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Cognitive Lesson Plan Cognitive Lesson Plan Form Teacher: Anne Blake Date: 5/2/12 School: Traut Grade

Level: Preschool Content Area: Cognitive Title: Outer Space Simon Says Lesson #:_1_ of _1_

Content Standard(s) addressed by this lesson: Students can travel in a variety of directions using basic locomotor skills, and demonstrate understanding of personal and general space.

Inquiry Questions: Which movements are easy to control when in a large group? Why is a certain amount of space needed between members of a group while the group is moving? Concepts and skills students master: Students will begin to understand the need for personal space during active games Evidence Outcomes: Every student will be able to: Move safely while participating in an outer space Simon Says game. Assessment of Evidence Outcomes: Teacher will take pictures as the game ensues, monitoring the childrens conversations and actions, watching how they use their space and keep each other safe while participating. Planned Lesson Activities Activity Name Outer Space Simon Says

Approx. Time

~ 15 minutes

Anticipatory Set

The teacher will lead the students into the indoor recreation room, and then explain to them that they will be playing a special version of Simon Says called outer Space Simon Says 1. Input: The teacher will tell the kids that they will be using some special actions while they play the Outer Space version of Simon Says, and that the kids need to spread out in order to give themselves enough room to move and keep themselves safe. 2. Modeling: The teacher will show model the actions that will be used during the game to the kids. These actions include Black Hole- hold arms out to the side of the body and spin in a circle Astronaut- slow, floating steps Shooting star-twinkling motions with the hands, and running in small circles Blast off- Crouch on the ground and pretend to be a rocket ship blasting off

Teaching/ Presentation: Direct Instruction

3. Checking for Understanding: The teacher will ask the students to practice performing the above motions as she calls out their names. The teacher will practice with the children until they have a firm understanding of the actions and are ready to proceed onto the real game.. 4. Questioning Strategies: Do you remember what we have learned about outer space this week? Why do we have to give ourselves a personal bubble while playing this game? What could happen if we were too close together when we played this game? Teaching Strategy:Guided Practice The teacher will call out the previously practiced actions (Simon says.Astronaut!!) and watch the children, helping them ensure that they give their friends and themselves enough space to safely participate in the game, reminding them of the motions they need to do if they forget them

Teaching The game will be played multiple times throughout the course of the week, helping Strategy:Independent the kids continue to learn the motions and practice giving and maintaining their own Practice personal space while playing games.

Closure

Materials

The teacher will give the children a verbal cue that the game is coming to an end, such as two more minutes and were going to move on. At the end of the game, the teacher will gather the students and discuss the game, what their favorite part of the game was, and to talk about how come it was important to keep themselves safe by maintaining their personal bubble. After the discussion, the children will be released to other activities. The children Ample space for the children to move around

Differentiation

To modify: If the activity is too advanced for a child, they may need help from the other adults in the classroom To extend: If the activity is too easy for a child, they could be asked to call out the actions, or to help brainstorm other outer space actions that could be added to the game. Teacher will take pictures as the game ensues, monitoring the childrens conversations and actions, watching how they use their space and keep each other safe while participating.

Assessment

The Constructivist Approach Constructivist This approach represents a combination of both genetic pre-programming and environmental adaptation or experience where the child actively constructs a version of reality from his/her unique experiences. The process of constructing knowledge is an active one (going out and interacting with the environment and constructing it yourself). Learning is a function of the natural and continual variability in the world and variable action upon it. Constructivists would argue that in a school class not all children learn the same thing. The important thing for educators is to ascertain what each child knows and then plan learning programmes for each child or follow the childs lead. Conflict Barfurth (1995) recognises the importance of learners actively constructing their knowledge as suggested by the theoretical viewpoint of constructivism. Looking at childrens conflict (which has its roots inPiagetian thinking (Littleton 1995)) and disagreements (where children consider the others point of view), Barfurth (1995) concluded that childrens disagreements: can be viewed as a legitimate source of collaboration; can be both constructive and productive in the learning process. appear to hold an important role in active learning. Thus, by seeing an alternative way of tackling a problem, each individual makes cognitive gains which can subsequently influence problem solving. All three constructivist theorists, Piaget Vygotsky and Bruner, agree that the child is both determined and a determiner of knowledge and understanding. However, they place different emphasis on the direction of the relationship.

