# @The most common material used to provide protection against X-rays is: |D. lead. ^D. VERY GOOD!

Lead is very effective, relatively inexpensive, and compact.

@A curie is the equivalent of: |B. 1,000 millicuries. ^B. YES! One thousand milli-(one thousandth) curies equal one curie.

@Assuming that a good radiograph is obtained at a setting of 10 milliamperes in 40 seconds, how much time will be necessary to obtain one equivalent radiograph if the milliamperage is change to 5 milliamperes (all other conditions remain constant)?

|C. 80 seconds. ^C. TRUE! The inverse square does not apply here and cutting the amount of X-rays produced would double the exposure time.

@A graph which expresses the relationship between the logarithm of the exposure applied to a photographic material and the resulting photographic density is called: |C. the characteristic curve. ^C. YES! The plot of this function is a characteristic curve depending on film type and the radiation source.

@Short wavelength electromagnetic radiation produced during the disintegration of nuclei of radioactive substances is called:

|B. gamma radiation. ^B. CORRECT! Gamma and X- radiation of the same wavelength are identical, but are produced differently.

@A photographic image recorded by the passage of X or gamma rays through a specimen onto a film is called a: |B. Radiograph. ^B. CORRECTO MUNDO! A radiograph is the general term applied to all X- or gamma ray photographs.

@The normal development time for manually processing X-ray film is: |D. 5 to 8 minutes in processing solutions at 68 degrees F. ^D. YES! Just right. Actual time will vary between 5 to 8 minutes depending on other factors. 68 degrees F is considered the optimum developing temperature.

the film should be agitated while in the developer. the T refers to: |B.@In order to achieve uniformity of development over the area of X-ray film during manual processing: |C. whether it's mechanical or manual is of no consequence. the penetrameter thickness. ^C. ^B. YOU'RE RIGHT! Agitation is necessary to replenish depleted developer at the film's surface. . ALRIGHTY! 2T equals 2% and 4T equals 4% of the material's thickness. @When referring to a "2T" or "4T" hole in the ASTM penetrameter.

^D. Such a device is called: |A. AYE! Many other factors besides kilovoltage and milliamperage determine X-ray intensity and quality. ^A. YES INDEEDY! Because it "masks" out everything but the object being radiographed. @Two X-ray machines operating at the same nominal kilovoltage and milliamperage settings: |D. @Fluoroscopy differs from radiography in that: . may give not only different intensities but also different qualities of radiation. a mask.@A sheet of lead with an opening cut in the shape of the part to be radiographed may be used to decrease the effect of scattered radiation which undercuts the specimens.

^B.|C. the X-ray image is observed visually on a fluorescent screen rather than recorded on a film.K. @An advantage of the pocket dosimeter type of ionization chamber used to monitor radiation received by personnel is: |B. O. ABSOLUTELY! It is not a permanent record. ^C. @The density difference between two selected portions of a radiograph is known as: |B. it provides an immediate indication of dosage. radiographic contrast.! This is why it is called fluoroscopy. ROGER! The selected portions should be from the lightest and darkest areas of the radiograph to measure the overall image contrast. ^B. @One requirement for keeping fluorescent screens in good condition .

@In making an isotope exposure in an unshielded area. @The intensity of X.is that they must: |B. .or gamma radiograph. ^C. EXACTLY! Roentgens only refer to the ionization power of the radiation for one cubic-centimeter of air. VERY GOOD! UV light depletes the screen of the available material used to intensify the X. not be exposed to intense ultraviolet radiation. PRECISELY! According to the inverse square law increasing the distance by 4 results in 1/16th the exposure. 75 mR/hr. What would be the dose rate at 24 feet? |A. ^B. ^A. roentgens per unit of time.or gamma radiation is measured in: |C. you find the dose rate 6 feet from the source is 1200 mR/hr.

the subject contrast decreases. . result in unsharpness of the radiograph.@When producing radiographs. The combination of the two results in an underdeveloped radiograph. underdeveloped. @A properly exposed radiograph that is developed in a developer solution at a temperature of 58 degrees F for 5 minutes will probably be: |B. YEA! 58 degrees F is too cool and five minutes is barely enough developing time for 68 degrees F. @The accidental movement of the specimen or film during exposure or the use of a focus-film distance that is too small will: |C. ^A. ^B. OF COURSE! An increase in kilovoltage produces shorter wavelength X-rays which are less photo-reactive at the film. YOU BET! Just as in conventional photography movement blurs the image and reduces its sharpness. ^C. if the kilovoltage is increased: |A.

TRUE! THey also reduce fogging due to scattered radiation. @Lead screens in contact with the film during exposure: |A. . ^A. What exposure time will be necessary to produce an equivalent radiograph if the milliamperage is change to 5 milliamperes and all other conditions remain the same? |B. increase the photographic action on the film largely by reason of the electron emission and partly by the secondary X-rays generated in the lead.@A good radiograph is obtained using a milliamperage of 15 milliamperes and an exposure time of 1/2 minute. GOOD! One-third the X-rays means the exposure time must be tripled. 1 1/2 minutes. ^B.

