# FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY LABORATORY

STUDENTS REFERENCE MANUAL

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
AWH ENGINEERING COLLEGE KOZHIKODE

FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY LABORATORY

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS TO STUDENTS

· The purpose of this la orator! is to rei"for#e a"\$ e"ha"#e !our u"\$er% sta"\$i"& of the fu"\$a'e"tals of Flui\$ 'e#ha"i#s a"\$ H!\$rauli# 'a#hi"es( The e)peri'e"ts here are \$esi&"e\$ to \$e'o"strate the appli#atio"s of the asi# *ui\$ 'e#ha"i#s pri"#iples a"\$ to pro+i\$e a 'ore i"tuiti+e a"\$ ph!s% i#al u"\$ersta"\$i"& of the theor!( The 'ai" o ,e#ti+e is to i"tro\$u#e a +ari% et! of #lassi#al e)peri'e"tal a"\$ \$ia&"osti# te#h"i-ues. a"\$ the pri"#iples ehi"\$ these te#h"i-ues( This la orator! e)er#ise also pro+i\$es pra#ti#e i" 'a/i"& e"&i"eeri"& ,u\$&'e"ts. esti'ates a"\$ assessi"& the relia ilit! of !our 'easure'e"ts. s/ills 0hi#h are +er! i'porta"t i" all e"&i"eeri"& \$is#ipli"es(

· Rea\$ the la 'a"ual a"\$ a"! a#/&rou"\$ 'aterial "ee\$e\$ efore !ou #o'e to the la ( You 'ust e prepare\$ for !our e)peri'e"ts efore #o'i"& to the la ( I" 'a"! #ases !ou 'a! ha+e to &o a#/ to !our *ui\$ 'e#ha"i#s te)t oo/s to re+ie0 the pri"#iples \$ealt 0ith i" the e)peri'e"t(

· 1lease a#ti+el! parti#ipate i" #lass a"\$ \$o"2t hesitate to as/ -uestio"s( 1lease utili3e the tea#hi"& assista"ts full!( To e"#oura&e !ou to e prepare\$ a"\$ to rea\$ the la 'a"ual efore #o'i"& to the la orator!. u"a""ou"#e\$ -uestio"s 'a! e as/e\$ at a"! ti'e \$uri"& the la (

· Ne+er #arr! out u"authori3e\$ e)peri'e"ts( Co'e to the la orator! pre% pare\$( If !ou are u"sure a out 0hat to \$o. please as/ the i"stru#tor(

· Careless"ess i" perso"al #o"\$u#t or i" ha"\$li"& e-uip'e"t 'a! result i" serious i",ur! to the i"\$i+i\$ual or the e-uip'e"t( Do "ot ru" "ear 'o+% i"& 'a#hi"er!( Al0a!s e o" the alert for stra"&e sou"\$s( 4uar\$ a&ai"st e"ta"&li"& #lothes i" 'o+i"& parts of 'a#hi"er!(

· Stu\$e"ts 'ust follo0 the proper \$ress #o\$e i"si\$e the la orator!( To pro% te#t #lothi"& fro' \$irt. 0ear a la #oat( Lo"& hair shoul\$ e tie\$ a#/( Shoes #o+eri"& the 0hole foot 0ill ha+e to e 0or"(

· Do"2t for&et to ri"& #al#ulator. &raph sheets a"\$ \$ra0i"& a##essories 0he" i

!ou #o'e to la (

· I" perfor'i"& the e)peri'e"ts. please pro#ee\$ #arefull! to 'i"i'i3e a"! 0ater spills. espe#iall! o" the ele#tri# #ir#uits a"\$ 0ire(

· Ma/e !our 0or/pla#e #lea" efore lea+i"& the la orator!( Mai"tai" sile"#e. or\$er a"\$ \$is#ipli"e i"si\$e the la (

· Do"2t use #ell pho"es i"si\$e the la orator!(

· A"! i",ur! "o 'atter ho0 s'all. 'ust e reporte\$ to the i"stru#tor i''e% \$iatel!(

