surveying

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surveying

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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While taking a turn, the centrifugal forces develop so a vehicle and its contents are immediately subjected to centrifugal forces. More is the speed of vehicle sharper is the curvature and thus the greater the influence on vehicles and drivers of the change from tangent to curve. When transition curves are not provided, drivers tend to create their own transition curves by moving laterally within their travel lane and sometimes the adjoining lane, which is risky not only for them but also for other road users. For faster roads, spiral transition curves are used to affect a gradual increase of the lateral acceleration or sideways force felt by the occupants of a moving vehicle, and the steady application of super elevation, the tilting of the road surface to help prevent vehicles running off the curve. These curves, together with parabolic vertical curves, are dealt with in a later set of notes. This fieldwork which entitles lying of a simple curve by transit and the tape by incremental and deflection angle method teaches on how to use a theodolite on curves and chords. This fieldwork also has different formulas to memorize in getting the curve. In order to get the curve we have 5 steps found in the procedures area.

OBJECTIVES:

PROCEDURES: The professor gives the following data: d1= _______ D=_______ let I=d1 + 4D

Compute the elements of the spiral curve given the data above referring to the computations section.

*NOTE: The radius of the simple curve will be the radius of the spiral curve and also the same for the value of the angle of Intersection.

Set the transit at the designated point PI on the site. Level and orient the transit at the magnetic south while vernier A is at zero reading.

Sight the location of PC along the given direction of the back tangent using a range pole. Using the tape, locate the position of PC. The distance of PC to PI is the length of the tangent line of the simple curve which is shown in the computations section.

Invert the telescope and rotate it following the measurement of the computed I to locate the direction of the forward tangent.

CE121F | FIELD WORK NO. 7 3

Along this forward tangent, locate the position of PT which is also at a distance of Tangent from PI.

Exactly along the back tangent, also locate the position of TS which is the point where the tangent line meets the desired transition spiral curve. The distance from PI to Ts is shown in the computations section.

Follow the same procedure to locate ST which is the point where the spiral meets the forward tangent.

Then lay the incremental chord and its corresponding incremental deflection angle with respect to the Back Tangent.

Do the same on the other side of the simple curve. Due to symmetry equal, the data used in the first side will be the same on the other side.

COMPUTATIONS: When dealing with spiral curves, it is important to always know the description of the simple curve because this two are inseparable. That is why in the computation section, I will include the formulas used for the simple curve.

If the azimuth of the backward and the forward tangents are given, the intersection angle I can be solved using:

The length of the first sub chord from PC, if PC is not exactly on a full station (otherwise C1= a full chord length)

The length of the last sub chord from PT, if PT is not exactly on a full station (otherwise C2= a full chord length)

INTSTURMENTS:

Theodolite is a precision instrument for measuring angles in the horizontal and vertical planes. A modern theodolite consists of a movable telescope mounted within two perpendicular axesthe horizontal axis, and the vertical axis. When the telescope is pointed at a target object, the angle of each of these axes can be

THEDOLITE

A range pole, which may also be called a lining pole, is a pole painted with alternating stripes of different colors in consistent widths used often to site measurements. The tool may be a common one for surveyors, where the colors for the stripes

RANGE POLES

A chalk is a soft, white, porous sedimentary rock, a form of limestone composed of the mineral calcite. This is used in marking measurements on ground.

CHALK

A tape measure or measuring tape is a flexible form of ruler. It consists of a ribbon of cloth, plastic, fiber glass, or metal strip with linearmeasurement markings. It is a common measuring tool.

TAPE MEASURE

SKETCH:

FINAL DATA SHEET FIELD WORK 7 LAYING OF A SPIRAL EASEMENT CURVE USING TRANSIT AND TAPE DATE: February 26, 2013 TIME: 12:00 pm 4:30 pm WEATHER: Sunny GROUP NO. 10 LOCATION: MIT Parking Space PROFESSOR: Engr. Cervantes

INCREMENTAL INCREMENTAL CHORD DEFECTION ANGLE 500 4 10 486.175 3 56 21.97 436.175 3 10 14.92 386.175 2 29 7387 336.175 1 53 0.83 286.175 1 21 53.77 236.175 0 55 46.72 186.175 0 34 39.67 136.175 0 18 32.62 86.175 0 7 25.57 36.175 0 1 18.52 0 0

DISCUSSION:

In this fieldwork, we are tasked to lay a spiral easement curve with the use of the transit and tape using the method that we always used since the laying of our field work number one which is all about the simple curve. The method that I was talking about is the Deflection angle Method. The difference that this fieldwork has compared to the other fieldwork is that, the spiral curve is a curve to be layout in an existing curve; the existing curve could be a simple, compound, or reverse. After we had layout this so called spiral curve, I have now appreciated why some curving roads are sometimes sharp and hard to maneuver it. It is because of the characteristic of the spiral curve base on the computed values and the design made by the engineer. Since the simple curve is inter-related to the spiral curve, our professor gives us the following data that describes the simple curve.