SURE! Sharpness is a measure of how well an object is defined against its background. radiographic definition. @An unshielded isotope source gives a dosage rate of 900 mR per hour at 10 feet. YOU'RE RIGHT! According to the inverse square law the distance is 3 times as much and 3 squared is 9. ^C. the output is 1/9 of 900. Would 400 kilovolt X-rays be shorter or longer than 100 kilovolt X-rays? . @Which has the shortest wavelengths? |C. ^B. 100 mR/hr. Therefore.@The sharpness of the outline in the image of the radiograph is a measure of: |B. 100 kilovolt peak X-rays ^C. CORRECT! These are the shortest. What would the unshielded dosage rate be at 30 feet? |C.

^B. @A radioactive source with an activity of one curie has: |D. AYE! Silver bromide is a light sensitive compound that reduces to black metallic silver after it is exposed to radiation or light and then developed. @The metal that forms the image on an x-ray film is: |B. ^D. . silver. ^C.000 disintegrations per second taking place. but remember the total number of atoms in a gram of Cobalt-60 equals approximately 1021 atoms. 370. ALRIGHTY! Electrons ejected from an atom's nucleus are known as Beta particles.000. electrons.000.@Beta particles are: |C. YESIRREEBOB! This is a tremendous number of disintegrations.

^B. @The lead symbol "B" is attached to the back of the film holder to determine: |B. whether excessive backscatter is present. on edge or end. RIGHT ON! The resolution of the lead B on the resulting radiograph indicates the amount of backscatter present during exposure. ^B. . CORRECTO MUNDO! Storing film in a vertical position greatly reduces the chances of pressure damage due to stacking.@Unexposed boxes of x-ray film should be stored: |B.

O. neutralize the developer and stop the developing process. ^C. the purpose of the stop bath is to: |B. @During manual film processing.5 to 9 inches? |C. and atomic decay is not recorded on a film log. ^C.! Cobalt-60 emits highly penetrating X-rays of 1.17 and 1. @Why is cobalt-60 used as a radiation source for medium-weight metals of thickness ranges form 1. Because of its penetrating ability.@The purpose of a dated decay curve is to: |C. determine the source strength (activity) at any time.33 MeV. AFFIRMATIVE! This is the logical choice because size and shielding are set.K. .

etc. ^B. ROGER! The stop bath contains a weak acid that "stops" the developing action. simulate weld reinforcement.^B. ^C. a filter. @A thin metallic sheet (brass.) placed at the source to reduce effects of softer radiation is known as: |B. PRECISELY! This is used to check and calibrate the radiographic equipment. aluminum. @The focal spot size of an x-ray machine must be known in order to determine: . VERY GOOD! By reducing the effect of the soft X-rays the resulting radiograph will be less foggy. @The reason a "shim" is used in radiographic setup is to: |C. copper.

^A. EXACTLY! The exact size must be known. This usually is measured in hundredths or thousandths of an inch. the degree of film blackening. YEA! The blackening is a result of clumps of black metallic silver.|A. @A section with a significant increases in thickness. increasing kilovoltage. thus enabling a radiograph of equal contrast to be made of the thicker area. variation is required to be shown on a single radiograph within a desired film density range. ^A. @The density of a radiograph image refers to: |D. . OF COURSE! By increasing the kilovoltage shorter more penetrating X-rays are produced. the geometric unsharpness value. ^D. This may be accomplished by: |A.

. electron. sensitivity. @The primary parts of an atom are: |D. Generally light and thus radiation are thought of as having a color (wavelength). or the contrast and definition shoddy the imaging of the penetrameter hole is a measure of radiographic sensitivity. monochromatic radiation. ^C. @The image of the required penetrameter and hole on the radiograph indicates that the radiograph has the required: |C. proton. TRUE! Even if the latitude of the radiograph is wide or narrow.@A beam of radiation consisting of a single wavelength is known as: |C. neutron. ^C. GOOD! Monochromatic literally mans one (mono) color (chromatic).

^C. but do not concern us here. YEP! By using the inverse square law doubling the distance decreases the radiation by 2 squared (2x2) or a factor of 4. until a collision or gravity affects their course.^D. straight lines. increasing the source-to-specimen distance. ^A. SURE! According to Sir Isaac Newton they will continue traveling in a straight line forever. @A large source size can be compensated for by: |A. primary radiation. . @X-rays and gamma rays always travel: |C. YOU BET! These are the primary atomic parts there are many others which are very small. or from a radioactive source. @Radiation arising directly from the target of an x-ray tube or an accelerator. is usually referred to as: |B.

^B. ALRIGHTY! elements with high atomic numbers are the heavier. @To produce X-rays. target. This body is called: |C. CORRECT! A target material at the anode then emits a spectrum of X-rays whose minimum wavelength is controlled by the kilovoltage.) X-rays. YOU'RE RIGHT! They are also known as Bremsstrahlung (German for braking. @The best x-ray efficiency is produced when the target material has: |B. ^C. more dense elements and make excellent X-ray emitters. . a high atomic number. ^B. electrons are accelerated to a high velocity by an electrical field and then suddenly stopped by a collision with a solid body.

