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BILL LYDE GS9/E. LIVINGSTON GS12 SUBCOURSE NO. IN 0486 UNITED STATES ARMY IN ANTRY SCHOOL ORT BENNING! GEORGIA "190#$##9" 6 Credit Hours
This subcourse is designed to teach you the techniques you must know in order to cope with mountainous terrain. The subcourse contains information on identifying the different types of terrain; characteristics of weather and climate; acclimatization and conditioning; and basic mountaineering techniques. Mountains e ist in almost e!ery country in the world. "lmost e!ery war has included some type of mountain operations. This pattern will not change; therefore# you will fight in mountainous terrain in future conflicts. Mountain operations ha!e not changed# but the equipment and transportation a!ailable today ha!e changed. The helicopter allows access to terrain that was once unreachable or could be reached only by slow methodical climbing. $f bad weather e ists# you must still use mountain climbing techniques to reach an ob%ecti!e. There are no prerequisites for this subcourse. This subcourse reflects the doctrine which was current at the time it was prepared. $n your own work situation# always refer to the latest publications.
TERMINAL LEARNING OB&ECTIVE
T"&'( )emonstrate a comprehension and knowledge of terrain# weather# climate# acclimatization and conditioning# and basic mountaineering techniques. C*+)$T$*+&( ,i!en the subcourse material# a combat -training. scenario# and e tracts# as applicable# the student will complete the e amination at the end of this subcourse. &T"+)"/)&( The student will successfully answer 012 of the questions on a multiple3 choice based e amination for subcourse $+ 1456 demonstrating an understanding of terrain# weather# and climate# acclimatization and conditioning# and basic mountaineering techniques.
TABLE O CONTENTS
67&&*+ 8( M*9+T"$+77/$+, C*+)$T$*+& :art "( Terrain :art ;( Climate :art C( "cclimatization and Conditioning :art )( $llness and $n%ury :ractice 7 ercise 67&&*+ <( M*9+T"$+77/$+, 7=9$:M7+T :art "( Climbing /opes and Types of 'nots :art ;( Types of &naplinks :art C( 7quipment and Maintenance :art )( Types of :itons and :iton Hammers
:ractice 7 ercise 67&&*+ >( C6$M;$+, T7CH+$=97& :art "( ,eneral Techniques :art ;( ;elays :art C( /appelling :ractice 7 ercise
ADMINISTRATIVE INSTRUCTIONS 8. +umber of lessons in this subcourse. Three. <. &uper!isory requirements( +one. GRADING AND CERTI ICATION INSTRUCTIONS 7 amination( This subcourse has a multiple3choice test co!ering the material contained in the three lessons. "fter studying the lessons and working through the practice e ercises# complete the e amination. " score of 01 or abo!e is passing. &i credit hours will be awarded for successful completion of this e amination. ?hen used in this publication @he#@ @him#@ @his#@ and @men@ represent both the masculine and feminine genders# unless otherwise stated.
and accli ati!ation and conditionin"# CONDITIONS: %i*en the su+course aterial for this lesson. weather. cli ate. you will learn to identify terrain. and accli ati!ation and conditionin"# STANDARDS: The student will de onstrate his co -rehension and . +ut you should ne*er -lan to use the as the only eans of o*e ent and resu--ly# Alternate ethods ust +e -lanned due to the *aria+ility of the followin" .tracts. and accli ati!ation and conditionin"# $EARNIN% O&'ECTI(E: TASKS: )nderstand terrain. +y dis-layin" an understandin" of terrain. the student will co -lete the -ractical e. cli ate. and accli ati!ation and conditionin"# RE/ERENCES: The aterial contained in this lesson was deri*ed fro -u+lication: TC 012324 INTRODUCTION 5ou 6ust consider the effects terrain and weather will ha*e on your o-erations. cli ate. a trainin" scenario. cli ate.LESSON ONE MOUNTAINEERING CONDITIONS OVERVIEW TASK DESCRIPTION: In this lesson. and e.ercise to show an understandin" of terrain. as a--lica+le. weather.nowled"e of the tas. -ri arily the effects on you and your lo"istics effort# 7elico-ters are a *alua+le asset for use in o*in" en and su--lies. weather. weather.
and down stee. roads. location. and the density and distri+ution of *e"etation# 5ou ust decentrali!e control to lower le*els +ecause of *aried terrain.ent# 6ountainous terrain -oses an o+stacle to those units not trained for ountain o-erations# The terrain ust +e analy!ed in the conte. and fields of fire# Each of these will +e discussed se-arately# 9# 6ountains# 6ountains are defined as landfor s that rise ore than :11 eters a+o*e the surroundin" -lain and are characteri!ed +y stee. e.tendin" for lon" distances and o+structin" o*e ent# 6ountains usually fa*or the defense. ountain ha!ards.TERRAIN 4# %eneral# O-erations in the ountains re8uire you to +e -hysically fit and e. and co unication -ro+le s inherent to ountainous re"ions# . and trainin" are i -ortant factors in successful ilitary ountaineerin"# Terrain affects the rate at which units can o*e en and e8ui. it ay +e necessary to o+tain additional infor ation on si!e. attac. and trails.s surroundin" the # Detailed a-s show roads and any of the trails# 5ou ay o+tain additional infor ation fro terrain analysis. howe*er. snowfields.-erienced in ountain o-erations# Pro+le s arise in o*in" en and trans-ortin" loads u. and well2led troo-s# .now the terrain to deter ine feasi+le routes for cross2country o*e ent when there are no roads or trails# The followin" "uidelines are necessary when you are -lannin" ountain o-erations# As -art of a -re-arations intelli"ence effort. sin"le rid"es. or co -le..and *aried terrain in order to acco -lish the ission# Accli ati!ation.t of: ountains. ran"es. trails seldo su--ort *ehicular traffic and are o+ser*a+le# Success de-ends on a force<s a+ility to control these routes and the -ea. rehearsals. "laciers. co -art ents. you should include to-o"ra-hic and -hoto"ra-hic a. -hoto"ra-hic inter-retation.slo-es# 6ountains ay consist of an isolated -ea. cross2country o*e ent. erratic weather. co*er and conceal ent. you should +eco e self2sufficient and train under *arious conditions# PART A . and local residents# =# Cross2Country 6o*e ent# 5ou ust . and soil. o+ser*ation. conditionin".s can succeed +y usin" detailed -lannin".co*era"e as well as detailed weather data for the area of o-erations# >hen -lannin" ountain o-erations.weather# If you are scheduled to de-loy to ountainous en*iron ents. since they follow the easiest a*enues of tra*el in the *alleys and throu"h -asses# 7owe*er. ty-es of roc. sur-rise. and characteristics of landfor s and draina"e.# Roads and Trails# There are usually few roads in the ountains# 6ost are easily defended.
and the -enetration of wind ay cause you to chill 8uic. dry.# 6o*e ent durin" a stor is difficult due to -oor *isi+ility and +ad footin" on stee. +ut do not o*erdress.war # 5ou should aintain ener"y and +ody heat +y eatin" and drin.terrain# The da -ness of rain and snow.sac.e the followin" -recautions# 6aintain *isual contact# Kee.ly# >hen the tactical situation re8uires continued should ta. which can cause e.fall dan"er# :# 6ountain 7a!ard# . and cal # Do not use ra*ines as routes of a--roach durin" a stor with water and are -rone to flash floods# as they often fill 5ou should a*oid hi"h -innacles and rid"e lines durin" electrical stor s# 5ou should a*oid areas of -otential a*alanche or roc. you ust +e -re-ared for wide *ariations in te -erature. you ay -ut on dry clothin"# Do not rush# 7asty accidents# o*e ent durin" stor s leads to +rea.s in contact and o*e ent durin" a stor .cessi*e -ers-iration and da -en clothin"# As soon as the o+@ecti*e is reached and shelter secured. stay war .dry# 5ou should wear wet2weather clothin" when a--ro-riate.in" often? you ust carry food that can +e eaten 8uic. 6o*e ent is often restricted due to terrain and weather# &ecause of erratic weather. and ty-es and a ounts of -reci-itation# 5ou ust +e self2sufficient to co-e with nor al weather chan"es usin" aterials fro your ruc.ly and while on the o*e# Kee. you If you are lost.
fall &eware of CsoftC and stratified roc. that has +een su+@ected to se*ere weatherin" is ore -rone to roc.ely to occur# Roc. icefall.s are -rone to roc.fall.ceed the cohesi*e forces within the snow-ac. and stee. or +etween the snow-ac. and it in late afternoon on west and north faces# There is.lin" .ely to occur. or co +ination factors# It is a co on ha!ard when conductin" o-erations in snow. howe*er.? li"htnin"? and cre*asses Each of these ha!ards will +e discussed se-arately# Roc.fall is li. and a*alancheB# This ty-e of ha!ard consists of the -re*iously entioned factors# $i"htnin"# The dan"er fro li"htnin" is "reater on roc. an2 ade.fall# This is the ost co on ha!ard encountered +y the ilitary ountaineer# 5our understandin" of its causes. you should do e*erythin" -ossi+le to a*oid dan"er# A*oid areas where roc. e8ui.s? these roc. is essential# 5ou should +eco e fa iliar with the structure and co -osition of a roc.1 inutes# After two hours. icefall.fall. ice.fall usually occurs early in the day on east and south ountain faces as the sun first war s the .7a!ards can +e ter ed natural Acaused +y natural occurrenceB. no a+solute rule to +e followed# Icefall# This co on ha!ard ay +e tri""ered +y natural. enter those areas at the ost suita+le ti e of day. an2 ade Acaused +y an indi*idual<s lac. carelessness.fall? icefall? a*alanches? co +ination of roc. and they are classified as -owder snow Aloose. of -re-aration. and a*alanche? factors affectin" the snow-ac. and if necessary. or "laciated terrain# The -ara eters of roc.fall. or co +ination Ahu an tri""erB# The se*en ty-es of ha!ards that you should +e fa iliar with are: roc. a*oidin" "ullies in fa*or of rid"es# Indicators of roc.slo-es that e.-ected when static electricity is "reat enou"h to cause tic. and easures used to lessen its i -act.fall a--ly to ice as well# A*alanches: Terrain.ent isuseB. i -ro-er diet. than on snow or ice# $i"htnin" can +e e. and "round# There are two ty-es of snow. and can +e loose and unsta+le# As a ilitary ountaineer. cli ate and weather are the +asic ele ents for the a*alanche -heno enon# The two ain causes of a*alanches are: the wei"ht of lar"e a ounts of accu ulated snow.now at what ti es roc. area# Roc.fall# It is also i -ortant to .fall ust +e learned and o+ser*ed in the field# /resh de+ris at the +otto of the cliff or scree at the +otto of "ullies are indicators of roc. snowB and co -act snow Asla+B# The effects of an a*alanche can +e disastrous to the ilitary ountaineer# Chances for you to sur*i*e after +urial +y an a*alanche are a+out :1 -ercent after .fall is ost li. chances for sur*i*al are re ote# Co +ination factors Aroc.
and a sli"ht crac.s in wet roc. and fo" can li it *isi+ility# The ru""ed nature of the terrain often -roduces dead s-ace at idran"es# Due to low cloud co*er at hi"her ele*ations. aneu*er# /i"htin" and te -orary fortification -ositions are often difficult to di" +ecause of thin or stony soil.s that can +e used for +uildin" hasty fortifications# In al-ine en*iron ents. it is li.es a +end. the followin" "uidelines can hel. rain.a s8uattin" -osition on dry "round or a ruc.ca*ated roc.lin" and a--earance of a +lue li"ht ASt# El o<s fireB on etal o+@ects# Durin" a thunderstor . the safest route on a "lacier would +e to the inside of +ends. snow and ice +loc. co*er can +e -ro*ided +y outcro--in"s.o*e ent# In order to -ro*ide *isual co*era"e of the +attle area.es a +end. the hair to stand u-. and at *aryin" altitudes# . OPs ay need to +e esta+lished laterally.sac.you reduce in@uries due to li"htnin"# A*oid su its and rid"es# Stay away fro -ro inent email@example.com lon"2ran"e o+ser*ation# 7owe*er. or when a "lacier se-arates fro the roc.s ay +e cut and stac.tendin" fro the u--er +ody to the "round# Cre*asses# Cre*asses are for ed when a "lacier flows o*er a slo-e and a.of the scal-.? li"htnin" "round currents follow the # Ta.s or ountain to-s ay +e ineffecti*e# On hi"her ele*ations. ra-idly chan"in" weather with fre8uent -eriods of hi"h wind.the hands and u--er torso insulated fro the "round# A*oid etallic o+@ects e.tre e care when o*in" off of or onto the "lacier +ecause of the oat that is li. hea*y *e"etation. ainly etal o+@ects# A*oid "ullies filled with water# A*oid o*erhan"s and recesses# A*oid crac. hail.ely that cre*asses will for at the outside of the +end# Therefore. hi"h wind s-eeds often as. +oulders. walls that enclose it# A slo-e of only 9 to . in de-th. ty-e is *olcanic tuff# In other areas you ay find +oulders and other loose roc.ed to su--le ent du"2in -ositions# As in all o-erations. o+ser*ation in the ountains *aries# The do inatin" hei"ht of ountainous terrain -er its e.ercise e. and inter ediate terrain features that as. and selection of these -ositions re8uires detailed -lannin"# One easily e. o+ser*ation -osts AOPsB esta+lished on -ea.slo-es and icefalls# E. -ositions and routes ust +e ca oufla"ed to +lend in with the surroundin" terrain and -re*ent aerial detection# D# O+ser*ation# &ecause of weather and "round co*er. and away fro stee. with . the noises of troo.ely to +e -resent# 3# Co*er and Conceal ent# >hen o*in" in the ountains.e u.nees drawn u-# Kee. de"rees is enou"h to for a cre*asse# As a "lacier a. snow. sleet.
tent ad*anta"e is ta.cellent o--ortunities for uno+ser*ed o*e ent# These NODs can +e used in static or o*in" a--lications in +oth offensi*e and defensi*e o-erations# E# /ields of /ire# /ields of fire. li. and fro e. dead s-ace is a -ro+le at short ran"es# >hen forces cannot +e -ositioned to co*er dead s-ace with direct fire. de-endin" on how well it is understood and to what e.CLIMATE 4# %eneral# The -hysiolo"y and -atholo"y of the hu an +ody is affected +y the ountain cli ate# The hu an +ody is sensiti*e to weather chan"e and differin" cli ates# Analysis of ountain weather and how it is affected +y ountain terrain shows that weather chan"es are su+@ect to -atterns +ut are less o+*ious in ountainous terrain than other areas# Conditions "reatly chan"e with altitude.In order to o+tain conceal ent fro o+ser*ation. you ay consider the nature of the terrain A-re*iously entioned dead s-aceB# >hen the sun is low and in relati*ely clear s.tre e cold to war th# The se*erity and *ariance of the weather causes it to ha*e a a@or i -act on ilitary o-erations# 9# Considerations for Plannin"# 6ountain weather can +e either a dan"erous o+stacle to o-erations or a *alua+le aid.ies. are e. ountainous re"ions are su+@ect to intense shadowin"# The contrast fro li"hted to shaded areas is such that *isual acuity in the shaded re"ions is considera+ly reduced# Those shadowed areas can -ro*ide increased conceal ent when co +ined with other ca oufla"in" disci-lines and should +e considered in aneu*er -lans# >hen o-eratin" in ountainous re"ions. you should +e well trained in the use of ni"ht o+ser*ation de*ices ANODsB# If you are .cellent at lon" ran"es# 7owe*er.-osure to at os-heric winds and air asses# 6ountain weather can +e e.nowled"ea+le in the use of ni"ht *ision "o""les. ines and o+stacles.tre ely erratic? within a short ti e or inor shift in locality. the wind ay *ary fro stor y to cal . and e.e o+ser*ation. or indirect fire ust +e used# Ran"e deter ination is dece-ti*e in ountainous terrain# 5ou ust routinely train in ran"e esti ation in ountainous re"ions to aintain your -roficiency# PART B .ness will -ro*ide e. latitude. -eriods of dar.en of its -eculiar characteristics# .
y cra"s with "laciated -ea. air is al ost "er 2free# The co -osition of the air of hi"h altitudes is different than air at sea le*el# /allin" snow also -urifies the air +y ca-turin" and holdin" any of the i -urities in the air# Pressure is low in ountainous areas due to the altitude# The +aro eter usually dro-s 9#: centi eters A4 inchB for e*ery .:11 eters.11 eters in ele*ation# .t due to snowfall. The success or failure of a ission is often deter ined +y the weather# >hen -lannin" air o+ile and air+orne o-erations. are dry and +arren with te -eratures ran"in" fro e.cellent eans of concealin" o*e ents that are nor ally ade durin" dar. you can use the weather to your ad*anta"e in co +at o-erations# .i+le# 5ou ust antici-ate the weather as -art of your -lannin" in order to turn an i -ortant weather factor in your fa*or# The clouds that often co*er the to-s of ountains and the fo"s that co*er *alleys are an e. the ore -ure it +eco es# A+o*e =.# 6ountain Air# 6ountain air is relati*ely -ure# The hi"her the ele*ation. es-ecially in winter# A chan"e of a few de"rees in te -erature a+o*e or +elow the free!in" -oint ay affect the ease and s-eed of tra*el# Terrain that can +e crossed swiftly and safely one day ay +eco e i -assa+le or hi"hly dan"erous the ne. snow conditions. such as those found in desert re"ions.ly# The -re*alence of a*alanches de-ends on terrain.tre e heat in the su er to e.tre e cold in the winter# In tro-ical re"ions. -ercent dro.11 eters "ained in ele*ation# This e8uates to a . ilitary -lans ust +e fle.s can +e found in ountain ran"es at ost latitudes alon" the western -ortion of the A ericas and Asia# Se*ere weather ay decrease orale and increase +asic sur*i*al -ro+le s# These -ro+le s can +e ini i!ed when you ha*e +een trained to acce-t the weather +y +ein" self2sufficient# As a ountain soldier. -ro-erly e8ui--ed and trained.in -ressure for an increase of . ountains are often co*ered +y lush @un"les with hea*y seasonal rains and little te -erature *ariations# 7i"h roc. and weather factors# So e ountains. rainfall. or a rise in te -erature# The re*erse can ha--en @ust as 8uic.e# $i ited *isi+ility can +e used as a co +at ulti-lier# The safety or dan"er of al ost all hi"h ountain re"ions de-ends on the weather.ness or in s o.
ilo eters of >eather in e. drier air has a reduced olecular content and.y"en decreases with ele*ation# 7i"h ountain air is dry and ay +e drier in the winter# Due to this increased dryness. a reduced filterin" effect on the sun<s rays# &oth *isi+le and ultra*iolet ray intensities are "reater with increased altitude# These conditions increase the chance of sun+urn. which In addition. o.y"en and oisture in a "i*en *olu e# Conse8uently. the effects of stor s are do inate su er stor s: .in and in loss of water throu"h trans-iration in the res-iratory syste # Due to the cold.ent does not rust as 8uic. the thinner. hi"h winds and cal . and then intense sunli"ht a"ain# odified +y the followin" local influences.This decreased -ressure causes the air to e. "usts of rain or snow. hence you are encoura"ed to consciously increase your fluid inta. es-ecially when co +ined with a snow co*er that reflects the rays u-ward# =# Characteristics# The followin" characteristics of weather are the results of the life cycle of a local stor fro the o*e ent of tra*elin" stor s: or >eather is erratic# 7urricane winds and "entle +ree!es each other# ay occur within two to three . conse8uently. decreasin" the a ount of o.ly and or"anic aterial deco -oses slowly# The dry air also re8uires you to increase consu -tion of water# The reduced water *a-or in the air causes an increase in e*a-oration of oisture fro the s. e8ui. you do not naturally consu e the 8uantity of fluids that you would at hi"her te -eratures.-and.e# The air is thinner as at os-heric -ressure dro-s with the increasin" altitude# At hi"her altitudes.-osed areas contrasts shar-ly with the weather in sheltered areas# >eather chan"es in one day can +e so *aria+le that in the sa e locality there ay +e hot sun and cool shade.
ent needed for an o-eration# $ocal weather -atterns force air currents u. solar heatin".11 etersB if . fo". hi"her te -eratures ay often +e encountered as altitude is "ained# This re*ersal of the nor al coolin" with ele*ation is called te -erature in*ersion# The in*ersion continues until the sun war s the surface of the earth or a oderate wind causes a i.o*e ent or cli + started in a *alley. and weather -atterns# Te -erature in*ersions occur when ountain air is cooled +y ice. denser air settles into the *alleys and low areas# Durin" a troo. and id2latitudes# At hi"h altitude. so that the differences +etween day and ni"ht te -eratures are "reater in *alleys than on slo-es# The heatin" and coolin" of the air affects -lannin" considerations. +ut ore slowly A.ercise s-ecial care to a*oid sun+urn and snow +lindness# Snow +lindness results fro the co +ination of intense sunli"ht and ultra*iolet rays reflected fro snowfields or clouds# At hi"h altitudes. solar heatin" is res-onsi+le for the "reatest te -erature contrasts# 6ore sunshine and solar heat are recei*ed a+o*e the clouds than +elow# The i -ortant effect of altitude is that the sun<s rays -ass throu"h less of the at os-here and ore direct heat is recei*ed than at lower le*els.ly after sunset# 6uch of the chilled air drains downward. su+arctic. the te -erature of the air dro-s .and o*er ountain to-s# Air is cooled on the windward side of the ountain as it "ains altitude.in" of the war and cold layers# These in*ersions are co on in the ountainous re"ions of the arctic.112 eter rise in altitude# 6ountain te -eratures ay +e affected +y te -erature in*ersions. ainly the clothin" and e8ui. where solar radiation is reflected and a+sor+ed +y dust and water *a-or# There ay +e differences fro =1 to :1 de"rees / +etween surface te -eratures in the shade and surface te -eratures in the sun# This is -articularly true for dar.112 eter rise in altitude# /or air o*in" u. (ariation in altitude# Differences in e. the te -erature rises fast after sunrise and dro-s 8uic. the te -erature of the air dro-s :#: de"rees / for e*ery .a ountain with no clouds for in". due to con*ection currents.-osure# Distortion of stor to-o"ra-hy# o*e ents and the nor al winds +y irre"ular ountain :# Te -erature# /or air o*in" u. and heat loss throu"h ther al radiation# This cooler.#: de"rees / with e*ery .#: de"rees / -er . etallic o+@ects# The difference in te -erature felt on the s.a ountain with condensation occurrin" Aclouds.in +etween the sun and shade is nor ally D de"rees /# 5ou ust e. snow. and -reci-itationB.
this heat "ained fro the condensation on the windward side is added to the nor al heatin" that occurs as the air descends and air -ressure increases# Therefore.clouds are for in" due to heat release when water *a-or +eco es li8uid# On the leeward side of the ountain. and stor y weather associated with these clouds is usually *iolent with hea*y rain or snow and stron" "usty winds# A -reci-itatin" cu ulus cloud is called a cu uloni +us cloud# . +ecause they are co -osed of water dro-lets# Air te -eratures within the cloud is war er than 2. winds# 3# Ty-es of Clouds# Clouds are indicators of weather conditions# Pro-er readin" of cloud sha-es and -atterns -ro*ide weather forecasters with little need for additional e8ui. wind eter. hei"hts "eo"ra-hical locations# The two a@or ty-es of clouds. which is referred to as chinoo. and ther o eter# Clouds are classified +y sha-e and hei"ht# Sha-e -ro*ides infor ation a+out the sta+ility of the at os-here and chance for -reci-itation# 7ei"ht Aa+o*e "round le*elB -ro*ides an indication of the distance of a tra*elin" stor and the chance for -reci-itation# ay *ary +ased on /i"ure 424 shows the ty-es and esti ated hei"hts of clouds. air and winds on the leeward slo-e are considera+ly war er than that on the windward slo-e. are cu ulus and stratus# Cu ulus clouds are so2called C-uffyC clouds. they rese +le tufts of cotton# Their for fro +otto to to.ent such as a +aro eter. as classified +y sha-e.1 de"rees# These clouds are usually indicators of insta+ility at the altitude where they are found.is often e8ual to or "reater than its width# They ha*e shar-. distinct ed"es.
# 6iddle clouds# These clouds are -ositioned +etween 9. indicatin" air te -eratures at that ele*ation +elow 2. iddle. and cirrocu ulus# These clouds are usually fro!en.111 eters thic. cirrostratus.3 hours# $i"htnin" is *ery rare. ha*e indistinct ed"es# 6iddle clouds usually indicate fair weather. of alto. +ut sleet and fo"s are also associated with these clouds# A -reci-itatin" stratus cloud is called ni +ostratus# If a cloud cannot +e deter ined cu ulus or stratus.to . and are called either altostratus or altocu ulus# These clouds a--ear less distinct than lower clouds +ecause of their hei"ht# Alto clouds with shar.1 de"rees /. and are either cu ulus or stratus. or at ni"ht -roduces a rin" of li"ht around the oon# Its arri*al indicates oisture aloft and the a--roach of a tra*elin" stor syste # Preci-itation is often 9= to .ed"es are war er +ecause they are co -osed ainly of water dro-lets# Cold clouds. which indicates that they are ore than 4. es-ecially if the clouds a--ear dar. and -reci-itation is usually li"ht +ut steady lastin" for u.-andin" ore in the hori!ontal -lane than the *ertical# They are indicators of a sta+le at os-here. they indicate war front conditions and lowerin" air -ressure. indicatin" a chan"e in at os-heric sta+ility# This is called a stratocu ulus cloud# Clouds are classified into three hei"ht Aa+o*e "round le*elB cate"ories.411 eters a+o*e "round le*el# They are cirrus. or their -reci-itatin" counter-arts22ni +ostratus or cu uloni +us# 6ost -reci-itation ori"inates fro low clouds +ecause rain or snow usually e*a-orates +efore reachin" the "round fro hi"her clouds# These clouds are indicators of i -endin" -reci-itation. Stratus clouds are layered and a--ear flat.y they are called Cfair weatherC cu ulus and su""est arri*al of hi"h -ressure and clear s.411 eters# They ha*e a -refi. e. es-ecially if they are risin" o*er ti e# $owerin" iddle clouds indicate -otential stor s.111 eters.3 hours away# . +ut ay indicate the a--roach of a stor # Stor y weather associated with these clouds does not include *iolent winds.1 de"rees /. at their +ases. it ay +e e*ol*in" fro one ty-e to another.ies# >hen altostratus clouds are lowerin" with winds fro the south. with a fi+rous structure and +lurred outlines# The thin *eil of cirrus often co*ers the s. and they are low. co -osed ainly of ice crystals and usually colder than 2.y and -artly o+scures the sun.111 and 3. thou"h usually hours away# >hen altocu ulus clouds are scattered and une*en in a +lue s. and the a--roach of rain or snow and a tra*elin" stor syste within 49 to 9= hours# 7i"h clouds# These clouds are -ositioned ore than 3. and hi"h# $ow Clouds# These clouds are +elow 9.
the cirrus thic. +eco in" altostratus and e*entually stratus# Te -eratures are war .9 de"rees /# . and winds +eco e southerly or south easterly# Towerin" cu ulus clouds are the ost dan"erous of all ty-es and usually ne*er occur when te -eratures at the surface are +elow .ens and lowers. hu idity rises.As the stor a--roaches.
and to-s o*er 3. es-ecially when cloud co*er ust +e re-orted to another location# S.in" ore at the sides of the clouds rather than +etween the # Cloud co*er esti ates should +e restricted to s.C are called lenticular and indicate *ery hi"h winds Ao*er =1 . *alleys are colder and fo""ier than hi"her slo-es. si ilar to a Cflyin" saucer. de-endin" on the re"ion.:11 eters.They indicate e.y areas ore than =1 de"rees a+o*e the hori!on2that is.s the !one of a.notsB# Cloud ca-s should always +e watched for chan"es# If they "row and descend.cessi*e snowfall creates a*alanche ha!ards to e.i u rainfall# Slo-es facin" the -re*ailin" wind recei*e hea*ier -reci-itation than those -rotected fro the wind2on the leeward side. es-ecially when lar"e +odies of water lie to the windward side# At ni"ht and in fall and winter.s.111 eters. since the o+ser*er is loo. es-ecially if the s. +ad weather can +e e.-osed slo-es and can force chan"es in selected routes# D# >ind# .i u -reci-itation is reached? a+o*e this !one they decrease# They occur near 4.tre e insta+ility in the at os-here# These clouds ha*e +ases +elow 9. to the local s. they e. snow can fall at any ti e of the year# E.tent of cloud co*er. and usually indicate hi"her winds aloft# Cloud ca-s with a lens sha-e. "usty winds? li"htnin"? hea*y showers? and occasionally hail and tornados2thou"h the latter are rare in ountainous terrain# Such thunderstor s are usually short li*ed and +rin" clear weather# Cloud ca-s often for a+o*e -innacles and -ea.y# Clouds and -reci-itation increase with hei"ht until a !one of a.y is co*ered with cu ulus clouds.hi+it fro!en stratus clouds at their to-s that -roduce an Can*il headC a--earance# These clouds ay +e local stor s or they ay +e associated with the cold front of a tra*elin" stor # They -roduce hi"h.y co*er always a--ears "reater on or near the hori!on.411 eters a+o*e "round le*el# >hen these clouds are ature.e ri*ers and strea s ha*e not yet fro!en# RE6E6&ERF /o" can +e used for conceal ent durin" o*e ent# A+o*e 4.-ected# Serious errors can occur in inter-retin" the e.E11 eters ele*ation in iddle latitudes and at lower le*els as the -oles are a--roached# )sually a dense forest ar. -articularly when surroundin" waters li.
you should lay on the "round durin" "usts and continue o*in" durin" lulls# If a hurricane2force wind +lows where there is sand or snow.-osed in a o*in" *ehicle.nots or ore. and the coolin" effect is the sa e whether you are o*in" thou"h the air or if it is +lowin" -ast you# Effect of wind will +e less if a -erson has e*en sli"ht -rotection for e. howe*er.nots# >hen wind stren"th increases to a hurricane force of 3= .nots has +een included on the chart to facilitate its use with either unit# >ind ay +e cal +ut free!in" dan"er is "reat if a -erson is e. the wind ay +last with "reat force on an e. under helico-ter rotors. a scale "i*in" the e8ui*alent ran"e in . esti ate# Enter the chart at the closest : de"rees / inter*al alon" the to.nots -ushes four ti es harder than a wind +lowin" at 91 .In hi"h ountains. stron" winds in -rotected *alleys are rare# Nor ally. howe*er.and with a--ro-riate wind s-eed alon" the left side# The intersection "i*es an a--ro. dense clouds fill the air# Durin" the winter season. or at hi"h altitudes. you ust +e constantly aware of the wind chill factor Afi"ure 429B and associated cold2weather in@uries# 5ou ay easure the wind chill factor +ased on the followin" instructions: 6easure local te -erature and wind s-eed if -ossi+le? if not. under cal conditions.-osed -arts such as li"ht "lo*es on hands or a -ar.-osed ountainside or su it# )sually. the local wind direction is controlled +y to-o"ra-hy# >ind +lowin" at =1 . wind s-eed increases with altitude since the earth<s frictional dra" is stron"est near the "round# >inds are accelerated when they con*er"e throu"h ountain -asses and canyons# &ecause of these funnelin" effects. to the a +ient te -erature Afi"ure 429B# NOTE: This chart was constructed usin" iles -er hour A -hB. in -ro-eller +last.a hood or +alacla*a shieldin" the face# . and so on# It is the rate of relati*e air o*e ent that counts.i ate e8ui*alent chill te -erature? the rate at which an o+@ect or an cools. the rid"es and -asses are seldo cal .
to 4.=4.. clear days in *alleys that are su+@ect to intense solar radiation# 6ountain or down2*alley +ree!es de*elo.-osed# %eneral +ody coolin" and any other factors affect the ris.iin"# PROPER )SE O/ C$OT7IN% and ADEG)ATE DIET are +oth i -ortant# CO66ON SENSE: There is no su+stitute for it# The chart ser*es only as a "uide to the coolin" effect of the wind on +are s. of free!in" in@ury# >inds in tra*elin" stor s are ore -ersistent in s-eed than those acco -anyin" local stor s# There are two winds that result fro the daily cycle of solar heatin": (alley or u-2*alley +ree!es de*elo. the ountainsides lose heat ra-idly and cool the surroundin" air. &T)sB in *i"orous acti*ity li.in when first e.on clear ni"hts.ACTI(IT5: Dan"er is less if the soldier is acti*e# A an -roduces a+out 411 watts A. which settles downslo-e# .on durin" cal .111 watts A.=4 &T)sB of heat standin" still +ut u.e cross2country s.