· Start 0riti"& !our La orator! re#or\$s earl!. \$o"2t 0ait till the \$a! efore the la re#or\$s are \$ue( Most e)peri'e"ts re-uire a si&"i5#a"t a'ou"t of a"al!sis. 0hi#h #a""ot e \$o"e properl! if !ou start o"e or t0o \$a!s efore the \$ue \$ate( Start earl! a"\$ &i+e !ourself ti'e to &et help i" #ase !ou ru" i"to pro le's. 0e #a" "ot help !ou if !ou 0ait till the last 'o'e"t(

· 6ish !ou a "i#e e)perie"#e i" this la 7

ii

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS TO STUDENTS 1 VERIFICATION OF BERNOULLI’S THEOREM 8(8 O ,e#ti+es ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( 8(? E-uip'e"t re-uire\$ ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( 8(9 1ri"#iple ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( 8(: 1ro#e\$ure ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( 8(; O ser+atio"s a"\$ #al#ulatio"s ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( 8(> Results a"\$ I"fere"#e ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( 2 CALIBRATION OF OBSTRUCTION FLOW METERS ?(8 O ,e#ti+es ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ?(? E-uip'e"t re-uire\$ ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ?(9 1ri"#iple ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ?(: 1ro#e\$ure ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ?(; O ser+atio"s a"\$ #al#ulatio"s ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ?(> Results a"\$ I"fere"#e ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( 3 CALIBRATION OF E TERNAL FLOW MEASURING NOTCHES 9(8 O ,e#ti+es ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( 9(? E-uip'e"t re-uire\$ ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( 9(9 1ri"#iple ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( 9(: 1ro#e\$ure ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( 9(; O ser+atio"s a"\$ #al#ulatio"s ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( 9(> Results a"\$ I"fere"#e ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ! FLOW COEFFICIENTS OF MOUTHPIECE AND ORIFICE :(8 O ,e#ti+es ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( :(? E-uip'e"t re-uire\$ ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( iii
i 1 8 8 8 9 9 : 5 ; ; ; < < 8= 11 88 88 88 8: 8: 8; 16 8> 8>

:(9 1ri"#iple ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( :(: 1ro#e\$ure ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( :(; O ser+atio"s a"\$ #al#ulatio"s ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( :(> Results a"\$ I"fere"#e ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( 5 FRICTIONAL LOSSES IN PIPE FLOW ;(8 O ,e#ti+es ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ;(? E-uip'e"t re-uire\$ ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ;(9 1ri"#iple ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ;(: 1ro#e\$ure ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ;(; O ser+atio"s a"\$ Cal#ulatio"s ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ;(> Results a"\$ I"fere"#e ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( (

8> 8< ?= ?= 21 ?8 ?8 ?8 ?9 ?9 ?:

6 CONSTANT SPEED CHARACTERISTICS OF SINGLE STAGE CENTRIFU" GAL PUMP >(8 O ,e#ti+es ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( >(? E-uip'e"t re-uire\$ ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( >(9 1ri"#iple ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( >(: 1ro#e\$ure ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( >(; O ser+atio"s a"\$ Cal#ulatio"s ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( >(> Results a"\$ I"fere"#e ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( # VARIABLE SPEED CHARACTERISTICS OF SINGLE STAGE CENTRIFU" GAL PUMP @(8 O ,e#ti+es ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( @(? E-uip'e"t re-uire\$ ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( @(9 1ri"#iple ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( @(: 1ro#e\$ure ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( @(; O ser+atio"s a"\$ Cal#ulatio"s ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( @(> Results a"\$ I"fere"#e ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( \$ PERFORMANCE OF RECIPROCATING PUMP A(8 O ,e#ti+es ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( A(? E-uip'e"t re-uire\$ ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( i+ 25
?; ?; ?; ?@ ?A ?<

3%
9= 9= 9= 9? 99 99 3! 9: 9:

:. O ser+atio"s a"\$ Cal#ulatio"s ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( <(> Results a"\$ I"fere"#e ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( 1% LOAD TEST ON PELTON TURBINE 8=(8 O . O ser+atio"s a"\$ Cal#ulatio"s ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( A(> Results a"\$ I"fere"#e ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( & PERFORMANCE OF GEAR PUMP <(8 O . + . O ser+atio"s a"\$ Cal#ulatio"s ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( 8=(> Results a"\$ I"fere"#e ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( 9: 9> 9@ 9@ 3\$ 9A 9A 9A := := :8 !2 :? :? :? :: :.A(9 1ri"#iple ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( A(: 1ro#e\$ure ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( A(.e#ti+es ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( 8=(? E-uip'e"t re-uire\$ ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( 8=(9 1ri"#iple ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( 8=(: 1ro#e\$ure ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( 8=(.e#ti+es ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( <(? E-uip'e"t re-uire\$ ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( <(9 1ri"#iple ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( <(: 1ro#e\$ure ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( <(.

+elo#it!. a"\$ ele+atio". it has ee" pro+e" to e a +er! po0erful tool for *ui\$ 'e#ha"i#s( The /e! appro)i'atio" i" the \$eri+atio" of Ber"oulli2s e-uatio" is that +is#ous effe#ts are "e&li&i l! s'all #o'pare\$ to i"ertial.e#ti+e is to +ali\$ate Ber"oulli2s assu'ptio"s a"\$ theore' ! e)per% i'e"tall! pro+i"& that the su' of the ter's i" the Ber"oulli e-uatio" alo"& a strea'li"e al0a!s re'ai"s a #o"sta"t( 1'2 E/0i12*3. a"\$ is +ali\$ i" re&io"s of stea\$!. &ra+itatio"al. 4*/0i4*5 Apparatus for the +eri5#atio" of Ber"oulli2s theore' a"\$ 'easuri"& ta"/ 0ith stop 0at#h setup for 'easuri"& the a#tual *o0 rate( 1'3 P4i3+i16* The Ber"oulli theore' is a" appro)i'ate relatio" et0ee" pressure. The o .i-*.E PERIMENT 1 VERIFICATION OF BERNOULLI’S THEOREM 1'1 O()*+. a"\$ pressure effe#ts( 6e #a" 0rite the theore' as. D? 1ressure hea\$ C 1 E F Delo#it! hea\$ C E F Ele+atio" CGE H a #o"sta"t C8(8E ?& B& Fi&ure 8(8I 1ressure hea\$ i"#reases 0ith \$e#rease i" +elo#it! hea\$( . i"#o'pressi le *o0 0here "et fri#tio"al for#es are "e&li&i le( Despite its si'pli#it!.

C'JsE & H a##eleratio" \$ue to &ra+it!. 1 H the pressure(CNJ'?E B H \$e"sit! of the *ui\$. ' of *ui\$( Fi&ure 8(?I Apparatus( The \$is#har&e throu&h the test se#tio" #a" e \$eter'i"e\$ usi"& the #olle#ti"& ta"/ a"\$ stop0at#h setup( A#tual \$is#har&e. Ka# H 0here.0here. 'Js? G H ele+atio" fro' \$atu' li"e. C'E t H ti'e ta/e" to rise H 'eters. C'E Note that all the i"\$i+i\$ual ter's i" the su''atio" ha+e the sa'e \$i'e"sio". /&J'9 D H +elo#it! of *o0. Cse#E ? . aLH C'9JsE t C8(?E a H area of the #olle#ti"& ta"/(C'?E H H hei&ht \$iffere"#e of the 0ater #olu'" i" the pie3o'eter.

