Flow-induced noise simulation Virtual.

Lab Acoustics Rev12
Raphael Hallez – Product Manager Acoustics

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Flow phenomena

What happens in the presence of flow ?
Noise Source Steady Flow Wave propagation is modified by flow Structural vibrations Wave convection: - Significant at high Mach (M=vflow/c>0.3) - Flow is NOT the noise source - Flow influences the wave propagation - Example: Aeroengine Inlet, muffler,… Flow-induced vibrations: - Fluctuations from unsteady turbulent flow - Flow acts as a loading of the flexible structure Structure-borne noise - Example: Aircraft fuselage TBL loading, train door,… Flow-induced noise Turbulent Flow Flow fluctuations Aeroacoustics:

Turbulent Flow

- Fluctuations from unsteady turbulent flow - Flow acts as a noise source - Acoustic waves propagate in medium at rest or are convected by the mean flow component

Flow-induced noise
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- Example: pantograph, landing gear, cooling fan,…

Flow-Induced Noise phenomena
• Flow-induced noise = noise generated by turbulent flow phenomena • Vortices, turbulent eddies • Vortex shedding (von Karman vortex street) • Turbulent boundary layers and boundary layer separation • Rotating surfaces in a fluid (propellers, fans) Level of turbulence in the flow, characterized by Reynolds number:

Re =
• • Low Re High Re

ρVL µ

Mach =

FlowVelocity Sound Speed

Large flow scales Large flow scales + smaller flow scales

Unsteady vortices on many scales interact with each other and with steady or moving surfaces Noise generation

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Flow-induced noise simulation examples
• External Aeroacoustics: • Turbulent flow interacts with static body and radiates noise outside • Challenge: Capture the sources and reflection/scattering on large surfaces • Train bogie, Landing Gear, Wiper Internal Aeroacoustics / Confined flow: • Propagation of sources (duct noise and blower noise) in ducting system and radiation through outlet • Challenge: Capture the acoustic reflections on duct walls (guided waves) • HVAC, exhaust, intake, ECS Mixed Internal-External Aeroacoustics • Transmission through flexible panel Aero-Vibro-Acoustics • Challenge: Capture Hydrodynamic+Acoustic loading, capture dynamics of system • Windnoise (side mirror, A-pillar), fuselage TBL
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moderate Mach numbers: orders of magnitude of difference between • Length scales: λac = Lturb / M • Magnitudes: O(M4) of the flow energy radiates into the far field p’ = 4.Flow-Induced Noise : A Challenge for Numerical Simulation Acoustic field = part of the flow field most straightforward approach: Direct Computational AeroAcoustics (CAA) (=direct numerical simulation of both the unsteady turbulent flow and the noise it generates) But not practical because : at low .4934739 Pa hydrodynamic field acoustic field High order schemes needed to capture acoustic propagation (numerical instabilities) High numerical cost of a direct CAA prohibitive at low Mach and high Reynolds numbers Also. Page 5 20XX-XX-XX . specific issues related to CFD discretisation techniques applied to acoustics • Dissipation and dispersion errors • Non-reflecting Boundary conditions Restricted © LMS International 2013 All rights reserved.

Page 6 20XX-XX-XX . but only large scale Large Eddy Simulation (LES) Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) unsteady. Decoupling flow simulation from the acoustic simulation Flow computation : creating source field data Acoustic computation : post-processing of source field data d source region observer position Fundamental assumption = one-way coupling Unsteady flow produces sound and affects its propagation BUT: sound waves do not affect flow field significantly Principal application of the hybrid approach: flows at low Mach numbers..ec-lyon. broadband turbulence (up to grid & scheme cut-off frequency) ☺ U-RANS LES http://www.. RPM) Unsteady RANS unsteady. no strong coupling like in sunroof buffeting case λ L Preferred simulation tools for the flow description Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solver time-averaged data (some hope with SNGR.AeroAcoustic Analogy : a more suited approach.lmfa.fr/recherche/turbo Important: Low-Mach number limitation Incompressible LES / DES data supported to reduce CPU cost Restricted © LMS International 2013 All rights reserved.