-osed -lace and ha*e ti e +efore the stor reaches you. +ut when they continue to "row lar"e and reach hi"h altitudes of se*eral thousand eters they ay turn into thunderstor s# Thunderstor s that occur at ni"ht or in the early ornin" are associated with a@or chan"es in the weather.fro risin" air colu ns.yline2the iddle of a rid"e is -referred to the end of a rid"e# . s8ually winds# Rid"es and -ea. you should "et as far down the ountain and away fro the e. which is Thunderstor s occurrin" at these ti es ay also +e -art of a stor followed +y a -rolon"ed -eriod of cool. which in*ol*e an increased ris. which is dan"erous# $ocal thunderstor s de*elo. resultin" in stor y weather +efore clearin" on the hi"h su its# line.s or rid"es.ills ore -eo-le in the )nited States than any other weather -heno enon# 6ountain cli +ers are often on -ro inent -ea. fair2weather cu ulus clouds are har less. of +ein" struc. they can +e -art of a lar"e weather syste that ay hinder ountain o-erations# In the al-ine !one.E# Thunderstor s# Althou"h indi*idual thunderstor s are nor ally local and are o*er 8uic.es and lesser dischar"es# The +est way to a*oid li"htnin" in the ountains is to stay off e. thunderstor s ay +e acco -anied +y free!in" -reci-itation and sudden.-anse durin" an electrical stor # If such a stor can +e -redicted.s and e.ly.-osed -ea. a+o*e the ti +erline.-osed rid"es as -ossi+le# 5ou should a*oid rid"es that do inate the s. and occur ost often in the iddle or late afternoon# Scattered. dry weather# 0# $i"htnin"# 6any casualties ha*e +een re-orted due to li"htnin" durin" ountain o-erations.-osed rid"es. it is +est not to cli +# 5ou should a*oid +ein" under -ro inent or isolated trees# If you are cau"ht in an e. and stay out of an un-rotected flat e.s are focal -oints for concentrated electrical acti*ity. which are su+@ect to li"htnin" stri.# $i"htnin" .
or sli"htly raised area do inated +y a near+y hi"h -oint "i*es -rotection fro li"htnin" stri. de-ends on the stor s de*elo. alti eter.to aintain direction# If fo" and -reci-itation occur at the sa e ti e. all the e8ui.s# >hen e*er tra*elin" without land ar.ent.e.ee. and a. aid sur-rise attac. would cause you to fall# $i"htnin" . you should a*oid u--er +ody -ro. and whether its -ath is to the north or south of a "i*en ountain area# Cirrus clouds er"e and lower "radually until they +eco e altostratus# Tra*elin" stor s do not usually occur in tro-ic re"ions# A stor -assin" to the north ay +rin" war te -eratures with southerly winds# Preci-itation ay o*e in fro the northwest. stor s with stron" winds and hea*y -reci-itation. with the a--roach and -assin" of a tra*elin" stor .es and "round currents# A flat shelf slo-e. are due to wides-read at os-heric distur+ances.tra clothin" for -rotection a"ainst cold and wetness# 44# Tra*elin" Stor s# The ost se*ere conditions. cloudiness. you should see.ills of a ilitary ountaineer are tested a"ainst low te -eratures.your hands and u--er +ody ele*ated away fro the "round to heldeny electricity a -ath throu"h the u--er +ody to the heart# To increase the chances for sur*i*al if near a stri.i ity to the "round and . a--ears as a fo" fro within# /o" li its *isi+ility and causes white2out conditions that ha -er o-erations +y increasin" the chance of accidents# It does. and local cloudiness often .ent and s. causin" cardiac arrest# Kee.ills +y -assin" throu"h the u--er torso and the heart. howe*er. -rotection fro direct stri. which usually tra*el easterly in the iddle and hi"h latitudes# If a tra*elin" stor is encountered in the al-ine !one durin" winter.es# If -ossi+le.or lichen2co*ered roc. hi"h winds. and -reci-itation often continue for days# They are caused ainly +y the local +arrier effect of the ountains on -re*ailin" winds# Any cloud +an. you should stay away fro da .# 5ou should tie yourself to a -oint of -rotection if a se*ere shoc.in" near+y. -ersistent fo". and +lindin" snow# The stor s result fro the interaction of cold and war air# The se8uence of weather e*ents. If li"htnin" stri.es see i inent or are stri.s. you ay need e.o+@ects attached to you away fro the "round# 41# /o"# On windward slo-es. it is necessary to use a co -ass.
)SN. with or without showers# Tra*elin" stor s.e use of weather conditions for assi"ned issions# 4.# &ad >eather# 6ost of the +ad weather e. wind eter.-erienced in ountain re"ions is due to: $ocal stor s in the for of thunderstor s. and only -ersists if colder weather follows# 49# >eather /orecastin"# The use of a -orta+le aneroid +aro eter. thundershowers.-osed o+@ects# %la!e occurs with in*ersions when li"ht rain or dri!!le falls throu"h air +elow . which +rin" +ad weather to so e ountain ran"es and ay last for se*eral wee.-erienced# The sa e stor -assin" to the south would +e acco -anied +y a "radual wind shift fro northeasterly to northwesterly.es a surface that is also +elow . since weather at *arious ele*ations ay +e 8uite different due to cloud hei"ht.s# 4=# >eather Predictions# . te -erature. ther o eter.9 de"rees /. free!in" to the surface in the for of "la!e. a coatin" of ice that for s on e. s8ualls. which ay +e acco -anied +y radical and se*ere weather chan"es o*er a +road area# )sually each ty-e of stor ay +e identified +y the clouds associated with it# Seasonal oisture2+earin" winds A onsoonsB. with a steady te -erature fall and continuous -reci-itation# Ra-idly chan"in" weather conditions often create "la!e. and hy"ro eter helin a. are also hel-ful# )se these weather re-orts in con@unction with the local weather forecast.o+scures frontal -assa"es in the ountains# The stor ay "o so far to the north that only the cold front -heno enon of hea*y clouds.9 de"rees /.-ected to a. and +aro etric -ressure differences# /orecasts ust reach the s all2unit leaders who are e. and stri. includin" )SA/.in" local weather forecasts# Re-orts fro other localities and any weather ser*ice. or the National >eather &ureau. and cold weather are e.
which ha*e +een -ersistent on lower slo-es.-eriod# A li"ht "reen ha!e is o+ser*ed shortly after sunrise in a+o*e the ti +erline# ountain re"ions $ocal Distur+ances# Indications of local thunderstor are: showers or s8ually weather .-erience# Chan"in" >eather# This chan"e ay +e indicated +y a ar. wind *elocity.s in any season can add indications for that area +ased on his own e. cirrus clouds only di the stars +ut altostratus clouds co -letely hide the # $ow clouds.enin" and lowerin" until altostratus clouds are for ed# The sa e trend is shown at ni"ht when a halo for s around the oon and then dar.y.ens until only the "low of the oon is *isi+le# >hen there is no oon.ed shift in -ressure. or wind direction? an a+nor al chan"e in te -erature? or in the oisture content of the air within a 492hour -eriod# Tra*elin" Stor s# The a--roach of a tra*elin" stor is indicated when: A thin *eil of cirrus clouds s-reads o*er the s. thic. +e"in to rise at the ti e u--er clouds a--ear# (arious layers of clouds a+undant# o*e in at different hei"hts and +eco e $ens2sha-ed clouds acco -anyin" stron" winds lose their strea lined sha-e and other cloud ty-es a--ear in increasin" a ounts# A chan"e in the direction of the wind is acco -anied +y a ra-id rise in te -erature not caused +y solar radiation# This ay also indicate a war .>eather -redictions are +ased on educated esti ation or on eteorolo"ical e*idence# Nati*es of an area ay su--ly weather .nowled"e that is accurate# An indi*idual re ainin" in one ountain re"ion for se*eral wee. da .
that does not rise or thic. increasin" li"htnin" windward of the -re*ailin" wind "i*es the sa e warnin"# 6assi*e cu ulus clouds han"in" o*er a rid"e or su dayti e# it at ni"htti e or Stron" >inds# Indications of a--roachin" stron" winds ay +e: Plu es of +lowin" snow fro the crests of rid"es and -ea.y that is +lue down to the hori!on or down to where a le*el ha!e layer for s a secondary hori!on# Conditions under which s all cu ulus clouds a--earin" in the forenoon do not increase +ut decrease or *anish durin" the day# Clear s.en durin" the day# .ce-t for a low cloud dec.ies e.enin" of scattered cu ulus clouds durin" the afternoon# The a--roach of a line of lar"e cu ulus or cu uloni +us clouds with an ad*ance "uard of altocu ulus clouds# At ni"ht.s and rid"es.s or ra""ed shreds of cloud o*in" ra-idly# Persistent lens2sha-ed clouds? or a +and of clouds o*er hi"h -ea. or layers of s o.# /air >eather# /air weather ay +e associated with: A cloudless s. or downwind fro the # A tur+ulent and ra""ed +anner cloud that han"s to the lee of a -ea.y and shallow fo".e or ha!e at *alley +otto s in early ornin"# A cloudless s.An increase in si!e and ra-id thic.
es. which indicate that the clouds are thin and fair weather ay e. and fair weather e. or dri!!le.ists at hi"h altitudes# .y cannot +e seen: S all snowfla. ice crystals. Si"ns of &ad >eather Awithin 9= to =E hoursB# This ay include: A "radual lowerin" of the clouds# This ay +e the arri*al or for ation of a new lower strata of clouds# It can also indicate the for ation of a thunderhead# An increasin" halo around the sun or oon# An increase in hu idity and te -erature# Cirrus A ares tailsB clouds# A decrease in +aro etric -ressure Are"istered as a "ain in ele*ation on an alti eterB# Si"ns of %ood >eather# This ay include: A "radual risin" and di inishin" of the clouds# A decreasin" halo around the sun or Dew on the "round in the ornin"# oon# S all snowfla.ist at hi"her altitudes# An increase in +aro etric -ressure Are"istered as a loss in ele*ation on an alti eterB# Preci-itation# >hen there is -reci-itation and the s.es or ice crystals indicate that the clouds a+o*e are thin.
A steady fall of snowfla.es or raindro-s indicate that the -reci-itation has +e"un at hi"h le*els, and +ad weather is li.ely to +e encountered on rid"es and -ea.s#
PART C - ACCLIMATIZATION AND CONDITIONING
4# %eneral# &efore underta.in" e,tensi*e ilitary o-erations in hi"h ountainous ele*ations, as a soldier, you re8uire a -eriod of accli ati!ation# It is unrealistic to thin. that a freshly de-loyed, unaccli ati!ed unit can -erfor well in action# This could +e disastrous if the o--osin" force is accli ati!ed# E*en the -hysically fit soldier e,-eriences -hysiolo"ical and -sycholo"ical de"radation when thrust into hi"h ele*ations# Ti e ust +e allocated to allow for accli ati!ation, conditionin" and trainin"# Trainin" in ountains of low or ediu ele*ation A4,:11 to 9,:11 etersB does not re8uire s-ecial conditionin" and accli ati!ation -rocedures, howe*er, i -air ent of o-eratin" efficiency on so e soldiers ay occur# A+o*e ;,111 eters Ahi"h ele*ationB, ost unaccli ati!ed soldiers ay +e e,-ected to dis-lay so e altitude effects# A+out 41 -ercent ay e,-erience sy -to s of acute ountain sic.ness AA6SB# Conduct trainin" at a hi"h altitude of a+out 9,:11 eters "radually increasin" it and endin" at :,111 eters? accli ati!ation +eyond :,111 eters will result in de"radation of the +ody "reater than the +enefits "ained# E -loy ent of the local -o-ulation ay +e ad*anta"eous +ecause they ha*e li*ed at hi"her ele*ations, and can +e e,-ected to out -erfor the ost fit and accli ati!ed soldier# 9# Sy -to s and Ad@ust ents# 5ou are accli ati!ed to hi"h altitudes when you are a+le to effecti*ely -erfor -hysically and entally# The accli ati!ation -rocess +e"ins i ediately u-on arri*al at the hi"her ele*ation, and if the chan"e is a+ru-t, it is e,-ected that ost of you will suffer the sy -to s of acute ountain sic.ness# These sy -to s will disa--ear fro four to se*en days, +ut their disa--earance does not indicate co -lete accli ati!ation# The -rocess of ad@ust ent continues for wee.s or onths# Co -lete accli ati!ation is achie*ed at a+out :,111 eters#
I ediately u-on arri*al at hi"h ele*ations, only ini al -hysical wor. can +e -erfor ed +ecause of -hysiolo"ical chan"es# The a+ility to wor. decreases as you "o hi"her, a+out a 41 -ercent reduction for e*ery 4,111 eters "ained a+o*e 41,111 eters# )naccli ati!ed soldiers will dis-lay so e or all of the followin" +eha*ioral effects: Increased errors in -erfor in" si -le ental arith etic# Decreased a+ility for sustained concentration# Deterioration of e ory# Decreased *i"ilance# Increased irrita+ility in so e indi*iduals# I -air ent of ni"ht *ision and so e constriction in -eri-heral *ision Auto ;1 -ercent at 9,111 etersB# $oss of a--etite# Slee- distur+ances# Irre"ular +reathin"#
5our @ud"e ent and self2e*aluation are i -aired the sa e as if you were into,icated# &ecause of the hi"h altitude ad@ust ent, durin" the first few days your unit will e,-erience difficulties aintainin" a coordinated, o-erational unit# The terrain and weather will contri+ute to the -ro+le s of unaccli ati!ed soldiers# If you cannot wal. a strai"ht line and you ha*e a loss of +alance, you should +e e*acuated to a lower altitude# To wal. a strai"ht line, -lace one foot in front of the other#
;# Personal 7y"iene and Sanitation# The -rinci-les of -ersonal hy"iene and sanitation that "o*ern o-erations in low terrain also a--ly in the ountains# %ood health is -ri arily a -ersonal res-onsi+ility, and ins-ections ust +e conducted fre8uently to ensure that -ersonal ha+its of hy"iene are not ne"lected# 5ou ust aintain standards as a deterrent to disease, and as a reinforce ent to disci-line and orale#
Personal hy"iene# Durin" -eriods of cold weather, your -ersonal hy"iene is *ery i -ortant in the hi"h ountains# Due to the cold weather and scarcity of water, you ay ne"lect washin", which can result in s.in infection and *er in infestation# 5ou should chec. your s.in and clean it as often as -ossi+le# To helreduce s.in infections you should ta.e snow +aths in lieu of water +aths#
Durin" cold weather, snow ay +e used instead of toilet -a-er# 5ou ust a*oid water2 +ase crea s and lotions since their use will further dehydrate tissues and induce frost+ite +y free!in"# If -ossi+le, use nonwater2+ase crea s to sha*e in lieu of soa-# It is essential that you use cha-stic.s on your li-s, nose, and eyelids# 6a.e sure you carry to-ical oint ents for rashes# In order to -re*ent tooth decay and "u disease your teeth should +e +rushed daily# Chan"e your underwear as often as -ossi+le, +ut do not su+stitute it for +athin"# If -ossi+le, you should carry a co -lete chan"e of clothin", and you should wash your unifor at least once a wee., or if launderin" is difficult, your unifor should +e sha.en and air dried# To -rotect yourself, clean and air your slee-in" +a" on a re"ular +asis# To -rotect your feet fro cold in@uries, you ust follow the -rinci-les of foot hy"iene# >hen cli +in", your +oots should +e laced ti"htly to -ro*ide needed su--ort# To a*oid +listers on your feet, wear your soc.s with no wrin.les, wash your feet daily, and if -ossi+le, .ee- the dry and clean# If you cannot wash your feet on a re"ular +asis, try to chan"e your soc.s daily durin" halts and rest -eriods# 6assa"e, dry, and s-rin.le the with talc or anti2fun"al -owder, +rushin" off the e,cess -owder to a*oid clu -in", which ay cause +listers# 5ou ay use snow to clean your feet, +ut dry the 8uic.ly# >hen you chan"e your soc.s, chec. your feet for wrin.les, crac.s, +listers, and discolorations# Tri your nails Alon" nails wear out soc.sB +ut not too short +ecause they will not -ro*ide -ro-er su--ort for the ends of your toes# See. edical attention for any -ro+le s# 5ou should s-ray your feet two or three ti es a day with an alu inu chlorohydrate anti-ers-irant for a wee. and then once a day for the rest of the winter# This -rocess controls a+out D1 -ercent of the sweatin" in the feet# If fissures or crac.s occur in the feet, then discontinue s-rayin" until they are healed or s-ray less often to control the sweatin"# Durin" -eriods of e,tre e cold weather, you ay +eco e consti-ated# Ade8uate water inta.e -lus a low -rotein, hi"h rou"ha"e diet can +e hel-ful in -re*entin" consti-ation#
Sanitation# If you ha*e to di" latrines, a.e sure they are located downwind fro your -ositions and are +uried or co*ered i ediately after use# >hen usin" a CcatholeC latrine, a.e sure it is located away fro water sources# Since waste free!es, it can +e co*ered with snow and ice or -ushed down a cre*asse# In roc.y areas you ay co*er waste with stones#
=# >ater Su--ly#
no atter how clear it a--ears# After the water has +een -urified. hy-er*entilation and the cool. dry at os-here +rin" a+out a three2to2four2fold increase in water loss +y e*a-oration throu"h the lun"s# 5ou ust a.i u -erfor ance# All water that is to +e consu ed ust +e -ota+le# 6a..in"# Pota+le water in the short su--ly# Do not conta inate or -ollute water sources# ountains ay +e in Other sources of water are snow. e*ery four hours# If your unit is conductin" ri"orous -hysical acti*ities. or the e8ui*alent. +ut is not dan"erous. -ers-iration. rain. fluids lost throu"h res-iration. you ay add fruits. reduce your -hysical acti*ities# Any te -orary deficiency ust +e re-laced to aintain a. only treated water# Conser*e water for drin. and the water is cold. non-ota+le water# >ater that is unfit to drin. li8uids e*en when you do not feel thirsty# 5ou should drin. s-rin"s. and urination ust +e re-laced# In ountain o-erations. water only fro a--ro*ed sources or -urify it to a*oid conta ination and disease# Do not drin.5ou should ne*er assu e that ountain water is safe for consu -tion# 5ou ust drin. ore water# 5ou should drin. and -owdered +e*era"es to su--le ent and encoura"e water inta.e# If the water su--ly is insufficient. at least four 8uarts of water each day# A loss of two 8uarts of +ody fluid A9#: -ercent of +ody wei"htB decreases -hysical efficiency +y 9: -ercent# A loss of 49 8uarts A4: -ercent of +ody wei"htB is usually fatal# In your eals you should re-lace the salt lost +y sweatin" to a*oid deficiency and cra -in"# Salt ta+lets are not necessary and ay contri+ute to dehydration# 5our ilitary rations Athree eals a dayB -ro*ide sufficient sodiu re-lace ent# Drin. you should drin.e sure that you drin. s all a ounts of water often. @uices. se*ere cra -in" ay result# Kee.-ure water in reser*e for first aid use# 5ou ust -lace e -hasis on the three rules of water disci-line# Drin.e sure the water has +een -urified. water only fro a--ro*ed sources# In order for you to o-erate efficiently.e an effort to drin. a lar"e *olu e ay slow you down# If you are hot.es# 5ou ust a. and la. ountain strea s. waterin" -arties should +e esta+lished# Snow and ice ay +e a*aila+le for eltin" after sundown# 5ou ay di" a shallow . water as often as -ossi+le# Since water is scarce a+o*e the ti +erline. ay +e used for +athin"# 5ou ust a*oid wastin" water# To stay cool and aintain a functionin" +ody it is +est to drin. one 8uart of water.
les off roc. such as fruit @uices and cocoa# There are three a@or co -onents re8uired to aintain a well2functionin" +ody: -roteins.t to you or +y -lacin" it in a slee-in" +a"# :# Nutrition# Success in ountain o-erations de-ends on -ro-er nutrition# 7i"her altitudes affect eatin" ha+its. and loss of a--etite.11 etersB. and the un-leasant taste of cold rations# To increase orale and a sense of well2 +ein". *e"eta+les. and +ody tissue# So e of the usa+le ani al -roteins include e""s. ener"y.ness and is di"ested +etter than fat at hi"h altitudes# 6alnutrition ay result fro the lac.reser*oir to collect water in areas where it tric. fish.s# Purify water +y usin" iodine or calciu hy-ochlorite ta+lets. fi+er. a ino acids. you should ensure that fuel ta+lets and s8uad sto*es as well as fla a+le aterial are a*aila+le and used for heatin" foods# Since you will e. all three co -onents ust +e -ro*ided in the correct -ro-ortions# Proteins consist of a lar"e nu +er of a ino acid units that are lin. and inerals# To aintain a healthy +ody.in" car+ohydrate2containin" +e*era"es. or +y +oilin" for 41 inutes Alon"er at hi"her ele*ationsB# /ilterin" will re o*e sedi ent# Protect the water fro free!in" +y storin" it ne. and le"u es also -ro*ide a ino acid. and li8uids +y drin. therefore. which ay re8uire heatin" of indi*idual rations# The followin" ele ents are characteristics of nutritional accli ati!ation in ountain o-erations: >ei"ht loss durin" the first two to three days at hi"h ele*ation# A loss of a--etite with sy -to s of ountain sic.ed to"ether to for the -rotein# The a ino acids are a+sor+ed throu"h the intestine into the +lood# They a. cheese. eta+olic chan"es. -oultry.ness# $oss of wei"ht usually sto-s with accli ati!ation# At -ro"ressi*ely hi"her ele*ations A"reater than =. you should eat at least one hot eal each day. and car+ohydrates# They -ro*ide ener"y. the tolerance of fatty foods ra-idly decreases# A hi"h car+ohydrate diet ay lessen the sy -to s of acute ountain sic. of eatin" -ro-erly due to increased fati"ue.-erience loss of wei"ht due to dehydration. uscle. fats and oils. and eats? other foods such as cereals. you should ta..e or re-lace +ody -roteins. +ut are not as +alanced in essential .. il.e -recautions# If -ossi+le. it is necessary that you increase consu -tion of car+ohydrates. *ita ins.
*e"eta+les.ceed 41 days. e""s.a ino co -ositions# As a daily -rotein re8uire ent. and .of ener"y? u.:11 calories are e. and will -ro ote the hi"h le*el of ener"y needed to conduct daily acti*ities in ountainous o-erations# De-endin" on you. D. and can +e found in the ost i -ortant ener"y2-roducin" cycles in the +ody<s cells# If the inta.:11 calories for "arrison acti*ity# Pers-iration causes e.. and C.to 991 calories -er hour is esti ated for a 4112-ound an# .e is released as heat and is not a*aila+le when you wor. *e"eta+les.y"en. includin" fat2 and water2solu+le *ita ins# If a de-loy ent is to e. and fruits# A +alanced diet containin" ade8uate a ounts of *ita ins and inerals ensures an efficient eta+olis .in" *ita in su--le ents to -re*ent the occurrence of an i -ro-er and un+alanced diet# 6ineral ele ents can +e di*ided into two "rou-s: those needed in the diet in a ounts of 411 illi"ra s or ore a day such as calciu . nuts. and K? water2solu+le *ita ins are &. fruits. the ini u is E ounces A99D "ra sB for a 4:=2-ound AD12.. and a"nesiu ? and trace ele ents needed in a ounts of only a few illi"ra s a day such as iodine. *e"eta+les. E. and !inc# Re8uired inerals are contained in a +alanced diet of eats. initiatin" the Cinternal ther ostatC and causin" the uscles to shi*er# This releases heat and re8uires +urn u. and eats# It is necessary that you aintain a -ro-er and well2+alanced diet which -ro*ides all of the re8uired *ita ins. you should consider ta. oderate a ounts are stored in the uscles and li*er? lar"er a ounts are con*erted into fat and stored# The ost useful sources of car+ohydrates are foods such as unrefined "rains.e e. which are found in cereals.? a+out =.-ended for strenuous wor. iron."B an# Protein re8uires water for di"estion and ay facilitate dehydration# /ats and oils are the ost concentrated for of food ener"y# 6ain sources of fats and oils are eat. a+o*e the +asal eta+olis ay *ary fro 91 to =1 -ercent# O*er :1 -ercent of caloric inta.ceeds ener"y needs.cessi*e +odily heat loss# 5our eta+olis ay not -ro*ide enou"h heat durin" inacti*e -eriods in cold weather. -hos-horous. il. +utter. and fruits# There are two "rou-s of *ita ins# They are distin"uished +y their a+ility to dissol*e in either fat or water# /at2solu+le *ita ins include A. and are harder to di"est at hi"her altitudes# Car+ohydrates are an i -ortant source of calories. the efficiency of your +ody to wor. and cheese# /ats re8uire ore water and o.
fast +ars. you ay want to su--le ent 6REs with +rea.cold +odies and sti ulate a--etites# 5ou ay consider hot +e*era"es of sou-. fires. and your unit ust carry all food ite s and "ar+a"e# If -ossi+le. and your circulatory syste la+ors to -ro*ide the needed o. @uices. and e.in" areas and re e +er at hi"her ele*ations coo. harder.tra fuel ta+lets +y shieldin" the fro the wind while coo. alcohol. @uices. you should a*oid certain dru"s and edications. and s o. hydration.. to re-lace water and salt you ay use +ouillon cu+es which war u.in"# Store e. and cider# &ecause coffee. your +ody e.ed. and illness# Car+ohydrates.y"en to the +ody# >hile accli ati!in" at hi"her ele*ations. -owdered il. and rest +efore strenuous -hysical acti*ity# 5ou should carry e.tre ely cold conditions or at hi"h altitudes.ent and a unition away fro coo. +e"innin" in the ornin" and continuin" throu"h id2afternoon. as a leader.Durin" ascent to hi"h altitudes. no trace of a unit should +e detected# >hen o-eratin" in e.in" ti e ay +e dou+led# 5ou ay conser*e fuel. li"htwei"ht food that can +e eaten hot or cold in case resu--ly o-erations fail# 6eals Ready to Eat A6REsB eet this criteria and -ro*ide all of the +asic food "rou-s# As a leader. you should eat li"ht eals that are hi"h in car+ohydrates# $ar"e eals re8uire the di"esti*e syste to wor. etal containers# To -urify water and war food. fruits. shortness of +reath.tra. the unit ust +e -hysically and -sycholo"ically . cereal +ars. -ers-iration. and ay +e acco -anied +y indi"estion. you should use sto*es and heat ta+s# 5ou should clean all utensils and canteen cu-s after use. you should eat oderately. and candies.in"# These su+stances will affect your circulation. and @ud"e ent# 3# Physical and Psycholo"ical Conditionin"# To ensure the success of ountain o-erations. tea. "ar+a"e should +e +urned or dee-2+uried to -re*ent ani als fro fora"in"# As all issions are tactical. cra -s.e8ui. sto*es.tra fuel in ti"htly sealed. and chocolate# Also.-eriences -hysiolo"ical accli ati!ation. do not rely on the for hydration and rehydration of the +ody# Kee. ar. and hot chocolate are diuretics. you -rioriti!e a conditionin"Htrainin" -ro"ra in your unit# ust i -le ent and )#S# forces do not routinely train in ountainous terrain# To achie*e indi*idual and unit effecti*eness. are i -ortant in aintainin" ener"y le*els# If -ossi+le.
or follow after the unit<s arri*alI Are any odifications to e8ui.-ectedI >hat is the co -osition of the ad*ance -artyI >ill they +e a*aila+le to assist in trainin" and accli ati!ationI >hat areas in the )#S# ost closely rese +le the area of o-erationsI Are -rede-loy ent areas and ran"es a*aila+leI Does the unit ha*e 8ualified instructors in ountain warfareI >hat ty-e e8ui.ent re8uiredI Are there any s-ecial aintenance re8uire ents for wea-ons and e8ui. and su+se8uent daily sta"es are at each succeedin" . and the o-erational -otential increased# .entI >ill the e8ui.entI Do -ersonnel .ecution of o-erations. as well as trained as a tea to co-e with the terrain. ensurin" enou"h a ounts. with the unit. and ene y situation# The followin" factors ust +e considered: >hat are the cli atic and terrain conditions of the area of o-erationsI 7ow uch ti e is a*aila+le for conditionin" and trainin"I >ill the unit conduct o-erations with other )#S# or Allied /orcesI Are there lan"ua"e +arriersI >hat assistance will +e re8uiredI >ill trainin" and conditionin" +e re8uired for attached -ersonnelI >hat additional -ersonnel will acco -any the unitI >ill they +e a*aila+le for trainin" and conditionin"I >hat is the current le*el of -hysical fitness of the unitI >hat is the current le*el of indi*idual e.entI )-on arri*al at the area of o-erations.ent "o with the ad*ance -arty. and the a+sence of accli ati!ation ha -ers the successful e. and ad@usted +efore underta. so e accli ati!ation will ha*e occurred. all -ersonnel will re8uire a -eriod of conditionin" and accli ati!ation? the ti e schedule should allow for lar"er and ore fre8uent -eriods of rest initially# >ater. ission. ountain sic. terrainBI Does the unit ha*e enou"h of the re8uired e8ui. and rest ust +e considered as -riorities.112 eter incre ent until the destination is reached# &y this ti e. de-loy ent to hi"her ele*ations ust consider the followin": 6o*e u-ward +y sta"es.ness reduced. s-endin" two or three days at each sta"e# The first sta"e +e"ins at the 9.ent will +e re8uired Ato fit the season.:112 eter le*el. food. while indi*idual eta+olis s and +odies +eco e accusto ed to functionin" at hi"her ele*ations# Since the accli ati!ation -rocess cannot +e shortened. en*iron ent.-ertise in ountaineerin"I >hat ty-e of o-erations can +e e.in" ri"orous ountain o-erations.conditioned.now how to use the e8ui.
de*elo-ed.ent loads# Pro-er -hysical conditionin" results in decreased e. accli ati!e at a hi"h altitude in the continental )#S#. or other safe area? then de-loy to the o-erational site +y ra-id trans-ort# Do not "o down to lower altitudes A9=2 to =E2hour -eriodsB +efore de-loy ent since reentry to altitude can cause -ro+le s in accli ati!ation# 6o*e troo-s directly to hi"h altitudes if allowances can +e ade for inacti*ity for the first three to fi*e days +efore ission co it ent# 6o*in" troo-s directly to hi"h altitude can increase the -ro+a+ility of altitude sic. lun"s. and hands? a swi in" -ro"ra to increase lun" efficiency? and road arches o*er ountainous terrain with all co +at e8ui.slo-es of cliffs# Personnel will o*erco e the fear of hei"hts +y +eco in" fa iliar with the -ro+le .tended rest -eriod e*ery third ni"ht# >hen a*aila+le fro the edical su--ort channels. -ersonnel will find ountain o*e ent hard and tirin"# Durin" the o-eration. and le"s will +e conditioned +y fre8uently archin".A unit should rest after each 4.haustion# To increase endurance and -hysical conditionin"..ent# Once de-loyed to hi"h . +ac. new techni8ues of rhyth ic o*e ent ust +e learned. carryin" Ta+le of Or"ani!ation and E8ui. a+do en. "radually introducin" -ersonnel to the new terrain and encoura"in" confidence when ne"otiatin" stee.in" an e.ent ATOEB and s-ecial e8ui. and different "rou-s of uscles will +e used.ness# E*en if there is inacti*ity followin" de-loy ent the incidence of altitude sic.111 eters of ele*ation "ain to recu-erate and accli ati!e fro the lower ele*ations# )nits can lea-fro". ar s.ness fro =1 -ercent to 31 -ercent. a -hysical trainin" -ro"ra should include: lon"2distance runnin" for aero+ic conditionin"? calisthenics and wei"ht trainin" to stren"then the heart. and hardened# The +ac.ness is ore li. le"s.ely than with a "radual ascent# Personnel in*ol*ed in ountaineerin" ay ha*e -reconcei*ed +eliefs a+out the har ful effects of hi"h altitude# Psycholo"ical ad@ust ent is an i -ortant factor in the success of the o-eration# Ill effects of hi"h altitude can +e -re*ented throu"h i -le entation of educational -ro"ra s. ta. and learnin" the any cli +in" techni8ues and -rinci-les of ountain o*e ent# Re"ardless of -re*ious flat cross2country Ar y trainin". -retreat with car+onic anhydrase inhi+itors Asuch as aceta!ola ideB# This reduces the incidence and se*erity of acute ountain sic. de-endin" u-on the hei"ht of de-loy ent# Initially.