. ^C. Material vibration. @If a fluorescent screen is accidentally exposed to unattenuated x-rays.@In a fluoroscopic inspection system using a 15 inch source-to-material distance and 2 inch material-to-screen distance. however their vibrating does not create the most image blurring. RIGHT ON! If the screen were greatly effected by attenuated or unattenuated X-rays their repeated use would be severely limited and this is not the case. AYE! The source and screen are in a fixed position and should not vibrate. transverse vibration of which item will cause the most image blurring? |C. which of the following occurs? |C. The screen is essentially undamaged. ^C.

Lead glass. . @A fluoroscopic installation utilizing fluorescent screen requires: |B. ^B. CORRECTO MUNDO! A "real-time" radiographic system has many advantages including eliminating on going film and development cost. but lacks the sensitivity of film. YES INDEEDY! These are needed to shield andprotect the operator from nonconverted X-rays passing through the screen. mirrors. Live image presentation for immediate viewing.@Which of the following is an advantage of a fluoroscopic system when compared to a radiographic system? |B. or other means for transmitting the fluorescent image without subjecting the operator to x-radiation. ^B.

ROGER! It is the atomic decay (disintegration) that creates . @The term used to describe the loss of excess energy by the nucleus of radioactive atoms is called: |A. kilovoltage. AFFIRMATIVE! Kilovoltage determines the minimum wavelength of the spectrum of X-rays produced. the ability to penetrate the test object is governed by: |C. Increasing kilovoltage produces short wavelength more penetrating X-radiation. ^C. ABSOLUTELY! Gamma rays are the result of the atomic disintegrations occurring in Cobalt-60. @Which of the following types of radiation is emitted by cobalt-60 and used in nondestructive testing? |B. decay (disintegration). Gamma rays.@In X-radiography. ^A. ^B.

and various subatomic particles which carry either a positive or negative electrical charge are called: . @Atoms. VERY GOOD! All three are capable of ionizing (creating negative or positive ions) elements or compounds. @The term used to express the number of curies of radioactivity per gram or ounce of source weight is: |C.gamma rays which is energy lost by the material in the form of radiation.7 x 1010 atomic disintegrations per second. gamma rays. @X-rays. specific activity. One curie equals 3. ^C. and alpha particles all have one thing in common-they are all: |D. PRECISELY! The specific activity is the curies per gram or ounce of material. ionizing radiations. ^D. molecules.

decreases with time. and all protons are positive. ^C.|C. ^B. YEA! This is an approximation it is actually one 64th or 1. GOOD! The half-life is a measure of this decrease. . @The radiation intensity of a radioisotope: |B. ions. 2 ^D. @Approximately what percent of the original radioactivity is left after six half-lives? |D.56 percent. EXACTLY! Compounds are composed of only molecules. all electrons are negative.

@Low voltage X-ray tubes are generally fitted with windows made of: |B. is a beam consisting of a single wavelength. @A monochromatic X-ray beam: |D. . ^B Correct! Beryllium allows all but the longtest wavelength xrays to pass through it. YOU'RE RIGHT! Mono means one or single and chromatic refers to the color or wavelength. beryllium. ^D.

ALRIGHT! Cobalt is suitable for radiographing steel above 3-4 inches thick and has a rated penetrating power of 1. which of the following gamma-ray sources would most likely be used? |A.17 and 1. Cobalt-60 ^A. and cathode produce and direct the electron beam.@The general method of producing X-rays involves the sudden deceleration of high velocity electrons in a solid body called a: |C.33 MeV respectively. ^C. @The absorption of gamma rays from a given source when passing through matter depends on: . target. CORRECT! The focusing cup. @If it were necessary to radiograph a 7-inch thick steel product. filament.

|A. the atomic number, density, and thickness of the matter. ^A. YES! The thickness, atomic number, and material density all effect the absorption of both gamma and X-rays.

@The velocity of electrons striking the target in an X-ray tube is a function of: |C. the voltage difference between the cathode and anode. ^C. RIGHT ON! The voltage potential between the cathode and anode is responsible for electron velocity.

@The uneven distribution of developed grains within the emulsion of a processed X-ray film causes the subjective impression of:

|A. graininess.

^A. CORRECT! Also note the faster the film the larger the individual silver salts (grains). Thus fast film tends to be grainier.

@Of the following, the source providing the most penetrating radiation is: |C. 15 MeV x-ray betatron. ^C. YES! A 15MeV X-ray betatron is a linear accelerator whose beam strength is 12 times that of Cobalt the next most penetrating source on this list.

@The focal spot in an X-ray tube: |D. should be as small as possible without unduly shortening the life of the tube. ^D. O.K.! A smaller focal spot creates a narrower beam of Xradiation and raises the definition of the radiograph.

@In an X-ray tube, the filament and focusing cup are the two essential parts of the: |B. cathode. ^B. ABSOLUTELY! The filament is the source of the electrons and the focusing cup aims them onto the target anode.

@The quantity of radiation which will produce, by means of ionization, one electrostatic unit of electricity in 0.001293 grams of dry air is known as: |C. a roentgen. ^C. CORRECT! 0.001293 grams of dry air is equivalent to one cubic centimeter of dry air at sea level.