Aero-Acoustic Sources Quadrupoles No Surfaces (or smooth surfaces) Dipoles on surfaces (+ Quadrupoles in wake) Turbulent Flow Steady Surfaces Rotating Dipoles (+ Quadrupoles in wake) Moving Surfaces Restricted © LMS International 2013 All rights reserved. Page 7 20XX-XX-XX .

Page 8 20XX-XX-XX .Source Generation in Virtual.Lab Dipole Sources • Flow-induced noise in presence of static surfaces with compact regions • Requires pressure data on the walls (compressible or incompressible) Quadrupole Sources : • Flow-induced noise without presence of surfaces (turbulent jets) or noncompact regions • Requires velocity vector data in flow volume Fan Sources = Rotating Dipoles Sources • Flow-induced noise caused by rotating surfaces (fan) • Requires pressure data on one or all blades surface for multiple revolutions Restricted © LMS International 2013 All rights reserved.

Page 9 20XX-XX-XX .Lab Acoustics Computation Acoustics Results Restricted © LMS International 2013 All rights reserved.Simulation Process based on Aeroacoustic analogy Fluid Dynamics Transient CFD Simulation Acoustics Data Mapping + Fourier Transform Turbulent Flow Field Aeroacoustic sources Virtual.

CFD-Acoustics Coupling in Virtual. Page 10 20XX-XX-XX .Lab VIRTUAL.LAB supports CFD data stored in CGNS format files (CFD General Notation System) Following commercial CFD codes already support CGNS export for aero-acoustical data : • CFX (Ansys) • FLUENT (Ansys) • STAR-CD 4 / STAR-CCM+ (CD Adapco) • PowerFlow (EXA) • CFD++ (Metacomp) • SCRYU/Tetra (Cradle Software) • Fine Turbo (Numeca) • OpenFoam Restricted © LMS International 2013 All rights reserved.

Page 11 20XX-XX-XX .What can Virtual.Lab do more than CFD alone? Effect of acoustics on flow (strong feedback) CFD Direct CAA CFD postprocessing (FWH) Hybrid Approach (CFD + Virtual.Lab) far-field scattering Absorbing materials Flowinduced vibration Restricted © LMS International 2013 All rights reserved.

Dipole sources from Compressible CFD Curle Dipole Surface pressure Quadrupoles (negligible at low Mach numbers) • • • Curle’s solution (1955) to Lighthill’s equation in presence of solid rigid boundaries (neglecting viscous effects) Quadrupole incident field negligible for low Mach numbers (Power ratio = M2) Mathematically exact solution But: Pf must satisfy acoustic boundary conditions • • OK if the flow description is compressible if the flow description is incompressible and surface is not acoustically compact. the solution is inaccurate (missing acoustic reflection and scattering effects) Restricted © LMS International 2013 All rights reserved. Page 12 20XX-XX-XX .

Curle’s analogy: what the compactness assumption means Curle assumes the CFD captures all acoustic effects on the source surfaces (hydrodynamic pressure+acoustic scattered pressure) Not true for incompressible CFD or non-compact surfaces Surface with sources will be seen as acoustically transparent! Restricted © LMS International 2013 All rights reserved. Page 13 20XX-XX-XX .

Dipole sources from Incompressible CFD Neumann Dipoles Import CFD pressure Pf and define surface dipoles Compute acoustic solution Transform dipoles into acoustic (Neumann) BCs • • • flow wall pressure can be used to define appropriate boundary conditions of an equivalent acoustic boundary value problem If flow is compressible equivalent to Curle If flow is incompressible. G is the Green’s function of Laplace problem (infinite sound speed) More flexible: can be applied to Indirect BEM and FEM More accurate than standard Curle (recomputes acoustic scattering and reflection effects) Restricted © LMS International 2013 All rights reserved. Page 14 20XX-XX-XX .

Example: Trailing edge noise prediction based on incompressible-flow pressure Reference solution Curle New formulation Restricted © LMS International 2013 All rights reserved. Page 15 20XX-XX-XX .

Slide 16 . Page 16 20XX-XX-XX Virtual.Lab AeroAcoustics .Example: Rod-Airfoil Noise prediction based on incompressible-flow pressure Flow: Acoustic: FEM mesh Restricted © LMS International 2013 All rights reserved.