in"# S.ey to learnin" and aintainin" cli +in" -roficiency and technical s. trainin" should +e conducted as realistically as -ossi+le# The units in*ol*ed ust recei*e ad*anced trainin" to sur*i*e in the harsh ountain en*iron ent# Trainin" should include acti*ities that re8uire s-eciali!ed techni8ues such as na*i"ation. dead rec. terrain association.tre es# 7y"iene and sanitation# $i ited li*in" s-ace Adifficulty of +i*ouacB# Air Adehydration and +reathin"B# Clothin" re8uire ents# E# 6ountain Na*i"ation# Na*i"ation in the ountains is ore difficult than on flat terrain +ecause of inaccurate a--in". alti eter.ills are reali!ed# The conditionin" -ro"ra should +e"in with +asic cli +in" -rocedures# The . and artillery ar. -ris atic. and o*e ent. and ountaineerin" s.ills is re-etiti*e and reinforce ent -ractice until an instincti*e reaction is ac8uired# D# 6ountain $i*in"# /or the o-eration to +e successful. co unications. and irre"ular -ace# Soldiers ust +e trained to use a *ariety of e8ui. and other co -asses# Also. intersection. a"netic attraction affectin" co -ass accuracy.a conditionin" -ro"ra on site and inte"rate in "radual sta"es where accli ati!ation. the indi*idual soldier ust dis-lay an effecti*e use of lensatic. conditionin".-erience# To ensure that directions and routes are correctly deter ined.onin".ill in na*i"ation de*elo-s throu"h e. ro-e len"ths. resection.ent of trainin". set u. the followin" factors should +e considered: Te -erature e.ent and techni8ues as aids to na*i"ation: co -asses. the heart rate. "rid2 a"netic A%6B an"les ust +e considered when deter inin" a!i uths for direction. eta+olis . celestial na*i"ation. and lun"s ust +eco e accusto ed to the ele*ation and thinner air# Therefore. li8uid2filled.ele*ations. -ace. and should +e conducted under se*ere conditions so the indi*idual soldier "ains confidence# Durin" the de*elo. and resection# Do not rely on a co -ass alone for deter inin" a location +ecause hidden a"netic ano alies ay deflect the earth<s a"netic . a-.
all eans of co unication should +e considered: /6. and deter ined +efore o*e ent# a. +ut they ay +e used as a su--le ent to other sources of infor ation.ill and e. locatin" water. s-ecial antennas and retrans ission -rocedures ay ha*e to +e used# >eather ay cause -ro+le s with co unications e8ui. and if a*aila+le. A6.111 a-s de-ict uch ore detail than 4::1. health ha!ards.ent and aintenance# 44# 6edical Considerations# . and should +e used when choosin" routes# All a*aila+le infor ation a+out the friendly and ene y situations ust +e re*iewed +efore selectin" a route# Aerial -hoto"ra-hs -ro*ide details nor ally not shown on a-s# Do not rely on s. you ay use forest ser*ice and hunters< a-s# Standard. 4:9:. shelter considerations. *isual. and techni8ues for o+tainin" food# An indi*idual soldier well trained and -re-ared to fi"ht and sur*i*e in a ountain en*iron ent will ha*e increased confidence in hi self# 41# Co unications# Durin" ountainous o-erations. ilitary to-o"ra-hic a-s are a*aila+le and are usually accurate "ra-hic descri-tions of the area of o-erations# 0# Sur*i*al# Sur*i*al trainin" should include -sycholo"ical -re-aration.tensi*e coordination a on" all o-erational ele ents# All -ersonnel should recei*e co unications trainin"# To aintain co unications. fire +uildin".and alti eter throu"h Alti eters are useful in deter inin" altitude and *erifyin" location. ultichannel.field# Pace counts should +e used in con@unction with a terrain association.etch a-s< accuracy. wire. and essen"er# They re8uire -recise -lannin" and e. satellite.111 a-s. +ut they are only as accurate as the s.-erience of the indi*idual soldier# Alti eters are usually accurate to within 41 eters of their indicated altitude# 6a-s -ro*ide a -ri ary source of infor ation concernin" the area of o-erations.
due to rou"h terrain. dehydration. and trench foot -ose any -ro+le s for edical -ersonnel +ecause facilities and su--lies ay +e inade8uate to treat all -atients# E*acuation of the sic. hy-other ia. strains. certain edical as-ects ust +e considered# Personnel ay suffer in@uries and illnesses that are not associated with other areas# 4# E*acuation and Treat ent# Since unit<s aid stations cannot nor ally +e reached +y *ehicle.After accli ati!ation. frost+ite.ent? and -ersonnel recei*in" a +alance of water. and fi"ht in winter conditions# There are two ty-es of cold2weather in@uries: free!in" and nonfree!in"# The free!in" ty-e is . and e8ui. -ersonnel. and i ersion foot# Si"nificant in@uries ay occur when the te -erature falls +elow 41 de"rees C A:1 de"rees /B# Cold in@uries result fro i -aired circulation. rest.nown as frost+ite# The nonfree!in" ty-e includes hy-other ia. and wounded is co -ounded +y the terrain and weather# PART D . you ust +e -re-ared to sur*i*e. and nutrition# As a soldier. and the action of ice for ation and cold u-on the tissues of the +ody# . disse ination. trench foot. it ay +e necessary to use litter +earers to o*e casualties to the rear where they can +e e*acuated +y "round or air to clearin" stations# Trainin" ust +e acco -lished with all litter +earers on e*acuation techni8ues and first aid# The ost i -ortant course of action is to -ro*ide in@ured soldiers with edical aid as soon as -ossi+le# 9# Cold2>eather In@uries# Cold2weather in@uries can occur durin" any season of the year# 6ost of these accidents can +e -re*ented +y -ro-er -lannin". and use of cold weather data? -eriodic ins-ections of clothin". fractures. o*e.ILLNESS AND INJURY To -ro*ide effecti*e su--ort durin" ountainous o-erations. to include: ti ely re8uisition and recei-t of su--lies and -ro-er clothin"? thorou"h trainin" of -ersonnel with res-ect to the ha!ards of cold weather? effecti*e ethods for the recei-t. -ersonnel in@uries such as s-rains.
-erience? nutrition? e. acti*ity. and e.-osure ti e.a course of action Adecide on a eans of e*acuationB# E. deter ine if cold in@uries will occur# These factors include hu idity.ecute the -lan and onitor the -atient<s condition# &ody heat ay +e lost throu"h fi*e different echanis s: . and nu erous host factors such as: -re*ious cold in@uries? race? "eo"ra-hic ori"in? a +ient te -eratures? wind chill factor? ty-e of ission? terrain? clothin"? oisture? dehydration? a"e? fati"ue? conco itant in@ury? disci-line.ness and Assess the situation Atactical and en*iron entalB# A--roach the *icti safely Aa*oid roc.ent# The rate of o*e ent should +e slow.cessi*e cold2weather clothin" while o*in"# (entilate2insulate2-rotect A(IPB# The followin" edical -rocedures in@uries occur: ust +e i -le ented when sic. is -resentB# Chec. Aalways assu e that shoc.cess acti*ity? and radical chan"es in the weather# As a leader.e-t as dry as -ossi+le and are -rotected fro Soldiers . for other in@uriesHcold in@uries# De*elo. e. you should ensure that: the ele ents# Soldiers< unifor s are . and careful# Soldiers should not o*e out at a force arch -ace and then +e stationary after they ha*e -ers-ired hea*ily# They should not wear e. trainin". or snow slideB# Perfor e er"ency first aid# Treat for shoc. 6any other factors.now -ro-er use of clothin" syste s to a*oid the effects of o*erheatin" and -ers-iration Alayer dressin" and *entilateB# The +uddy syste is used to o+ser*e for early si"ns of cold2weather in@uries# All soldiers water-roof their e8ui. wind s-eed. in *arious co +inations. ty-e and condition of clothin". deli+erate.
hi"her te -erature. ra-id heart2 +eat.Radiation# The direct heat loss fro the +ody to its surroundin" at os-here is called radiation heat loss# Conduction# The direct transfer of heat fro one o+@ect in contact with another A+ein" rained on or sittin" in snowB is called conduction# Con*ection# Con*ection is the loss of heat due to o*in" air or water in contact with the s.ness# Cold weather re8uire ents for water are no different than in the desert# 5ou need a+out 3 liters of water each day to -re*ent dehydration when li*in" and -erfor in" -hysical la+or in a cold or ountainous en*iron ent# 5ou should a*oid drin. dry outh.the -atient war +ut do not o*erheat hi # If there are no a+do inal in@uries. sweatin".enin" urine. you ay ad inister water# O+tain -ro-er edical attention as soon as -ossi+le# Dehydration# Dehydration is the loss of your +ody fluids# It -recedes all cold2weather in@uries and is a a@or sy -to in acute ountain sic. include a--rehension. cold s. and the -atient is conscious. unconsciousness.in ust +e controlled +y clothin" that *entilates. decreased a ounts of urine +ein" -roduced. is a sy -to or the result of other in@uries. tiredness.cessi*e urination# The contri+utin" factors for dehydration are: The thirst echanis does not function -ro-erly in cold weather# >ater is often incon*enient to o+tain and -urify# There is a lac. and -ossi+ly death# >hen treatin" a -atient you should a. ra-id and faint -ulse. resultin" in incoherence. ental slu""ishness. u-set sto ach. and e.in" lar"e 8uantities of coffee and tea since they cause e. insulates. and is the de-ressed state of *ital or"ans due to the cardio*ascular AheartB syste not -ro*idin" enou"h +lood# Initial si"ns of shoc. di!!iness. of oisture in the air in cold cli ates and at hi"h altitudes# Cold causes fre8uent urination# The si"ns of dehydration include dar. slower heart +eat. and -rotects# E*a-oration# The e*a-oration of -ers-iration causes heat loss# Dressin" in layers allows re o*al or addin" of clothin" as needed# Res-iration# Res-iration also cools the +ody# Placin" a wool scarf or as. headache.in# The layer of war air ne.t to the s.# Shoc.? dehydration? hy-other ia? i ersion or trenchfoot? +listers? frost+ite? consti-ation? car+on ono. unconscious2 ness and diarrhea# The sy -to s of dehydration are si ilar to those of hy-other ia# To .ee-in" the +ody war # So e of the ost co on cold2weather in@uries are shoc.cessi*e thirst# Pro*ide i ediate and ade8uate first aid +ecause e*en inor in@uries can -roduce shoc.in. lac.ide -oisonin"? and snow +lindness# Shoc. shortness of +reath.e hi as co forta+le as -ossi+le and try to relie*e the -ain# If needed -ro*ide artificial res-iration or cardio-ul onary resuscitation# Kee. faintin". of a--etite. o*er the outh and nose war s inhaled air and assists in .
such as fallin" into a la. he is -ro+a+ly dehydrated# To treat dehydration. and a*oid caffeine and alcohol# See.9 de"rees CB or se*ere Acore te -erature +e2 low 01 de"rees / or . shelter fro wind and cold# Do not eat snow? eatin" snow uses +ody heat# /luid re-lace ent. you ust consu e = to 41 liters of fluids each day.e or +ein" s-rayed with fuel or other li8uid# 7y-other ia is classified as ild Acore te -erature +e2 low 0: de"rees / or . and -ro -t edical attention are critical to your reco*ery# 7y-other ia# 7y-other ia is a "eneral coolin" of your +ody# It ay +e caused +y e.distin"uish +etween the .-osure or +y sudden i ersion of the +ody. o-en the *icti <s clothes and feel the sto ach wall# If the sto ach is cold.9 de"rees CB# An indi*idual is considered to +e Cclinically hy-other icC when the core te -erature is less than or e8ual to 0: de"rees /# The contri+utin" factors for hy-other ia are: Dehydration# Poor nutrition# Diarrhea# Decreased -hysical acti*ity# Accidental i ersion in water# Chan"e in weather# 7i"h winds# Inade8uate ty-es or a ounts of clothin"# . the *icti is -ro+a+ly hy-other ic? if it is war . rest.
The ain si"n of hy-other ia is when the +ody core ArectalB te -erature falls to a+out 03 de"rees /# Other sy -to s are: shi*erin", which +e"ins after a dro- in +ody te -erature of 4 to 9 de"rees, a.in" it hard for an indi*idual to ta.e care of hi self? +ody te -erature dro- fro 0: de"rees / to 01 de"rees /, which can cause slu""ish thin.in" in "eneral? +ody te -erature dro- fro 01 de"rees to E: de"rees /, which causes total incoherence? and +ody te -erature dro- fro E: de"rees / and +elow, which causes a co atose state, and related si"ns# To "uard a"ainst hy-other ia, you should -air u- with a +uddy to o+ser*e each other for si"ns, consu e ade8uate a ounts of li8uids daily, rest, and eat -ro-erly# 5ou ay a*oid hy-other ia +y dressin" in layers to -er it easy additions or deletions? to -re*ent o*erheatin", +eco in" too cold, "ettin" wet or wind+lown# Treat ent of hy-other ia de-ends u-on whether the case is ild or se*ere#
6ild cases: If there are si"ns of hy-other ia in a +uddy, -re*ent additional heat loss +y "ettin" the *icti into a shelter, and re-lace wet clothin" with dry, insulated clothin" or a slee-in" +a"# 5ou should rewar the +ody e*enly and without delay# Rehydrate the *icti with war li8uids, sweets, and food, howe*er, you ust ne*er force 4li8uids on an unconscious or se iconscious -erson +ecause you i"ht cho.e hi # Kee- the *icti conscious until his *ital si"ns are nor al, and see. edical assistance# Se*ere cases: If the *icti is unconscious or a--ears dead without any o+*ious in@ury, -re*ent further heat loss# It is e,tre ely dan"erous to atte -t to rewar a *icti in the field, and ra-id rewar in" of an unconscious *icti ay create -ro+le s and should4d not +e atte -ted# It is +est to sta+ili!e the *icti <s te -erature? to atte -t to a*oid further heat loss? to handle the *icti "ently? to -ro*ide artificial res-iration if +reathin" sto-s? to +e aware that se*ere co -lications ay arise as the +ody te -erature rises, which ay result in cardiac arrest e*en thou"h the *icti see s to +e doin" well? and e*acuate the *icti i ediately to the nearest edical treat ent facility# I ersion or Trench foot# This is da a"e to the circulatory and ner*ous syste s of the feet, which occurs fro -rolon"ed e,-osure to cold and wet at a+o*e free!in" te -eratures# This can ha--en wearin" +oots or not# 5ou ay not feel unco forta+le until the in@ury has already +e"un#
Contri+utin" factors for i
ersion or trench foot are:
Ste--in" into water o*er the +oot to-s#
Not chan"in" soc.s often# I -ro-er hy"iene# Trench warfare# $ac. of -lannin"# Prolon"ed e,-osure Athree to fi*e daysB#
The ain si"ns of i ersion or trench foot include the sensation of tin"lin", nu +ness, and then -ain# As sy -to s -ro"ress and da a"e a--ears, the s.in +eco es red and then +luish or +lac.# Swellin" ay occur# To treat i ersion or trench foot, you should .ee- your feet dry and clean# 5ou should chan"e soc.s often, dry the inside of +oots, and use foot -owder# 5ou ust o*e your feet "ently and you ust not oisten or assa"e the s.in# 5ou ust ele*ate and e,-ose your feet to roo te -erature# 5ou ust stay off your feet and see. edical attention# >hen a se*ere case does not allow the feet to dry, you ust +e e*acuated as a litter casualty# Dryin" the feet for 9= hours usually heals ild cases# 6oderate cases usually heal within three to fi*e days# To -re*ent it, ta.e "ood care of your feet# &listers# &efore its for ation or once a +lister has for ed, co*er it with a dressin" lar"e enou"h to fit o*er the +lister, and then ta-e it# 5ou ust not drain a +lister unless it is red or -us is detected? if this occurs, drain the +lister usin" a clean sterile needle, and "ently -ress out the fluid fro the side lea*in" the s.in intact# 6a.e a dou"hnut of oles.in to "o around the +lister and a--ly to the s.in# Toe +listers ay +e wra--ed entirely with adhesi*e ta-e o*er the oles.in# /rost+ite# /rost+ite is the free!in" or crystali!ation of li*in" tissues# The e,tre ities of the +ody are the first to +e affected? e,-osure ti e can +e inutes or instantaneous# Da - hands and feet ay free!e 8uic.ly since oisture conducts heat away fro the +ody and destroys the insulatin" *alue of clothin"# 7eat loss is co -ounded with intense cold and inacti*ity# 5our clothin" and e8ui- ent are one of the ost i -ortant factors in -re*entin" frost+ite# /rost+ite is one of the a@or nonfatal cold2weather in@uries encountered in ilitary o-erations#
There are two cate"ories of frost+ite: su-erficial A ildB and dee- Ase*ereB# Su-erficial frost+ite in*ol*es only the s.in# The layer i ediately +elow usually a--ears white to "rayish# The surface feels hard, while the underlyin" tissue is soft# Dee- frost+ite e,tends +eyond the first layer of s.in and ay include the +one# Discoloration continues fro "ray to +lac.# The te,ture +eco es hard as the tissue free!es dee-er# This case re8uires i ediate e*acuation to a edical facility# The contri+utin" factors for frost+ite are:
Dehydration# &elow2free!in" te -eratures or wind chill# S.in contact with su-ercooled etals or li8uids#
)se of caffeine, to+acco, or alcohol# Ne"lect#
The si"ns or sy -to s of frost+ite *ary and ay include a cold feelin", -ain, +urnin", nu +ness, and in the final sta"es a false sense of war th# There will +e a redness of s.in, turnin" -ale? the color ay +e +luish, and then ay a--ear frosty or wa,y white? the s.in ay feel hard, ay not +e o*a+le o*er the @oints and +ony -ro inences, or ay +e fro!en# Dee- frost+ite is difficult to identify, and often re8uires three to se*en days after rewar in" for edical -ersonnel to dia"nose# &listers, swellin", and -ain ay occur after thawin"# The C+uddy syste C is one of the -ri ary -re*enters of frost+ite# As +uddies, you ust watch each other for si"ns and -ro*ide utual aid if frost+ite occurs# 5ou ust ensure that -ro -t first aid care is a--lied in order to -re*ent further da a"e# Early si"ns ay +e treated +y i ediately rewar in" the +ody with s.in2to2s.in contact or +y shelterin" the +ody -art under the clothin" ne,t to the +ody# If tissues are allowed to free!e, you should not atte -t to thaw any -arts of the +ody# Thawin" of a frost+itten *icti is a hos-ital -rocedure# 5ou ust e*acuate the *icti +efore the -art thaws, -rotect the fro!en -arts fro further in@ury, and see. edical treat ent as soon as -ossi+le# If fro!en e,tre ities are in*ol*ed, e*acuate as a litter casualty#
see.ide# A contri+utin" factor is the inhalation of fu es fro +urnin" fuel without -ro-er *entilation such as fires. and runnin" en"ines# . +ut thawed feet are i -ossi+le to wal. ears. of fluids# I -ro-er nutrition# Not defecatin" when needed# o*e ent. on# Consti-ation# Consti-ation is the infre8uent or difficult -assa"e of stools# Contri+utin" factors for consti-ation are: $ac. toes. sto*es. you ust consu e ade8uate a ounts and *arieties of food# 5ou should drin. The ain si"ns of consti-ation include headaches.e sure the war in" te -erature is not "reater than the nor al +ody te -erature# 5ou should not ru+ the in@ured -arts +ecause the tissues ay +rea. and if -ossi+le. fin"ers. internally causin" ore da a"e# &listers should +e co*ered with a sterile dressin"# >hen 6EDE(AC is not -ossi+le. additional treat ent. feet. you should not let the area refree!e since this causes ore da a"e and ay re8uire a -utation# The -arts of your +ody ost often affected +y frost+ite are the hands. any iles on fro!en feet. you should not atte -t to thaw your feet2it is +etter to wal. to see. cra -in". heaters. you ay ha*e to self2e*acuate# 5ou can wal. fro = to 3 liters of li8uid each day. and you ust wal.ide -oisonin"# This is the re-lace ent of o.ee.the -erson war and co*ered usin" +anda"es to se-arate toes and fin"ers# If reheatin" is ine*ita+le.If frost+ite is not reco"ni!ed +efore it thaws.y"en in the +lood with car+on ono. and nose# If e*acuation as a litter case is not -ossi+le. chin. you should not o*erheat the affected +ody -arts near fla e# 6a. edical attention# Car+on ono. -ainful +owel and loss of a--etite# To treat consti-ation. on fro!en feet than to ha*e the thaw and refree!e# 5ou ust always .
-eriodic ins-ection of -ersonnel clothin" and e8ui. watery eyes? sensation of "rit in your eyes? +lurred *ision? a -in. re o*e the *icti fro the conta inated area and ad inister CPR# O.-osure to ultra*iolet radiation# 5ou ay -re*ent it +y usin" 8uality sun"lasses# In an e er"ency.e# . see. outh. nausea. you ay -atch +oth eyes with cold co -resses for 9= hours and ta. e.ent.e. and unconsciousness# In so e cases death ay occur# The one *isi+le si"n is +ri"ht red li-s. ice.The ain si"ns are headaches. cast to the *ision? and a headache# To treat snow +lindness. fati"ue. and -ro-er rest# So e of the ost co on heat in@uries are sun+urn.# The contri+utin" factors for snow +lindness are: Reflection of sunli"ht fro all directions off the snow. drowsiness. heat e. if -ossi+le.e two as-irins e*ery si.e*en in casualties who a--ear to ha*e reco*ered# Snow +lindness# Snow +lindness is a sun+urn of the cornea of the eye due to e. heat cra -s. hours# If -ossi+le.haustion. and heat stro.your eyes -atched until e*acuation as a litter -atient is -ossi+le# .# 7eat In@uries# Althou"h associated with hot weather.e a su+stitute fro aterials such as card+oard or +irch+ar. confusion. shelter in a dar. you ay a. and water# )ltra*iolet rays can cause *ision -ro+le s e*en on cloudy days# They are less filtered at hi"her altitudes than at low altitudes# The ain si"ns of snow +lindness are -ainful.cessi*e yawnin". and inside of the eyelids# To treat car+on ono. -lace# 5ou ust not ru+ your eyes# Kee. these in@uries can occur in cold2weather en*iron ents# 6ost of these accidents can +e -re*ented +y -ro-er -lannin". di!!iness. a +alance of water and food inta. red. if a*aila+le# 5ou ust e*acuate the *icti to a edical facility +ecause se*ere co -lications ay de*elo.y"en ay +e used.ide -oisonin".
e two as-irins e*ery two to si.in surfaces +y ultra*iolet radiation# The contri+utin" factors for sun+urn are: /air s. edical attention# 7eat e. +reathe dee-ly and stretch the cra -ed uscle as soon as -ossi+le to o+tain relief# $oosen your clothes and drin.-osed s.tended -eriods# The ain si"ns of sun+urn are -ainful..in with a sli"ht swellin". +urnin" red or +listered s. hours to sto.ee.-osure to intense ultra*iolet rays for e. see.the s. le"s.and to -roduce hea*y -ers-iration# The ain si"ns include -ain and cra -in" in the ar s.haustion# Strenuous acti*ities in any en*iron ent ay o*erheat the +ody# The +lood *essels in the s. and sto ach# The *icti sweats -rofusely and cannot 8uench his thirst# To treat heat cra -s. +ac. wash and use +anda"es. you should .Sun+urn# This is the +urnin" of e.ertion causes the +ody to heat u.in +eco e so dilated that the +lood flow to the +rain and other or"ans is reduced# . the s. edical attention# 7eat cra -s# They are caused +y an accu ulation of lactic acid in the of salt throu"h -ers-iration# uscles and a loss The ain contri+utin" factor is that the strenuous e. fe*er.in# Not accusto ed to direct sunli"ht# E.in ay +e war to the touch# In se*ere cases chills.in co*ered with clothin" or sun+urn crea e*en on cloudy days# Ta. cool water# If -ain and cra -s continue. and see.the +urnin" sensation# 5ou ay a--ly cool saline dressin"s to alle*iate -ain and swellin"# 5ou should not -oany +listers? if they +rea. and headaches ay occur# To treat sun+urn. you ust rest in a cool shady area..
e# This is a life2threatenin" situation caused +y o*ere. a slow -ulse. confusion.-osure to the sun# The +ody is so de-leted of li8uids that its internal coolin" echanis s fail to function# The contri+utin" factors for heat stro.-osure to direct sunli"ht and o*ere.The contri+utin" factors for heat e. su+ er"e the *icti in water to reduce his te -erature.ertion# The ain si"ns of heat stro.e include hot and dry s. headache. sei!ures.haustion. see. -ulse# To treat heat e. and restore +reathin" and circulation# If the *icti is conscious.. and loss of consciousness# To treat heat stro. confusion and incoherency. and a ra-id +ut wea. nausea. and drin. water# 5ou should ele*ate your le"s to hel. +reathin" difficulty.ness# . ad inister water# If -ossi+le. edical attention# 7eat Stro.in.haustion are: Strenuous acti*ity in hot areas# )naccli ati!ed troo-s# Inade8uate diet# Not enou"h water or rest# The ain si"ns of heat e.in. headache. treat for shoc. you should cool the *icti at once. cold cla y s. di!!iness.restore -ro-er circulation# If the sy -to s -ersist.e. di!!iness.ness. you ust rest in a cool shady area. loosen your clothes and +oots. and -re-are for i ediate e*acuation# =# Acute 6ountain Sic. nausea.e are -rolon"ed e.haustion are si ilar to faintin" +ut ay also include wea.
caused +y ra-id ascent to altitude# It occurs at hi"h altitudes and li its the o.ercises# :# 7i"h2Altitude Pul onary Ede a A7APEB# This is a swellin" and fillin" of the lun"s with fluids.111 eters# At lower altitudes.y"en su--ly to the +ody# .ness in altitudes as low as 9.and increase for a -eriod of fi*e to se*en days# The headache ay -ersist until you are returned to a lower ele*ation# A6S is nonfatal# Treat ent for A6S includes: Ta. leadin" to less food inta.tre e fati"ue.111 eters# These sy -to s are: Sic. or where ascent to altitudes is "radual..-erience this sic.111 to =.-erience nausea.e# (o itin" ay occur and contri+ute to dehydration# Des-ite e.=11 eters# A+out :1 to E1 -ercent of the troo-s suffer disa+ility and ineffecti*eness when they are ra-idly +rou"ht to altitudes a+o*e =.ness AA6SB is a te -orary illness that affects +oth the +e"inner and e. you will +e una+le to slee-# The sy -to s usually de*elo. which -ro*ides for a ore "radual accli ati!ation# Reali!e -hysical li itations and -ro"ress slowly# Practice dee-2+reathin" e.e as-irin or an e8ui*alent# >ear sun"lasses since +ri"ht sunli"ht a""ra*ates a headache# Rest# Consu e li8uids and li"ht foods in s all a ounts often# 6o*e to lower altitudes A311 to 011 etersB to alle*iate sy -to s. and e.ness# Slu""ishness# /ati"ue# 7eadache# Di!!iness# Inso nia# De-ression# )ncarin" attitude# Ra-id and la+ored +reathin"# >ea.ness# $oss of a--etite# A headache is the ost noticea+le sy -to and ay +e se*ere# E*en without the headache.-erienced cli +er# 5ou ay e. you ay lose your a--etite.Acute ountain sic. ost -ersonnel can co -lete assi"n ents with oderate effecti*eness and little disco fort# Se*ere sy -to s ay +e"in = to 49 hours after your arri*al at hi"her altitudes of .
11 eters ay hel-# 6anual descent ust not +e delayed to await air e*acuation# If untreated. war th.ertion# E. the *icti +eco es unconscious# &u++les for in the nose and outh. there are no .e noises AralesB in the lun"s Aa stethosco-e is usually needed to hear the B caused +y fluid +uildu-# If untreated. 7APE occurs under conditions of low o. the incidence of 7APE is less fre8uent than that of A6S# There is no co on indicator that dictates how you will react fro one e. s-ectu Athis is usually a later si"nB and then cou"hin" u. and cou"hin" Ain contrast to others who arri*ed at the sa e ti e to that altitudeB# Crac. hands.nown factors to indicate resistance or i unity# /ew cases ha*e +een re-orted after 41 days at hi"h altitudes# >hen re ainin" at the sa e altitude.en. faintin". and ay occur in healthy soldiers# 7APE ay +e considered a for of or anifestation of A6S since it occurs durin" the -eriod of susce-ti+ility to this disorder# 7APE can cause death# E. and "radual ascent to altitude or cli +in" no ore than .iety# The ain si"ns of 7APE are: Pro"ressi*e dry cou"hin" with frothy white or -in. and a soldier still de*elo-s sy -to s.111 eters. ra-id heart +eat A-ulse 491 to 431B.111 eters of altitude "ained# After all -recautions ha*e +een ta. and de*elo. and feet# Sy -to s of A6S can as. early -ul onary difficulties# An increased ill feelin". acco -anied +y cho.ertion is -lanned for e*ery 4.in" and ra-id deterioration# Pro"ressi*e shortness of +reath. re-eated clearin" of the throat. la+ored +reathin".-osure to cold# An. rest.-osure to another# The contri+utin" factors for 7APE are: A history of hi"h2altitude -ul onary ede a# A ra-id or a+ru-t transition to hi"h altitudes# Strenuous -hysical e. 7APE ay +eco e irre*ersi+le and cause .ce-t for accli ati!ation to altitude. di!!iness. with no "ain in altitude or hea*y -hysical e. and death results# 7APE is -re*ented +y "ood nutrition. i ediate descent is andatory where he recei*es -ro -t treat ent. hydration.+lood# Cyanosis? a +lue color to the face. and o.11 eters each ni"ht for slee-in"# A rest day.y"en -ressure encountered at hi"h ele*ations of . cello-hane2li.y"en# E*acuation to a lower altitude as a litter -atient is re8uired# A descent of .ent of a cou"h# Res-iratory difficulty ay +e sudden..lin".
war th. you ust aintain "ood eatin" ha+its.ercise are -ro*ided to show you where further study is re8uired# . confusion. edical attention as soon as -ossi+le# To -re*ent 7ACE. for the 8uestions in the -ractice e. hydration.-erienced well2 accli ati!ed ountaineers without warnin" or o+*ious -redis-osin" conditions# They can +e fatal? when the first sy -to s occur.death# Cases that are reco"ni!ed early and treated -ro -tly ay reco*er with no after effects# Soldiers who ha*e had -re*ious attac. ina+ility to concentrate. con*ulsions. headaches. of coordination# The ain sy -to is a se*ere headache# >hen this headache is associated with any other distur+ances. hallucinations. co a. *o itin".ertion# eters The ain si"ns of 7ACE include ild -ersonality chan"es. it should +e assu ed to +e anifestations of 7ACE# The headache ay +e acco -anied +y a loss of coordination. and use "radual ascent to hi"her altitudes# Rest. the +est treat ent is i ediate descent# Conclusion# 5ou ha*e now co -leted the instructional aterial for $esson 4# &efore you co -lete the -ractice e. stu-or. which results in swellin" and a de-ression of +rain function that ay result in death# It is caused +y a ra-id ascent to hi"her altitudes without -ro"ressi*e accli ati!ation# 7APE and 7ACE ay occur in e. and o.y"en at lower ele*ations enhance reco*ery# RE6E6&ERF Due to the se*erity of hi"h2altitude sic.s of 7APE are -rone to second attac. decrease in urination. co +ined with sy -to s of 7APE# If these sy -to s occur.ercise for this lesson. do not lea*e the -erson alone e*en thou"h you ay thin.s# 3# 7i"h2Altitude Cere+ral Ede a A7ACEB# This is the accu ulation of fluid in the +rain. he is irrita+le or te -era ental# The sy -to s ay ra-idly -ro"ress to death# Pro -t descent to a lower altitude is *ital# See. and unconsciousness.ness.=11 and a""ra*ation +y o*ere. you should re*iew the aterial -resented in this lesson# Answers and feed+ac. and lac. i ediate descent is andatory# The contri+utin" factors for 7ACE are ra-id ascent to hei"hts o*er 9. -aralysis.
weather chan"es are so *aria+le and erratic that in one day hurricane winds occur one after another.-erienced in a*alanches# 9# >hen o*in" throu"h a slo-e where cre*asses and "laciers are for ed.-osed weather contrasts with sheltered weather# These characteristics are the result of .s and icefalls# o*e to the outside of +ends# .now that the only factor affectin" a*alanches are snow-ac. re*iew that -art of the lesson which contains the -ortion in*ol*ed# Situation# Durin" the ountainous e.slo-es and icefalls# a# -roceed as trained +ut +# o*e to the inside of +ends and away fro c# call the unit to a sin"le colu n and d# a*oid all crac.ercise all e +ers of the unit are re8uired to de onstrate their a+ilities +y identifyin" the +asic cli +in" techni8ues and ethods ac8uired durin" trainin"# 4# Durin" a should ountainous e.ercise.ers since they are e.ercise. and weather# +# .ey that follows# If you answer any ite incorrectly.ed re"ions# c# +e aware of the dan"er and only enter the area in the ornin"# d# follow your co2wor. your answers with the answer . chec.LESSON 1 PRACTICAL EXERCISE Instructions The followin" ite s will test your understandin" of the aterial co*ered in this lesson# There is only one correct answer for each ite # >hen you ha*e co -leted the e. and e. your unit is o*in" throu"h an a*alanche area# 5ou a# +e aware that the +asic ele ents for the a*alanche -heno enon are terrain.# >hile in the ountains. cli ate. you would o*e *ery slowly# stee.s in roc.
only treated water. -roducin" hail and tornados# d# *iolent weather such as hea*y rains or snow and stron" "usty winds# :# >hile in the ountains and durin" stor y weather.e ust +e only fro a--ro*ed sources# To follow the three rules of water disci-line. and li"htnin"# oderate weather such li"ht winds. o+tain a--ro*al fro a.e sure all utensils are clean +efore use# the leader of the water -arty.-osed rid"es.now that the a--roach of cu ulus clouds are associated with a# a sta+le at os-here +ut +# ay indicate the a--roach of a stor # oderate rain. conser*e water for drin.your co2wor.a# ty-ical ountainous weather in hi"h altitudes# ilitary or fro ountaineerin"# the o*e ent of a tra*elin" stor # +# -oor weather forecast +y the c# The life cycle of a local stor d# the life cycle of a local stor forecasted +y the local residents# =# 5ou . use iodine ta+lets to dou+le chec. c# te -eratures +elow . and "et as far down the ountain and away fro and see. and water inta. -rotection fro direct stri. you ust a# disinfect the water. only treated water.1 de"rees /. the unit disco*ers that the a--roach of li"htnin" is i inent# 5ou should a# not cli +. +# continue cli +in" +ut tie yourself to a -oint of -rotection to a*oid fallin"# c# add another layer of clothin" for -rotection a"ainst cold and wetness# d# stay cal and hel. and +# drin. for "er s.es and "round current# the e. and do not conta inate water sources# c# drin. and +oil the water for a+out 91 inutes# .in".ers aintain a steady cli +# 3# >hile in ountainous re"ions. you ust re e +er that -ota+le water su--lies are li ited.
ee. only treated water.s. dry the inside of the +oots. you a# chec. for "er s. the +listers on his feet and drain the -us if d# . dou+le chec. hi detected# ediately and see.slo-es can cause a*alanches# An understandin" of the +asic ele ents is re8uired in order to increase sur*i*al chances# 9# icefalls# +# o*e to the inside of +ends and away fro stee. use foot -owder and chan"e soc.s i c# as.his feet dry and with clean soc. use two iodine ta+lets to dou+le chec. and +oil the water for a+out . to see if his feet ha*e +listers and a tin"lin" sensation# +# chan"e his clothes and his soc.1 inutes# D# One of the would e +ers of your unit ay +e sufferin" fro trench foot# To treat hi . cli ate and weather# Accu ulated snow and stee.slo-es and Care ust +e e. edical attention# if he has -ain.d# drin. 4# a# +e aware that the +asic ele ents for the a*alanche -heno enon are terrain.s as often as -ossi+le# LESSON ONE PRACTICE EXERCISE ANSWER KEY AND FEEDBACK Ite Correct Answer and /eed+ac.ercised when tra*elin" throu"h slo-es that ha*e "laciers or cre*asses to a*oid the -ossi+ility of in@uries in the unit# .