@The specific activity of an isotopic source is usually measured in: B. curies per gram. ^B. VERY GOOD! The curies per gram is the measure of specific activity. One curie equals 37,000,000 disintegrations per

The other 97% is released as heat. heat. @Which of the following isotopes has the longest half-life? |D. Cesium-137 ^D. by definition: . ^D. EXACTLY! For example: only 3% of a 300 keV X-ray tube's total energy is converted to X-rays. @The primary form of energy conversion when electrons strike a target in an X-ray tube results in the production of: |D.second. @An X-ray film having wide latitude also has. PRECISELY! Cesium-137 with a half-life of 30 years in the longest of this group.

low contrast.|B. TRUE! The smaller the focal spot the better the definition. better definition. GOOD! Because 97% or more of the energy of an X-ray tube is given off as heat circulating oil is used for cooling. YES! X-ray films with a narrow latitude by definitions are high contrast. @The purpose for circulating oil in some types of X-ray tubes is: |D. ^B. ^D. . ^B. @An X-ray tube with a small focal spot is considered better than one with a large focal spot when it is defined to obtain: |B. to dissipate heat.

but less photographically active and produce high contrast radiographs. CORRECT! These electrons are photographically active and intensify the exposure and increase the darkening of the film.@One method of reducing radiographic contrast is to: |C. ^C. decrease the wavelength of the radiation used. they emit electrons when exposed to X. @Thin sheets of lead foil in intimate contact with X-ray film during exposure increase film density because: |D. YOU BET! Shorter wavelength X-rays are more penetrating . YOU'RE RIGHT! Do to the high voltages involved an . ^D. protect the operator from high-voltage shock. ^B.and gamma radiation which help darken the film. @X-ray tubes are often enclosed in a shockproof casing in order to: |B.

Effective voltage! Not conventional radiographic term. This tube may be operated at a maximum of: |A. 250. . @An X-ray tube is rated for a maximum of 250 kVp. ^B.electrically insulated casing is required to protect the operator. YES! The half wave rectifier converts the ac to pulsing dc current. alternating current must be changed to pulsating direct current in order to satisfy the need for unidirectional current. This change may be accomplished by: |B. ^B. rectifiers. What does the "p" stand for? @In X-ray radiography.000 volts peak voltage.

50 mils. an ASTM penetrameter for 2.05 or 50 mils. ^A.@When radiographing to the 2-2T quality level..05 inches or 2 percent of 2.5 x .5 inches. what exposure time would produce a similar radiograph if all other . @A good cobalt-60 radiograph is made on a 3 inch steel casting using an exposure time of 10 minutes and a source-to-film distance of 36 inches. ^D. provide necessary rectification. It is necessary to change the source-to-film distance to 24 inches. equals . computed as 2. CORRECT! 50 mils.5 inch steel has a thickness of: |D. or 50 thousandths of an inch. @Valve tubes are used in X-ray equipment to: |A. Correct! yes the valve tubes are used to convert ac to pulsing dc current.

Yes! 3 ft. Yes! The electrical discharge of static electricity exposes crystals. ^A.. 4. black bird-foot shaped marks which are known not to correspond with any discontinuities appear at random on radiographs. squared equals 9.conditions remain the same? |B. ^C. static charges caused by friction. @The adjustment of tube current in conventional X-ray tube circuits is made by: |A. CORRECT! This increases the number of electrons produced and .4 minutes. 4 /9 = 4/9 x 10 = 4. @When sharp. they are probably caused by: |C.444.. and 2 ft squared equals 4. adjusting the filament heating current. ^B.

Yes! The short wavelengths pass through with minimal attenuation. CORRECT! High penetrating short wavelength X-rays are less photographically active. The longer wavelengths "softer" X-rays create scatter radiation and film fog.is a function of amperage. ^C. @In comparison with lower-voltage radiographs. ^B. high-energy radiographs show: |B.5 inches. is the equivalent to . greater latitude. @An ASTM penetrameter for use when inspecting a one-half inch thick steel plate to the 2-2T quality level using a 15 inch source-to-film distance would be made of: |C. @Filters used at the port of the X-ray tube: |D. filter out "soft" radiation to provide a more homogeneous X-ray beam. VERY GOOD! 10 mils.01 inches or 2 percent of . ^D. . 10 mil thick steel.

also: |B. ^B. @Besides serving as a filter. EXACTLY! The longer wavelength "soft" X-rays increase scatter radiation and can fog the resulting radiograph. GOOD! The range of thickness over which densities are satisfactory for interpretation is known as latitude. such as lead and lead antimony. ^C. latitude of a radiograph. OF COURSE! By releasing electrons that photographly react with the film. . by absorbing the longer wavelength components of the primary beam. @The range of thickness over which densities are obtained that are satisfactory for interpretation is a measure of the: |C. ^A. screens of high atomic number.@Filters placed between the x-ray tube and specimen tend to reduce scatter radiation undercutting the specimen: |A. provide some image intensifying action.

SURE! The increase in material between the discontinuity and the film reduces the definition. @As the effective energy of the radiation increases up to . TRUE! Thulium-170 and radium are rarely used. have higher speeds than those with a relatively small grain size. iridium-192 or cobalt-60. @Images of discontinuities close to the source side of the specimen become less clearly defined as: |B. ^B. the thickness of the specimen increases.@Almost all gamma radiography is performed with: |B. @The inherent filtration of an x-ray tube is a function of: |A. @X-ray films with large grain size: |C. the thickness and composition of the x-ray tube port. ^B.