2010 Page 17 20XX-XX-XX .Example: Rod-Airfoil Noise prediction based on incompressible-flow pressure •Comparison with measurements Neumann dipoles 1 freq FEM Neumann Incompressible 2min+10s 495 freq 11min+1h20 4 cores 3min+20 min Restricted © LMS International 2013 All rights reserved. 17 copyright LMS International .

Lab Aero-Acoustics Dipole Source Generation – Step by step Import CFD surface pressure data (centroids/nodes) Map CFD pressure on acoustic mesh + Fourier transform Restricted © LMS International 2013 All rights reserved. Page 18 20XX-XX-XX .Virtual.

Page 19 20XX-XX-XX .Lab Aero-Acoustics Dipole Source Generation – Step by step Define Surface Dipole Boundary Condition (distributed dipoles are defined on acoustic mesh boundary condition) Solve the acoustic response case (FEM or BEM) + post-process… Restricted © LMS International 2013 All rights reserved.Virtual.

Lab Aero-Acoustics Special feature : Conservative mapping Fine CFD mesh Coarse Acoustic mesh Map turbulent flow field Flow scales very small CFD mesh has extremely small cells (Millions of DOFs) Acoustic wavelength large compared to Flow scales Acoustic mesh coarser than CFD mesh (Lelement=~λ/6) Specific conservative mapping algorithm to preserve information over a large range of flow scales: ∫ pds = ∫ PdS CFD Mesh Restricted © LMS International 2013 All rights reserved. Page 20 20XX-XX-XX Acoustic Mesh .Virtual.

isentropic flow and low Mach number) • • Lighthill’s equation : incident field from quadrupoles + scattering on surfaces more generic : • • • • But: • • • Page 21 non compact source regions Aero-vibro-acoustics Higher flow speed Difficult to deal with volume data set Singularity for sources close to walls Mapping from CFD to coarse acoustic mesh 20XX-XX-XX Restricted © LMS International 2013 All rights reserved. .Quadrupole sources for more complex problems (for high Reynolds number.

FEMAO = FEM Adaptive Order solver: Start from coarse mesh (less than 1 element / wavelength!) Solver automatically increases the element order at high frequency Most efficient FEM solver for broad frequency computation Most accurate scattering modeling Up to 20 times Less memory and faster computation time than standard FEM! FEMAO Acoustic mesh 36 000 nodes Max freq FEM: 200 Hz Max freq FEMAO: 4000 Hz Restricted © LMS International 2013 All rights reserved. no singularity issue. Page 22 20XX-XX-XX .Lab R13 New implementation in Virtual.Lab R13: • Best performance: supported by FEMAO solver (Adaptive order FEM) • Improved Usability: CFD data directly read by solver (linux support) • Improved Accuracy: No mapping required on intermediate mesh.Quadrupole sources New formulation in Virtual.

Fan noise components • Aeronautical • Energy • Automotive Component Tonal (Discrete Frequency) Source Unsteady pressure fluctuations on the blade surface Incoming turbulence (Leading edge) Fan Noise Broadband Self-noise (Trailing edge) Tip vortex shedding Restricted © LMS International 2013 All rights reserved. Page 23 20XX-XX-XX .

Rotor-stator configuration – noise generation mechanisms ROTOR STATOR Flow 1 Rotor leading-edge noise 2 Rotor trailing-edge noise 3 Wake interaction noise on stator Interaction of inflow turbulence with leading edge Depends on inflow turbulence Modeled with fan source Interaction of boundary layer with trailing edge Important for high rotation speed Modeled with fan source Interaction of rotor wake with stator Modeled with surface dipoles Restricted © LMS International 2013 All rights reserved. Page 24 20XX-XX-XX .

FWH formulation for fan noise • • • • • Fan blade represented by a rotating point dipole (force obtained by integration of CFD surface pressure) Rotation effects (Doppler shift) accounted for analytically (no rotating mesh) If blade is large. automatically split into compact segments Captures both Tonal and Broadband components Needs unsteady pressure for multiple blade revolutions Tonal fan noise formulation: Sound emitted at BPFHs Sum over BLHs Radius where force is applied Thrust harmonic Drag harmonic Constructive interference: sound of the total fan = B x (sound of a single blade) Restricted © LMS International 2013 All rights reserved. Page 25 20XX-XX-XX Bessel function: modulation of the Doppler frequency shift during blade revolution .