;# tra*elin" stor #
c# the life cycle of a local stor
o*e ent of a
The success of the ission de-ends on your a+ility to -redict chan"in" weather# Durin" the o-eration, it is i -erati*e that you antici-ate weather chan"es and turn the in your fa*or# =# winds# Pro-er readin" of cloud for ations and -atterns is an in*alua+le tool to weather forecasters since it reduces the need for additional weather e8ui- ent # :# a# not cli + and "et as far down the ountain and away fro the e,-osed rid"es, and see. -rotection fro direct stri.es and "round current# 5ou ust +e aware that li"htnin" .ills ore -eo-le in the )#S# than any other weather -heno enon# 'ust +ecause you are in the ilitary, you are not an e,ce-tion# It is your res-onsi+ility to ta.e whate*er -recautions are necessary to a*oid a li"htnin" stri.e# 3# +# drin. only treated water, conser*e water for drin.in" and do not conta inate water sources# As a -recaution, ne*er assu e that ountain water is safe for consu -tion# Only drin. water fro a--ro*ed sources to a*oid conta ination and disease# In order for you to function effecti*ely, you ust drin. -lenty of water# D# d# .ee- his feet dry and with clean soc.s, dry the inside of the +oots, use foot -owder and chan"e soc.s as often as -ossi+le# One of the ost i -ortant factors is your -ersonal hy"iene# This disease is the result of ne"lect and carelessness of your +ody# To -re*ent it ta.e "ood care of your feet # d# *iolent weather such as hea*y rains or snow and stron" "usty
LESSON TWO MOUNTAINEERING EQUIPMENT OVERVIEW
TASK DESCRIPTION: In this lesson, you will learn to identify cli !in" ro#es, $nots, and sna#lin$s% &EARNIN' O()ECTI*E: TASKS: +nderstand and identify cli !in" ro#es, $nots, and sna#lin$s% CONDITIONS: 'i,en the su!course aterial for this lesson, a trainin" scenario, and e-tracts as a##lica!le, the student will co #lete the #ractical e-ercise to show an understandin" of ro#es, $nots, and sna#lin$s% STANDARDS: The student will de onstrate a co #rehension and $nowled"e of the tas$ !y dis#layin" an understandin" of ro#es, $nots, and sna#lin$s% RE.ERENCES: The aterial contained in this lesson was deri,ed fro #u!lication: TC /01213 INTRODUCTION The ro#e is the sin"le ost i #ortant ite of e4ui# ent for the ountaineer% Ro#es #ro,ide access u#, down, and across ountain o!stacles% They are desi"ned to withstand se,ere force while ensurin" your indi,idual safety% The construction standards of these ro#es are #rescri!ed !y the +nion of International Al#ine Association 5+IAA6 or !y ilitary s#ecifications% the followin"
PART A - CLIMBING ROPES AND TYPES OF KNOTS
3% Cli !in" Ro#es% No one ro#e is ideal for all a##lications% The co ander ust deter ine the situation in which ro#es ay !e used 5such as: ur!an, roc$, ice, cli !in", ra##ellin", ro#e installations6 and in what ty#e of terrain and cli ate% Ro#e selection is affected !y the followin" factors:
.all factor easures the se,erity of a fall% This is calculated !y di,idin" the len"th of a fall !y the a ount of ro#e #aid out at the !elay #oint% The hi"her the fall factor, the "reater the a ount of force "enerated% Ro#e dra", inter ediate #rotection, and other factors of the safety chain reduce the se,erity of a fall% I #act force is the sudden stress #ut on the safety chain 5!elay anchor, attach ent to !elayer, !elayer, ro#e, inter ediate #rotection, attach ent to cli !er, and cli !er6 when a fall is held% The whole syste is only as stron" as the wea$est lin$% If there is a wea$ness at any #oint, the shoc$ loadin" fro the i #act force can cause a failure of the syste % The i #act force occurs once the fall has sto##ed 5usually with a sudden 7er$ on the cli !er8s !ody6% It is the a-i u load #laced on a ro#e after all of the ener"y fro a fall has !een a!sor!ed in the ro#e8s stretch% Knota!ility is the ease in tyin" and untyin" $nots in the ro#e, as well as the a!ility to hold a $not once tied% Elon"ation or stretch dissi#ates the ener"y #roduced durin" a fall, throu"hout the ro#e rather than directly to the cli !er8s !ody% Other than in a fall, the ro#e should stretch as little as #ossi!le% The ro#e should !e soft, fle-i!le, resistant to $in$in", dura!le, water re#ellant, ha,e a hi"h fall ratin", and ha,e no sheath sli##a"e 5$ern antle only6% ountainous o#eration:
There are two ty#es of ro#es a,aila!le to you durin" a
er elon"ation of the ro#e is not desired% @ou should not conduct a lead cli ! with a static ro#e since the force e-erted in a fall is transferred to the cli !er rather than a!sor!ed throu"h the ro#e% Dyna ic ro#es are desi"ned for cli !in".e a!out 9 to 30 #ercent wor$in" elon"ation% The ini u tensile stren"th for 33 5.en to !e su#erior to any other cli !in" aterial% Nylon has !eco e the standard aterial for cli !in" ro#es and has re#laced anila.900 #ounds% They ran"e in dia eter fro > to 33 % static ro#es are called ?$ern antle? 5$ern eans core and antle eans sheath6% Due to the internal #arallel strand construction of these ro#es.<321inch6 wide% At least a =. and allow stretch or elon"ation within the fi!ers of the ro#e% This de"ree of elasticity allows the ener"y #roduced in a fall to !e dissi#ated throu"h the ro#e rather than !ein" a!sor!ed directly !y the cli !er8s !ody% This elon"ation can !e a disad.anta"e in ra##ellin". Prusi$ cli !in". and where.900 #ounds% There are two ty#es of dyna ic ro#es: Nylon1laid ro#es% Synthetic fi!ers ha.9001#ound tensile stren"th% Ri"ht1hand lay% One1third stretch factor% Bay lose as uch as 39 #ercent of its stren"th when wet% Aei"hs 2 #ounds when dry% . harnesses. he #. there is less s#innin" and $in$in" than with a dyna ic ro#e% These ro#es can !e used for slin"s.<32 inch6 static ro#es for ilitary use is =.e #ro.<321inch6 ro#es for ilitary use is =. fla-. and other a##lications% Dyna ic ro#es are ore susce#ti!le to a!rasion and wear% Ahere the fall factor ay !e hi"h 5such as lead cli !in"6 it is i #ortant to use a dyna ic ro#e% They ha. load haulin". ro#e installations. rescue o#erations. Static ro#es are desi"ned for ra##ellin". etriers 5stirru#s6. ra##ellin". haulin" lines. and sisal% Bilitary ountaineerin" critical a##lication ro#e is constructed in a ?laid? fashion with continuous ultifila ent nylon fi!er yard twisted into strands% Three strands are twisted into a cli !in" ro#e of a s#ecific dia eter 5. and ro#e installations% They allow for ini al elon"ation or stretch of the ro#e% They stretch a!out 9 to 39 #ercent at the #oint of failure and a!out : #ercent under a wor$in" load% The ini u tensile stren"th for 33 5.i"ure :136% The followin" s#ecifications #ertain to the standard ilitary nylon1laid cli !in" ro#e: >2 3<: eters 53:0 feet6 lon"% 33 5.
causin" $in$in" and s#innin"% They are also susce#ti!le to a!rasion% Kern antle ro#es% These ro#es are si ilar to their static counter#arts in that they consist of an inner core and an outer sheath% The core is constructed of continuous twisted nylon fila ents.e an elon"ation of a!out =0 #ercent at the #oint of failure% The !rea$in" stren"th is hi"h. which are laid or !raided to"ether and enclosed in a ti"htly !raided outer sheath% It is well suited for cli !in" on roc$.i"ure :1:6% There is less slidin" friction throu"h the sna#lin$ and o. tensile stren"ths.er other surfaces. stretch factors. or ice where a !rief elastic elon"ation of the ro#e occurs durin" a fall% Dyna ic $ern antle ro#es ha. since the outer sheath is s ooth% Kern antle ro#es co e in a .arious ty#es. snow. and dia eters% It is unsafe to use a ro#e for other than its intended use% Ro#es that do not ha. len"ths.@ou should ins#ect these ro#es for ser.e ilitary s#ecifications should eet +IAA1a##ro. which da a"es the ro#e 5. and there are no e-#osed strands for roc$ crystals to wor$ !etween.icea!ility !y twistin" the fi!ers% &aid ro#es tend to untwist sli"htly when under a load. len"ths.ariety of siCes.ed standards% . and fall ratin"s% Kern antle ro#es are not readily identifia!le as dyna ic or static and accordin"ly% ust !e ar$ed The selection of ro#e for ilitary o#erations usually re4uires ro#es for .
Durin" a ountainous o#eration.i"ure :1>6% The runnin" end 5wor$in" end6 of the ro#e is the free end of the ro#e that can !e used% The standin" #art of the ro#e is the #art that is static 5anchored. the use of a ro#e ay not !e necessaryD howe. . on stee#.es the co #leted circle in the sa e . cli !in" with a ro#e is necessary% The ost co on ter s used in ilitary ountaineerin" are: A !i"ht of ro#e is a si #le !end of ro#e in which the ro#e does not cross itself 53.i"ure :1>6% A half hitch is a loo# that runs around an o!7ect and loc$s itself 5>. . .i"ure :1>6% A loo# is a !end of ro#e in which the ro#e does cross itself 5:. un!ro$en cliffs where e-#osure is "reat.er. coiled6D the re ainin" #art of the ro#e not !ein" used 5also called static end6% The lay of the ro#e is the sa e as the twist of the ro#e% The round turn is a sin"le co #lete wra# of the ro#e around an o!7ect #ro.idin" >201de"ree contact% The runnin" end lea.
the ro#e is wra##ed around an o!7ect 3 3<: ti es 5=.e selected a ro#e.er a fla e until the fi!er elts and flows% To #rotect the ro#e end.i"ure :1>6% The #i"tail is the short len"th of ro#e re ainin" at the end after tyin" a $not or coilin" a ro#e% (ac$ feedin" 5or stac$in"6 is ta$in" off one wra# at a ti e fro it fall naturally to the "round% a coil.direction as the standin" #art% In a round turn. you should a$e #re#arations% (efore startin" an o#eration. . and lettin" After you ha. you should di# the ends in fi!er"lass or lac4uer and allow := hours to dry% Ba$e sure you di# only the ends since lac4uer wea$ens ro#es% The ends of a new ro#e or ends caused !y a cut should !e whi##ed with thread or cord and fused !y heat% Nylon thread used in #arachute re#air is ideal for this #ur#ose 5. ro#es ust !e cut to the desired len"ths and frayed ends should !e !ound or seared% Ahi##in" is the ost secure eans of fastenin" ends% A less satisfactory eans is ti"htly !indin" ro#e ends with electrical ta#e% The ends 5nylon1laid and $ern antle6 ay !e fused !y heatin" o.i"ure :1=6% .
Ahen in areas of loose roc$s. a$in" the first wra# !ind across . the hands are !rou"ht to"ether for in" a loo#.en a sli"ht twist with the ri"ht hand when each loo# is for ed% The ro#e is coiled in a cloc$wise direction to confor with the lay% In co #letin" the hasty coil. there are two ethods of coilin" that you should follow: Bountaineer8s Coil% One of the techni4ues is to "ras# the ro#e a!out > feet fro the end with the left hand% The ri"ht hand is then #laced ne-t to the left hand and runs alon" the ro#e until !oth ar s are outstretched% 'ras#in" the ro#e fir ly. it ay !e "i. a !i"ht a!out >0 centi eters 53: inches6 lon" is for ed with the startin" end of the ro#e and laid alon" the to# of the coil% The last loo# is uncoiled% +sin" the len"th of the ro#e thus o!tained. you should ins#ect the ro#es as often as #ossi!le to detect cuts and a!rasions !efore they render the ro#e unsafe% Ahen usin" a ro#e. for in" unifor loo#s that run in a cloc$wise direction until the ro#e is co #letely coiled% If the ro#e tends to twist or for fi"ure ei"hts. which is laid in the left hand% This is re#eated. wra#s are ade around the coil and the !i"ht% Ara##in" is ade toward the closed end of the !i"ht.
and tied off with a s4uare $not at his sto ach 5.ar er8s Coil% This ethod is !est for carryin" a ro#e when you want a-i u use of your u##er !ody% This coil is also easier and faster than the ountaineer8s coil% The center of the ro#e is esta!lished either !y locatin" its center ar$ or !y "ras#in" !oth ends of the ro#e and feedin" the out until a !i"ht co es u# that is the center of the ro#e% Coilin" !e"ins with the dou!led ro#e the sa e as the ountaineer8s coil ethod% A!out =%2 eters 539 feet6 of ro#e are left uncoiled.er the coil.to ei"ht wra#s should !e ade to ade4uately secure the coil% The end of the ro#e is #ushed down throu"h the closed end of the !i"ht% The runnin" end of the !i"ht is then #ulled ti"ht to secure the coil% This coil ay !e carried either in the #ac$ 5!y for in" a fi"ure ei"ht.er the shoulders to for shoulder stra#s% The runnin" ends are then !rou"ht under the ar s.wra#s are ade around the iddle of the coil. then !y dou!lin" it and #lacin" it under the fla#6D or !y #lacin" it o. ensurin" that the first wra# is held in #lace !y the other wra#s% A !i"ht is for ed with the two runnin" ends and is #laced throu"h the !i"ht for ed !y the to# of the coil% The two runnin" ends are then run o.er the to# of the coil and throu"h the !i"ht that they for ed and dressed down% The runnin" ends are se#arated.er the shoulder and under the o##osite ar % If the ro#e to !e coiled is anchored as in coilin" a !elay or ra##el line. then the coils are s4ueeCed to"ether and four to si.i"ure :196% .itself to loc$ it in #lace% Si. #lacin" the coil in the center of the !ac$ of the carrier% The two ends are run o. crossed in the !ac$ o. the coil should start near the end closest to the anchor so that the $in$s can wor$ the sel.i"ure :196% . !rou"ht around the !ody of the carrier.es out of the free end 5.
and after use% They ust !e color coded or ar$ed to identify its use such as leader cli !in" ro#e.ol.e a corres#ondin" ro#e lo" 5. !efore. ro#e installation.i"ure :126. dates. weather. a##lication. you should annotate use.es the followin" #rocedure: Each dyna ic cli !in" ro#e should ha. and other #ertinent data as re4uired or necessary to assist other e !ers of the cli !in" #arty% This for is a safety record% @ou should ins#ect the ro#e on a daily !asis. which is a record of the usa"e. terrain. history and life of a ro#e% On this for . or ra##ellin" ro#e% . durin". nu !er of falls.Ins#ection of a ro#e is necessary and in.
er !e dried ne-t to an o#en fla e or in an auto atic clothes drier% . it should !e hun" in lar"e loo#s on round wooden #e"s a!o.Ahen handlin" ro#es.e the "round to air dry% A ro#e should ne. rinse thorou"hly% The ro#e should !e air1dried out of direct sunli"ht% The ro#e should ne. you should o!ser.er co e in contact with shar# ed"es% Nylon ro#e is easily cut when under tension% If a ro#e ust !e used around a shar# ed"e. the ed"e should !e #added% The ro#e should !e $e#t as dry as #ossi!le% If it should !eco e wet.e the followin" rules: The ro#e should !e $e#t clean since dirt can da a"e a ro#e throu"h a!rasion% The ro#e should not !e ste##ed on or dra""ed on the "round since it could cause s all #articles of dirt to !e "round !etween the strands and slowly cut the % Cli !in" ro#es should !e washed in cold water with a ild nylon1safe soa# without !leach or fa!ric softeners.
or e-cessi.es the hand. the warnin" ?Ro#e? is shouted to alert #ersonnel at the !otto of the cliff% As the coils are "oin" down the cliff face. the cli !er feels a tu"% At that ti e. #aints. $nots.to ei"ht coils are ade in the left hand and set on the "round ne-t to the cli !er% A second set of coils is ade with the re ainin" ro#eD two se#arate stac$s of coils should !e #resent% The stac$ with si.ents. ruc$sac$.to ei"ht coils is #ic$ed u# and #laced in the left hand% The other stac$ of coils is #laced in the ri"ht hand% There are two ethods in which to throw the ro#e1underhand and o. it is !ac$fed% The ro#e is !ac$fed 5stac$ed6 !y ta$in" off one wra# at a ti e and lettin" it fall to the "round. ensurin" that there are no $in$s.erhand ethod should !e used when trees or shru!s are on or near the ra##el #oint% Once the ethod of throwin" has !een deter ined. hel et.erhand% The o. oils. it should !e ins#ected% The ro#e ust !e #rotected fro che icals. The ro#e should not !e $notted or ti"htly stretched for lon" #eriods% It should not !e hun" on shar# ed"es such as nails% Ahen usin" ro#es in installations. they should not ru! a"ainst each other% This causes frayin"% Allowin" ro#e1on1ro#e contact with nylon ro#e is dan"erous since the heat #roduced !y the friction ay cause the nylon to elt% The ro#e ust !e e-a ined i ediately after it has !een hit !y a fallin" o!7ect 5roc$. or we!!in"% All $nots used !y a cli !er are di. cord. #etroleu #roducts. acids. the coils in the left hand are thrown down% Throwin" the ro#e this way is !est to ensure that the ro#e reaches the !otto without sna""in"% :% Ty#es of Knots: A $not is a fastenin" ade !y intertwinin" or tyin" #ieces of strin". #iton ha er6% If a sudden strain has !een a##lied to the ro#e while #assin" o.ided into four classes: . corrosi. a few #reli inary swin"s are ade with the ri"ht ar 5this ar holds the second set of coils6% )ust !efore the ro#e lea. sol.es. or twists that ay hinder the ro#e fro feedin" out% Ahen the ro#e is !ac$fed.e heat since these wea$en and da a"e ro#e fi!ers% Throwin"% To ensure that the ro#e does not snarl when thrown. ro#es. one end of the ro#e is anchored off% The o##osite end of the ro#e is #ic$ed u# and si.er a shar# ed"e.
!ends.i"ure :1.ariety of $nots.er the one in the left hand% . Class I 1 )oinin" $nots Class II 1 Anchor $nots Class III 1 Biddle ro#e $nots Class I* 1 S#ecial $nots These classes of $nots are intended only as a "eneral "uide since the . #lace the wor$in" end in the ri"ht hand o.ol.es a four1ste# #rocedure: STEP 3 1 Eoldin" one wor$in" end in each hand.6% The #rocess of tyin" the $not in. !i"hts. and hitches is al ost endless% The $nots discussed ay !e a##ro#riate in ore than one class% Class I 1 )oinin" $nots includes the s4uare $notD dou!le sheet !endD fisher an8s $notD dou!le fisher an8s $notD and the water $not% Each of these $nots is discussed as follows: S4uare Knot% This $not is used to tie the end of two ro#es of e4ual dia eter 5.
fin"er of the left hand.STEP : 1 Pull it under and !ac$ o.erhand $not on each side of the s4uare $not% Chec$#oints% There are two interloc$in" !i"hts% The standin" #arts are on the sa e side and #ro#erly secured with o.es a four1ste# #rocedure: STEP 3 1 .erhand $nots% Dou!le Sheet (end% This $not is used to tie the ends of two or ore ro#es of e4ual or une4ual dia eter 5.er the inde. the !i"ht is for ed with the ulti#le ro#es% The #rocess of tyin" the $not in. so the wor$in" end is away fro the !ody% .er the to# of the ro#e in the left hand% STEP > 1 Place the wor$in" end in the left hand o.fin"er of the left hand on to# of the !i"ht% (rin" the ro#e in the ri"ht hand u# throu"h the !i"ht and o.or a >01centi eter !i"ht in the left hand with the ro#e or ro#es% Ensure that the short end of the !i"ht is facin" to the inside% STEP : 1 Place the inde.i"ure :1F6% Ahen a sin"le ro#e is tied to ulti#le ro#es.ol.er the one in the ri"ht hand and re#eat STEP :% STEP = 1 Dress the $not down and secure it with an o.
erhand $not and ti"htly draw the $nots to"ether% .fin"er and the !i"ht.ol.STEP > 1 Reach throu"h the loo# and "ras# the wor$in" end of the ro#e and !rin" it !ac$ towards the !ody% Place it !etween the inde.es a three1ste# #rocedure: STEP 3 1 Tie an o.erhand $not% Tie an o.erhand $not around the standin" #art of the first ro#e with the wor$in" end of the second ro#e% STEP > 1 Ti"htly dress down each o. wra##in" toward the ti# of the inde.isher an8s Knot% This $not is used to tie two ro#es of si ilar or dissi ilar 5.fin"er% STEP = 1 Re o.e the fin"er and dress the $not down% Chec$#oints: The two wra#s around the !i"ht are held in #lace !y a loc$in" !ar% The two standin" #arts of the ro#es e-it #arallel and fro o##osite ends of the $not% The two wor$in" ends for an ?&? and e-it the $not at a /01de"ree an"le and on o##osite sides of the $not% aterials .erhand $not in one end of the ro#e% STEP : 1 Pass the wor$in" end of the other ro#e throu"h the first o.i"ure :1/6% The #rocess of tyin" the $not in. for in" a round turn% Re#eat this one ore ti e.
tie two wra#s around the standin" #art of another ro#e% STEP : 1 Insert the wor$in" end 5STEP 36 !ac$ throu"h the two wra#s and draw it ti"ht% STEP > 1 Aith the wor$in" end of the other ro#e. which contains the standin" #art 5STEPS 3 and :6. tie two wra#s around the standin" #art of the other ro#e 5the wor$in" end in STEP 36% Insert the wor$in" end !ac$ throu"h the two wra#s and draw ti"ht% STEP = 1 Pull on the o##osin" ends to !rin" the two $nots to"ether% .es a four1ste# #rocedure: STEP 3 1 Aith the wor$in" end of one ro#e.ine.i"ure :1306% The #rocess of tyin" the $not in.Chec$#oints: The two se#arate o. and it is used to tie two ro#es of si ilar or dissi ilar aterials 5.ol.erhand $nots are drawn snu"% Dou!le .isher an8s Knot% This $not is also called dou!le En"lish or "ra#e.erhand $nots are tied ti"htly around the lon" standin" #art of the o##osin" ro#e% The two o.
followin" the #ath of the first ro#e in re.erhand $not in one of the ends% STEP : 1 . o. and it is also used in runners and harnesses 5.erhand retrace.ol. or ta#e $not% It is used to attach two we!!in" ends.Chec$#oints: Two wra#s with the wor$in" end runnin" throu"h and drawn ti"ht% (oth wra#s are drawn to"ether with all the slac$ out of the $not% Aater Knot% This $not is also called a rin" !end.eed the other end !ac$ throu"h the $not.i"ure :1336% The #rocess of tyin" the $not in.es a three1ste# #rocedure: STEP 3 1 Tie an o.erse% STEP > 1 Draw ti"ht and #ull all of the slac$ out of the $not% The re ainin" tails e-tend at least 9 centi eters 5: inches6 !eyond the $not in !oth directions% Chec$#oints: ust .
erhand $not with the tail fro the !i"ht% .i"ure :13:6% It does not sli# under strain and is easily untied% The #rocess of tyin" the $not in.es a fi. fro cli !er faces the anchor6% ri"ht to left 5as the STEP : 1 . and ay also !e used to tie the end of a ro#e to an anchor 5.e1ste# #rocedure: STEP 3 1 (rin" the wor$in" end of the ro#e around the anchor. with the wor$in" ends co in" out of the $not in o##osite directions 5at least 9 centi eters G: inchesH lon"6% Class II 1 Anchor Knots includes the !owline $notD round turn and two half hitches $notD fi"ure ei"ht retrace $notD and de#endin" on its use. the clo.e hitch $not% Each of these $nots are discussed as follows: (owline Knot% This $not is used to tie a sin"le fi-ed loo# in the end of a ro#e% It is always used when there is alternatin" tension.erhand loo# in the standin" #art of the ro#e 5on a cli !er8s ri"ht6 toward the anchor% STEP > 1 Reach throu"h the loo# and #ull u# a !i"ht% STEP = 1 Place the wor$in" end of the ro#e 5on the cli !er8s left6 throu"h the !i"ht.or an o. and !rin" it !ac$ onto itself% Now dress the $not down% STEP 9 1 .ol.erhand $nots. one retracin" the other% There is no slac$ in the $not.or an o. There are two o.
distri!utin" the load o.er the standin" #art.ide >201de"ree contact.ol.e constant tension 5.Chec$#oints: The loo# is loc$ed into #lace !y a !i"ht% The short #ortion of the !i"ht is on the inside and on the loo# around the anchor 5or inside the fi-ed loo#6% Round Turn and Two Ealf Eitches Knot% This $not is used to tie the end of a ro#e to an anchor. for in" a half hitch 5first half hitch6% . and it ust ha. and one in the front6% Run the loo# around the o!7ect to #ro.er the anchor% STEP : 1 (rin" the wor$in" end of the ro#e left to ri"ht and o.es a four1ste# #rocedure: STEP 3 1 Route the ro#e around the anchor fro ri"ht to left and wra# down 5 ust ha.e two wra#s in the rear of the anchor.i"ure :13>6% The #rocess of tyin" the $not in.
it can !e used to fasten the ro#e to trees or to #laces where the loo# cannot !e used 5. lea.in" enou"h ro#e to wor$ with% .ol.es a si-1ste# #rocedure: STEP 3 1 +se a len"th of ro#e lon" enou"h to "o around the anchor.i"ure Ei"ht Retrace Knot% This $not is also called rerouted fi"ure ei"ht% This $not #roduces the sa e result as a fi"ure ei"ht loo# discussed in ?Class III 1 iddle ro#e $nots%? (y tyin" the $not in a retrace.STEP > 1 Re#eat Ste# : 5last half hitch has a 391centi eter G2 inchH #i"tail6% STEP = 1 Dress the $not down% Chec$#oints: A co #lete round turn should e-ist around the anchor with no crosses% Two half hitches should !e held in #lace !y a loc$in" !ar with no less than a 391 centi eter tail re ainin"% &oo$ at the to# of the half hitchesD the ro#e should a##ear to !e one continuous ro#e% .i"ure :13=6% The #rocess of tyin" the $not in.
erhand $not% .STEP : 1 Tie a fi"ure ei"ht $not in the standin" #art of the ro#e.or a loo# in the ro#e% Ara# the wor$in" end around the standin" #art% Route the wor$in" end throu"h the loo#% The finished $not is dressed loosely% STEP > 1 Ta$e the wor$in" end around the anchor #oint% STEP = 1 Aith the wor$in" end.in" enou"h ro#e to "o around the anchor% To tie a fi"ure ei"ht $not1 . insert the ro#e !ac$ throu"h the loo# of the $not in re. lea.erse% STEP 9 1 Kee# the ori"inal fi"ure ei"ht as the outside ro#e and retrace the $not around the wra# and !ac$ to the lon" standin" #art% STEP 2 1 Safety off with an o.
the $not is tied as follows: STEP 3 1 Eold ro#e in !oth hands.ol.ed: If there is access o.Chec$#oints: At least 39 centi eters 52 inches6 of ro#e e-tends #ast the fi"ure ei"ht $not% The ori"inal fi"ure ei"ht. or as an anchor or iddle $not.er the to# of the anchor. #al s down with hands to"ether% Slide the left hand to the left fro :0 to :9 centi eters 5F to 30 inches6% .i"ure :1396% The $not ust ha. re ains as the outer ost ro#e throu"hout the $not% The $not is dressed ti"htly% Clo. there are two #rocesses in. tied with the standin" end.ent sli##in"% Ahen tyin" the $not. de#endin" on how it is tied 5. at the end of the ro#e.e Eitch Knot% This $not can !e used in the iddle of the ro#e.e constant tension on it once tied to #re.
er the anchor and #ull !oth ends of the ro#e in o##osite directions% The $not is tied% Assu in" that the anchor is horiContalD if the clo.er the standin" end 5to for a loo#6% Eold the loo# in the left hand% Place the wor$in" end o.e hitch anchor.2 centi eters 5>0 inches6 of ro#e o.or a loo# inward and !ac$ to the left hand% STEP = 1 Place the left loo# on to# of the ri"ht loo#% Place !oth loo#s o. reach under the horiContal anchor. and !rin" it inward% STEP : 1 Place the wor$in" end of the ro#e o.er the anchor fro :0 to :9 centi eters 5F to 30 inches6 to the left of the loo#% STEP > 1 Aith the ri"ht hand. "ras# the wor$in" end. tie the $not as follows: ust "o around the STEP 3 1 Place .or a loo# away fro and !ac$ toward the ri"ht% STEP > 1 Slide the ri"ht hand fro :0 to :9 centi eters 5F to 30 inches6 to the ri"ht% .er the to# of the anchor% Eold the standin" end in the left hand% Aith the ri"ht hand.STEP : 1 . reach down to the left hand side of the loo# under the anchor% 'ras# the wor$in" end of the ro#e% (rin" the wor$in" end u# and outward% STEP = 1 Dress down the $not% .
es a nine1ste# #rocedure: STEP 3 1 Ahen tyin" this $not. and #lace it o.er the .i"ure :1 wra# with the ri"ht thu ! and forefin"er.ol. e-ce#t on a #ic$et1hold1fast% @ou should not use a clo. and fin"erti#% iddle of the ro#e 5. fi-ed loo# in the 326% The #rocess of tyin" the $not in. face the anchor that the tie1off syste will !e tied to% Ta$e u# the slac$ fro the anchor.e hitch $not on Class III 1 Biddle Ro#e Knots include the wire an8s $notD directional fi"ure ei"ht $notD !owline on a !i"ht $notD fi"ure ei"ht on a !i"ht $notD o.erhand loo#D and fi"ure ei"ht loo#% Each of these $nots are discussed as follows: Aire an8s Knot: This $not for s a sin"le. #al . and wra# two turns around the left hand 5#al u#6 fro left to ri"ht% STEP : 1 A loo# of >0 centi eters 53: inches6 is ta$en u# in the second round turn to create the fi-ed loo# of the $not% STEP > 1 Na e the wra#s fro STEP = 1 Secure the #al heel wra#% the #al to the fin"erti#s: heel.Chec$#oints: The $not has two round turns around the anchor with a loc$in" !ar% The loc$in" !ar is facin" /0 de"rees fro The ends e-it 3F0 de"rees fro The $not has the direction of #ull% each other% ore than a 391centi eter 521inch6 #i"tail re ainin"% etal.