^D. @The most commonly used target material in an x-ray tube is: |D. YES! More Cobalt-59 is converted to Cobalt-60. RIGHT! Tungsten is commonly used because of its density and high melting point. ^A. . CORRECT! By cooling the target anode rotation allows higher voltages or loads to be used without over heating and melting the target. ^C. @The specific activity of cobalt-60 depends on: |A. film graininess increases. @The purpose for including a disc-shaped target that rotates rapidly during operation in some x-ray tubes is to: |C.about 250kV: |A. tungsten. the time the material has been in the reactor. increase the permissible load.

. betatron. an ionization chamber. CORRECT! Specific activity is measured by curies per gram. ^A. The source with the higher specific activity value will: |A. @A gas-filled region located in an electrical field created by electrodes across which a potential difference is applied forms the major portion of: |D.@A device which is basically a combination of magnet and transformer designed to guide and accelerate electrons in a circular orbit to very high energies is called a: |C. thus. be of smaller physical size than the source with a lower specific activity. if source strength is equal the higher specific activity source will be smaller and weigh less. @Two isotopic sources of a given strength have two different specific activity values.

the quality of fluoroscopic equipment is best determined by: |B. @Two serious obstacles to high-sensitivity fluoroscopy are: |B. penetrameter sensitivity measurements. @In fluoroscopic testing. ^B. . CORRECT! The limited brightness and grainy image make fluoroscopy less sensitive. the limited brightness and large grain size of fluoroscopic screens. |C.^D. ABSOLUTELY RIGHT! X-ray tubes contain a vacuum. a fundamental difficulty is the relative low brightness level of the images. One method for increasing brightness utilizes one of the following which converts light energy from the initial phosphor surface to electrons which are accelerated and focused onto a smaller fluorescent screen. @In general. Image amplifier or intensifier.

CORRECT! Shorter wavelength X-rays are produced and their alternation is more dependent upon material thickness. @The radiographic absorption of a material will tend to become less dependent upon the composition of the material when: |A. the central ray should be as nearly perpendicular to the film as possible. ^D. the source of radiation must be extremely small. @In order to utilize the principles of geometric enlargement (placing the film at a distance from the specimen): |B.@A general rule governing the application of the geometric principles of shadow formation states that: |D. ^B. CORRECT! Any other angle increases the geometric distortion of the object being radiographed. ^A. the kilovoltage is increased. to preserve spatial relationships. @The formula (milliamperes X times)/(distance squared is: . CORRECT! This would increase definition.

@The load that can be handled by an x-ray tube focal spot is governed by: |B.|D. to protect the film from backscatter. The purpose of this sheet of lead foil is: |B. @X-ray exposure holders and cassettes often incorporate a sheet of lead foil in the back which is not in intimate contact with the film. @A lead sheet containing a pinhole may be placed halfway between the X-ray tube and the film in order to: |A. determine the approximate size of the focal spot. the size of the focal spot and the efficiency of the cooling system of the anode. the exposure factor. @The most common way of cooling the anode of a high-power X-ray tube is: .

^C. @In certain cases. to decrease the effect of scattered radiation undercuttin the specimen. it may be advantageous to pack lead shot around a specimen. raising the kilovoltage and using lead foil screens. @When radiographing steel with a thickness less than one inch: |B. @The mottling caused by diffraction when radiographing fairly large-grained metallic specimens can be reduced and in some cases eliminated by: |C.|C. CORRECT! Raising KV produces shorter wavelength X-rays and the lead screens filter out the less penetrating shorter wavelengths. @A radiograph made with an exposure of 12mA per minute has a . cooling by circulation of water or oil in the anode. a 250 kV X-ray machine would give greater radiographic sensitivity than cobalt-60. The purpose for doing this is: |D.

0 in this area. @For practical purposes.6 mA per minute @The absorption of radiation by a material varies: |D.8.density of 0. By reference to a characteristic curve of the film. it is found that the difference in log E between a density of 0. @In order for a radiograph to have a penetrameter sensitivity of 2-2T or better: |B.8 and 2. in an approximately exponential manner with the thickness of the material.0? |C. 69. What must the new exposure time be to produce a radiograph with a density of 2. the shape of the characteristic curve .76 is 5.76.0 is 0. the radiographic procedure must be able to define the 2T hole in a penetrameter which is 2 percent of the thickness of the specimen. The antilogarithm of log 0.8 in the region of maximum interest. It is desired to increase the density to 2.

@The term which describes the total absorption of the useful beam caused by the X-ray tube wall. and any material between the tube and housing is: |D. the wall of the tube housing. inherent filtration. poor contact between film and lead foil screens. yellow milkiness disappears is known as: |A.or gamma radiation. @The interval between the time a film is placed in a fixer solution and the time when the original diffuse. @Improper geometric factors. and graininess of film are possible causes of: . CORRECT! This is followed by an equal amount of time for hardening. clearing time. is independent of the quality of X. ^A.of an X-ray film: |B.

there is an overall . 25MeV @A radiograph is taken at a voltage of 500 kV. @A radiograph of a steel weldment is made using a 15 MeV betatron. When the radiograph is developed. If the voltage is increased with a resultant increase in the energy of radiation while all other conditions remain the same: |D. @Which of the following X-ray generators would produce the narrowest cone of X-radiation? |C. change operators periodically. poor definition.|B. @In fluoroscopy the most common means for minimizing operator fatigue is to: |D. there will be little significant change in the graininess of the film.

