing a protest to the Church in Witemburg. she let everyone knows she was in no doubt. she holds way over the Brodie Set and expects from each of them to fulfill her expectations at each step of their lives. “The Prime of Miss Brodie’ “that Miss Brodie wanted Rose with her instinct to start preparing to be Teddy Lloyed’s lover. Miss Brodie seeks to assure her students of an ‘academic’ salvation by promosing to turn them into the “creme de la creme” among their friends provided they follow her advice in words and letters. and firmly belives that "only people who did not thing for themselves were Roman Catholies. N 14 . when by the Treaty of Edingburgh. he formulated the basis of a new doctrine that broke away from Roman Catholicism. In 1530. These indulgences were certificates of pardon sold for money by the Pope to pardon the worng actions of buyers. She disaproves the Church of Rome and terms it to be the "Church of Supersition". The religious learnings of Miss Brodie are clearly Calvinistic. She got confidence of six girls and started about planning and organising their futures for them she sees potential of fulfilling her dream in Rose and Sandy. He got success in 1560. Like Calvin’s God. “in any doubut. and Sandy with her insight to act as informant on the affair. greatly. side whatever her course and she experienced no difficulty or sense of hypocrisy in workship and at the same time. His teaching was the code of simplicity and austerity. Martin Luther was intelligent enough to realise that the could not rreform the existing Catholic Church. "She was not" writes Spark. It was to this end that Rose and Sandy hand been chosen as the creme da la creme” She feels rudely shocked when just the opposite happens. Martin Luther influenced. he formulated the basic of a new Church. For this. Her total lack of guilt in assuming this bluers her moral perceptions. The attitudes of Miss Brodie towards education are also releated to Calvinism. The Church in Rome condemened him as heretic and excommunicated. Calvinism is against the free wil of individuals and look through everything as predetermined.” The sense of isolation and alientation that she encountered at the end of her life was brought an by a weakned sense of morality. In 1530. the reformation movement reached England in 1934 when King Henry VIII served relations with the Pope of Rome and declared himself head of the Church of England. that God was on her.

When Sandy sees throug the effect of Miss Brodie’s imposition of her ideology and enthusiasm.Miss Brodie does not live on any theory. N 15 ■■ . whe might have been saved from the pitfalls of personal judgement. Miss Spark however. In”The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie” humbug and falsehood became targets of her denunciation. Whe could have made use of her energy in better directions of life than wasting her faculties to set explosive ideas in the minds of her followers. but she feels herslef guilty which makes her life uncomfortable. She is successful in her objective. and found it difficult to see eye to eye to his dcotrine in which the human soluld was ensalved to sin and give people and enoromous sense of joy and salvation so that “their surprise at the end might be nastier” Calvinism’s deterministic approach is not accepted by Sandy in favour of the more redemptive Roman Catholicism. She is alarmed to hear of the circumstances of Emily Joyee’s death. She feels perturbed by the images on Lloyd’s canvases where all the girls appear to resemble Miss Brodie. self-righteousness and absense of humility makes Sandy uncomformtable wh sees an excessive lack of guilt in her teacher. she is able to understand that Miss Brodie’s sense of self righteousness and enlarging aspects had not been without its beneficient. Muriel Spark does to accept the determinism of Calvin and Knock. Spark values seenign the truth with sentiments. sympathises with Sandy. Later on Sany read John Calvin. Sandy senses that Miss Brodie “has elected herself to grace” and saw her as a symbol of power that ruled over the lives of smaller people Miss Brodies’. She present the picture of Miss Brodie as a Calvinistic presence designing and determining the future of innocent minds and decides to stop it. Had Miss Brodie lived within the limits of doctrine and community. but personal experience and insight. Spark suggests that the Catholic Church was a suitable channel for normalising her. she understands the evel designs of her mentor. When she recovers from her sense of selfrighteousness.

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