e four se#arate !i"hts loc$in" down on the sel.STEP 9 1 Secure the heel wra# and #lace it o. 1 Secure the #al wra# and #ull u# to for wra#% a fi-ed loo#% STEP F 1 Dress the $not down !y #ullin" on the fi-ed loo# and the two wor$in" ends% STEP / 1 Pull the wor$in" ends a#art to finish the $not% Chec$#oints: The co #leted $not should ha.es with the fi-ed loo# e-itin" fro the to# of the $not and layin" toward the near side anchor #oint% (oth ends should e-it o##osite each other without any !ends% .er the fin"erti# wra#% STEP 2 1 Secure the fin"erti# wra# and #lace it o.er the #al STEP .
it lays inward% STEP : 1 &ay the ro#e fro the #al % the far side anchor o. tie a fi"ure ei"ht $not around the standin" #art that leads to the far side anchor% STEP = 1 Ahen dressin" the $not down.i"ure :13. the tail and !i"ht ust !e to"ether% Chec$#oints: The loo# should !e lar"e enou"h to acce#t a sna#lin$ !ut no lar"er than a hel et% The tail and !i"ht ust !e to"ether% The fi"ure ei"ht is tied ti"htly% .er the left #al % Ba$e one wra# around STEP > 1 Aith the wra# thus for ed.Directional .6% The #rocess of tyin" the $not in.es a four1ste# #rocedure: iddle of the STEP 3 1 .ace the far side anchor so that when the $not is tied.ol.i"ure Ei"ht Knot% This $not for s a sin"le. fi-ed loo# in the ro#e that lays !ac$ alon" the standin" #art of the ro#e 5.
erhand $not% 'ras# the two ro#es that run down and outward and #ull u#.erhand $not "oes throu"h the !i"ht% STEP 9 1 . The !i"ht in the $not faces !ac$ toward the near side% two fi-ed loo#s in the iddle of a (owline on a (i"ht Knot% This $not is used to for ro#e 5.en1ste# #rocedure: STEP 3 1 .erhand $not in the left hand so that the !i"ht is runnin" down and outward% STEP = 1 'ras# the !i"ht with the ri"ht hand.or a !i"ht in the ro#e a!out twice as lon" as the finished loo#s will !e% STEP : 1 Tie an o. fold it !ac$ o.es a se.er the o. 1 A final dress is re4uired: "ras# the ends of the two fi-ed loo#s and #ull.i"ure :13F6% The #rocess of tyin" the $not in.erhand $not and dress the $not down% STEP .erhand $not so that the o.erhand $not on the !i"ht% STEP > 1 Eold the o.ol.ro the end 5a#e-6 of the !i"ht. s#readin" the a#art to ensure the loo#s do not sli#% . for in" two loo#s% STEP 2 1 Pull the two ro#es out of the o. follow the !i"ht !ac$ to where it for s the cross in the o.
i"ure :13/6% The #rocess of tyin" the $not in.e1ste# #rocedure: STEP 3 1 +sin" a dou!led ro#e.es a fi.Chec$#oints: There are two fi-ed loo#s that will not sli#% There are no twists in the $not% A dou!le loo# is held in #lace !y a !i"ht% two fi-ed loo#s in the iddle of a . for the runnin" end facin" to the left% a =21centi eter 53F1inch6 !i"ht in the left hand with STEP : 1 'ras# the !i"ht with the ri"ht hand and standin" end in a countercloc$wise direction% a$e a >201de"ree turn around the .i"ure Ei"ht on a (i"ht Knot% This $not is used to for ro#e 5.ol.
and #lace the ori"inal !i"ht 5 o. for Dress the $not ti"htly% .es a two1ste# #rocedure: STEP 3 1 .er the $not% STEP 9 1 Dress the $not down% Chec$#oints: There is a dou!le fi"ure of ei"ht with two loo#s% The $not will not sli#% iddle of a ro#e 5.i"ure :1:06% It O.STEP > 1 Aith the wor$in" end. for 7ust for ed in the left hand% another !i"ht and #lace that !i"ht throu"h the loo# STEP = 1 Eold the !i"ht with the left hand.or a !i"ht in the ro#e a!out as lon" as the loo# needed% an o.in" toward the left hand6 o.erhand $not usin" the !i"ht as the wor$in" end% STEP : 1 Aith the !i"ht.ol.erhand &oo#% This loo# for s a sin"le loo# in the should not !e used in a trans#ort ti"htenin" syste % The #rocess of tyin" the $not in.
es a three1ste# #rocedure: STEP 3 1 .i"ure :1:36% The #rocess of tyin" the $not in.i"ure Ei"ht &oo#% This loo# is a .erhand loo# and is easy to untie after it has held wei"ht 5.ol.or a !i"ht in the ro#e a!out as lar"e as the dia eter of the desired loo#% a loo# in ro#e 5standin" #art6% STEP : 1 Aith the !i"ht as the wor$in" end.ariation of the o.Chec$#oints: The loo# is the desired siCe% The ro#es in the o.er each other% The $not is ti"htly dressed% . for STEP > 1 Ara# the wor$in" end around the standin" #art >20 de"rees and feed the wor$in" end throu"h the loo#% Dress the $not ti"htly% .erhand $not are #arallel and do not cross o.
fi"ure ei"ht sli# $not. frost $not. !ach an $not. !owline on a coil $not. Prusi$ $not. o.erhand $not.er each other% The $not is ti"htly dressed% Class I* 1 S#ecial $nots include the sin"le !utterfly $not. Klei hiest $not. three1loo# !owline $not. and the "irth hitch $not% Each of these $nots is discussed as follows: .Chec$#oints: The loo# is the desired siCe% The ro#es in the loo# are #arallel and do not cross o.
er the crossed standin" ends and !ac$ throu"h . cross the two lon"1standin" endsD reach under and "ras# the !otto of the loo# for ed in STEP 3% STEP > 1 Route the !otto the to# of the loo#% of the loo# o.or a loo# o.Sin"le (utterfly Knot% This $not is used to for a sin"le fi-ed loo# in the iddle of the ro#e without usin" the ends 5.es a four1ste# #rocedure: STEP 3 1 .i"ure :1::6% @ou ay use this $not for the iddle an in a ro#e #arty as well as in a trans#ort ti"htenin" syste % The $not can !e hard to untie when hea.y wei"ht has !een #laced on it for e-tended #eriods% The #rocess of tyin" the $not in.er the #al of the left hand% STEP : 1 Aith the ri"ht hand.ol.
STEP = 1 Eold the newly for ed loo# and dress the $not down, re o,in" all of the slac$ out of the $not% Chec$#oints:
The win"s of the $not #ossi!le%
ust !e dressed down ti"htly and as close to"ether as
The ro#es !etween the win"s
ust !e #arallel with no crosso,ers%
The loo# should !e no lar"er than a hel et, !ut lar"e enou"h to acce#t a sna#lin$% All ro#es in the $not are ti"htly dressed%
Prusi$ Knot% This $not is used to #ut a o,ea!le ro#e on a fi-ed ro#e such as a Prusi$ ascent or a ti"htenin" syste % This $not can !e tied as a iddle, fin"er, or end Prusi$%
The #rocess of tyin" the iddle1of1the1ro#e Prusi$ $not in,ol,es a three1ste# #rocedure 5.i"ure :1:>6%
STEP 3 1 Dou!le the short ro#e, for in" a !i"ht, with the wor$in" ends e,en% &ay it o,er the lon" ro#e so that the closed end of the !i"ht is >0 centi eters 53: inches6 !elow the lon" ro#e and the re ainin" #art of the ro#e 5wor$in" ends6 is the closes tot he cli !erD s#read the wor$in" end a#art% STEP : 1 Reach down throu"h the >01centi eter 53:1inch6 !i"ht% Pull u# !oth of the wor$in" ends and lay the o,er the lon" ro#e% Re#eat this #rocess a$in" sure that the wor$in" ends #ass in the iddle of the first two wra#s% Now there are four wra#s and a loc$in" !ar wor$in" across the on the lon" ro#e% STEP > 1 Dress the wra#s and loc$in" !ar down to ensure they are ti"ht and not twisted% Tyin" an o,erhand $not with !oth ro#es will #re,ent the $not fro sli##in" durin" #eriods of ,aria!le tension%
Another way of tyin" the Prusi$ $not is the fin"er Prusi$ as shown in .i"ure :1:=, and in,ol,es a fi,e1ste# #rocedure%
STEP 3 1 &ay the ro#e across the thu ! and inde- fin"er of the left hand% STEP : 1 Ara# the ro#e around the inde- fin"er twice 5wra##in" away fro Ara# the ro#e around the thu ! twice 5wra##in" toward the cli !er6% the cli !er6%
STEP > 1 Place the thu ! and inde- fin"er ti# to ti#% Push the wra#s to"ether so that the Prusi$ is on the left thu !% There are four wra#s and a loc$in" !ar across the % STEP = 1 Ta$e the runnin" end of the ro#e and #ass it throu"h the wra#s of the Prusi$ $not% STEP 9 1 Dress the wra#s and loc$in" !ar down to ensure they are ti"ht and not twisted%
The third way of tyin" a Prusi$ $not is the end1of1the1ro#e $not as shown in .i"ure :1:9, and in,ol,es a se,en1ste# #rocedure%
wor$in" !ac$ toward the iddle of the STEP 2 1 There are four wra#s and a loc$in" !ar runnin" across the on the lon" ro#e% Dress the wra#s and loc$in" !ar down% Ensure they are ti"ht. #arallel.er the lon" ro#e% STEP : 1 . and not twisted% .er the standin" #art of the short ro#e with the wor$in" end of the short ro#e% STEP = 1 &ay the wor$in" end under the lon" ro#e% STEP 9 1 .or a co #lete round turn in the ro#e% STEP > 1 Cross o.STEP 3 1 +sin" an ar 8s len"th of ro#e. #lace it o.or $not% a co #lete round turn in the ro#e.
STEP .our wra#s with a loc$in" !ar% The loc$in" !ar faces the cli !er% The $not is ti"ht and dressed down with no ro#es twisted or crossed% Other than a fin"er Prusi$.es a three1ste# #rocedure: STEP 3 1 . the $not should contain an o.ol.ent sli##in"% eans of usin" a a$e1shift echaniCed ascender (ach an Knot% This $not #ro.ides a 5.erhand or !owline to #re.ind the iddle of a utility ro#e and insert it into a sna#lin$% .aryin" tension% Chec$#oints: . 1 .i"ure :1:26% The #rocess of tyin" the $not in.inish the $not with a !owline to ensure that the Prusi$ $not will not sli# out durin" #eriods of .
STEP : 1 Place the sna#lin$ and utility ro#e ne-t to a lon" cli !in" ro#e% STEP > 1 Aith the two ro#es #arallel fro the sna#lin$.aila!le 5.en1ste# #rocedure: .es a se.i"ure :1:.6% The #rocess of tyin" the $not in. a$e two or the cli !in" ro#e and throu"h the inside #ortion of the sna#lin$% Chec$#oints: ore wra#s around The !i"ht of the cli !in" ro#e is at the to# of the sna#lin$% The two ro#es run #arallel without twistin" or crossin"% Two or ore wra#s are ade around the lon" cli !in" ro#e and throu"h the inside #ortion of the sna#lin$% (owline on a Coil% This $not is an e-#edient tie1in used !y cli !ers in two1 and three1 an #arty cli !s when a cli !in" harness is not a.ol.
STEP 3 1 To tie a !owline on a coil. 1 Safety with an o. for in" a !i"ht% STEP 2 1 Dress the $not down% STEP . wra##in" enou"h coils around the !ody to co #lete a ini u of four 5!ut no ore than si-6 coils% STEP > 1 Aith the ro#e in the left hand.erhand $not a"ainst the $not for ed on the to# sin"le coil% There should !e fro 30 to 39 centi eters of ro#e left 5standin" #art6% Chec$#oints: There are a ini u of four 5 a-i u of si-6 #arallel wra#sD the to# and !otto ro#es cross forward of the hi#s% The loo# ust !e underneath all wra#s% Other chec$#oints are the sa e as the !owline% . start the sa e as tyin" a !owline around the waist 5the waist of the cli !er is the anchor #oint6% The cli !er has a!out =0 centi eters 532 inches6 of ro#e in the ri"ht hand% The standin" end is co in" fro the re ainder of the ro#e in his left hand% STEP : 1 Draw slac$ fro the standin" end of the ro#e in the left hand. a$e a loo# inward with the standin" end% STEP = 1 Slide the loo# u# !etween the horiContal wra#s and the !ody. ensurin" the loo# does not co e uncrossed% STEP 9 1 (rin" a !i"ht u# throu"h the loo#% (rin" the wor$in" end of the ro#e in the ri"ht hand throu"h the !i"ht and !ac$ onto itself% OR Insert the short wor$in" end to the ri"ht throu"h the loo# 57ust #assed throu"h the wra#s6% Pass the wor$in" end around the lon" standin" end and !ac$ on itself.
e1ste# #rocedure: STEP 3 1 .i"ure :1:F6% iddle of a ro#e% The #rocess of tyin" the $not in. "ras# !oth standin" ro#es and #ull while dressin" u# the !owline% Chec$#oints: . layin" it across the left hand. for a loo# with !oth ro#es% Eold it in the left hand% STEP > 1 Aith the ri"ht hand.Three1&oo# (owline% This $not is used to for three fi-ed loo#s in the It is also used in a self1e4ualiCin" anchor syste 5. #al u#.ollow the !i"ht around the standin" ends and !ac$ down into the loo#% STEP 9 1 Eold all three loo#s in the left hand% Aith the ri"ht hand.or a!out a 201centi eter 5:=1inch6 !i"ht in the ro#e. with the !i"ht to the front% STEP : 1 Aith the ri"ht hand.es a fi.ol. !rin" the lon" !i"ht throu"h the loo# 5for ed in STEP :6 and around the two standin" ends% STEP = 1 .
twist two co #lete turns cloc$wise% . Chec$#oints are the sa e as for a re"ular !owline.or a >01centi eter 53:1inch6 !i"ht in the end of the ro#e% STEP : 1 Eold the center of the !i"ht in the ri"ht hand% Eold the two #arallel ro#es fro inches6 u# the ro#e% the !i"ht in the left hand a!out >0 centi eters 53: STEP > 1 Aith the center of the !i"ht in the ri"ht hand. e-ce#t that it is tied with two ro#es% An o.es a si-1ste# #rocedure: STEP 3 1 .ol.i"ure Ei"ht Sli# Knot% This $not for s an ad7usta!le !i"ht in a ro#e 5.erhand $not anchor% ust !e tied if the third loo# is not to !e used as a secondary .i"ure :1:/6% The #rocess of tyin" the $not in.
a si-1 an #ullin" tea is necessary% .y loads while !ein" #ulled ti"ht 5.STEP = 1 Reach throu"h the !i"ht and "ras# the lon" standin" end of the ro#e% Pull another !i"ht 5fro the lon" standin" end6 !ac$ throu"h the ori"inal !i"ht% STEP 9 1 Pull down on the short wor$in" end of the ro#e and dress the $not down% STEP 2 1 If the $not is to !e used in a trans#ort ti"htenin" syste .ides a o.ea!le. hi"h1tension $not ca#a!le of holdin" e-tre ely hea.i"ure :1>06% Ahen used in a trans#ort ti"htenin" syste . ta$e the wor$in" end of the ro#e and for a half hitch around the loo# of the fi"ure ei"ht $not% Chec$#oints: The $not is in the sha#e of a fi"ure ei"ht% The slidin" #ortion of the ro#e is the lon" wor$in" end of the ro#e% Klei hiest Knot% This $not #ro. easily ad7usta!le.
#ass the STEP 36% throu"h the !i"ht 5see STEP = 1 )oin the two ends of the tail with a 7oinin" $not 5s4uare $not with o. offset the ends !y >0 centi eters 53: inches6% Aith the ends offset.The #rocess of tyin" the $not in.er a horiContal ro#e near the farside anchor% STEP : 1 Ara# the tails of the utility ro#e around the horiContal ro#e !ac$ toward the near1side anchor% Ara# at least four co #lete turns% STEP > 1 Aith the re ainin" tails of the utility ro#e. find the center of the ro#e and for a !i"ht% &ay the !i"ht o.erhand Knot% This $not is used to a$e a $notted ro#e for a handline.i"ure :1>36% It can also !e used to te #orarily whi# the end of a ro#e% .erhand safety $nots6% STEP 9 1 Dress the $not down ti"htly so that all wra#s are touchin"% Insert two sna#lin$s 5o##osin" "ates6 into the lar"e loo# tied with the tails% Chec$#oints: The !i"ht is closest to the far1side anchor% All wra#s are ti"ht and touchin"% The ends of the utility ro#e are #ro#erly secured with the 7oinin" $not% O. to secure the ends of other $nots. and to a$e stirru#s in direct1aid cli !in" 5.ol.e1ste# #rocedure: STEP 3 1 +sin" a ilitary ro#e.es a fi.
ol.erhand $not or s4uare $not 5.rost Knot% This $not is used when wor$in" with flat we!!in".i"ure :1>:6% .es a three1ste# #rocedure: STEP 3 1 Ba$e a loo# in the ro#e% STEP : 1 Pass the wor$in" end of the ro#e throu"h the loo#% STEP > 1 Ti"hten down the $not% Chec$#oints: Runnin" ends e-it the loo# in o##osite directions% The $not is dressed down ti"htly% . and it holds !etter than a standard o.The #rocess of tyin" the $not in.
The #rocess of tyin" the $not in.ol.erhand $not% 'irth Eitch% This is used when tyin" a runner to a #artly dri.erhand $not with the newly for ed tri#le1strand we!!in"D dress ti"htly% Chec$#oints: The tails of the we!!in" run in o##osite directions% Three strands of we!!in" are for ed into a ti"ht o.i"ure :1>>6% .er the other 5a!out :9 to >0 centi eters G30 to 3: inchesH6% STEP : 1 Tie an o.es a two1ste# #rocedure: STEP 3 1 &a# one end 5a !i"ht6 of we!!in" o.erhand $not% There is a !i"ht and tail e-itin" the to# of the o.en #iton 5.
The #rocess of tyin" the $not in.ol.es a two1ste# #rocedure: STEP 3 1 (rin" the standin" ends !ac$ throu"h the !i"ht of a len"th of ro#e or we!!in"% STEP : 1 Cinch the $not ti"htly% Chec$#oints: Two wra#s e-ist with a loc$in" !ar runnin" across the wra#s% The $not is dressed ti"htly% PART B . ro#e.i"ure :1>=6% They are ade of steel. alu inu . and etal% The hea. and #eo#le into a functionin" syste 5. stren"ths. s#rin"1loaded "ate on one side% There are different siCes.TYPES OF SNAPLINKS A sna#lin$ is used to 7oin e4ui# ent. sha#es.iest and stron"est sna#lin$ is ade of steel% . or alloys loose with a hin"ed.
or corroded% Ahen the "ate is o#en. The followin" infor ation a##lies to all sna#lin$s: The wea$est #art of a sna#lin$ is the "ate% The "ate a##lyin" a load% ust !e closed !efore &oc$in" #ins should !e chec$ed to ensure that they are not loose. "roo. or rust% The s#rin"1loaded "ate should auto atically close securely fro an o#en to a closed #osition with no "a# !etween the loc$in" #in and notch% . worn. !urrs.es.e ent etal should !e chec$ed for any crac$s. sna#lin$s should ha.e little or no lateral of the "ate% The o. flaws.
e and threads free of dirt and "ritD if the slee.er is used to ar$ sna#lin$s. ne.er !e side loaded 5across the "ate6 since this reduces the o.e the ad.al% ilitary sna#lin$: Baterial: steel% A##ro-i ate stren"th: :.e% @ou should aintain the loc$in" slee.000 #ounds with the "ate closed% Aei"ht: =%> ounces% Eollow sna#lin$s should !e a.e on the "ate% The slee.If an en"ra.e a loc$in" echanis with a threaded slee.in" ro#e fro unscrewin" the slee. !ut they should !e used only where they cannot !e accidentally o#ened% .erall stren"th to the #oint of "ate failure% The followin" data #ertains to the standard Sha#e: o. it ay stri# the threads% @ou should ins#ect the loc$in" echanis #eriodically since it will a"e and wea$en after re#eated use% The nonloc$in" sna#lin$s ha.ent a o.er to the load1!earin" side% A sna#lin$ should ne.i"ure :1 >96% A loc$in" sna#lin$ is !est when ra#ellin"% A re. it should !e a##lied only to the "ate.er the "ate o#enin" end or hin"e end to hold the "ate closed 5.e is forced to close.oided since their use is li ited% So e sna#lin$s ha.e screws ti"htly o.anta"e of ease of o#eration.erse loc$in" "ate is necessary to #re.
al ty#e !ecause the sha#e directs the lar"est #art of the load to !e a##lied to the lon"er. stron"er side o##osite the "ate 5. with or without loc$in" "ates% Stren"th and dura!ility should !e #art of the selection #rocess% . D1Sha#ed sna#lin$s are stron"er than the o.i"ure :1>26% They are ade of steel or alu inu alloys. and there are different siCes and thic$nesses.
al sna#lin$ !ear the strain e4ually under load wei"ht% Bany odified o.e crac$s. you will soon learn the .ariety of a##lications 5. ost either with or without a loc$in" "ate% All sna#lin$s ust eet ilitary standards or the +nion of International Al#ine Association 5+IAA6 s#ecifications% All sna#lin$s should !e ins#ected and cared for daily.iew of con. and there are different siCes and thic$nesses% (oth sides of an o. which cause dirt to clin" to the sna#lin$ and ru! off on ro#es. and flaws% Ensure that the "ate o#ens and closes freely without !indin"D that there is no lateral o.e ent% (efore startin" an o#eration.aila!le. could de#end on that e4ui# ent% . units ust aster techni4ues and e4ui# ent use% Bo.al sna#lin$s are .e cleanin" a"ents. or sol.ent to ru! off rust% &u!ricate the s#rin" as needed% To re o. oil. or rou"h areas ha.e ent when the "ate is o#enD and the s#rin" action sna#s shut when released% Ba$e sure the loc$in" notch ha.alue of s#ecialiCed e4ui# ent.es. and after use% Ba$e sure the etal does not ha.e loc$s the "ate ti"htly% @ou should not use the sna#lin$ if !urrs.er ountainous terrain cannot always !e acco #lished without s#ecial e4ui# ent% This e4ui# ent a$es it #ossi!le for the ilitary ountaineer to !uild installations and ne"otiate roc$ asses and ice areas 4uic$ly and safely% As a ilitary cli !er. "roo.ersatile and ha.es. durin".er. and what it eans when a s#ecific #iece of e4ui# ent is not a. !urrs. "roo.e a slant or slot so that the "ate re ains shut under the i #act of a cli !er8s fall% The #ins should not wor$ their way out of their holes and should not !e shorter than their holes% If there is a loc$in" echanis .als are a. "ra#hite1!ased lu!ricant% PART C . O. fro the sna#lin$.e ent o.EQUIPMENT AND MAINTENANCE This is an o.entional cli !er% ilitary e4ui# ent and the latest ite s used !y the Bo. you ust ensure the threads are not stri##ed and the slee. rust. and #ossi!ly your life. you should !oil it in water for :0 to >0 seconds% It is !etter to use a lu!ricant that does not attract dirt such as a dry.aila!le when needed% @ou should aintain your e4ui# ent since your unit8s ission.e a .i"ure :1>=6% They are ade of steel or alu inu alloys. !efore.e !een identified% @ou ay use steel wool.
ca in".<32 Ro#e. /. ice #itons.<32 inchH6. D1sha#e Sna#lin$. F. fi"ure ei"ht Piton ha er Pitons 5. /. #ic$ets Pulleys Cli !in" harness Cra #ons 5ri"id and hin"ed6 Ae!!in" 5tu!ular and flat6 Ro#e. loc$in" #ear1sha#e Sna#lin$. odified D1sha#e Descender.. loc$in" D1sha#e Sna#lin$.irst1aid $it .al Sna#lin$. an"les6 Choc$s 5he-. ><F. fi"ure ei"ht Ice screws. ><F.er Aands . 9<32.in" Pulleys Ro#e. loc$in" #ear1sha#e Sna#lin$. D1sha#e Sna#lin$. static and dyna ic 5. a!out 29 to .al Sna#lin$. and 33 G3=. o. loc$in" D1sha#e Sna#lin$. $er antle.irst1aid $it A-e or saw Re#air $it Ni"ht . co##erheads6 Choc$ #ic$ Cliff han"er (olts and carriers Star drill or self1dri. odified D1sha#e Descender.ision de. and .alanche transcei.9 c 5:2 to >0 inches6 lon" Ca action ascender Sna#lin$.<32 inchHD >2 inchH6 >2 3<: to 90 eters 53:0 to 329 3<: etersG3:0 feetH feet6 Ro#e. and . laid nylon 533 G. laid nylon 533 G. R+RP.er< recei. static and dyna ic 5. wire sto##ers. Bountain #ac$in" list% The ountain #ac$in" list includes so e of the cli !in" e4ui# ent for !asic roc$ cli !s and "lacier or winter cli !s.el and saw Snowshoes<s$is 5with #oles and Co unication e4ui# ent !indin"s6 A.ices Snow sho.ertical. 9<32. !ut is not li ited to the followin": '&ACIER OR AINTER C&IB(S Ice ha er with serrated #ic$ and nylon slin" Ice a-e.. F. >2 3<: to 90 eters 53:0 to 329 feet6 (ASIC ROCK C&IB(S Ca action ascender Sna#lin$. flu$es. $er antle. o.alanche cord and #ro!es A.<32 inchHD Snow anchors >2 3<: eters G3:0 feetH . horiContal. and 33 G3<=.
fuel 5 ission de#endent6 Ni"ht .es. the soles should !e rou"hened !y usin" a file or shar# roc$% The followin" ethods a##ly to the care of !oot leather: The old style leather co !at !oot is !est water#roofed with oils and wa-es% This should !e done routinely to reesta!lish water re#ellency% Sea s and welts are the ost i #ortant areas to co.ision de.er% The new s#eed1lace co !at !oot has silicone treated leather and water#roofed only with a silicone aterial% ust !e SiliconiCed leather retains its water . ha. and swells durin" a arch fro the load carried and the #oundin" that occurs% Correct fittin" of !oots re4uires e-tra ti e !ut the !enefits are worth the effort% (oth feet should !e easured since they are usually different siCes and sha#es% A thin inner soc$ and a thic$ outer soc$ should !e worn durin" the fittin"% A #ac$ with the a##ro#riate wei"ht to !e carried should !e on the soldier8s !ac$% Ee stands on the shoe siCin" de. you ay consider the use of s#ecialiCed cli !in" shoes and !oots% Cli !in" shoes. and co #ro ises their a!ility to siliconiCe the leather itself% The followin" ethods a##ly to !oot fittin": (oots ust !e fitted #ro#erly IAA their #lanned use% The foot len"thens.rench6.e ru!!er soles with ru!!er alon" the sides.ootwear% Ahen ilitary !oots are not #ractical for ountainous o#erations.er. sto. the use of the standard ilitary !oot with ru!!er soles is not #ractical for wet or icy roc$ conditions and !efore you use the .Candles Ah$io.entilation 4ualities while !ein" hi"hly water#roof% +se of oils and wa-es on these !oots destroys their a!ility to .ices Co unication e4ui# ent .entilate and stay water#roof.ide !etter adhesion on roc$ than ilitary !oots% @ou ay wear the 7un"le !oot for cli !in" durin" hot weatherD howe. Known AS Kletterschue 5'er an6 or *arra#e 5. and on the toe and heel% These shoes are ore fle-i!le and #ro.ice and leans sli"htly forward with so e wei"ht on . tents. widens.a#or #er ea!ility and .
or no ri"id shan$% (oots with stiff soles #ro.er!oots can !e worn to $ee# feet dry.y archin" with *( !oots can for !listers% The foot !eco es da # and the s$in soft inside the *( !oot% The white *( !oot is desi"ned for use in dry cold re"ionD the !lac$ *( !oot is desi"ned for use in wet cold en.ersatile in hi$in" and cli !in" o.iron ent are listed in CTA 901/00.iron ent% Insulate the foot fro the soles of the leather !oot with insoles% There ust !e enou"h . it is necessary to #re#are and e4ui# #ersonnel for . half. !ut they do not #ro. and the authoriCations are !ased on e-#ected seasonal te #erature . or in #atrol !ases where archin" with loads is not necessary% Eea. if needed% The followin" #rocedures are necessary for cold1weather foot #rotection: Barch in #ro#erly fitted leather !oots Ea.olu e in the toe ca# to allow for thic$ soc$s and air s#ace around the toes% The "reatest heat loss fro the foot occurs throu"h the sole and toe ca#% This re4uires a lar"er inside .ery cold weather% Clothin" and e4ui# ent that su##ort o#erations in a ountainous en.ershoes a.e o.ide !etter su##ort in s all holds and crac$s.olu e of the !oot than what is worn daily% Cli !in" !oots can !e either an$le or calf hi"h with full.aila!le if it is wet or if ore insulation is needed% +se .olu e 5swellin"6% The thic$er insole is used at the start of a arch% The soldier chan"es to dry soc$s and to a thinner insole idway throu"h the arch to acco odate for swollen feet.ariations% Clothin" allowance Cones .es.a#or !arrier 5*(6 !oots for short o. sedentary tas$s.er chan"in" terrain% They tend to !e ore wind#roof and water#roof alon" with a rou"her. and when standin" in slin"s and stirru#s% They afford !etter wed"in" action in 7a crac$s% (oots are ore .the !alls of his feet The len"th and width of each foot is ti es to ensure the #ro#er siCe infor ation% easured two or three This #rocess allows a lar"e enou"h !oot to acco odate for the #ro#er soc$s and the chan"e in foot siCe while archin"% Two different thic$nesses of insoles for the !oots 53%2 G3<32 inchH and >%: G3<F inchH6 co #ensates for the chan"e in foot . sturdier construction% O.ide the friction needed to cli !% Clothin"% Durin" ountain o#erations.
e #ers#iration 5control o. the use of the authoriCed allowance #lus additional ite s authoriCed for Cones *. and try to $ee# the clothin" and !ody dry% Any interference with circulation of the !lood reduces the a ount of heat deli. and *II.6 ha.i"ure :1>.e ent6.ide the ade4uate #rotection necessary in hi"her or ore ru""ed areas.in" to #re.5. *I.ered to the e-tre ities% Aear all clothin" and e4ui# ent loose to a. therefore.ent it fro eltin" and a$in" clothin" wet% . face.oid e-cessi. and s#ecial ountaineerin" e4ui# ent ay !e authoriCed under s#ecial cli atic conditions% Cold1Aeather Clothin" Directions% @ou ust wear the #ro#er clothin" for #rotection a"ainst cold and wind The face ust !e #rotected in hi"h winds and when e-#osed to aircraft #ro#eller or rotor wash% A.e% E-ercise fin"ers. and toes to $ee# the war and to detect any nu ! or hard areas% Aar the ears for the sa e reason% (rush snow off clothin" !efore o.oid interference with circulation% +se ade4uate clothin" and shelter when inacti.e !een esta!lished !ased on the a.era"e te #erature in the coldest and war est onths% Clothin" allowance authoriCed for lower areas or Cones ay not #ro.
erheatin"D chan"e wet clothes when sto##edD and add layers when sto##ed. layered "ar ents can !e re o. or re o.e head"ear or reduce head"ear layerin" for a short #eriod% O#en the front of clothin" one layer at a ti e.er. as needed% Re e !er C1O1&1D to $ee# war Kee# clothin" Clean% A.iduals to cool so ra#idly that they !e"in to sneeCe or shi.oid O. the "uidelines are: dress li"ht when o.ent cold in7uries% Ar y cold1weather "ear is desi"ned on the layer #rinci#le: loose clothin" worn in layers "i. down to and includin" ther al underwear% Ii# u# the outer "ar ent #art of the way to allow the !ody to cool% Re"ulate heat loss further !y o#enin". is uch easier when loose. which will allow chillin" to occur% Do not allow indi. the #rocess of coolin" off slowly.e layers of clothin" o#en.er% .erheatin"% Aear clothin" &oose and in &ayers% Kee# clothin" Dry% *entilation is acco #lished !y the followin": in winter% Re o. closin".in" layers of clothin" to allow heat to slowly esca#e fro the chest% Do not o#en all layers suddenlyD coolin" will occur too 4uic$ly% Do not lea.in" to #re.es a-i u insulatin" airs#ace to retain !ody heat% *entilation.Pro#er wear of cold1weather clothin" hel#s #re.idual situation cannot !e dictated !ecause all soldiers feel the effects of cold differently% Eowe.ed one at a ti e% Protect the insulatin" layers throu"h the use of water and wind#roofed outer clothin"% Each indi.ent sweatin" and o.