CORRECT! The size of the film is not a factor influencing film density. @A basic difference between a radiograph and a fluoroscopic images is: |B. . A possible cause for such mottling is: |C. CORRECT! It is also less sensitive. the fluoroscopic image is a positive whereas the radiograph is a negative transparency. @Which of the following factors will not materially influence the image density of a radiograph? |B. @The quantity of radiation striking a unit area of film: |A. is the product of radiation intensity and time.film mottling. The size of the film ^B. failure to use a lead screen during exposure. ^B.

@A 1. ^D. The unsharpness caused by geometrical factors may be referred to as the: |B. penumbral shadow. 5 inches of steel or its equivalent. CORRECT! Targets made from elements with high atonic numbers are more efficient and high operating temperatures . source-to-specimen distance and specimen-to-film distance.000 kVp X-ray machine used in conjunction with a lead foil screen has an approximate practical thickness limit of: |C. atomic number and melting point. @Because of geometrical factors such as source size. @Two factors which greatly affect the suitability of the target material in an X-ray tube are: |D. there can be a lack of perfect sharpness at the edges of indications.

5-inch plate of copper. the intensity of radiation is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source to the film. @The approximate radiographic equivalence factors for steel and copper at 220kV are 1.0 and 1.7 inches of steel ^A. @The reason the exposure time must be increased by a factor of four when the source-to-film distance is doubled is: |C. CORRECT! Or . what thickness of steel would require about the same exposure characteristics? |A.require a high melting point.4 x 1.0 .5 x 1. 0. CORRECT! This is known as the inverse square law.4 respectively. ^C. If it is desirable to radiograph a 0.

^B. . @The quantitative measure of film blackening is referred to as: |B. @Films that are left between lead screens too long in a high-temperature and high-humidity atmosphere may: |B. CORRECT! Adjusting the KV increases or decreases the penetrating power of the X-rays produced and thus the resulting image contrast. photographic density. become fogged. CORRECT! Fogging occurs because of a chemical change in the silver bromide crystals. ^B. Kilovoltage ^C. CORRECT! The instrument used to measure film density is called a densitometer.@Which of the following technique variables is most commonly used to adjust subject contrast? |C.

an H & D curve. If this should be a serious problem. CORRECT! A geiger counter is more sensitive and gives an immediate indication of radiation. the use of lead to provide protection may present serious problems. @At voltages above 400 kV. which of the following materials would most likely be used as a substitute? .@A curve relating density with the logarithm of exposure or of relative exposure is called: |C. A Geiger counter ^C. @Which of the following instruments would exhibit the best sensitivity and most likely be used to detect small leaks in a radiation barrier? |C.

film contrast. CORRECT! Stereo means two. CORRECT! Concrete is not only effective. stereoradiography. Concrete ^B. . @A special radiographic method requiring two radiographs taken during separate exposures from two different positions to give the visual impression of a three-dimensional display when viewed in an optical device simultaneously is referred to as: |C. @A qualitative term often used to indicate the size of the smallest detail which can be seen in a radiograph is: |A.|B. ^C. @The slope (steepness) of a characteristic curve is a measure of: |D. but inexpensive as well. radiographic sensitivity.

The depth of the discontinuity is computed from the shift in the shadow of the discontinuity with respect to the images of fixed markers on the front and back of the specimen. cause undesirable. ^C. CORRECT! This contamination results in the diminishing activity of the solution. the fixer solution accumulates soluble silver salts. preferential flow of developer along certain paths. The method is referred to as: |D. @The activity of the fixer diminishes after being used for a period of time because: |C. . the parallax method of depth location. @Constant agitation of the developer during the development process by means of mechanical stirrers or circulating pumps may: |C.@The depth of a discontinuity may be estimated by making two exposures on a single film from two different positions of the X-ray tube.

@As the development time increases: |A. have little effect on the shape of a characteristic curve. the characteristic curve grows steeper and moves to the left. or other sources of ultraviolet radiation will: |B. . four to eight times the volume to of the tank. sunlight. the hourly flow of water in the wash tank should be: |B. become discolored and lose some of its brilliance.@In processing radiographs. @A zinc cadmium sulfide fluoroscopic screen which is continually exposed to bright daylight. @Increasing the X-ray or gamma-ray energy will: |D.

high-voltage radiography. ^C. ^C.@A distinctive characteristic of high-voltage radiography is: |C. CORRECT! This eliminates most of the shorter less penetrating wavelengths that are produced when using high-kilovoltage. X-ray powder diffraction examination. @Lead screens are used for almost all exposures when using: |C. @Which of the following glasses would most likely be used as . it is applicable to comparatively thick or highly absorbing specimens. CORRECT! High voltages are necessary to accelerate the electrons fast enough in order to produce the shortest wavelength most penetrating X-ray possible. @The fact that each solid crystalline substance produces its own characteristic X-ray pattern is the basis for: |D.

