findings. hypotheses. • The researcher has to convince the client [and others who may read the report] that the research findings can be acted on for their own benefit. objective(s).. – It is more than a summary of findings. recommendations of a research project to others. scope. – The last stage of a marketing research process. 2 . methodology.RESEARCH REPORT • A research report is: – a written document or oral presentation based on a written document that communicates the purpose. rather it is a record of the research process. limitations and finally.

Types of Research Report I • Any research report contains: – descriptions on methodology. – results obtained. – and recommendations made. 3 . Before writing the report – the researcher must know his or her audience. • The basic orientation of a research report depends on its audience. – he/she may have to make assumptions about the composition. background and interests of the target readers.

– Popular Report: suitable for: • a more general audience. sampling methods. research managers or other people familiar with and interested in the technicalities such as research design.Types of Research Report II • Two types of reports:– Technical Report: suitable for a target audience of • researchers. 4 .. statistical details etc. – The writing style is designed to facilitate easy and rapid reading and understanding of the research findings and recommendations. interested mainly in the research findings as it is non-technical in nature.

Research Design and Methodology Data Analysis Pre-report Writing Activities Interpretation of Research findings Report Preparation Report Writing Activities Oral Presentattion RESEARCH FOLLOW-UP Reading of the Report by the client Post Report Writing 5 .REPORT PREPARATION AND PRESENTATION PROCESS Problem Definition.

and acted upon by the decision maker. believed.The first step in the process involves.. 6 . • the interpretation of the results of data analysis in light of: – the marketing research problem investigated. trusted by everyone who are likely to be affected by the research. • The research report is a means of communication that can be understood. – and the research design and methodology followed.

Before writing the report… • the researcher should discuss: the major findings. – necessary to ensure that the report meets the client's needs and is ultimately accepted. • The entire marketing research project: – should be summarized in a single written report or in several reports addressed to different readers. and recommendations with the key decision makers. conclusions. 7 . – should present the findings in such a way that they can be used directly as input into decision making.

Oral Presentation • Generally. undertaking further research. an oral presentation supplements the written report. the researcher should assist the client in understanding the report. • The client should be given adequate time to read the report. implementing the findings. and evaluating the research process in retrospect. – If necessary. 8 .

Report Format • No universally accepted standard format or style for research writing. Different researchers may prepare their reports differently. expertise. – The personality. the research report closely resembles the steps of the marketing research process. However. background. 9 . – Report formats are likely to vary with the nature of the project itself. and responsibility of the researcher and those of the decision maker for whom the report is written interact to give each report a unique character.

Recommendations h. Approach to the problem XVI. Introduction a. Field work XII. XI. Lists 10 . List of graphs VI. Major findings b. Table of contents IV. Conclusions and recommendations X. List of appendices VII. Limitations XV. Background to the problem b. Conclusions c. Scaling techniques f. Sampling techniques a. Results XIV. Research design a. Methodology b. Questionnaires and forms b. List of tables V. Data collection from primary sources e. Statistical output c. Plan of data analysis IX. Type of research design b. Statement of the problem XIII.Most research reports include the following elements: Title page II. Letter of transmittal III. Data collection from secondary sources d. Executive summary I. Questionnaire development and pretesting g. References (in proper format) XVII. List of exhibits VIII. Information needs c. Data analysis a. Appendix a.

. • The results may then be presented in ten chapters [ one overall plus nine state based] instead of one. – For example. • may be presented in several chapters of the report. may perform the data analysis in two stages. he or she may analyze the overall national sample followed by nine separate analysis for each of the states. 11 .The results. • First. a Malaysian researcher conducting a national survey..

. – Easy to follow: The most basic characteristic of a good report is that it is easy to follow.Report Writing I • Effective report writing is an art. – Adherence to study objectives: A research report must show that the research objectives have been accomplished. their interest in the project. Headings and sub-headings should be used for different topics and subtopics respectively. and clearly and lucidly written. – Readers: The report should take into account the level of readers' technical sophistication. • Some basic points to note in writing a report. ability to understand as well as the circumstances under which they will read the report and how they will use it... logically structured. 12 . • It should be well organized.

• Selectivity: A researcher must use his or her discretion in deciding what should be included in the report. good typing. and conclusions of the project. results. • Presentation: The report should be professionally done with quality paper. without slanting the findings to conform to the expectations of management. 13 .Report Writing II • Objective: Report writing should always be guided by objectivity. – Should accurately present the methodology. and attractive binding. Yet brevity should not be achieved at the expense of completeness. • Concise: A report should be concise.

maps. – If the table presents secondary data. the source(s) must be cited clearly. Guidelines for Tables: Statistical tables are a vital part of the report and deserve special attention. and other visual devices. • 14 .Report Writing III • Visual aids: Key information presented in the text of a research report should be reinforced with tables. – If necessary. pictures. explanations. graphs. – The arrangement of the data item should emphasize the most important aspect of the data being presented. – Every table should have a number and brief but clear title. should be provided as footnotes. comments etc. – Basis or unit of measurement should be clearly stated to facilitate understanding.

Too many visual aids. maps etc. – The speaker must be patient and should not show signs of anger or frustration.Oral Presentation • Should be carefully prepared keeping the audience in mind. help presentation. particularly statistical tables. – Body language and descriptive gestures are also quite useful. tables. • Carefully selected visual aids such as graphs. • During oral presentation. and interact with them. – However. people may seek clarification. • A good presentation does not mean a lengthy presentation. establish eye contact with the audience. 15 . He or she should be natural. charts. could often be boring and may not serve any purpose.