en Does not se#arate under hi"h co #ression Is unifor Transfers in thic$ness o.ent a!rasion of the feet at areas of hi"h co #ression% Is densely wo. ay restrict circulation.y A "ood soc$1 Is dense enou"h to #re.oot #rotection includes1 Insulatin" the feet fro Protectin" the feet fro cold and heat a!rasion !y the inside of the !oot% Pro. and co #ress the soc$ fi!ers. which reduces air s#ace and hinders insulation% .idin" cushionin" a"ainst shoc$ on the soles of the feet% Aidin" in oisture transfer fro the s$in to the !oot surface% archin"% Allowin" for swellin" and e-#ansion of the feet durin" hea. wear a thin cotton or sil$ soc$ 5Ar y !lac$ dress soc$6% Kee# the toes free enou"h to wi""le% If your feet sweat. one #air at a ti e% Aearin" ore can a$e your !oot fit too ti"htly.ide foot #rotection in hot and cold weather% . !ut do not wear #oly#ro#ylene or sil$ soc$s alone% @ou should wear wool soc$s as an outer soc$.aila!le.er the entire foot oisture fro the foot to the !oot @ou should wear a #oly#ro#ylene li"htwei"ht soc$ closest to the foot since the Ar y OD "reen soc$. or any 300 #ercent wool soc$ ay cause your foot to sweat% If #oly#ro#ylene soc$s are not a. chan"e soc$s and liners. Soc$s% Soc$s #ro.
nylon. ra##ellin". and #ile lon" underwear all #ro. you ay use a #atrol or (D+ ca# to . #oly#ro#ylene. which results in a snu""er fit% +nderwear% +ndershorts and undershirts #ro.ide e-tra insulation and cushionin".ery o. nec$. #ro ote e-cessi.e se.ent foot in7ury. you should ha.oidin" cold1weather in7uries% To #re. which retain oisture and hence #ro ote frost!ite% Those ade of non#orous #lastic. and thorou"hly dry the feet !efore re#lacin" the !oots% (oot Inserts% Ahen in a wet or cold1wet weather% @ou ay choose to wear inserts of the orthotic u#lift . 7ac$ets.er a thin inner soc$ of nylon or #oly#ro#ylene% Co ercially ade soc$s that are of densely wo. you should add reinforced $nees. noncushion1sole wool are e-cellent for cold weather% Pro#er foot care is critical in a. or #ile% They hel# #re. !ut not too loose so that war air ne-t to the !ody is lost% &oose clothin" ay hinder cli !in". and !uttoc$s% Ba$e sure your unifor is $e#t dry at all ti es% Outerwear% These are e-ternal #ants.en. cru !le. water. and cold.es added #rotection to the nec$ a"ainst cold% In hot weather.In cold weather. clean. water#roof.a #rotects the head.ent your head and nec$ fro losin" heat in the cold weather% The !alacla.ide insulation% &on" underwear. el!ows. the !est issue soc$s are the tan<s$i ountain soc$s 5.ide the first layer of clothin"% If the weather is cold or wet. you should $ee# your feet dry% Chan"e soc$s at least once a day and after e.e foot sweatin" causin" you to chan"e soc$s ore often% If you use inserts.9 #ercent wool and :9 #ercent cotton6% @ou should wear the o. sha$e. and air the for at least two hours% Trousers and Shirts% These are #art of the duty unifor % They ay !e ade of cotton. and rain "ear% They should !e wind#roof. #ar$as.ed if the soldier !eco es too war % @ou should chan"e your underwear at least twice a wee$% If it is not #ossi!le to wash the .eral sets so you can chan"e the when chan"in" soc$s% @ou ust a$e sure that there is enou"h roo in the !oot to allow toe otion since the inserts #ro. or a fi!er !lend% @our unifor should !e loose enou"h to allow for added layers underneath.ariety% They are ade fro ?solid? #lastic as o##osed to other inserts that are co #osed of cloth and foa . and war s the air !efore it is !reathed% The #ile ca# and hood are e-cellent for use in cold weather% The wool scarf "i. and snow out of the !oots% Eead"ear% @ou should wear ca#s or hats ade of wool. wet. as a layer.erin" that $ee# wind. wool.e ent% Bassa"e. and the face fro wind. and worn as the outer ost layer of clothin"% 'aiters% These are an$le or $nee len"th le" co. lon" underwear should !e worn% Aool. and usin" harness and e4ui# ent% If not already in the unifor . can !e re o.
wool.es 5inner liner and outer shell6 Aor$ "lo.iolet rays% They should feature side shields. needle. soc$s ay !e worn o. and a nec$!and to #re. cord. wire.es and Bittens% As a e !er of a cli !in" #arty. and tie $nots% To o!tain e-cellent insulation. and insulated6 Drawers and undershirts &on" underwear 5#oly#ro#ylene or woolD cold en. or e4ui# ent% ilitary hel et #rotects you durin" 'lo. and ultra.er the hands as ittens% Sun"lasses or 'o""les% These #rotect the eyes fro wind.iron ent6 Aind and rain "ear 5#ar$a and #ants6 Eead"ear 5!alacla.iron ent6 Slee#in" !a" Poncho and liner Aater#roof !a" Slee#in" #ad Shelter 5tent6 Re#air $it 1 #liers. ta#e. ra##el. rain<sun6 Bittens<"lo.iolet rays% They should ha. use ittens to $ee# the hands and fin"ers war er than "lo. thread. #oly#ro#ylene.es. nylon. outer. sil$.ent ultra.ides a wind#roof and water#roof layer as well as addin" to insulation% Durin" an e er"ency. or a co !ination #ro.es at all ti es% Durin" cold weather.a. #ins.iron ent6 'aithers 5cold en. you ay use liners ade of wool. oil.es allows you the freedo to cli !. i #act1resistant lenses that sto# infrared and ultra.ent loss% The standard #ac$in" list for a soldier8s ruc$sac$ includes ite s that you will need durin" a ission% Re e !erJ Only needed ite s should !e carried Ruc$sac$ Ite s Ruc$sac$ with fra e and waist!and . !elay. you should carry wor$ "lo. ra"s. ice. snow. fle-i!le fra es.#re. and #ile% A shell of leather.is #ins Sto.ood (oots 5terrain and weather1de#endent6 E-tra unifor E-tra soc$s 5inner. !ut de-terity is lost% The use of "lo. cle.es Down or synthetic "ar ents 5cold en.iolet rays fro !urnin" your head% The a fall or fro fallin" roc$s.e dar$. cloth.e 5accessories and fuel6 Aea#on cleanin" $it 'eneral E4ui# ent% .
#hoto"ra#hs. #lastic #rotractor.or future use.i"ational aids. last 90 #ercent lon"er than car!on1Cinc !atteries% Knife% The ain tools to assist you in ro#e ana"e ent are a s all #oc$et$nife with a ain !lade and arlines#i$e% @ou ay carry other !lades and tools to suit your needs% Re#air I #ro. electrical ta#e. you ust use red or !lue filters% @ou should carry s all and co #act li"hts% Al$aline !atteries1(A >01>0.aila!le a#s ust !e studied and carried !y all unit leaders% Co #ass% +se of a co #ass is a #ri ary eans of deter inin" aCi uth.lashli"hts and Eeadla #s% &i"hts should !e carried !y all #ersonnel in the cli !in" #arty% @ou should not e it any li"ht% Ahen a li"ht is needed in a tactical situation. you should record the readin"s since they re. direction.isation% One e !er of the cli !in" #arty should carry a s all re#air $it containin" ite s such as wire.ation and chec$ it re"ularly when encounterin" $nown ele. cali!rated in ils and de"rees since it is needed when wor$in" with a#s% Alti eter% The alti eter is a !aro eter with a dial ar$ed in feet or eters 5altitude6 rather than #ressure% It can .ice a#s. and location% @ou ust $now how to use the co #ass !efore startin" an o#eration% So e of the co #asses a. needles.aila!le are. and other sources% The !est a. ra"s. s$etch a#s. a thorou"h study should !e conducted of ilitary to#o"ra#hic a#s. hunter8s a#s. li4uid1filled. and #ris atic% Protractor% @ou should include on the #ac$in" list the standard. lensatic. forest ser. s all. you should cali!rate it to a $nown ele.eal !aro etric chan"es that assist in #redictin" weather chan"es% Its accuracy will de#end on your e-#erience and s$ill% (efore usin" the alti eter.ations at $nown locations on the a#% . oil.er. re#air $its and other e4ui# ent% Ba#% (efore startin" an o#eration. li"hts.idual% They assist the unit in sustainin" its o#erational ca#a!ility% 'eneral e4ui# ent includes ite s such as na.'eneral e4ui# ent includes ite s used !y the unit and not the indi. !ut are not li ited to. they should not !e used as an a!solute indicator for ele. wire cutters.erify a location when used with a a# and co #ass% The alti eter can !e used in !oth the ascent and the descent as well as findin" #re. and #liers% .ious routes that ha. #ioneer tools.ation since they res#ond to chan"es in at os#heric #ressure !ased on local weather% They are usually accurate to within 30 eters of the indicated altitude% . safety #ins. 990 #arachute cord. ta#e.e !een windswe#t% Eowe. thread.
ers and cu# . desi"n. and a unition #ouches Canteens. you ay carry other ite s and e4ui# ent% So e of the ite s to !e worn or carried are listed !elow.es 5for the weather and for ra##els or !elays6 PART D .irst1aid case with dressin" Knife 5sheath.ati"ue unifor +nderwear 5lon" or shortD ther al or cotton6 Soc$s 5inner and outer6 Aet weather<cold weather clothin" Ba# Protractor Co #ass Alti eter Pen.lashli"ht &i# !al Identification ta"s<card Ear#lu"s Eye"lasses 5or safety "lasses6 Sun"lasses<"o""les . sus#enders. #oc$et.i"ure :1>F6% . !ayonet6 Batches or li"hter 'lo. #a#er Aristwatch Aater #urification ta!lets Pistol !elt. !ut REBEB(ER only needed ite s should !e carried% Ite s to !e Aorn or Carried Indi. 3 4uart 5: each6 with co.Other E4ui# ent% As the situation and ission dictate.TYPES OF PITONS AND PITON HAMMERS 3% 'eneral% A #iton is a etal #in that is ha ered into a crac$ in the roc$% It is descri!ed !y its thic$ness. #encil. and len"th and #ro.idual wea#on A unition with a"aCines (oots 5a##roach and cli !in"6 Ca# and hel et .ides a secure anchor for a ro#e that ay !e attached !y a sna#lin$ 5.
wafer. which are ade of either allea!le or hardened steel.ertical crac$s 5.i"ure :1>/6% . and alloys% The stren"th of the #iton is deter ined stren"th% ore !y its #lace ent rather than its rated tensile :% Ty#es of Pitons% There are two ty#es of #itons They are: !lades that hold when wed"ed into ti"ht1fittin" crac$s.There are four confi"urations used !y the +%S% Ar y% They are the .ertical. and an"les that hold !lade co #ression when wed"ed into a crac$% *ertical #itons% The !lade and eye are ali"ned% *ertical #itons are used in flush . horiContal. and an"le.
EoriContal #itons% The eye of the #iton is at ri"ht an"les to the !lade% These #itons are used in flush horiContal crac$s and in offset or o#en1!oo$ ty#e . "i.ided for the sna#lin$s% Knife !lade #itons% These are used in direct1aid cli !in" They are s all and fit into thin.ertical #iton under the sa e circu stances% Aafer #itons% These are used in shallow.ertical #itons in . flush crac$s They ha.in" it ore holdin" #ower than the .i"ure :1=06% They are reco ended for use in #lace of . shallow crac$s% They ha.i"ure :1=36% .e little holdin" #ower and ha.e their wea$est #oints in the rin"s #ro.ertical crac$s since the tor4ue on the eye tends to wed"e it into #lace.e a ta#ered !lade that is o#ti u for !oth stren"th and holdin" #ower% RealiCed +lti ate Reality Pitons 5R+RPs6% These are hatchet1sha#ed #itons a!out 31inch s4uare% They are desi"ned to !ite into thin shallow crac$s 5.ertical or horiContal crac$s 5.
i"ure :1=:6% Ba-i u stren"th is attained only when the le"s of the #iton are in contact with o##osite sides of the crac$% (on" #itons% These are an"le #itons that are ore than >%F c 53KL inches6 wide% (on"s are co only ade of steel or alu inu alloy and usually contain holes to reduce wei"ht and acco odate sna#lin$s 5.i"ure :1=>6% They ha.e a hi"h holdin" #ower and re4uire less ha erin" than other #itons% . An"le #itons% These are used in wide crac$s that are flush or offset 5.
en until only the eye #rotrudes. durin". and after use to "uarantee ser.icea!ility% Chec$ the ends for ? ushroo in"? which is caused !y continued #oundin"% Ba$e sure the . S$yhoo$ 5cliffhan"ers6% These are s all hoo$s that clin" to tiny roc$ #rotrusions.in" the % They ust !e #laced so that they do not !end !ac$wards% They should !e dri. which is to a #oint where they are secure and #ro. or fla$es 5. led"es.in"% @ou should ins#ect #itons !efore.ent rotation and aid sta!ility% @ou should ins#ect and care for #itons at all ti es% Pitons ay !e reused any ti es !y carefully retrie.i"ure :1==6% S$yhoo$s re4uire constant tension and are used in a downward #ull direction% The cur.ide the needed #rotection% Choosin" the #ro#er siCe and sha#e to fit the s#ecific crac$ is $ey for e #lace ent and ease in retrie.ed end will not strai"hten under !ody wei"ht% The !ase is desi"ned to #re.
and lanyard% The ha ers should !e free of !urrs.iew the aterial #resented in this lesson% Answers and feed!ac$s for the 4uestions in the #ractice e-ercise are #ro.e now co #leted the instructional aterial for &esson :% (efore you co #lete the #ractice e-ercise for this lesson. or leather% The lanyard secures the ha er to the cli !er8s !ody% These ha ers are used to dri. a##ly a li"ht coat of oil% @ou should $ee# #itons dry durin" a cli !% >% Piton Ea ers% This ha er has a flat. or fi!er"lass #rotected with ta#eD a !lunt #ic$ on the o##osite side of the ha erD and a safety lanyard of nylon cord.i"ure :1=96% @ou should ins#ect the #iton ha er for ser. crac$s. etal.!lades are strai"ht and ed"es ta#ered% All rusted and chi##ed #itons should !e filed and ru!!ed s ooth% To #rotect the durin" stora"e.icea!ility such as the head.ided to show you where further study is re4uired% . clean crac$s.e #itons. you should re. store the ha er in a clean. #is$. and rust% The head ust !e ti"ht1fittin" on the handle% Ahen not in use. and #ry o!7ects loose% There are different ty#es and siCes% @ou should choose one that will suit the intended use% The #ri ary difference are in the desi"n of the heads 5. handle.e and re o. dry area% Conclusion: @ou ha. we!!in". steel headD a handle ade of wood. shaft.
0001#ound tensile stren"th% d% :2 eters 5303 feet6 lon" and 33 F.<32 inch6 wide with at least a illi eters 5.eM ilitary nylon1laid cli !in" ro#e.0001#ound tensile stren"th% :% Durin" the should ountainous e-ercise you will !e handlin" ro#es% As a "eneral rule.ered in this lesson% There is only one correct answer for each ite % Ahen you ha.<32 inch6 wide with at least a illi eters 5.9001#ound tensile stren"th% c% >0 eters 5/0 feet6 lon" and 33 3.LESSON 2 PRACTICAL EXERCISE Instructions The followin" ite s will test your understandin" of the aterial co.e heat and to a.oid d% wash the ro#e daily to eli inate e-cessi.ed% Situation% As a e !er of a unit #artici#atin" in ountainous aneu. you a% $ee# the ro#e clean.<32 inch6 wide with at least an a% >2 eters 53:0 feet6 lon" and 33 =. you are re4uired to select cli !in" ro#es and #ut the to use !y selectin" the a##ro#riate $not5s6 and sna#lin$s a.aila!le to successfully co #lete the tas$ assi"ned% 3% Ahen your unit recei.<32 inch6 wide with at least a illi eters 5. what illi eters 5. chec$ your answers with the answer $ey that follows% If you answer any ite incorrectly.9001#ound tensile stren"th% !% :9 eters 5F0 feet6 lon" and 33 =.oid wea$ fi!ers on the . re.e co #leted the e-ercise.es a standard characteristics will it ha. neatly coiled and stac$ed u# on layers on the "round% !% $ee# the ro#e clean since dirt can da a"e a ro#e throu"h a!rasion% c% $ee# the ro#e clean !y washin" it with a a!rasions% ro#e% ild !leach or fa!ric softener to a.ers.ol.iew that #art of the lesson which contains the #ortion in.
iddle ro#e iddle ro#e $nots. the 7oinin" and iddle ro#e $nots% iddle ro#e.e !een desi"nated to e-#lain to the less e-#erienced cli !ers the classes of $nots used !y all cli !ers% @ou $now a% there are fi.e !een instructed !y the leader of the cli !in" #arty to tie a clo. you should a% $now that all sna#lin$s are ade of steel with an o. anchor $nots.erhand $nots. e-ce#t on a #ic$et hold fast% iddle of the ro#e% two fi-ed loo#s at the end of the ro#e% two fi-ed loo#s in the iddle of the ro#e% 2% All sna#lin$s ha.erhand $nots.e !asically the sa e characteristics% Ahen usin" sna#lin$s. you ha. and s#ecial $nots% !% there are only two classes.al sha#e% ust !e closed !% $now that the wea$est #art of a sna#lin$ is the "ate. the first chec$#oint you should chec$. fisher an $nots. and s#ecial $nots% d% these classes are only a "eneral "uide and they are the 7oinin" and $nots% =% After tyin" a water $not. anchor.>% As a e !er of your unit. fi-ed loo# in the etal. is a% to !% to c% to d% to a$e sure there are two round turns around the anchor with a loc$in" !ar% a$e sure there are four o. and it !efore a##lyin" a load% .e hitch $not on !% for c% for d% for a sin"le.e classes to include 7oinin" $nots. c% these classes are only a "eneral "uide and they are 7oinin". two retracin" the other two% a$e sure there are four round turns around the anchor with a loc$in" !ar a$e sure there are two o.e hitch $not on a etal anchor% @ou should a% not use a clo. one retracin" the other% 9% @ou ha.
you will !e re4uired to de onstrate your a!ility !y tyin" and untyin" these $nots% =% retracin" the other% d% To a$e sure there are two o. and s#ecial $nots% Althou"h these classes of $nots are only listed in your te-t as a "eneral "uide.<32 inch6 3% a% >2 eters 53:0 feet6 lon" and 33 wide with at least a =. and aterial for cli !in" ro#es.c% $now that the hea. and sisal. you should $now they e-ist% Sooner or later. he #. as a ilitary ountaineer it is necessary that you $now the e-act s#ecifications for future use % !% Kee# the ro#e clean since dirt can da a"e a ro#e :% throu"h a!rasion% It is i #ortant to ins#ect the ro#e !efore usin" it% Pro#er care of the ro#e is essential since it will ensure your safety and that of the other e !ers of your unit% >% 7oinin". anchor. c% These classes are only a "eneral "uide and they are iddle ro#e.erhand $nots. one .iest and stron"est sna#lin$ is ade of alu inu and co##er% d% $now that the nonloc$in" sna#lin$s are the !est in the field since they are easy to o#erate% LESSON TWO PRACTICE EXERCISE ANSWER KEY AND FEEDBACK Item Co e!t A"#$e %"& Fee&'%!( illi eters 5.9001#ound tensile stren"th% is now the standard Since nylon has re#laced anila. fla-.
26% it 2% !% $now that the wea$est #art of a sna#lin$ is the "ate. it is i #ortant to dou!le chec$ your wor$ !y followin" the list of chec$#oints% If your $not does not eet the re4uire ents of one of the chec$#oints.oid #ersonal in7uries or destruction of e4ui# ent% . and ust !e closed !efore a##lyin" a load% Sna#lin$s should !e carefully selected and ins#ected !efore usin" to a. e-ce#t on a #ic$et This $not should not !e tied on etal !ecause as a "eneral ust ha.Ahen tyin" any class of $nots.e constant tension to a.oid sli##in" 5Pa"e . re#eat the tyin" #rocess until corrected% 9% hold fast% rule once the $not is tied it a% not use a clo.e hitch $not on etal.
nderstand and identify eneral te!hni"ues# $itons and $iton hammers# %elays# and ra$$ellin & CONDITIONS: The student will demonstrate a !om$rehension and knowled e of the task %y dis$layin an understandin of the eneral te!hni"ues# $itons and $iton hammers# %elays# and ra$$ellin & STANDARDS: The material !ontained in this lesson was deri-ed from the followin $u%li!ation: RE.ERENCES: The material !ontained in this lesson was deri-ed from the followin $u%li!ation: TC /01213 INTRODUCTION Clim%in e"ui$ment and te!hni"ues $ro-ide the fundamentals for all military mountaineerin o$erations& These o$erations $ro-ide a!!ess to ru ed mountainous terrain& In su!h terrain# there are three ad-ersaries: the weather# mountains# and enemy& These ad-ersaries !an %e o-er!ome %y troo$s who are skilled in the use of s$e!ial .LESSON THREE CLIMBING TECHNIQUES OVERVIEW TASK DESCRIPTION: In this lesson you will learn to identify and demonstrate your knowled e on eneral te!hni"ues# $itons and $iton hammers# %elays# and ra$$ellin & 'EARNIN( O)*ECTI+E: TASKS: .
GENERAL TECHNIQUES 3& Clim%in Te!hni"ues& All leaders o$eratin in mountainous areas must %e oriented and skilled in military mountaineerin & The e6e!ution and su!!ess of the mission in mountainous o$erations de$end on the le-el of indi-idual and unit skill $rofi!ien!y and !onditionin & Only throu h $ra!ti!e and re$etition do a!tions %e!ome refle6i-e and is the oal of hi h indi-idual and unit $rofi!ien!y reali5ed& Personnel trained in mountain o$erations should form the !adre to train unit $ersonnel& )efore undertakin mountain o$erations it is mandatory to train all unit $ersonnel in %alan!e and $arty !lim%in & .nits with a mountaineerin mission should ha-e two teams that !onsist of three e6$ert ro!k !lim%ers 7assault !lim%ers8 for ea!h $latoon& The other unit mem%ers should %e skilled in %asi! military mountaineerin 7mountain walkin # %alan!e !lim%in # knot tyin # %uildin of installations# and %rid in 8& Pre$aration for mountain o$erations is not !om$lete until the unit !ommander knows how all of his men will rea!t to e6$osure to hei ht and to the a%o-e1a-era e $hysi!al effort& Ea!h soldier is e6$osed to unknown dan ers& The fear of fallin is a human instin!t and is hard to o-er!ome& Analysis of a soldier9s rea!tion to hei ht allows the !ommander to $la!e those who do not o-er!ome su!h fear in a $osition where they will not endan er the li-es of other unit mem%ers& A soldier !annot %e for!ed to i nore his fear of hei ht& Physi!al and $sy!holo i!al !onditionin are not enou h to $rodu!e !om$etent !lim%ers& The soldier must $ossess a will to !lim%& These two as$e!ts# !onditionin and will# !om%ined with skill ained throu h $ra!ti!e# $rodu!e $ositi-e results& :& 4ountain .mountain !lim%in e"ui$ment and te!hni"ues& 4ountainous o$erations re"uire s$e!iali5ed e"ui$ment and te!hni"ues different from those used in other en-ironments& PART A .alkin & The art of mountain walkin may mean relearnin how to walk& Effe!ti-e mountain walkin in!ludes the !orre!t te!hni"ue reinfor!ed %y e6$erien!e& There are se-eral te!hni"ues# howe-er# all te!hni"ues ha-e the same oal: safe mo-ement o-er diffi!ult terrain with the least e6$enditure of ener y to arri-e at a destination in ood !ondition to !om$lete the mission& .
hen takin a rest halt# %oot la!es should %e loosened and the %ody -entilated 7throu h layer dressin 8& At the end of a day9s>ni ht9s !lim%# a ood rest is needed to re-i-e tired mus!les& The rest ste$ is used for stee$ !lim%in & The $a!e is ke$t slow and rhythmi!& This slow# steady# haltin rest ste$ is more effi!ient than s$urts of s$eed# whi!h are ra$idly e6haustin and re"uire lon er re!o-ery& 4ountain walkin is di-ided into four te!hni"ues de$endent on the eneral formation of the terrain: walkin on hard round# rassy slo$es# s!ree slo$es# and talus slo$es& .Pro$er Te!hni"ue& <ou must a%ide %y se-eral mountain $rin!i$les to ease your mo-ement o-er diffi!ult terrain& These a$$ly to all mountain walkin te!hni"ues& <ou must !enter your wei ht dire!tly o-er your feet at all times& Pla!e your foot flat on the round to o%tain as mu!h 7%oot8 sole1 round !onta!t as $ossi%le& Then# $la!e your foot on the u$hill side of rass tusso!ks and other le-el s$ots to a-oid twistin the ankle and strainin the A!hilles tendon& <ou should rest %etween ste$s %y strai htenin the knee after ea!h ste$& Take small ste$s at a slow $a!e& <ou must a-oid stee$ an les of as!ent or des!ent# and take ad-anta e of any indentation in the round& As a mountaineer# you must set a tem$o# or num%er of ste$s $er minute# a!!ordin to the rate at whi!h the unit is mo-in & Sin!e $hysi!al differen!es mean the tem$os of two $eo$le mo-in at the same s$eed will not %e the same# it is %est that an inter-al of three to fi-e $a!es is ke$t %etween indi-iduals& This inter-al allows ea!h $erson to ad=ust his stride for !han es of slo$e or terrain# enhan!in their tem$o# $a!e# and rhythm& The $eo$le at the end of the file will %enefit from this inter-al sin!e the a!!ordion effe!t will %e lessened& The terrain# weather# and li ht !onditions affe!t the rate of !lim%& The more ad-erse the !onditions# the slower the $a!e& 4o-in too fast# e-en under ideal !onditions# $rodu!es early fati ue# re"uires more rest halts# and results in loss of !lim%in time& <ou will ha-e reater enduran!e to !lim% if you are well !onditioned and a!!limati5ed& <ou !an only mo-e as fast as your le s will allow& The keys to su!!essful mountain o$erations are: rest# ood nutrition# $ro$er !onditionin and a!!limati5ation# and the will to !lim%& )reaks are ke$t to a minimum& .
hen as!endin # your knees must %e lo!ked on e-ery ste$ to rest the mus!les of the le s& Stee$ slo$es !an %e tra-ersed rather than !lim%ed strai ht u$& Turnin at the end of ea!h tra-erse should %e done %y ste$$in off in the new dire!tion with the u$hill foot& This $re-ents !rossin the feet and $ossi%le loss of %alan!e& In tra-ersin # the full1sole 7%oot8 $rin!i$le is a!!om$lished %y rollin the ankle away from the hill on ea!h ste$& .hen des!endin # you should mo-e strai ht down a slo$e without tra-ersin & <our %a!k must %e strai ht and knees %ent so they take u$ the sho!k of ea!h ste$& <our %ody wei ht must %e dire!tly o-er the feet# and the full1sole is $la!ed on the round with ea!h ste$& .alkin with a sli ht forward lean and with feet in a normal $osition make the des!ent easier& (rassy Slo$es& They are usually !om$osed of small tusso!ks of rowth rather than one !ontinuous field& In as!endin # the u$$er side of ea!h hummo!k or tusso!k is ste$$ed on where the round is more le-el than on the lower side& .hen des!endin a rassy slo$e# a !lim%er should tra-erse %e!ause of the une-en nature of the round& <ou !an easily %uild u$ too mu!h s$eed and fall if a dire!t des!ent is tried& The ho$1ski$ ste$ !an %e useful on this ty$e of slo$e& In this te!hni"ue# the lower le takes all of the wei ht# and the u$$er le is used only for %alan!e& . .or small stret!hes# the herrin %one ste$ may %e used1as!endin strai ht u$ a slo$e with toes $ointed out& A normal $ro ression as the slo$e stee$ens would %e from walkin strai ht u$ the slo$e# to a herrin %one ste$# and then to a tra-erse on the stee$er areas& .alkin on ?ard (round& ?ard round is firmly $a!ked dirt that does not i-e way under the wei ht of a soldier9s ste$& .hen tra-ersin # the !lim%er9s u$hill foot $oints in the dire!tion of tra-el& The downhill foot $oints a%out @A de rees off the dire!tion of tra-el& This maintains ma6imum sole !onta!t and $re-ents $ossi%le downhill ankle roll1out& S!ree Slo$es& These !onsist of small ro!ks and ra-el that ha-e !olle!ted %elow ro!k rid es and !liffs& S!ree -aries in si5e from rains of sand to the si5e of a fist& Sometimes it o!!urs in mi6tures of all si5es# %ut normally s!ree slo$es !onsist of the same si5e $arti!les& If $ossi%le# you should a-oid as!endin s!ree slo$es sin!e they are diffi!ult and tirin & All $rin!i$les of as!endin hard round a$$ly# %ut ea!h ste$ is !hosen !arefully so that the foot does not slide down when wei ht is $la!ed on it& This is done %y ki!kin in with the .
hene-er a ro!k is ki!ked loose# the warnin # CRo!k#C is shouted immediately& Personnel near the %ottom of a !liff immediately lean into the !liff to redu!e their e6$osure# and they do not look u$& Personnel more than 30 feet away from the %ottom of a !liff may look u$ to determine where the ro!k is and seek !o-er %ehind an o%sta!le& .sually# a talus slo$e is easier to as!end and tra-erse# while a s!ree slo$e is a more desira%le a-enue of des!ent& .hen the herrin 1%one ste$ is used to as!end s!ree# the a6e !an %e used %y $la!in %oth hands on to$ of it& The %ottom 7or $oint8 of the a6e is sunk into the s!ree# and the a6e is used for %alan!e& The !lim%er uses the herrin %one ste$ u$ to the a6e& The tenden!y to run down a s!ree slo$e is a-oided so !ontrol is not lost& .hen walkin in talus# whether as!endin or des!endin # always ste$ on the to$ of and on the u$hill side of the ro!ks& This re"uires the least amount of mo-ement into the slo$e& Always use !aution when mo-in in talusB lar e ro!ks !an %e held in $la!e %y smaller keystonesB distur%in them !an !ause ro!k slides& Clim%ers must stay in !lose !olumns while tra-ersin & To $re-ent ro!kfall in=uries# no mem%er of the $arty tra-erses %elow another mem%er& All other %asi!s mentioned a$$ly& The te!hni"ues dis!ussed $re-iously are $re!autions you may take to redu!e the most !ommon mountaineerin ha5ard1 ro!kfall& .hen se-eral !lim%ers des!end a s!ree slo$e to ether# they should %e as !lose to ether as $ossi%le# one %ehind the other a%out one arm9s len th a$art# to $re-ent in=ury from dislod ed ro!k& S!ree slo$es !an %e tra-ersed usin the i!e a6e as a third $oint of !onta!t& Always kee$ the i!e a6e on the u$hill side& .toe of the u$$er foot so that a ste$ is formed in the s!ree& After determinin that the ste$ is sta%le# wei ht is transferred from the lower to the u$$er foot& The $ro!ess is re$eated& The %est method for des!endin s!ree slo$es is to !ome strai ht down the slo$e usin a short shufflin ste$ with the knees %ent# %a!k strai ht# feet $ointed downhill# and heels du in& .hen the %ottom of the route !annot %e seen# !aution is used sin!e dro$offs may %e en!ountered& Talus Slo$es& Talus is a slo$e formed %y an a!!umulation of ro!k de%ris mu!h lar er than a man9s fist .arnin & Do not run downhill sin!e $ersonal in=ury !ould o!!ur& If an i!e a6e is !arried# it may %e used as a third $oint of !onta!t on diffi!ult terrain& Otherwise# it is !arried on or in the ru!ksa!k with its head down and se!ured& The same $ro!edure a$$lies if it is used on i!e& Carelessness !an !ause the failure of a well1$lanned mission& One ro!k no %i er than a man9s head !an kill or se-erely in=ure se-eral men and ruin all se!urity measures& Ste$$in o-er# rather than on to$ of# o%sta!les su!h as lar e ro!ks or fallen lo s hel$ to a-oid fati ue& .
hen you rea!h a $osition of se!urity# try to rest sin!e tensed mus!les tire "ui!kly& Allow for !ir!ulation %y kee$in your arms as low as $ossi%le# and while you rela6# $lan your ne6t mo-e& .se your hands mainly for %alan!eB su$$ort your %ody wei ht with your feet& If you lean in toward a ro!k# your feet will not hold wellB you must kee$ your %ody out and away from the ro!k to !ounter the ra-itational $ull of the %ody& .ith your %ody in %alan!e# mo-e with a slow# rhythmi! motion 7.i ure D1:8& If $ossi%le# you should maintain three $oints of !onta!t with the ro!k# su!h as two hands and one foot& <ou must a-oid a s$read1ea le $osition sin!e you must stret!h too far and !annot let o without fallin & .hen sele!tin handholds# you should kee$ your hands a%out waist1to1shoulder le-el& This allows you the desired u$ri ht# %alan!ed $osition as well as restin your arms& It is $referred that you use small# intermediate holds rather than stret!hin and !lin in to widely se$arated holds& ?andholds may %e!ome su%se"uent footholds& <our arms or le s should not %e !rossed# nor should you use your knees or el%ows as handholds or footholds& .se your eyes to !lim% the $it!h& <ou should identify handholds and footholds# $ossi%le %elay $ositions# alternate routes# rest s$ots# and a route for down !lim%in or des!endin & <ou must use your eyes !ontinuously to look for !o-er# !on!ealment# su%se"uent handholds and footholds# and rest $ositions# as well as to !ontinue $lannin and re-ision of the route& Ni ht !lim%in is fa!ilitated %y the use of ni ht o%ser-ation de-i!es 7NODs8& )ody Position& As you mo-e and !lim%# your %ody must %e in %alan!eB that is# your wei ht must %e !entered o-er your feet& .D& )alan!e Clim%in & )alan!e !lim%in is used to !lim% ro!k formations& As a !lim%er# you must study the route you are to tra-el to ensure you ha-e !hosen the %est route and ha-e the $ro$er e"ui$ment& )efore startin an o$eration# you should mentally !lim% the route !hosen to anti!i$ate future e-ents or in!idents& Pro$er Te!hni"ue& The $ro$er te!hni"ue of %alan!e !lim%in in-ol-es the followin : Eyes& As a !lim%er# you must o%ser-e the entire route sele!ted to !lim%& .