Metacognitive Strategies Purpose The purpose of Teaching Metacognitive Strategies is to provide students explicit teacher instruction for a specific metacognitive (learning) strategy. What are they?

First, a metacognitive strategy is a memorable "plan of action" that provides students an easy to follow procedure for solving a particular math problem. Second, metacognitive strategies are taught using explicit teaching methods. Metacognitive strategies include the student's thinking as well as their physical actions. Some of the most common metacognitive strategies come in the form of mnemonics which are meaningful words where the letters in the word each stand for a step in a problem-solving process or for important pieces of information about a particular topic of interest. Metacognitive strategies are memorable and it must accurately represent the learning task. [ back to top ]

What are the critical elements of this strategy?

The following list includes critical elements of Teaching Metacognitive Strategies:


Metacognitive strategies are taught using explicit teaching methods (see Explicit Teacher Modeling). Metacognitive strategies are accurate and efficient procedures for specific math problem-solving situations. Metacognitive strategies are memorable. Metacognitive strategies incorporate both student thinking and student actions necessary for performing target math skill. Students need ample practice opportunities to master use of a metacognitive strategy. Student memory of a metacognitive strategy is enhanced when students are provided with individual strategy cue sheets and/or when the metacognitive strategy is posted in the classroom. Monitor student use of strategies and reinforce their appropriate use of strategies. [ back to top ]

How do I implement the strategy? 1. Choose an appropriate metacognitive strategy for the math skill (For a list of metacognitive strategies by math concept area clickVideos and Resources on the top menu, then click Metacognitive Strategies). 2. Describe and model the strategy at least three times. Use those instructional components emphasized in explicit teacher modeling (see the instructional strategy Explicit Teacher Modeling.) 3. Check student understanding. Ensure they understand both the strategy and how to use it. 4. Provide ample opportunities for students to practice using the strategy. 5. Provide timely corrective feedback and remodel use of strategy as needed. 6. Provide students with strategy cue sheets (or post the strategy in the classroom) as students begin independently using the strategy. Fade the use of cues as students demonstrate they have memorized the strategy and how (as well as when) to use it. (*Some students will benefit from a "strategy notebook" in which they keep both the strategies they have learned and the corresponding math skill they can use each strategy for.) 7. Make a point of reinforcing students for using the strategy appropriately. 8. Implicitly model using the strategy when performing the corresponding math skill in class. [ back to top ] How Does This Instructional Strategy Positively Impact Students Who Have Learning Problems?

Provides students an efficient way to acquire, store, and express math-related information and skills. Provides students who have memory problems an efficient way to retrieve from memory information they have learned. Facilitates independence by those learners who are typically dependent on high levels of teacher support. Helps students move from concrete and representational understanding to abstract understanding.

Effective Questioning and Reacting Techniques (Rowena M. Tivoli) Focus Question: For a highly interactive class, what are the various types of questions asked? What are some questioning skills that teachers should develop to generate interaction? How can a teacher improve his/her questioning skills? What are some effective reacting techniques? Introduction A study was once conducted to find out how teachers ask questions. This was observed in a Grade 6 science class. A tape recorder was hidden under the demonstration table. She conducted a discussion of the lesson for forty minutes. She was able to ask 29 questions, all of which are of the what type.