Industrial Case Study Radial Fan Noise : internal pressure distribution Internal SPL distribution in the blower ducts (around 3 kHz) Observe intake and outlet noise maxima in external SPL distribution 70 60 Pressure Level dB(A) 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Microphones Measurement Computed Restricted © LMS International 2013 All rights reserved. Page 26 20XX-XX-XX .

Page 27 20XX-XX-XX .Fan noise application Contra-rotating open rotors Interesting fuel efficiency Very loud tonal noise: “interaction tones” from each rotor: Freq1=1BPF1+1BPF2 Freq2=1BPF1+2BPF2 Freq3=2BPF1+1BPF2 … Each tone has a specific directivity (interaction tones tend to radiate radially) Incident field captured with Aeroacoustic Fan source Installation effects captured with FEMAO solver Restricted © LMS International 2013 All rights reserved.

2008) 10 frequency (Hz) 10 Restricted © LMS International 2013 All rights reserved. Porsche and Volkswagen where LMS participated Source regions Instantaneous velocity (vorticity) Dipoles on the flap Far-field acoustic radiation 110 100 90 SPL (dB) 80 70 60 50 40 30 1 10 2 3 Acoustic: CFD experiments (Jaeger et al. BMW.Aero-acoustics Example HVAC Duct Flow: From consortium of German car manufacturers . Daimler.Audi. Page 28 20XX-XX-XX .

2008) .Very good agreement downstream the flap SPL (dB) 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 CFD experiments (Jaeger et al.Overprediction in the elbow separation region C A B 40 A 30 1 10 10 frequency (Hz) 2 10 3 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 CFD experiments (Jaeger et al. 2008) 110 100 90 80 70 60 SPL (dB) SPL (dB) C Page 29 50 40 CFD experiments (Jaeger et al. 2008) B 10 3 40 30 1 10 2 3 30 1 Restricted © LMS International 2013 All rights reserved.CFD results: pressure on the wall . 2 10 20XX-XX-XX 10 frequency (Hz) 10 frequency (Hz) 10 .

Page 30 20XX-XX-XX .Acoustic modeling FEM model PML exterior field points Inlet (absorbent Source region (dipoles) panel Z = ρc) Aeroacoustic sources: distributed dipoles defined from CFD pressure Implementation in FEM: transformation of CFD pressure into equivalent Neumann BCs (more details in AIAA2012-2070) 267 030 TETRA4 elements computation time: s/freq Restricted © LMS International 201310 All rights reserved.

Page 31 20XX-XX-XX .accuracy Acoustic radiation – Averaged over all measurement points: New Neumann-based source modeling Experimental Numerical (FEM) Restricted © LMS International 2013 All rights reserved.HVAC Flap Application case .

Lab AeroAcoustics . Page 32 20XX-XX-XX Virtual.Slide 32 .Industrial Case Study Noise Radiated from a Train Bogie High speed train .CFD done with EXA Powerflow (Lattice-Boltzman) – Courtesy of Bombardier Surface Velocity magnitude Vorticity Velocity magnitude Pressure coefficient Restricted © LMS International 2013 All rights reserved.

Page 33 20XX-XX-XX Virtual.Slide 33 .Industrial Case Study Noise Radiated from a Train Bogie Source distribution on the train bogey Sound radiated in far-field Comparison with measurements (Pressure at 6 m on the side): Restricted © LMS International 2013 All rights reserved.Lab AeroAcoustics .

Page 34 20XX-XX-XX .Flow-induced Vibrations Flow acts as a structural pressure loading: pump vibration Windnoise (turbulence around A-pilar. mirror) turbulent Boundary layer loading on fuselage or hull How to get pressure loading? Directly from CFD (compressible) From Aeroacoustic source propagation (side mirror noise) From analytical models (Corcos. Chase) How to compute vibro-acoustic response Apply loading on structural model (modal or direct) Compute vibration in a weakly or strongly-coupled model Apply vibration as Boundary Condition for acoustic model with FEMAO Restricted © LMS International 2013 All rights reserved.