ORT?& This a!ronym should hel$ you remem%er $ro$er $ro!edures durin %alan!e !lim%in & C 1 Conser-e ener y& A 1 Always test holds& S 1 Stand u$ri ht on fle6ed =oints& ? 1 ?ands are ke$t lowB handholds should %e waist1to1shoulder hi h& .at!h your feet& O 1 On three $oints of !onta!tB a-oid usin knees and el%owsB a-oid awkward# out of %alan!e $ositions& R 1 Rhythmi! mo-ement& T 1 Think and $lan ahead& ? 1 ?eels are ke$t lower than the toes and $ointed inward& .CAS?. 1 .
i ure D1D8& <ou must maintain a %alan!ed stan!e %y kee$in the %ody wei ht o-er your feet& 4ake sure you look at ea!h handhold and foothold for $ro$er $ositionin & As in as!endin # you should maintain three $oints of !onta!t with the ro!k# su!h as two hands and one foot& .Down !lim%in & Durin des!ents# you should fa!e out where the mo-in is easy# sideways where it is hard# and fa!e in where it is diffi!ult& ?olds are often not as -isi%le as when !lim%in u$ 7.
A''IN(& Push away from the ro!k fa!e& 4aintain $ro$er %ody $osition& ?ead down# !hin on !hest& ?ands shoulder1width a$art and e6tended toward the ro!k& )ody rela6ed& .The lar er mus!les# su!h as the thi hs# should do the work# as o$$osed to !al-es& If $ossi%le you should a-oid down !lim%in sin!e it is -ery dan erous& If an!hors are a-aila%le# ra$$ellin may %e "ui!ker# easier# and more $ra!ti!al for des!endin & .allin & To lessen the dan ers of fallin # and when you feel yourself sli$$in and %e innin to fall# you should take the followin a!tions: Sound off with the !ommand# .
eet ke$t %elow the %ody and shoulder1width a$art& E6tend the le s toward the ro!k& The only $oints of !onta!t with the ro!k fa!e should %e hands and feet& This $osition $re-ents the %ody from %oun!in off the ro!k and minimi5es in=ury %y redu!in e6$osure to the ro!k fa!e& @& ?olds& All handholds and footholds must %e sele!ted %ased on their !loseness and relati-e sta%ility& <ou must test these holds %y $ullin # $ushin # hittin # and ki!kin # and then %y a$$lyin %ody wei ht radually %efore use& <ou should not use your knees and el%ows as holds sin!e they tend to roll and are sus!e$ti%le to in=ury& <ou should not use $itons# !ho!ks# %olts# and runners as handholds and footholds sin!e they may C$o$C out& Sna$links may im$ale you and !ause se-ere in=uries& <ou should not rely on rass# trees# and shru%s %e!ause their roots are shallow& <ou should not try to ski$ or =um$ from one $osition to another& It is %est when tra-ersin to use a ho$ ste$ to !han e feet on a hold to mo-e sideways easily& There are si6 %asi! holds that are des!ri%ed %elow: Push ?olds& These holds are $ushed away from you in any dire!tion 7..i ure D1@8& They will hel$ you kee$ your arms low# %ut if you lose %alan!e they are diffi!ult to hold onto& This hold may %e used to your ad-anta e in !om%ination with a $ull hold& .
i ure D1A8& They are the most !ommonly sou ht handholds and tend to %e o-erused& Pull holds need not %e lar e to %e se!ure& Some holds may a!!ommodate only the fin erti$s# while others are lar e and rounded to fit the entire hand& .ri!tion ?olds& These holds de$end only on the fri!tion of hands or feet a ainst a relati-ely smooth surfa!e with a shallow hold 7. Pull ?olds& These holds are usually $ulled toward the %ody and are the easiest holds to use %ut the most likely to %reak out 7.i ure D128& They are hard to use# %e!ause they i-e a feelin of inse!urity whi!h the ine6$erien!ed !lim%er tries to !orre!t %y leanin !lose to the ro!k& This# in fa!t# de!reases the se!urity of fri!tion holds& These holds often ser-e well as intermediate holds& They !an $ro-ide you the su$$ort needed while mo-in o-er them# %ut would not hold if you were to sto$ or sli$& The effe!ti-eness of this hold de$ends on the ty$e of %oot wornB ty$e# !ondition# and an le of the ro!k fa!eB and other fa!tors& .
i ure D1E8& *ammin !an %e a!!om$lished %y $uttin the hand into the !ra!k and !len!hin it into a fist or %y $uttin an arm into the !ra!k and a$$lyin a !ross1$ressure for!e with the el%ow a ainst one side and the hand a ainst the other side& <ou must take !are that your %ody $art does not %e!ome so wed ed into the !ra!k that it !annot %e remo-ed easily& *am holds are often more se!ure than other ty$es of holds# and $ro-ide an effe!ti-e means of as!endin or down !lim%in & . *am ?olds& *ammin in-ol-es wed in fin ers# hands# arms# el%ows# feet# knees# le s# or any $art of the %ody or e6tremity into a !ra!k 7.
ide !ra!ks are lar e enou h for arms and le s %ut not for the entire %ody& A !ra!k wide enou h for the entire %ody is referred to as a !himney and re"uires stemmin te!hni"ues& .Narrow !ra!ks are ood for fin erti$ and toeti$ =ams& 4edium !ra!ks re"uire hand# fist# and foot =ams# with or without !ross $ressure& .
ootholds less than : !m 7D>@ in!h8 wide !an ser-e as intermediate holds# e-en when they slo$e out& Skillful footwork in ro!k !lim%in is essential& The feet should always %e !arefully $ositioned with the eyes ins$e!tin $la!ement& <ou should make as mu!h sole1 to1surfa!e !onta!t as $ossi%le& If you are wearin stiff1soled !om%at %oots# your foot should %e turned sideways so the ed e of the %oot is on the holdB if you are wearin fle6i%le ro!k shoes# you should !a$itali5e on the fri!tion and fle6i%ility of the shoe# and CsmearC downward with the toe $ointin u$hill& <ou must a-oid !rossin your feetB If you must !han e your feet# use the C!han e ste$&C 4akin ma6imum use of footholds1 !lim%in with the feet and le s1is an effe!ti-e means of !onser-in u$$er %ody stren th# . .i ure D1F8& .ootholds& On stee$ slo$es# the %ody should %e ke$t -erti!al# usin the small irre ularities in the slo$e to aid fri!tion 7.
i ure D1/8& A !ross $ressure hold is a!!om$lished %y $ressin the hands toward ea!h other on a ro!k $rotrusion or %y $la!in %oth hands in a lar e !ra!k and $ullin in o$$osite dire!tions 7see .i ure D1/8# or $ullin outward or $ressin inward with the arms& The $ush1$ull hold# as the name im$lies# in-ol-es usin a $ush hold and $ull hold at the same time 7.sin!e le mus!les are stron er than arm mus!les& If your le s are tired and -i%ratin # you should re ain your %alan!e and strai hten your le 7s8# allowin the mus!le to rela6 and restore $ro$er !ir!ulation& Com%ination ?olds& These holds are !om%inations and -ariations of the %asi! holds $re-iously dis!ussed& The num%er of these -ariations is limited only %y your a%ility# ima ination# and resour!efulness& The $in!h hold is attained %y $in!hin a $rotrudin surfa!e %etween the thum% and fin ers 7.i ure D1/8& The lie1%a!k hold is $erformed %y leanin to one side of an offset !ra!k 7see .i ure D1308 with the hands $ullin and the feet $ushin a ainst the offset side& It is a strenuous te!hni"ue that in-ol-es $la!in the hands in the !ra!k# $la!in the feet a ainst the offset side# and leanin %a!k with the arms fully e6tended while $ressure is a$$lied with the feet& The arms should %e e6tended so that there is wei ht on the %ones while the mus!les !an rest& An as!ent is made u$ the !ra!k& The hands slide u$ the !ra!k %ut are not !rossed& The feet should %e ke$t a%out shoulder1width a$art and shuffled u$ward# usin fri!tion and a-aila%le footholds to maintain %alan!e& .
In-erted $ull hold 7see .i ure D1338 and in-erted $ush hold# sometimes !alled underholds or under!lin s# $ermit !ross $ressure %etween the hands or feet& This in-ol-es $ullin u$ on a hold with the hands while downward $ressure is a$$lied with the feet on a suita%le foothold& .
i ure D13:8 re"uires usin two $ull holds at one time to raise the %ody& .Performin a mantel 7.
As the %ody is raised to !hest le-el# the handholds are used to $ush down to ele-ate the %ody the rest of the way u$& A foot is lifted u$ on the led e and the !lim%er stands u$& A mantel is most easily a!!om$lished on a led e& The ho$1ste$ or !han e1ste$ is used when a !lim%er wants to swit!h feet on the same foothold without an intermediate hold so that he may mo-e sideways& This te!hni"ue re"uires two solid handholds sin!e the !lim%er has %oth feet tem$orarily off the ro!k& The feet are !han ed with a sli ht u$ward ho$ followed %y $re!ise footwork& Chimney !lim%in 7.i ure D13D8 is used to e6ert !ross $ressure %etween the %a!k and the feet# hands# or knees& The entire %ody is inserted into a !ra!k in the ro!k& )y usin %oth sides of the o$enin and $ossi%ly all ty$es of %asi! holds# the !lim%er mo-es u$ the !ra!k& These te!hni"ues rely on the fri!tion that is maintained %y !ross $ressure with the %ody& As many $oints of !onta!t as $ossi%le must %e maintained& Stemmin is similar to !himney !lim%in B howe-er# the !lim%er e6tends %oth le s to use footholds %y $ushin in a sideways dire!tion 7!ross $ressure8& This $ro-ides a ood $osition to rest the arms& .se of ?olds& The use of a hold is =ust as im$ortant as the hold itself& A hold need not %e lar e to %e safe& E6$erien!ed !lim%ers use holds so small that the ine6$erien!ed !lim%er may not noti!e them& The !lim%er learns to $lan ea!h mo-e he makes& )efore makin a mo-e# he knows e6a!tly where his hands and feet are oin to %e $la!ed& ?e must also .
hen !lim%in ro$ed to ether# .$lan what his a!tion7s8 will %e if he tries a mo-e that does not work& All handholds and footholds are tested %efore use %y radually a$$lyin wei ht& Intermediate holds are handholds or footholds that are awkward or un!omforta%le to maintain# %ut allow you to shift your wei ht to a %etter hold& Shoulder Stand& The shoulder stand or human ladder is used to o-er!ome a lower se!tion of a $it!h that la!ks holds to rea!h the !lim%in a%o-e& .
i ure D13A8& .hen tra-ersin # you should stand ere!t with the lower foot $ointed sli htly downhill 7@A1de ree an le8 to in!rease %alan!e and fri!tion of your foot& The u$hill foot must $oint in the dire!tion of tra-el& .the lower man is an!hored to the ro!k and %elays the leader# who uses the lower man9s %ody as a ladder to o-er!ome a diffi!ult se!tion& 4o-ement on sla%& A sla% is a smooth $ortion of ro!k# layin at an an le 7.or added fri!tion# you should use all irre ularities in the slo$e& It may %e ne!essary to s"uat with the %ody wei ht well o-er the feet& ?ands are used %eneath the %utto!ks for added fri!tion& This resem%les a !ra% $osition and may %e used for as!endin # tra-ersin # or des!endin & <our wei ht should %e maintained e-enly o-er your hands and feetB leanin %a!k or lettin the %utto!ks dra redu!es fri!tion and a sli$ may result& .
se the full sole of your %oot as mu!h as $ossi%le& <ou should a-oid sla% !o-ered with i!e# moss# or s!ree# or that is wet sin!e it is dan erous& Pre!autions& As a !lim%er# you must always %e aware of a mar in of safety and o%ser-e all safety rules& 4ar in of Safety& This is the $rote!ti-e %uffer a !lim%er kee$s %etween what he knows to %e the limit of his a%ility and what he a!tually tries to !lim%& <ou learn your mar in of safety %y !lim%in near round le-el# or %y %ein tied to a ro$e and %elayed %y a trained nay a%o-e 7to$ ro$e8& <ou !lim% first on the easy holds# ne6t on the more diffi!ult holds# and finally on diffi!ult $it!hes until you rea!h your limit of a%ility& <ou should !al!ulate the mar in of safety not only for the $it!h immediately ahead# %ut also for the entire !lim%# thus a-oidin situations %eyond your a%ilities& In the leadershi$ $osition# you should know the a%ilities of your men and make allowan!es for their limitations& Safety Rules& To lessen the dan er of !lim%in # you should follow the $ro!edures listed %elow: .On a hi h1an le sla%# you should fa!e in toward the ro!k in a well1%alan!ed $osition with your wei ht !entered o-er the feet# sin!e your wei ht is !arried almost entirely %y fri!tion footholds& .ear a helmet with the !hin stra$ fastened when !lim%in on loose ro!k& .
se !are and !ommon sense when !lim%in on wet ro!k& Some ty$es of ro!ks !an %e e6tremely sli$$ery when wet& If -e etation must %e used as a hold# test them like any handhold sin!e they ha-e shallow roots& A-oid usin el%ows and knees& This !reates a %all%earin effe!t on the ro!k# whi!h !auses the !lim%er to %e off %alan!e& 4oreo-er# these =oints may sli$ and !ause se-ere %ody dama e& .allin &C +oi!e si nals are normally not used in a ta!ti!al situation& Do not look u$ when the warnin # CRo!kC# is heard from a%o-e& Immediately seek shelter or flatten a ainst the surfa!e& Tie into the !lim%in ro$e on all e6$osed areas& An!hor all %elay $oints& Remo-e wat!hes# rin s# and other =ewelry from the hands %efore !lim%in B it !an !ause se-ere in=uries when stu!k in a !ra!k& .Kee$ the soles of %oots !lean and dry& Always !lean the %oot soles %efore startin a !lim% %y ki!kin the feet a ainst the ro!k& If wearin !leated %oots# use a sti!k or some $ointed o%=e!t to !lean out the !leats& A-oid lun in or =um$in to rea!h a hold& Carefully !he!k all handholds and footholds %efore use to ensure they are not loose& Ne-er dislod e loose ro!ks !arelessly or intentionallyB if a ro!k %e!omes dislod ed# warn !lim%ers %elow immediately %y !allin out# CRo!k&C .hen fallin # remain under !ontrol %oth mentally and $hysi!ally& Retain $ro$er %ody $osition and try to a-oid e6!essi-e !onta!t 7hands and feet only8 with the ro!k& .hen a !lim%er falls# shout the warnin # C.allin C# to those %elow& .se the same warnin for any fallin o%=e!t e6!e$t for a fallin !lim%er# use C.
In initial trainin or when tryin diffi!ult mo-es low to the round# use a Cs$otterC to assist in %reakin a !lim%er9s fall& Do not wear lo-es while !lim%in on ro!k# %e!ause they de!rease the feel for ro!k and in!rease the !han!e of sli$$in & Dis!oura e the use of lo-es in trainin PART B .BELAYS 3& (eneral& )elayin $ro-ides the ne!essary safety fa!tor or tension# allowin the $arty to !lim% with a minimum of dan er& .hen $arty !lim%in # two or three !lim%ers are tied into a !lim%in ro$e& The use of a ro$e in $arty !lim%in is a ha5ard without %elayin skills& It may %e ne!essary to use one of se-eral %elay $ositions either with the %ody or me!hani!al %elay de-i!e& )elayin in-ol-es a stationary man mana in and !ontrollin the ro$e that is tied to a load& )elayin is used to !ontrol des!ent on ro$e installations& :& Safety& The %elay system !onsists of an interfa!in system of $arts& It is only as stron as the weakest link& The !om$onents of the %elay !hain affe!t as!ent and des!ent# addin fri!tion throu h $oints of !onta!t with the ro$e& These !om$onents are: )elay an!hor& 4eans of atta!hin the %elayer to the an!hor& )elayer9s stan!e# %ody# hands# and any a$$aratus to !ontrol the ro$e& Ro$e& Any intermediate an!hor $oints& .
Ro$e9s $oint of atta!hment to the load& 'oad 7or the !lim%er9s %ody8& D& Ty$es of )elays& There are always three as$e!ts !ommon to any %elay& They are: a ty$e of %elay 7dire!t or indire!t8B a method of !ontrollin the ro$e 7stati! or dynami!8B and a means of mana in the ro$e 7%ody or me!hani!al8& Ea!h of these areas will %e dis!ussed se$arately& .
The two %asi! ty$es of %elays are dire!t and indire!t: Dire!t )elay& The dire!t %elay is only a-aila%le when usin a me!hani!al de-i!e& The %elayer is !onne!ted to a $oint of $rote!tion and !ondu!ts the me!hani!al %elay from another $oint of $rote!tion& In this -ariation# the load oes dire!tly to the an!hor& .hen usin the indire!t %elay a$$roa!h# there are ad-anta es and disad-anta es that you must !onsider: Ad-anta es& Only two an!hor $oints 7$rimary and se!ondary8 are ne!essary for the %elayer and !lim%in ro$e& It is easier to set u$ and retrie-e than a dire!t %elay& Disad-anta es& The %elayer is $art of the %elay !hain and sustains $art of the for!e enerated %y the fall& ?e is a $art of the %elay !hain and !annot readily deta!h himself from the ro$e to assist the !lim%er& The two methods of !ontrollin the ro$e when holdin a fall are the stati! %elay and the dynami! %elay: .hen usin the dire!t %elay a$$roa!h# there are ad-anta es and disad-anta es that you must !onsider: Ad-anta es& The %elayer does not sustain any of the for!e enerated %y a fall %e!ause he is remo-ed from the %elay !hain& ?e !an "ui!kly tie off the ro$e and assist the !lim%er or res!ue $arty& Disad-anta es& The sele!ted an!hor $oint from whi!h to %elay the load must %e C%om%$roof&C If the $rimary and se!ondary an!hors fail# the load falls the full len th of the ro$e& It also takes more time to set u$ and take down than an indire!t %elay 7$rimary and se!ondary an!hors for %oth the %elayer and the dire!t %elay $oint8& Indire!t )elay& This %elay !an %e used for me!hani!al or %ody %elays& The %elayer is in dire!t !onta!t with the !lim%in ro$e and is $art of the %elay !hainB with this setu$# the load is a%sor%ed# in $art# %y the %elayer& .
hen usin this method# the %elayer should %rin his %rake hand a!ross his %ody immediately after the fall# firmly holdin the ro$e so that no ro$e runs throu h his hands& The %elayer must $re-ent any sla!k %etween himself and the !lim%er if a stati! %elay is to %e used effe!ti-ely& The ener y $rodu!ed %y the fall is a%sor%ed %y the !lim%in ro$e# whi!h results in hi h1im$a!t for!es# e-en in short falls& Dynami! %elay& This %elay allows the ro$e to run if a fall o!!urs& It is used to kee$ the for!e of a se-ere fall within a!!e$ta%le limits on the !lim%er# %elayer# !lim%in ro$e# and %elay !hain& This %elay is also used in haulin lines and sus$ension tra-erse& The ro$e is allowed to run only enou h to a!!om$lish the task& A dynami! %elay should %e used whene-er a !lim%er falls from a $osition other than dire!tly %elow the %elayer su!h as durin tra-ersin # when lo!ated a%o-e the %elayer# or %elayin throu h $itons& . Stati! %elay& This %elay does not allow the ro$e to run& It is used when the !lim%er falls from a $osition %elow the %elayer& .hen the !lim%er is mo-in away from the %elayer# there should always %e a sli ht amount of sla!k in the ro$e %etween them& The %elayer must a-oid $ullin the !lim%er off %alan!e %e!ause of holdin the ro$e too ti ht& If a fall o!!urs# the %elayer must rela6 his uide hand and# s"uee5in with his %rake hand# %rin the ro$e slowly a!ross his %ody to radually sto$ the fall& If the %elayer !annot withstand the for!e of the fall# he allows the ro$e to run while reinfor!in his $osition& (lo-es are always worn when !ondu!tin a dynami! %elay& If the ro$e sli$s durin im$a!t# $art of the fall ener y is !han ed into heat %y the fri!tion of the ro$e runnin throu h sna$links# o-er ed es# and so on& All dynami! %elays ha-e a !ontrolled sli$$in of the ro$e o-er a %rakin element& The fri!tion on the %reakin element dissi$ates $art of the fall ener y# thus# s$arin the !lim%er and %elay system from the hi h1im$a!t for!e& ?owe-er# sli$$in of the ro$e in!reases the len th of the fall& The two ways of mana in the ro$e when %elayin are the %ody %elay and the me!hani!al %elay& )ody %elays& These are used when the %elayer must sto$ a fall without other means& The ro$e is wra$$ed around the %ody and uses the %elayer9s %ody to !in!h down on the ro$e to arrest a fall& All %ody %elays are well suited for normal ro$e handlin & They are rarely suited for the inter!e$tion of se-ere falls& The ener y $rodu!ed in the fall is a%sor%ed# in $art# %y the %elayer9s %ody# whi!h !an !ause in=ury to the %elayer& 4e!hani!al %elays& Dynami!1me!hani!al %elay methods ha-e %een de-elo$ed to de!rease or a-oid the $ossi%le dan ers of %ody %elays& .
un!tion without mu!h additional e"ui$ment and %e $ra!ti!al& @& )elay Position& .hen the !lim%in ro$e is used and the %elayer is within an arm9s len th of an an!hor# a dou%le fi ure ei ht !an %e used to se!ure the !lim%in ro$e to the an!hor& This short se!tion of ro$e %etween an!hor and %elayer is !alled a self1%elay& .hen esta%lishin a %elay $osition# you# the %elayer must determine the anti!i$ated dire!tion of $ull in !ase of a fall& As the !lim%er mo-es u$ the ro!k# the dire!tion may !han e& <ou must CaimC your %elay in the dire!tion that will %est ena%le you to hold a fall& <ou should take !orre!ti-e measures if the ideal %elay $osition is different from the e6$e!ted dire!tion of $ull& This !orre!ti-e a!tion is a!!om$lished %y $la!in more $rote!tion 7$iton# !ho!k# or runner8 in a lo!ation that ali ns the %elay with the e6$e!ted dire!tion of $ull& A& 4ethods of Prote!tion& The %elayer an!hors himself to a relia%le an!hor usin a $art of the !lim%in ro$e or his slin 7utility8 ro$e& .A ood me!hani!al %elay should1 )e easy and sim$le to handle& Allow "ui!k $ayin out and takin in of the ro$e& Sto$ and hold a dry ro$e as effi!iently as a wet ro$e 7wet ro$es lide more easily8& )e suited for dou%le ro$es& )e inde$endent of the dire!tion of the im$a!t for!e& ?a-e a %reakin for!e ran e of :A0 to 200 k & .
If the an!hor is further than an arm9s rea!h from the %elay $osition# either a slin ro$e is used for the self1%elay or a %i ht lar e enou h to rea!h the an!hor is taken and tied off to !reate a fi6ed loo$& The a%ility to rea!h the an!hor 7or dou%le fi ure ei ht8 knot from the %elay without mo-in is im$ortant& If the %elayer is holdin the full wei ht of an in!a$a!itated !lim%er# he must %e a%le to tie the %elay ro$e without mo-in & The self1%elay must always %e ti ht# and the an!hor7s8# %elayer# and e6$e!ted dire!tion of $ull must %e in as !lose to a strai ht line as $ossi%le& The %elayer ensures that the ro$e does not run o-er any shar$ $ro=e!tions or ro!k ed es& If it does# it should %e rerouted or $added& A ru!ksa!k# $arka# or other $addin is used& The %elayer lays out the ro$e so that it runs freely throu h his hands without %e!omin tan led& ?e does not ha-e the o$tion# on!e %elayin starts# to release his %rake hand to untan le the ro$e& Sta!kin # %a!kfeedin # or $ilin the ro$e in one s$ot is %etter than !oilin # sin!e fewer kinks de-elo$& 2& )elay Test& A %elay test must %e !ondu!ted in order to ensure the %elay $osition9s sta%ility and se!urity to su$$ort a fall %y the !lim%er& The %elayer routes his safety line to an an!hor $oint and $ositions himself for a me!hani!al or %ody %elay& The %elayer !ommands# ON )E'A< TEST& The !lim%er res$onds# CTestin C and tests the %elay $osition with three distin!t tests& The !lim%er fa!es sideways to the -erti!al ro!k with the uide hand !losest to the ro!k leadin to the %elayer& The !lim%in ro$e is routed under his %utto!ks# and the %rake hand is $la!ed in the hollow $ortion of his o$$osite 7 uide1hand side8 hi$& The !lim%er takes all sla!k out of the ro$e %etween the !lim%er and %elayer# and sits down with one1third of his %ody wei ht& The !lim%er remo-es the additional sla!k !reated %y his %ody wei ht and sits down with two1thirds of his %ody wei ht& The !lim%er then remo-es all remainin sla!k out of the ro$e and sits down with his full %ody wei ht& .
RO4 T?E C'I4)IN( ROPE .The !lim%er then s$rin s u$ and out of his %elay test stan!e# allowin the ro$e to o sla!k& The %elayer feels the ro$e sla!ken and# if satisfied with his %elay $osition# !ommands# C'I4)& The !lim%er res$onds with# C.$ Ro$eC or CClim%in #C after he deta!hes his safety line and is $re$ared to !lim%& E& Position Pro!edures& Esta%lish a main1%elay an!hor $oint that is stron enou h to withstand the for!es $rodu!ed %y the fallin !lim%er and transmitted throu h the %elay !hain& Sin!e this is the last an!hor in the !hain# it must withstand all $ossi%le for!es& These for!es may !ome from une6$e!ted dire!tions %e!ause of the failure of an intermediate an!hor $oint& The main %elay 7$rimary8 an!hor $oint9s le-el of safety is in!reased with additional an!hors 7se!ondary8& )oulders# $itons# and %olts are well suited for a main1%elay an!hor $oint& They may %e natural or artifi!ial $la!ements1sta%ility and se!urity are key& The ro$e runnin from the %elay an!hor to the %elayer must %e short and ti ht to $re-ent the %elayer from %ein $ulled out of his $osition& Determine the uide and %rake hands& The ro$e runs from the !lim%er throu h the %elayer9s uide hand# around the %elay me!hanism 7%ody or me!hani!al8# and to the %rake hand& Ensure that it slides smoothly& NE+ER RE'EASE T?E )RAKE ?AND .NTI' T?E C'I4)ER IS ATTAC?ED TO AN ANC?OR& Ensure that the remainder of the ro$e is laid out so it runs freely throu h the %rake hand& (lo-es may %e worn when %elayin to redu!e fri!tion on the hands and $ossi%le ro$e %urns& Ensure that the ro$e does not run o-er shar$ ro!k ed es 7$addin may %e re"uired8& Anti!i$ate the !lim%er9s needs %y kee$in alert to his mo-ements& A-oid lettin too mu!h sla!k de-elo$ in the ro$e throu h !onstant use of the uide hand& Kee$ all sla!k out of the ro$e leadin to the !lim%er# thus sensin his mo-ement& A-oid takin u$ sla!k too suddenly to $re-ent throwin the !lim%er off %alan!e& .hen takin u$ sla!k# %rin the %rake hand =ust %ehind the uide hand& This allows the %rake hand to slide %a!k and !onstantly remain on the ro$e& .
i ure D13E8& The %elayer sits and tries to et ood trian ular %ra!in throu h his le s and %utto!ks& .hen $ossi%le# the le s should %e s$read shoulder1width a$art# strai ht# and well %ra!ed& If the %elay $osition is %a!k from a !liff ed e# the fri!tion of the ro$e o-er the ro!k sim$lifies the holdin of a fall# howe-er# shar$ ed es are a-oided& Sin!e the e6$e!ted dire!tion of $ull is usually downward# the ro$e to the !lim%er $asses %etween the %elayer9s feet& The %elayer %rakes with the hand that is away from the ro!k 7or i!e8 so that he may %ra!e himself with the uide hand if he is $ulled into the ro!k 7or i!e8& The uide hand is on the side of the %etter %ra!ed le & The %rake hand ne-er lets o of the . )ra!e $ro$erly for the e6$e!ted dire!tion of $ull in a fall# so that the for!e of the $ull $uts the %elayer more firmly into $osition& A !lim%er neither trusts nor assumes a %elay $osition he has not tested& Seek a %elay $osition that offers !o-er and !on!ealment& If the !lim%er falls# automati!ally rela6 the uide handB and a$$ly immediate %rakin a!tion& F& )ody )elay& )ody %elay !onsists of two $ositions# and they are the Csittin hi$ %elayC and Cstandin hi$ %elayC& They are se!ured %y an!horin the %elayer with a se!tion of the !lim%in ro$e or a slin ro$e& .hen usin a !lim%in ro$e# a fi ure ei ht or %owline knot is tied in the ro$e with a sna$link inserted and hooked into the an!hor $oint& The %elayer then $la!es a %i ht# formed in the usa%le %elay ro$e# around his %ody so that the ro$e leadin to the !lim%er is in the %elayer9s uide hand& There should %e no sla!k ro$e %etween the an!hor $oint and the %elayer# who is in a dire!t line with the e6$e!ted for!e of a fall& The an!hor ro$e resists any tenden!y for the %elayer to %e rotated out of $osition if the !lim%er falls& A slin ro$e atta!hed to the an!hor $oint and then tied around the %elayer i-es the same results& If the e6$e!ted for!e of a fall is downward# then the !lim%in ro$e should %e $la!ed a%o-e the an!hored safety ro$e to $re-ent the %elay ro$e from %ein $ulled down and off of the %elayer9s hi$s& If the e6$e!ted for!e of a fall is from a !lim%er a%o-e the %elayer# the !lim%in ro$e is $la!ed under the an!hored safety ro$e& The %elay ro$e is routed around the %ody in either dire!tion# de$endin on the dire!tion in whi!h the for!e of a fall would %e a$$lied& The uide hand will usually %e !losest to the ro!k& Therefore# if the %elayer is $ulled into the ro!k# he !an %ra!e his fall with the uide hand while kee$in the %rake hand in $la!e& This for!e should firmly em$la!e the %elayer in his $osition& The %elayer may wear lo-es& Sittin ?i$ )elay& This is the $referred $osition and is normally the most se!ure for a downward $ull 7.
ro$e and is held !lose to the %ody& The uide hand is held out in front of the %ody& To %rake# the ro$e is ras$ed firmly and the hand is $la!ed in the hollow $ortion of the o$$osite 7 uide hand8 shoulder& If sla!k is desired# the uide hand 7out in front of the %elayer9s %ody8 is rela6ed and allows the ro$e to feed throu hB the %rake hand is e6tended out to the side and allows the ro$e to feed throu h& Standin ?i$ )elay& This is a weaker $osition and is used only where the sittin hi$ %elay is not $ossi%le 7.i ure D13F8& The main1%elay an!hor for the %elayer is essential& The %a!k or uide hand shoulder is %ra!ed a ainst the ro!k& The ro$e is $la!ed around the %a!k 7a%o-e the hea-y $ortion of the hi$s8 and in front of the %rake hand so that the %elayer is $ulled firmly into $osition when a fall is held& The !lim%in ro$e is $la!ed either a%o-e or %elow the an!hored safety ro$e a!!ordin to the dire!tion of $ull on the %elay1man& The %elayer stands fa!in the e6$e!ted dire!tion of $ull& The stan!e is with one le forward and is se!urely %ra!ed with the knee sli htly %ent& The trailin le is sli htly %ent and is the !orres$ondin mem%er of the %rake hand 7left hand %rake means a left trailin le 8& The le s are a%out a shoulder1width a$art& If the dire!tion of $ull is downward# the ro$e is routed around the %elayer9s %ody a%o-e the safety line& The .