The voltage and voltage waveform of an X-ray machine transformer varies with load. What is the primary factor that prevents this from being exactly proportional? |A. a change in tube current causes a change in radiation intensity emitted from an X-ray tube. CORRECT! The attenuation properties of lead give the glass shielding features. @When other operating conditions are held constant. . @The maximum practical speed of scanning a test object for conventional fluoroscopic inspection has been estimated to be: |D. about 3 inches per second. Lead glass ^B.an X-ray barrier window on fluoroscopic equipment? |B. the intensity being approximately proportional to tube current.

an image of the back of the cassette superimposed on the image of the specimen is noted. the radiation level on the opposite . If the radiation level on the source side of a 1. This is most likely due to: |D.@When viewing a radiograph.5 inch. a radiograph of mottled appearance. Backscatter. @The half-value layer of lead for cobalt-60 is approximately 0. @A special form of scatter due to X-ray diffraction effects in a specimen with large grains will result in: |B. a lead "B" is placed on the back of the film to measure back scatter radiation. ^D.5 inch lead plate is 64 R/hr. CORRECT! Radiation scattered onto the back of the film cassette causes this.

8 R/hr. 94 seconds . ^A. CORRECT! The type of film used has inherent contrast qualities known as "film contrast" which has no relation to subject contrast. what exposure time would be needed for an equivalent exposure if the source-to -film distance is changed to 5 feet? |B. @If an exposure time of 60 seconds and a source-to-film distance of 4 feet is necessary for a particular exposure.side is: |A. Type of film used ^C. CORRECT! Calculated as 64 x 1/2 x 1/2 x 1/2 = 8 @Which of the following is not a factor in determining subject contrast? |C.

.^B. @Developer solution should be discarded when the quantity of replenisher added equals: |B. ^C.5625 x 60 = 93. CORRECT! Once two or three replenisher supplements have exhausted the developer it becomes too contaminated to revive. @In order to increase latitude so that thick and thin portions may be radiographed at reasonable viewing densitiesNsimultaneously: |C. CORRECT! According to the inverse square law 5 squared/4 squared = 1. as is film contrast. CORRECT! Since latitude is an inherent property. the film cassette may be loaded with two films of different speeds. the only way to increase it is to use two films with different speeds. two to three times the original quantity of developer.75 or 94 seconds. ^B.

2 inches of steel or its equivalent. @A 250 kVp X-ray machine used in conjunction with a lead foil screen has an approximate practical thickness limit of: |B. @The degree of concentration of the radioactive material in a gamma-ray source is referred to as: . which of the following statements would be true? |C. CORRECT! Because the kV X-rays are harder and have less photoactive capabilities. The 50 kV exposure would have a lower contrast and a greater latitude than the 40 kV exposure ^C.@If a specimen were radiographed at 40 kV and again at 50 kV with time compensation to give the radiographs the same density.

CORRECT! And it's measured as curies per gram. tube current should be increased. ^D. the specific activity of the source. the operator wishes to increase the radiation intensity. CORRECT! KeV and MeV are measurements of gamma ray energy. filtration at the tube: |D. the: |B. offers no improvement in radiographic quality. CORRECT! Filtration of such a powerful X-ray beam at the tube offers no improvement in the radiographic quality.|A. @While using an X-ray tube for radiography. @The energy of gamma rays is expressed by which of the following units of measurement? |D. ^A. To do so. Kiloelectron volt (keV) or million electron volt (MeV) ^D. @In million-volt radiography. .

@Because of geometrical factors such as source size. and duration of exposure desired. penumbral shadow. CORRECT! Intensity is controlled by milliamperage. to enable the operator to obtain the intensity. quality by kilovoltage. CORRECT! Raising tube current or milliamperage increases Xray intensity.^B. ^B. there can be a lack of perfect sharpness at the edges of indications. and specimen-to-film distance. quality. ^B. @The main purpose of the X-ray generator controls on the equipment is: |B. . source-to-specimen distance. CORRECT! By controlling these factors the penumbral shadow can be reduced and sharpness increased. and exposure duration by a timer or switch. The unsharpness caused by these factors may be referred to a the: |B.

CORRECT! This is a chemical change which is not apparent until the film is processed.@Fluoroscopic screens. a change takes place in the silver halide crystals. latent image. gamma rays. This change is referred to as: |C. @When X rays. CORRECT! Sunlight and ultraviolet light drain the amount of fluorescent material available for visible light production during radiography. ^C. light. or electrons strike the photographic emulsion. as mounted and used. are easily damaged by which of the following? |B. @If one curie of iridium-192 produces a dose rate of 5900 mR per . Exposure to ultraviolet radiation or sunlight ^B.

59. This image would most likely be due to the presence of: |C. @On a radiograph of a pipe weld there is a very light irregularly-shaped small image in the weld.hour at one foot. CORRECT! All three are important quality factors. @With respect to quality. specimen thickness. CORRECT! Since the distance is equal a ten curie source is exactly ten times as intense as a one curie source. how may mR will ten curies produce at the same distance? |D. geometric unsharpness ^D. what three factors must be considered in selecting a source-to-film distance? |D. tungsten inclusion. Source size.000 ^D. .