Based on the description of the simple curve, we layout a spiral curve that fits the simple curve. Of course, before going to the field and as a lesson learned from our previous fieldworks, we computed first for the needed values in order to layout the spiral curve. Since we are very conversant with the application of the deflection angle method, the fieldwork becomes bread and butter to our group. It is also an advantage wherein all of the members of the group know how to manipulate each instrument that is used when laying a curve especially the theodolite which is needed always when using the deflection angle method. In here, the possible source of error is the correctness of the angle measured in the theodolite because once the user divert the measurement into minutes or even in seconds, it will have great effect on the measured description of the whole curve. Since we did the fieldwork correctly, we only have an error of less than one meter on each of the two chords. It is because we made sure that every measurement that we made is accurate.

CONCLUSION:

In this fieldwork, we are tasked to layout a spiral easement curve on an existing reverse curve. Since the curves are different in usage and in design, it has the same characteristic since the two are inter-related. It is important to remember each and everything about the simple curve because practically, it is always the start of a more complex curve. We still apply the theory and procedures that we used when we are laying out a simple curve using the deflection angle method. We just computed the data that will be needed to describe and layout the spiral curve and then proceed to the field to do what we do best. We are aware that the possible errors that we might encounter are from accurate measurement of the instruments so we are resilient on that especially on the tape and the theodolite which serves as the primary instruments in the said method. We met all the objectives that the manual is requiring us because of our team effort and for our hunger of excellence. We are able to master the use of the instruments needed in laying out a curve specifically the theodolite and the tape. We are also able to improve and practice more the procedures and knowledge about the deflection angle method which is for me, the basic and the easiest method of all. Each time we layout a curve, it gets tougher and tougher in the sense that we are introduced to a new kind of curve. But basically, the concept and theories are still the same so the matter of execution stands out. As long as you know the process and the variation of a simple curve, there will be no problem on the complex type of curve such as this reverse curve.

RELATED RESEARCH: Spirals are used to overcome the abrupt change in curvature and super elevation that occurs between tangent and circular curve. The spiral curve is used to gradually change the curvature and super elevation of the road, thus called transition curve.

TS = Tangent to spiral SC = Spiral to curve CS = Curve to spiral ST = Spiral to tangent LT = Long tangent ST = Short tangent R = Radius of simple curve Ts = Spiral tangent distance Tc = Circular curve tangent L = Length of spiral from TS to any point along the spiral Ls = Length of spiral PI = Point of intersection I = Angle of intersection Ic = Angle of intersection of the simple curve p = Length of throw or the distance from tangent that the circular curve has been offset

X = Offset distance (right angle distance) from tangent to any point on the spiral

CE121F | FIELD WORK NO. 7 21

Y = Distance along tangent to any point on the spiral Yc = Distance along tangent from TS to point at right angle to SC Es = External distance of the simple curve = Spiral angle from tangent to any point on the spiral s = Spiral angle from tangent to SC i = Deflection angle from TS to any point on the spiral, it is proportional to the square of its distance

is = Deflection angle from TS to SC D = Degree of spiral curve at any point Dc = Degree of simple curve

The introduction of the circular curve at the PC takes place at a point but drivers and vehicles do not make directional changes instantaneously. It is also common practice in constructing curves on highways to tip or super elevate the pavement downward toward the inside of the curve to aid in the riding quality and safety for vehicles navigating the curve. Again it is not practicable or advisable to introduce the super elevation instantaneously. If introduced on the tangent where it is not needed, the driver must steer into it slightly with a negative steering angle. If introduced all on the curve some area of negative super elevation

will generally result or the introduction will be done so quickly that both the riding quality and the visual attractiveness of the highway suffer. A solution is to introduce both the curvature and super elevation at a gradual rate using an easement curve that gradually changes in radius from infinity to some finite value where the associated circular curve begins. In short, a spiral curve is required. There are a number of identifiable curves that spiral, but their mathematical differences do not affect their usefulness on highways. The geometry of the spiral curve is more rigorous that that of the circular curve and handbook tables are the usual way of working out the deflection angles needed to lay out a spiral curve in the field. The discussion has been worked out with reference to Route Location and Design, 5th ed., Hickerson, Thomas F., New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964, for the appropriate tables. The spiral curve element generally selected by the designer is the length of the spiral "ls". The choice is usually made to introduce super elevation slowly enough so as not to exceed certain relative slopes between pavement edge and centerline grades. As a minimum, spiral curve lengths should not be shorter than the distance covered in two seconds at highway design speed.

REFERENCES:

http://surveying.askdefine.com/ (www.surveying.askdefine.com)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surveying\ (www.wikipedia.com)

http://lecture.civilengineeringx.com/surveying/total-station/ (www.cilivilengineeringx.com)

http://blog.enggroupe.com/modern-surveying-equipment/

http://cereview.info/book/surveying/formulas-circular-curves

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