Lab Acoustics . Windshield) Acoustics Model (Car Interior) Restricted © LMS International 2013 All rights reserved. Coupled Vibration & Acoustics Model LMS Virtual. Interior Walls External CFD Model – Transient Flow CFD Model ANSYS Fluent Page 35 20XX-XX-XX Vibrating Surfaces (Side Glass.Windnoise application case Description and modeling process • Noise prediction at interior of the HSM (Hyundai Simplified Model released by HKMC) caused by transient external aerodynamic sources around A-pillar A-pillar Turbulence Outer Walls (Rigid) Glass Inflow Mic.

Transient . 4 m/c connected via infiniband (total 48 cores) • • • Restricted © LMS International 2013 All rights reserved. Double Precision. Yaw Solver : ANSYS Fluent (Pressure Based. Gradient – Least Square Cell Based) Turbulence Model Transient : DDES – SST K-Omega Total computation time: 15 days for the transient run and 12 Hours for steady run with Intel 2*6 core Xeon 5680.CFD Model • • • • CFD Domain consists of 45 million cells 2nd order implicit transient formulation (time step: 2.0e5s) Total physical time = 1 s (5120 time steps) 4 different cases: 110 and 130 km/h. 0 and 10 deg. Page 36 20XX-XX-XX .

5 m Pressure Contours at Z = 0. 10deg Yaw Velocity Contours at Z = 0.5 m Restricted © LMS International 2013 All rights reserved. Page 37 20XX-XX-XX Iso-surface of Q-Criterion colored by velocity magnitude .Transient Flow Field of 110kph.

Assume Vibration is independent from fluid loading weakly coupled vibro-acoustic approach (OK for target frequencies) Acoustic radiation computed with FEM-AO solver (adaptive order) 20XX-XX-XX Restricted © LMS International 2013 All rights reserved. Page 38 .Aero-Vibro-acoustic modeling strategy compressible flow simulation captures Unsteady Turbulent flow contains both hydrodynamic and acoustic components Directly applied as structural pressure loading Assume vibration has no influence on the flow uncoupled flowvibration approach Flow Vibration Structural FE model captures dynamics of structure Modal approach is used (with uniform modal damping) Acoustics Windows vibration defined as Boundary condition for Acoustic model.

Lab structural solver CFD Pressure 500 Hz Structural mode shape Window FRF Restricted © LMS International 2013 All rights reserved.Lab 5120 time steps.1s Pressure is transformed from time to frequency (df=10Hz) and applied as distributed pressure loading No time averaging is performed here (could be done if time history is long enough to improve convergence of predictions) Structural modes computed with LMS Virtual. Page 39 20XX-XX-XX .Structural model CFD loading CFD Surface Pressure is mapped onto Structural mesh in LMS Virtual. dt = 2e-5s. T = 0.

Page 40 20XX-XX-XX . Yaw – 130 km/h Effect of flow speed • • • • Excellent match with measurements both for SPL and effect of flow speed Computation time: 6 hours for 400 frequencies with 4 cores Win64 Thanks to Ashok Khondge and Myunghoon Lee from Ansys Inc. More details: See proceedings of KSNVE Conference 2013 Restricted © LMS International 2013 All rights reserved.SPL Results 0 deg. for running CFD.

Page 41 20XX-XX-XX .Conclusions Virtual.Lab Acoustics powerful tool for aero-acoustics simulation Various aeroacoustic sources for accurate modeling: Dipole sources for compressible and incompressible flow description Quadrupole sources in FEMAO solver Fan sources for tonal and broadband noise Virtual.Lab for Flow-induced vibrations: Integrated vibro-acoustic solver Poro-elastic and visco-elastic material modeling Restricted © LMS International 2013 All rights reserved.

Page 42 20XX-XX-XX .mesmin@lmsintl.com T : +33 (0) 1 34 52 17 55 M : +33 (0) 6 18 55 17 60 Restricted © LMS International 2013 All rights reserved. vous pouvez contacter : Yohann MESMIN : yohann.Pour toutes informations complémentaires Pour toutes informations complémentaires.

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