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Neoplasias benignas e malignas

Bruno L. Diaz Professor Adjunto IBCCF - UFRJ

Understanding Cancer and Related Topics

Understanding Cancer

Developed by: Lewis J. Kleinsmith, Ph.D. Donna Kerrigan, M.S. Jeanne Kelly Brian Hollen Discusses and illustrates what cancer is, explains the link between genes and cancer, and discusses what is known about the causes, detection, and diagnosis of the disease.

What Is Cancer?

Different Kinds of Cancer

Some common carcinomas:


Lung Breast (women)

Leukemias:
Bloodstream

Lymphomas:
Lymph nodes

Colon Bladder Prostate (men)

Some common sarcomas:


Fat Bone Muscle
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Naming Cancers
Cancer Prefixes Point to Location
Prefix adenochondroerythroMeaning gland cartilage red blood cell

hemangio- blood vessels hepatolipolymphomelanomyelomyoosteoliver fat lymphocyte pigment cell bone marrow muscle bone
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Loss of Normal Growth Control


Normal cell division
Cell Suicide or Apoptosis Cell damage no repair

Cancer cell division

First mutation

Second mutation

Third Fourth or mutation later mutation Uncontrolled growth

Example of Normal Growth

Dead cells shed from outer surface

Epidermis

Cell migration

Dividing cells in basal layer

Dermis

The Beginning of Cancerous Growth

Underlying tissue
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Tumors (Neoplasms)

Underlying tissue
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Invasion and Metastasis

1 Cancer cells invade surrounding tissues and blood vessels 2 Cancer cells are transported by the circulatory system to distant sites 3 Cancer cells reinvade and grow at new location

Malignant versus Benign Tumors


Benign (not cancer) tumor cells grow only locally and cannot spread by invasion or metastasis Malignant (cancer) cells invade neighboring tissues, enter blood vessels, and metastasize to different sites

Time
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Why Cancer Is Potentially Dangerous


Brain

Melanoma cells travel through bloodstream Liver Melanoma (initial tumor)

Sndrome Paraneoplsica Neurolgica

Albert & Darnell. Nat Rev Cancer 2004, 4:36

Albert & Darnell. Nat Rev Cancer 2004, 4:36

Sndromes Hormonais Paraneoplsicas


Sndrome Hiperparatiroidismo Sndrome de Cushing Hipoglicemia Hormnio PTHrp ACTH IGFs Tumor pulmo, rim pulmo, timo pulmo, fgado, sarcomas pulmo pulmo, tesculo

Sndrome da secreo inapropriada ADH do hormnio antidiurtico Hipertiroidismo hCG, TSH Ginecomastia hCG

Microscopic Appearance of Cancer Cells