Maybe they were all answered. They were simple recall. But has the teacher helped develop the pupils thinking skills? The kind of questions we ask determine the level of thinking we develop. Low level questions demand low level responses. They require responses of the simple recall or memory type of answers. Examples: What was the temperature range yesterday? What insect transmits dengue fever? What part of a plant serves as its factory? High level questions call for higher-coder thinking ability. Why and how questions require analysis of observations. The conclusions is arrived at after weighing evidence or establishing a pattern out of a recorded tabulation of data. Examples: Why does temperature continue to rise from early morning till about noontime? How does the hydrologic cycle occur? A question is taken as a request for information. It is simply an inquiry about something. In teaching, it takes the form of a problem at the start of a n investigation or query about a current issue such as time or classroom management. It is a statement that demands an explanation, a purpose or an argument. A daily lesson seldom without even a single question. It is the question, stated in any form that unlocks thinking. Hence, it is integral in the teaching practice. The kind of question we ask varies according to purpose. Here are some: For Assessing Cognition This type of question is used to determined ones knowledge in understanding. They promote high level thinking. Divergent questions and open-ended inquiries call for analysis and evaluation. Example: what is likely to happen if the ozone layer of the atmosphere continues to deteriorate sound heard louder when under water than out of it. For Verification It determines the exactness or accuracy of the result of an activity or performance. Example: was the weight of liquid displace exactly the same as the weight of the object immersed in it? Why is lightning seen before the thunder is heard? For Creative Thinking It probes into ones originality. Example: how will you present the layers of the earth to your class? Simulate the eruption of Mt. Mayon. The question may ask for pupils own ideas or new ways of doing things. Example: how can you demonstrate soil-less gardening? For Evaluating It elicit responses that include judgment, value and choice. It also asks personal opinion about an event, a policy or a person. Example: was your teachers slide presentation well done? For Productive Thinking It includes cognitive reasoning. It analyses facts, recognizes patterns or trends and invokes memory and recall. Example: why was our fourth secretary of the department of agriculture successful with the small landowners? How can we apply the law of conservation of energy? For Motivating Before discussing the lessons, a number of questions about the topic can serve to arouse their interest and focus attention. In attempts to put students in the right mood. Example: would you like to know how your favorite flower can remain fresh longer? Did you ever train a pet? For Instructing

The questions asks for useful information. It directs, guides and advise on what and how to do an activity. Example: what are the steps in performing an experiment? As to level, question can either below or higher level. Low level Questions They include memory questions or those that require simple recall. Example: Define energy. State the first Law of Motion. High Level Questions These questions call for a respondents ability to analyze, evaluate and solve problems. Examples: What is the relation between the distance of a planet and its period of revolution? Why does temperature rise towards noontime? Divergent Questions They require the respondent to think in different directions, to think of alternative actions or to arrive at own decision. There are several possible answers. Example: Why are you voting for him? What will happen if you leave it under direct sunlight for a week? Questioning Skills Class interaction is dependent on your questioning skills. What skills should you acquire to generate interaction among your student? Varying type of question ask convergent, divergent and evaluating question. Convergent questions Convergent questions have only one acceptable correct answer. An example is what is the process of food manucfacture that takes place in plant called? Divergent question are open and may have more than acceptable answer. Example: how can the government most effectively enforce law against water pollution? an evaluate question requires judgement concerning the subject focus. Example: What is your evaluation of our manner of election in the country? Asking non directing question - Pose the question first, then call on a student to answer. Dont direct your question to just one students. Direct the question to all. Call in non-volunteers Dont just call on those who raise their hands. Rephrasing - if you sense a question was not understood, simplify it or ask it in another way. Sequencing logically- it is asking related questions one from simple to complex one after another. Requiring abstract thinking- This means going beyond simple recall questions. Examples of questions that require abstract thinking is What meaning can you derive from the data presented in the graph? What generalization can you draw from the data presented? Asking open-ended questions- this means asking divergent questions to develop higherorder thinking skills. Allowing for sufficient wait time- Wait time refers to the pause needed by the teachers after asking a question. This is the time when she waits for an answer. A number of things to consider are: a.) the level of difficulty of the questions, b.) the type of response required, c.) the background knowledge of the respondents and d.) the intellectual ability of the respondents. An average of 2 to 5 seconds is sufficient for what questions and about 5 to 10 seconds for why and how questions. Usually there is a need to revise or improve the questions of it proves difficult at the moment. This is a second wait time. A long pause would encourage the second wait time. A longer pause would encourage the students to continue thinking, In most cases they are able to think of the best answer. The follow-up questions can lead to extended ideas instead of short memory questions. Providing sufficient wait time can achieve the following:

*Motivates slow thinking students to respond *Improves the quality of the responses made *Decreases the amount of guessing or wrong inferences *Increases the number of correct responses *Leads the teacher to vary her questions *Provides the time for the teachers to evaluate the answers given. *Encourages the students to ask their own questions. Give students enough time to think about the answers. Assessing comprehension- ask questions to test comprehension. Now and then find out if your students are with you. Involving as many as possible- distribute your questions to as many students. Widen participation. Dont just call on students on students who raise their hands. By their facial expressions, you can sense who among your students would like to recite.