© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Inc. .Goal: Fitting a Line to Data Or Line of Best Fit © 2011 Pearson Education.

Systematic or Random? A perfectly good TC pipet is used to deliver 20. but by the same amount and in the same direction. .0 mL.Living with Uncertainty EVERY Measurement we make will have some uncertainty (error). Inc. Systematic or Random? Which problem could be eliminated? © 2011 Pearson Education. Classify the following pipette errors: Suppose the tip of a TD pipet has a small chip that changes the size of the opening. Repeated measurements with the pipet will always be off.

• ABSOLUTE ERROR: e = lx – ml • RELATIVE ERROR: er = (lx – ml)/m This can be expressed as a fraction. © 2011 Pearson Education. or ppm.Measurements can be accurate or precise • In the lab. percent. Inc. . the “true” value may be an accepted value (rather than a known value). m.

Inc.Communicating Experimental Results Suppose you did three trials to determine the mass of a drain cleaner. You could report the average value (but with a small number of samples we have the experimental mean X ). . © 2011 Pearson Education.

Describing variation within a set of data that. in theory. s (requires more values to cancel all random errors). should not vary • Rather than just examine the simple range of values. This comparison of variation is called the standard deviation Note. we can compare each value to the experimental mean. this is not the true standard deviation. . Inc. © 2011 Pearson Education.

0. A smaller value indicates better precision.00998 M What is the experimental mean? What is value of s? What is the value of RSD? Mean = 0.01018 M. Practice: A student found the following values from three trials for the molarity of his solution: 0. 0.000101 M RSD = 0.01007 M s = 0.0100 M © 2011 Pearson Education. Inc.The Helpful Relative Standard Deviation RSD = s/mean This can be expressed as a percent.01005 M. . RSD can also be known as the coefficient of variation.

© 2011 Pearson Education. Inc.Preparing a Calibration curve or comparing results to predicted response Linear Regression: Fitting x and y values into a linear equation. .

© 2011 Pearson Education. Increases in r = greater confidence. the fit is perfect.Best fit (correlation) Correlation Coefficient: (r) How well does the best fit line describe the data? When |r| = 1. Inc. .

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