%rake $osition is to the %elay9s o$$osite 7 uide hand8 shoulder& The uide hand is e6tended out in front of the %elayer& Piton )elay& As soon as the leadin !lim%er has identified a lo!ation for a relia%le an!hor 7$iton# !ho!k# %olt# tree# ro!k8# the !lim%er i-es the si nal CPointC to the %elayer& The %elayer kee$s his %rake hand a$$lied while the !lim%er $re$ares the $la!ement& .hen the !lim%er has se!ured the !lim%in ro$e to the $rote!tion# there is now a !han e in the dire!tion of $ull& The %elayer will run the %elay ro$e firmly %eneath his %utto!ks and %elow his safety line& The %elayer fa!es the dire!tion of $ull and $ositions himself for a standin hi$ %elay# left or ri ht hand %rake# for an u$ward $ull 7.i ure D13/8& The stan!e is with one le forward and se!urely %ra!ed with the knee sli htly %entB the trailin le is sli htly %ent and !orres$onds with the %rake hand& The uide hand is e6tended to the front and ke$t a%out waist hi h& The %rake hand is mo-ed to the o$$osite hi$ in !ase of a fall 7the hollow $ortion %etween the to$ of the thi h and away from the roin8& If sla!k is desired# the %rake hand is mo-ed out to the side# and the ri$ is rela6ed to allow the ro$e to tra-el freely throu h %oth hands& .
hen %elayin a !lim%er in a tra-erse# whi!h is near or hori5ontal to the %elayer# the %elayer must anti!i$ate a $ull sideways and strai ht forward ?e should $la!e the !lim%in ro$e underneath his %utto!ks and %e an!hored firmly& Sna$link )ody )elay& To ensure the %elay ro$e is easily !ontrolled around the %elayer9s %ody# a sna$link should %e $la!ed into the !lim%in harness or %owline on a !oil on the uide hand side# with the !lim%in ro$e runnin throu h it& The sna$link 7referred to as the uide sna$link8 kee$s the %elay ro$e from %ein stri$$ed away from the %elayer when the dire!tion of $ull is u$ or down 7.i ure D1:08& .hen $la!ed on the %elayer# the ate of the sna$link should o$en down and away from the %elayer& .se of the uide sna$link is the $referred method sin!e it !ontrols the %elay ro$e for either dire!tion of $ull at any time& .A fall is easier to hold with a $iton %elay than with a sittin or standin %elay %e!ause of the added fri!tion %etween ro$e# ro!k# and sna$links& .
hen mana in a ro$e while %elayin # you should follow the $ro!edure listed %elow& The %rake hand is NE+ER remo-ed from the ro$e& To take u$ ro$e 7.i ure D1:38# the %elayer11 Pulls the ro$e 7with the %rake hand8 until the %rake hand is fully e6tended to the side& .The ro$e leadin from the !lim%er is inserted into the sna$link and routed around the %elayer9s %ody and o-er 7or under8 the safety line to the %elay an!hor& The %rake is always to the hollow $art of the shoulder of the uide1hand side& There is no need to !han e the ro$e from a downward to an u$ward $ull sin!e the dire!tion of $ull remains !onstant at the uide sna$link& /& 4ana in Ro$e with a )ody )elay& .
'ays the ro$e 7with the %rake hand8# out to the front# in the uide hand without e6tendin the %rake hand in front of the uide hand& Slides the %rake hand %a!k to the side of the %ody while maintainin $ositi-e !ontrol of the ro$e in !ase of a fall& Re$eats !y!le& In holdin a fall# the %elayer uses the %rake hand to wra$ the ro$e a!ross the !hest 7or hi$8 and ti htens the ri$& The uide hand !an %e rela6ed and remains on the ro$e# or it may %e remo-ed and used to hel$ %ra!e himself& If sla!k is re"uired# the %elayer e6tends his uide hand out to his front and rela6es his ras$ on the ro$e so that the ro$e !an run freely throu h his hand& ?e e6tends his %rake hand out to his side so that a /01de ree an le is formed %etween the uide and %rake hands 7this redu!es the amount of fri!tion8 and releases tension on the ro$e so that it may run freely throu h his hand& .
30& 4e!hani!al )elay& These %elays de-i!es in!lude# %ut are not limited to# sti!ht $late# sna$link# munter hit!h# fi ure ei ht 7.i ure D1::8& The %elayer is se!ured to an an!hor $oint the same as in a %ody %elay& The me!hani!al %elay de-i!e !an %e se!ured dire!tly to an an!hor $oint within easy rea!h of the %elayer# eliminatin the %elayer9s %ody from the %elay system 7dire!t %elay8 or atta!hed to the %elayer9s harness or %owline 7indire!t %elay8& These de-i!es should %e used only with kernmantle ro$es& Some of the me!hani!al %elays are dis!ussed as follows: Sti!ht Plate& This is not a re!ommended de-i!e for hea-y loads& The sti!ht $late !onsists of a $late with one or two holes for the ro$e to %e routed throu h& The s$rin rin kee$s the %elay $late away from the sna$link# $re-entin =ammin & In the %rake $osition# the s$rin is !om$ressed a ainst the sna$link %y the %rakin for!e& A %i ht in the !lim%in ro$e is routed throu h one of the o$enin s in the stit!h $late and inserted into a sna$link& To %rake# the %elayer a$$lies fri!tion on the ro$e %y lo!kin the %rake hand down# there%y !in!hin the ro$e& 4unter ?it!h& The 4unter hit!h method re"uires only one $ie!e of e"ui$ment: a lar e radius1end !ara%iner& The !lim%in ro$e is fashioned into a 4unter hit!h %y formin a loo$ in the ro$e# then takin the workin end of the loo$ at the $oint where the two ro$es !ross# followin it around the standin end# and runnin it .
i ure Ei ht& The fi ure ei ht des!ender $ro-ides a smooth and effi!ient %elay& The ro$e is run throu h the de-i!e the same as for des!endin 11a %i ht is taken u$ throu h the o$enin and routed o-er the !ollar# with the fi ure ei ht de-i!e %ein !li$$ed into a sna$link& To %rake# the %rake hand is $ulled to the rear to !in!h the !lim%in ro$e under the !ollar of the fi ure ei ht& If the load is hea-y# the wra$ is dou%led around the !ollar of the fi ure ei ht to redu!e the s$eed of the ro$e runnin throu h the system& It is re!ommended that the res!ue1ei ht -ersion %e used sin!e the $rotrudin CearsC on the fi ure ei ht do not allow the ro$e to slide all the way off the !ollar& .ith the me!hani!al de-i!e $ro$erly se!ured and the !lim%er9s ro$e $ro$erly $la!ed# assume a $osition from whi!h you !an ras$ the standin end of the ro$e 7to the !lim%er8 a%out @2 !m 73F in!hes8 from the de-i!e& At the same time# maintain !ontrol of the workin end 7to the %a!k1fed $ile of ro$e8 with the %rake hand& Slide the %rake hand as !lose to the de-i!e as $ossi%le without the hands or handwear %e!omin entan led& (ras$ the standin end of the ro$e as far away 7at least @2 !m G3F in!hesH8 from the de-i!e as $ossi%le with the uide hand& .$ Ro$e& The followin $ro!edures are the same for %elays with the fi ure ei ht des!ender# 4unter hit!h# sti!ht $late# and sna$link %rake system& .$arallel alon the initial loo$& The 4unter hit!h should %e !li$$ed into the !ara%iner& To %rake# the %rake hand is $ushed forward so that the two ro$es are $arallel and !in!hed to ether& .se of a 4e!hani!al De-i!e Takin .hile maintainin an e-en $ressure with the uide hand# feed the ro$e throu h the system %y $ullin with the %rake hand# away from the me!hani!al de-i!e& 'ay the ro$e from the %rake hand into the uide hand# ensurin not to e6tend the %rake hand %eyond the uide hand& Slide the %rake hand %a!k to the %elay de-i!e& Re$eat the $ro!ess of $ull# lay# slide& .
PART C .RAPPELLING 3& (eneral& Ra$$ellin and down !lim%in are %oth means of des!endin B the !hoi!e is %ased on mission# situation# e"ui$ment# terrain 7a-aila%le an!hors8# weather# num%er of troo$s in-ol-ed# and time and e"ui$ment a-aila%le& :& Sele!tin a Ra$$el Point& The te!hni"ue of ra$$ellin in-ol-es the "ui!k des!ent of a !lim%er and the retrie-al of the ro$e from the %ottom& The sele!tion of the ra$$el $oint de$ends on fa!tors su!h as mission# !o-er# route# an!hor $oints# and ed e !om$osition 7loose or =a ed ro!ks8& The an!hor $oint should %e a%o-e the ra$$eller9s de$arture $oint& It is %est to use $rimary and se!ondary an!hor $oints 7natural an!hors are $referred8& As a !lim%er# you should make sure that the ro$e rea!hes the %ottom or a $la!e from whi!h you !an further ra$$el or !lim%& The ra$$el $oint must %e tested and ins$e!ted to ensure the ro$e will run freely and that the ro$e will run freely and that the area is !leared of o%sta!les that !ould %e $ulled off& If a slin or runner is used for a ra$$el $oint# it should %e tied twi!e to form two se$arate loo$s& 4ake sure that loadin and off1loadin $latforms are a-aila%le& D& Esta%lishin a Ra$$el Point& E"ual tension %etween all an!hor $oints on a ra$$el lane must %e esta%lished %y usin $rimary and se!ondary an!hor $oints& The ra$$el ro$e should not e6tend if one an!hor $oints fails& All the ra$$ellin methods dis!ussed here !an %e $erformed with a sin le or dou%le ro$e& If $ossi%le# a dou%le ro$e a$$li!ation is %etter for safety $ur$oses& If a ra$$el lane is less than half the ro$e len th# you may use one of the followin te!hni"ues: .
i ure D1:D8 with a %owline on a %i ht or fi ure ei ht on a %i ht& Tie off on the lon 1standin end with a round turn an!hor %owline& . Dou%le the ro$e and tie a three1loo$ %owline around the $rimary an!hor to in!lude the $rimary an!hor inside two loo$s and enou h ro$e in the third loo$ to run to the se!ondary an!hor 7another three1loo$ %owline se!ured with an o-erhand knot8& Dou%le the ro$e and tie it around a se!ure an!hor $oint with a round turn an!hor %owline se!ured with an o-erhand knot 7or any a$$ro$riate an!hor knot8& Dou%le the ro$e and esta%lish a self1e"uali5in an!hor system with a three1loo$ %owline or any other a$$ro$riate an!hor knot& Dou%le the ro$e and esta%lish a self1e"uali5in an!hor system 7.
ith %oth ro$es# tie a round turn an!hor %owline around a $rimary an!hor $oint& Take the remainin ro$e 7the tail from the $rimary an!hor %owline8 and tie another round turn an!hor %owline to a se!ondary an!hor $oint& The se!ondary an!hor $oint should %e in a dire!t line %ehind the $rimary an!hor $oint& The an!hor !an %e either natural or artifi!ial& The ends of the ra$$el lane ro$es should %e offset %y 3A !m 72 in!hes8 so that the ro$e ends feed freely throu h the ra$$eller9s sna$link& . In an emer en!y# dou%le the ro$e and $la!e it %ehind or throu h a se!ure an!hor $oint# or tie a runner around an an!hor $oint with a sna$link inserted and $la!e the ro$e throu h the sna$link& To $re!lude a ra$$eller from slidin off the end of the ra$$el lane# tie a dou%le fi ure ei ht 7s"uare knot or dou%le fisherman9s knot8 at the %ottom end of the ro$e with %oth ends& If a ra$$el lane is reater than half the ro$e len th# you may a$$ly one of the followin te!hni"ues: .se two ro$es& Esta%lish a three1$iton an!hor system usin a %owline on a %i ht 7or fi ure ei ht on a %i ht8 and tied off on the lon 1standin end with a round turn an!hor %owline 7see .sin a natural an!hor: Tie a slin ro$e# runner# or another ro$e around the an!hor with a round turn an!hor %owline& o .se two ro$es& .i ure D1:D8& In an emer en!y# use two ro$es and tie the two ends to ether with a =oinin knot& Pla!e the =oined ro$es %ehind or throu h an an!hor $oint# or tie a runner around an an!hor $oint with a sna$link inserted and $la!e the =oined ro$e throu h the sna$link& The =oinin knot is offset to the left or ri ht of the an!hor& Tie off the %ottom end of the ro$e with a =oinin knot to $re-ent a ra$$eller from slidin off the end of the ra$$el lane& Situations may arise where# due to the len th of the ra$$el# the ra$$el ro$e !annot %e tied to the an!hor 7if the ro$e is used to tie the knots# it will %e too short to a!!om$lish the ra$$el8& <ou may use the followin methods: .
The ra$$el ro$e will ha-e a fi6ed loo$ 7fi ure ei ht or %utterfly8 tied in one end# whi!h is atta!hed to the round turn around the an!hor throu h the two sna$links 7o$$osin ates8& .hen the ra$$eller rea!hes the %ottom# he $ulls on that $ortion of the ro$e to whi!h the sna$link is se!ured to allow the ro$e to slide around the an!hor $oint& .sin an artifi!ial an!hor: Tie off a slin ro$e# runner# or another ro$e to form a loo$& Put the loo$ throu h the sna$links that are atta!hed to the artifi!ial an!hor $oint& )rin the %ottom of the loo$ u$ and !onne!t it to the sna$links that are %etween the artifi!ial an!hor $oints& (ras$ the sna$links that are %etween the !ho!ks>$itons and $ull them down and to ether& Tie a fi6ed loo$ 7fi ure ei ht or %utterfly8 in the end of the ra$$el ro$e and !onne!t this to the sna$links that ha-e %een $ulled to ether& RE4E4)ERI Rerouted fi ure ei ht knots !an %e used instead of %owlines& Runners may %e used from one or more an!hor $oints& To set u$ a retrie-a%le ra$$el $oint# you must a$$ly one of the followin methods: o Dou%le the ro$e when the ra$$el is less than half the total len th of the ro$e& Pla!e the ro$e# with the %i ht formed %y the mid$oint# around the $rimary an!hor& *oin the tails of the ra$$el ro$e and throw the ro$e o-er the !liff& Tie a !lo-e hit!h around a sna$link# =ust %elow the an!hor $oint# with the lo!kin %ar inside the sna$link away from the ate o$enin end and fa!in u$hill& Sna$ the o$$osite standin $ortion into the sna$link& .hen the len th of the ra$$el is reater than half the len th of the ro$e used# =oin two ro$es around the an!hor $oint 7dou%le fisherman9s knot or s"uare knot8& .
$on !om$letion of the ra$$el# $ull the ro$e to whi!h the sna$link is se!ured to allow the ro$e to slide around the an!hor $oint& RE4E4)ERI .hen settin u$ a retrie-a%le ra$$el# use only a $rimary $ointB !are is taken in sele!tin the $oint& Ensure that a safety line is esta%lished when the soldiers a$$roa!h the ra$$el $oint# and only the ra$$eller need o near the ed e& @& Communi!ation& Clim%ers at the to$ of a ra$$el $oint must %e a%le to !ommuni!ate with those at the %ottom& <ou should !onsider usin radios# hand si nals# and>or ro$e si nals durin a ta!ti!al ra$$el& The followin !ommands are used for trainin situations: Command 'ANE N.4)ER# ON RAPPE' 'ANE N.Ad=ust the =oinin knot so that it is away from the an!hor& Tie a !lo-e hit!h around a sna$link =ust %elow the an!hor $oint with the lo!kin %ar inside the sna$link away from the ate o$enin end and fa!in u$hill& Sna$ the o$$osite standin $ortion into the sna$link& . the unit standin o$eratin $ro!edures 7SOP8& A& Ty$es of Ra$$el& There are four ty$es of ra$$els: %ody ra$$el# hasty ra$$el# seat1hi$ ra$$el# and seat1 shoulder ra$$el& Ea!h of these ra$$els is dis!ussed as follows: ...4)ER# O. )E'A< (i-en )y 4eanin Ra$$eller I am ready to %e in ra$$ellin & I am on %elay and you may %e in your ra$$el& I ha-e !om$leted the ra$$el# !leared the Ra$$eller ra$$el lane# and am off the ro$e& %elayer )elayer I am off %elay& RE4E4)ERI In a trainin en-ironment# the lane num%er must %e understood& Durin a ta!ti!al situation# tu s on the ro$e may %e su%stituted for the oral !ommands to maintain noise dis!i$line& The num%er of tu s used to indi!ate ea!h of the !ommands is IA.4)ER# O.4)ER# ON RAPPE' )E'A< 'ANE N. RAPPE' 'ANE N.
)ody Ra$$el& The ra$$eller fa!es the an!hor $oint and straddles the ro$e& ?e then $ulls the ro$e from %ehind# and runs it around either hi$# dia onally a!ross the !hest# and %a!k o-er the o$$osite shoulder 7. !ollar is turned u$ to $re-ent ro$e %urns on the ne!k& (lo-es are worn# and other !lothin may %e used to $ad the shoulders and %utto!ks& To %rake# the ra$$eller leans %a!k and fa!es dire!tly toward the ro!k area so his feet are hori5ontal to the round& ?asty Ra$$el& .rom there# the ro$e runs to the %rake hand# whi!h is on the same side of the hi$ that the ro$e !rosses11 for e6am$le# the ri ht hi$ to the left shoulder to the ri ht hand& The ra$$eller leads with the %rake hand down and fa!es sli htly sideways& The foot !orres$ondin to the %rake hand $re!edes the uide hand at all times& The ra$$eller kee$s the uide hand on the ro$e a%o-e him to uide himself11not to %rake himself& ?e must lean out at a shar$ an le to the ro!k& ?e kee$s his le s s$read well a$art and relati-ely strai ht for lateral sta%ility# and his %a!k strai ht to redu!e fri!tion& The )D.i ure D1:A8& The hand nearest to the an!hor is his uide hand# and the other is the %rake hand& To sto$# the ra$$eller %rin s his %rake hand a!ross in front of his %ody lo!kin the ro$e& At the same time# he turns .i ure D1:@8& .a!in sli htly sideways to the an!hor# the ra$$eller $la!es the ro$es hori5ontally a!ross his %a!k 7.
to fa!e u$ toward the an!hor $oint& This ra$$el is used only on moderate ro!k $it!hes& Its main ad-anta e is that it is easier and faster than the other methods# es$e!ially when the ro$e is wet& (lo-es are worn to $re-ent ro$e %urns& Seat1?i$ Ra$$el& The seat ra$$el differs from the %ody ra$$el in that the fri!tion is a%sor%ed %y a sna$link that is inserted in a slin ro$e seat and fastened to the ra$$eller& This method $ro-ides a faster and more fri!tional des!ent than other methods& (lo-es are worn to $re-ent ro$e %urns& An alternate te!hni"ue is to insert a se!ond sna$link and run the ro$e throu h the se!ond sna$link& Release the tension from the ro$e %y o$enin the ate of the first sna$link and remo-in the se!ond& It is easily disen a ed from the sna$link& To tie a ra$$el seat# find the middle of a slin ro$e and $la!e it on the hi$ o$$osite the hand used for %rakin & )rin one end around the %a!k and to the front of the waist while %rin in the other end forward to the front of the waist& Tie a dou%le o-erhand wra$ in front of the %ody& )rin the ends of the ro$e %etween the le s 7front to rear8# under the %utto!ks !heeks# and o-er the ro$e around the waist to form a half hit!h on ea!h side& )rin the ends of the ro$e to the side o$$osite the %rake hand and tie a s"uare knot se!ured with o-erhand knots& .
ith the ate down and the o$enin toward the %ody 7insert it throu h the sin le wra$ around the waist and throu h the two ro$es that form the dou%le o-erhand wra$ at the front of the waist8& Rotate the sna$link one half turn so that the ate o$ens down and away from the %ody 7.or this reason# the ra$$eller must tu!k in his shirt and kee$ his e"ui$ment out of the way durin his des!ent& .i ure D1:28& To hook u$ for the seat1hi$ method# stand to one side of the ro$e& If usin a ri ht1hand %rake# stand to the left of the ra$$el ro$e fa!in the an!horB if usin a left1hand %rake# stand to the ri ht of the ra$$el ro$e 7.Stuff the e6!ess ro$e into the $o!ket& Insert the sna$link .a!e the an!hor $oint and des!end usin the u$$er hand as the uide and the lower hand as the %rake& This method has minimal fri!tion# and is fast and safe& ?owe-er# !are is taken that the ro$e is hooked !orre!tly into the sna$link to a-oid the ate %ein o$ened %y the ro$e& 'oose !lothin or e"ui$ment around the waist may %e a!!identally $ulled into the sna$link and lo!k 7sto$8 the ra$$el& .i ure D1:E8& Pla!e the ra$$el ro$e7s8 into the sna$linkB sla!k is taken %etween the sna$link and an!hor $oint and wra$$ed around the shaft of the sna$link and $la!ed into the ate so that a round turn is made around the shaft of the sna$link& Any remainin sla!k is $ulled toward the u$hill an!hor $oint& If a sin le ro$e is used# re$eat this $ro!ess to $la!e two round turns around the shaft of the sna$link& .
se the same te!hni"ue in the des!ent as in the %ody ra$$el& This method is faster than the %ody ra$$el# less fri!tional# and more effi!ient for !lim%ers with $a!ks and durin ni ht o$erations& . Seat1Shoulder Ra$$el& To hook u$ for the seat1shoulder method# fa!e the ra$$el $oint 7see .i ure D1:F8& Sna$ into the ro$e that $asses u$ throu h the sna$link& )rin the ro$e o-er one shoulder and %a!k to the o$$osite hand 7left shoulder to ri ht hand8& .
i ure Ei ht Des!ender& Atta!h a lo!kin !ara%iner to the harness 7.2& Clim%in ?arness& Sna$links or !ara%iners that are used for ra$$ellin are $la!ed throu h the sewn loo$s of the seat harness or the sewn loo$s of the seat1!hest !om%ination& The followin methods a$$ly to !lim%in harness: .i ure D1:/8& Route the ra$$el ro$e u$ throu h the lar e hole and $la!e the %i ht o-er the !ollar& Insert the fi ure ei ht with the ra$$el ro$e atta!hed into the lo!kin !ara%iner# and lo!k down& )rake to the rear and des!end as in a seat hi$ ra$$el& If hea-y loads are to %e des!ended# use a dou%le wra$ around the !ollar& .
i ure D1D08& )rake to the front and des!end with an '1sha$e %ody $osition& RE4E4)ERI The uide hand should remain on the standin end of the ro$e to kee$ the ra$$eller9s head and fa!e away from the hardware& The 4unter hit!h !reates si nifi!ant ro$e1to1ro$e fri!tion and may !ause $remature wear on nylon ro$es& E& Ra$$el Pro!edures& In order to ensure the safety of $ersonnel# $ro$er ra$$ellin $ro!edures must %e followed: If you ha-e %een assi ned the duties of the ra$$el $oint NCOIC# you must: Ensure that the an!hors are sound and the knots are $ro$erly tied& . 4unter ?it!h& Atta!h a lar e radius sna$link to the harness or ra$$el seat& Tie a 4unter hit!h and !li$ into the sna$link 7.
Ensure that loose ro!k and de%ris are !leared from the loadin $latform& Allow only one man on the loadin $latform at a time and ensure that the ra$$el $oint is run orderly& Ensure that ea!h man is $ro$erly $re$ared for the $arti!ular ra$$el: lo-es on# slee-es down# helmet with !hin stra$ fastened# ear $re$ared $ro$erly# and ra$$el seat and knots !orre!t# if re"uired& Ensure that the ra$$eller is hooked u$ to the ro$e !orre!tly and is aware of the $ro$er %rakin $osition& Ensure that the $ro$er si nals or !ommands are used& Dis$at!h ea!h man down the ro$e& )e the last man down the ro$e& .
hen the ta!ti!al situation $ermits# ea!h ra$$eller down must indi!ate with a shout COff ra$$el#C and ensures all ro$es around their an!hors are runnin free& If silen!e is needed# a $lanned si nal of $ullin the ro$e is su%stituted for the -oi!e si nal& After the ro$e is !leared and the ra$$eller is off ra$$el# he a!ts as the %elayer for ne6t ra$$eller& .hile ra$$ellin # all ra$$ellers must ins$e!t the ro$es as often as $ossi%le& . If you are the first ra$$eller down# you must: Sele!t a smooth route for the ro$e that is !lear of shar$ ro!ks& Condu!t a self1%elay with a Prusik knot tied from yourself to the ra$$el ro$e& Clear the route# $la!in loose ro!ks far enou h %a!k on led es to %e out of the way# whi!h the ro$e may dislod e& Ensure the ro$e rea!hes the %ottom or is at a $la!e from whi!h additional ra$$els !an %e made& Ensure that the ro$e will run freely around the ra$$el $oint when $ulled from %elow& Clear the ra$$el lane %y strai htenin all twists and tan les from the ro$es& )elay su%se"uent ra$$ellers down the ro$e& Take !har e of $ersonnel as they arri-e at the %ottom 7off1loadin $latform8& RE4E4)ERI A ra$$eller is always %elayed from the %ottom# e6!e$t for the first man down& The first man %elays himself down the ro$e %y usin a safety line atta!hed to his ra$$el seat that is hooked to the ra$$el ro$e with a Prusik knot& As the first man ra$$els down the ro$e# he CwalksC the Prusik knot down with him& .
allin #C or loses !ontrol of his %rake hand or des!ent# the %elayer immediately sto$s the ra$$eller %y $ullin downward on the ra$$el ro$es& (lo-es are not worn %y the %elayer unless dire!ted& The %elayer wat!hes the ra$$eller at all times and maintains !onstant -oi!e or -isual !onta!t with the ra$$eller& The %elayer wears a helmet to $re-ent in=uries from fallin de%ris& All !ommands are s$oken loudly and !learly& Con!lusion& <ou ha-e now !om$leted the instru!tional material for 'esson D& )efore you !om$lete the $ra!ti!e e6er!ise for this lesson# you should re-iew the material $resented in this lesson& Answers and feed%a!k for the "uestions in the $ra!ti!e e6er!ise are $ro-ided to show you where further study is re"uired& . The last ra$$eller to des!end !onstru!ts a retrie-a%le ra$$el $oint and ra$$els down& Then# he $ulls the ro$e smoothly to $re-ent the risin ro$e end from entan lin with the other ro$e& ?e stands !lear of the fallin ro$e and any ro!ks that it may dislod e& Ra$$ellers must wear lo-es for all ty$es of ra$$els to a-oid ro$e %urns& )oundin ra$$els are dis!oura ed sin!e they stress the an!hor# and !ause undue wear and fri!tion on the ro$e& Ra$$ellers des!end in a smooth# !ontrolled manner& The %ody forms an '1sha$e with the feet shoulder1width a$art# le s strai ht# and %utto!ks $arallel to the round& .hen !arryin e"ui$ment or additional wei ht# a modified '1sha$e is used with the le s sli htly lower than the %utto!ks to !om$ensate for the additional wei ht& The ra$$eller9s %a!k is strai ht& ?e looks o-er the %rake shoulder& The uide hand is e6tended on the ro$e with the el%ow e6tended and lo!ked& The ro$e slides freely throu h the uide hand& The uide hand is used to ad=ust e"ui$ment and assist %alan!e durin des!ent& The ra$$eller ras$s the ro$e firmly with the %rake hand and $la!es it in the small of his %a!k 74unter hit!h is a front %rake8& Releasin tension on the ro$e and mo-in the %rake hand out to his rear at a @A1de ree an le re ulates the rate of des!ent& The ra$$eller ne-er lets o of the ro$es with his %rake hand until the ra$$el is !om$lete& The %elayer assumes a $osition at the %ase of the lane a%out one $a!e away from the ro!k area& ?e ensures that the ra$$el ro$es are at least e-en with the round durin ro!k and tower ra$$els& The %elayer loosely holds the ra$$el ro$es with %oth hands so as not to interfere with the fall& If the ra$$eller shouts# C.
hen you ha-e !om$leted the e6er!ise# !he!k your answers with the answer key that follows& If you answer any item in!orre!tly# re-iew that $art of the lesson whi!h !ontains the $ortion in-ol-ed& Situation& Durin the mountainous e6er!ise all mem%ers of the unit are re"uired to demonstrate their a%ilities %y identifyin the %asi! !lim%in te!hni"ues and methods a!"uired durin trainin & 3& As a leader# and durin the $lannin of the unit9s mountaineerin mission you are re"uired to sele!t the a$$ro$riate $ersonnel& <ou should a& sele!t two teams that !onsist of three e6$ert ro!k !lim%ers or assault !lim%ers for ea!h $latoon and the remainin $ersonnel should also %e skilled in %asi! military mountaineerin & %& sele!t only $ersonnel skilled in %asi! military mountaineerin and after arri-in at the area of o$erations sele!t one assault team& !& sele!t only -olunteers that are skilled in %asi! military mountaineerin and after !he!kin their "ualifi!ations sele!t the ro!k !lim%er team& d& sele!t only $ersonnel e6$erien!ed in mountainous re ions# di-ide your teams and $ro!eed sele!tion of the %est men a-aila%le& :& The art of mountain walkin may mean relearnin how to walk& A $ro$er te!hni"ue you must !onsider# is to a& $la!e your foot at an an le to $re-ent from fallin & %& set a tem$o or num%er of ste$s $er minute& !& rest %etween ste$s %y %endin the le s sli htly& .LESSON 3 PRACTICAL EXERCISE Instru!tions The followin items will test your understandin of the material !o-ered in this lesson& There is only one !orre!t answer for ea!h item& .
hile !lim%in # you are re"uired to do a ho$1ste$& <ou should a& use this ste$ when you want to swit!h feet on the same foothold without an intermediate hold so that you may mo-e sideways& %& use this ste$ to insert your whole %ody into a !ra!k in the ro!k& !& use this ste$ when you want to raise your %ody& d& use this ste$ to lean to one side of the ro!k fa!e without fallin & 2& A %elay test must %e !ondu!ted in order to ensure the %elay $osition is sta%le& A $osition $ro!edure for esta%lishin a main1%elay# is to a& ensure that the ro$e runs from the %elayer throu h the !lim%er9s uide hand& %& use a $ad when ro$e is runnin o-er shar$ ro!ks and led es& .hen as!endin on hard round# you must a& !hoose ea!h ste$ !arefully and make sure your %a!k is strai ht& %& use the herrin %one ste$ with your toes $ointed in& !& use the lower le s to sustain your wei ht and the u$$er le s to kee$ you in %alan!e& d& ha-e your knees lo!ked on e-ery ste$ to rest the mus!les of your le s& A& .d& a-oid indentation that was made %y someone else& D& As a military mountaineer and while !lim%in you must set a !aden!e $er minute %ased on the $a!e the unit is mo-in & <ou should a& kee$ an inter-al of one to three $a!es to enhan!e the rhythm and tem$o& %& kee$ an inter-al of two to four $a!es to enhan!e the rhythm and $a!e& !& kee$ an inter-al of three to fi-e $a!es %etween indi-iduals to enhan!e the tem$o# $a!e# and rhythm& d& kee$ an inter-al of two to four $a!es %etween indi-iduals to enhan!e the tem$o# $a!e# and rhythm& @& .
eed%a!k a& sele!t two teams that !onsist of three e6$ert ro!k !lim%ers or assault !lim%ers for ea!h $latoon and the remainin $ersonnel should also %e skilled in %asi! military mountaineerin & Sele!tion of $ersonnel is !ru!ial durin the $re$aration of a mountainous o$eration& To $rodu!e $ositi-e results and su!!ess# a thorou h analysis of assi ned duties should %e !ondu!ted on ea!h mem%er& :& %& set a tem$o# or num%er of ste$s $er minute& A!!ordin to the rate at whi!h the unit is mo-in & Sin!e $hysi!al differen!e mean the tem$os of two $eo$le mo-in at the same s$eed will not %e the same& D& !& kee$ an inter-al of three to fi-e $a!es %etween indi-iduals to enhan!e the tem$o# $a!e# and rhythm& It is im$ortant to follow or esta%lish a $ro$er !aden!e on lon mar!hes# otherwise some soldiers will mo-e too fast and others too slow& As an alternati-e or at ni ht the rest ste$ may %e used# whi!h is short $ause after ea!h ste$& @& d& ha-e your knees lo!ked on e-ery ste$ to rest the mus!les of your le s& .!& ensure that the ro$e runnin from the %elayer an!hor to the %elayer is short and ti ht& d& release the middle $ortion of the ro$e# when the !lim%er i-es COff Re$ellC& LESSON THREE PRACTICE EXERCISE ANSWER KEY AND FEEDBACK Item 3& Corre!t Answer and .
The eneral formation of the terrain di!tates the as!endin or des!endin a$$roa!h you should take& To a-oid $ersonal in=uries and that of the other mem%ers of the !lim%in $arty# you should familiari5e yourself with mountain walkin te!hni"ues& To !onser-e u$$er %ody stren th# ma6imum utili5ation of your feet and le s are re"uired& A& a& use this ste$ when you want to swit!h feet on the same foothold without an intermediate hold so that you may mo-e sideways& On!e a ain# sele!tion of handholds>footholds are !ru!ial to the !lim%er& <ou should sele!t your holds and $lan e-ery mo-e you will make alon with alternati-e mo-es& 2& ti ht& This is to $re-ent the %elayer from %ein $ulled out !& The ro$e runnin from the %elay an!hor to the %elayer must %e short and .
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