CORRECT! Tungsten is more dense and attenautes the beam more than the surrounding material resulting in a very light image.^C. CORRECT! A lead backscatter is attached to the back of the film to measure backscatter and when exposed results in a light image. ^A. @A light image of a backing "B" on a processed radiograph is probably caused by: |B. the source-to-film distance is increased. @A larger physical size source may produce an equivalent quality radiograph if: |A. ^B. and is irregular in shape. . CORRECT! This in essence reduces its physical size as it appears from the viewpoint of the specimen. backscatter.

@For a given change in the radiation exposure. . a difference in density. ^B. a neutron. which of the following conditions occur? |C. film contrast is the inherent ability to show: |A. CORRECT! And thus increases the atomic weight by one. The image resolution will be reduced ^C. CORRECT! It has nothing to do with graininess although faster (large grain) films usually have lower contrast than slower (fine grain) films. CORRECT! The resulting image is grainier. ^A. @When a faster speed film is substituted for a slower one to improve the economics of the exposure.@Cobalt-59 becomes cobalt-60 when it is placed in a nuclear reactor where it captures: |B.

@The ability of a material to block or partially block the passage of X rays and gamma rays is referred to as: |C. latitude of the radiograph. CORRECT! Latitude is the range of thicknesses that can be adequately recorded on the radiograph. CORRECT! Also referred to as attenuation. ^D. and source-to-specimen distance are the three factors that determine the: |D. specimen thickness. @The range of specimen thicknesses that can be adequately recorded on the radiograph is referred to as the: |B. absorption. CORRECT! All three are factors directly related to image sharpness. ^C. @Source size. . ^B. unsharpness recorded on the radiograph.

@The "photoelectric" effect involves: |C.5 curie source.@Approximately how long would it take for a 10 curie cobalt-60 source to decay to 2 1/2 curies? |C. ^A. . complete absorption of a photon. 10. CORRECT! Since the half-life of Cobalt-600 is 5.3 years it would take two half lives to reduce a 10 curies source to a 2. @Radiographic undercutting is caused by: |A. CORRECT! Part of the photon energy is used in ejecting an electron and the remainder imparts velocity to the ejected electron. side scatter. ^C. CORRECT! It is also caused by internal scatter and can present problems when radiographing irregularly shaped objects.6 years ^C.

by definition: |B. @An X-ray film having wide latitude also has. CORRECT! The effective focal spot is either equal to or . CORRECT! The stop bath is acid. to preserve spatial relationships. the central ray should be a nearly perpendicular to the film as possible. ^C. alkaline. effective focal spot. CORRECT! Narrow latitude films have high contrast. @The projected area of the target of an X-ray tube is called: |C.@The developer solution is: |B. ^B. CORRECT! Any angel other than 90 degrees increases geometric distortion of the images on the radiograph. ^D. low contrast. @A general rule governing the application of the geometric principles of shadow formation states that: |D. ^B.

@The slope of the H & D curve of a radiographic film is called: |C. ^C. @An iridium-192 gamma-ray source has an approximate practical thickness limit of: |A.less than the actual focal spot. 3 inches of steel or its equivalent. gamma or gradient. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX @The half-life of radioactive cesium-137 is nearest: |C. 30 years. fluorescent screen exposures. @The half-life of radioactive cesium-137 is nearest: . CORRECT! Its rays have an average penetration power of 664 keV. |B.

kilovoltage. an exposure chart or technique chart. @An iridium-192 gamma-ray source has an approximate practical thickness limit of: |A. determined by the isotope involved. @A graph showing the relation between material thickness. 3 inches of steel or its equivalent. @Unwanted inclusions in a part will appear on a radiograph as: |D. @The formula for determining permissible accumulated personnel dose is: |C. @The radiation quality of a gamma-ray source is: |B. 5 (N-18) @Penetrameters for _____ are considered Group 1 Materials and need .|C. ^C. and exposure is called: |B. either a dark or light spot or area depending on the relative absorption ratio of the part material and the inclusion material. 30 years. CORRECT! Its rays have an average penetration power of 664 keV.

Rectifier. @A Cobalt-60 gamma ray source has an approximate practical thickness limit of: |C. |C.000 miles per second. Stainless steel. 15 roentgens per hour. @What is sometimes used to change the alternating current from the high voltage transformer to direct current for the purpose of increasing the X-ray machine output? |A. @The velocity of all electromagnet radiation is: |A.not have an identification notch. when bombarded by radiation. radiation detection equipment. @The fact that gases. ionize and become electrical conductors make them useful in: |D. 9 inches of steel or its equivalent. @The slope of a straight line joining two points of specified densities on a characteristic curve of a film is known as the: . @The gamma-ray intensity at one foot from a one curie source of radioactive cobalt-60 is nearest: |A. 186.

average gradient. @The amount of unsharpness or blurring of a radiograph is: |B. @A voltage selector consisting of an iron core transformer with a single winding having a series of taps at various points on the winding is called: |C.|C. directly proportional to the size of the focal spot and inversely proportional to the source-to-object distance. an autotransformer. .