*4-8.i73.i73. Ber"oulli2s2s e-uatio" for the hori3o"tal pipe at #ross se#tio" A8 #a" e +eri5e\$ as. ((up%to A88( >( Repeat the e)peri'e"t for a 'e\$iu' a"\$ lo0 hea\$ le+els i" the suppl! ta"/( @( 1lot the #ur+es sho0i"& the +ariatio" of H p. 835 +86+068. H+8 H ?& ( Assu'i"& that the pipe li"e has "e&li&i le fri#tio"al losses i" the *o0 a"\$ the ele+atio" is #o"sta"t e+er!0here.The +elo#it! of *o0 at the #ross se#tio" A8 is. 1ressure hea\$ CH18E F Delo#it! hea\$ CH+8E H Co"stI 1'! P47+*504* 8( O ser+e the \$i'e"sio"s of the #o"+er&e"t \$i+er&e"t \$u#t of the apparatus( Note it \$o0"( Measure the #olle#ti"& ta"/ #ross se#tio"al area( ?( Ope" the i"let +al+e to the suppl! ta"/ a"\$ allo0 0ater to 5ll up to a hi&h le+el( 9( Ope" the outlet +al+e a"\$ re&ulate oth the i"let a"\$ outlet +al+es so that the hea\$ i" the suppl! ta"/ re'ai"s #o"sta"t( :( Note the ti'e to #olle#t 0ater for a spe#i5# rise i" the #olle#ti"& ta"/ a"\$ thus 5"\$ the \$is#har&e throu&h the \$u#t( . H+ a"\$ Ht 0ith positio" a"\$ ta ulate the rea\$i"&s( 1'5 O(. Colle#ti"& ta"/ si3e H M #'? 9 . D8 H ? D8 Ka# The" A 8 ( the +elo#it! hea\$ .( Note \$o0" the all the pie3o'eter rea\$i"&s at \$iffere"t lo#atio"s A 8. A?.

1'6 R*..06. 835 I39*4*3+* The Ber"oulli2s theore' is +eri5e\$ a"\$ the +ariatio" i" total hea\$ is \$ue to fri#tio"al losses( : .

so the! are hea+!. Fi&ure ?(8I De"turi 'eter . 4*/0i4*5 Suppl! pipe #o""e#te\$ 0ith the *o0 'eters.E PERIMENT 2 CALIBRATION OF OBSTRUCTION FLOW METERS 2'1 O()*+. The ai' of this e)peri'e"t is to 8( Cali rate the &i+e" o stru#tio" *o0'e% ters. ?( 1lot the #hara#teristi#s a"\$ to 5"\$ their #oef5#ie"t of \$is#har&e for \$iffere"t rates of *o0 a"\$ 9( O tai" a" appre#iatio" of ho0 these 'eters 0or/ a"\$ of the theor! ehi"\$ the apparatus( 2'2 E/0i12*3. a \$iffere"tial 'a"o'eter to 'easure the pressure \$iffere"#e a#ross the the o stru#tio" a"\$ a #olle#ti"& ta"/ 0ith stop 0at#h to 'easure the a#tual rate of *o0( 2'3 P4i3+i16* The o stru#tio" *o0 'eter is a \$e+i#e use\$ to 'easure the \$is#har&e of a" i"ter"al *o0( I" these 'eters *o0 rate is #al#ulate\$ ! 'easuri"& the pressure \$rop o+er a" o stru#tio" 0hi#h is i"serte\$ i" to path of the *o0( There are 'a"! #lassi5#atio"s a##or\$i"& to the t!pe o stru#tio" use\$( The 'ost #o''o"l! use\$ #ate&ories are De"turi 'eter.i-*. ori5#e 'eter a"\$ "o33le 'eter( De"turi 'eters are &e"erall! 'a\$e fro' #asti"&s 'a#hi"e\$ to #lose toler% a"#es to \$upli#ate the perfor'a"#e of the sta"\$ar\$ \$esi&".

i"#o'pressi le a"\$ i"+is#i\$ re&io"s of > .ust \$o0"strea'( Re\$u#tio" of #ross%se#tio" of the *o0i"& strea' i" passi"& throu&h ori5#e i"#reases the +elo#it! hea\$ at the e)pe"se of pressure hea\$( This re\$u#tio" of pressure et0ee" taps is 'easure\$ usi"& a \$iffere"tial 'a"o'eter a"\$ it &i+es a 'easure of the \$is#har&e( The pressure re#o+er! is poor #o'pare\$ to the De"turi 'eter( The e)pressio" for \$is#har&e throu&h a"! o stru#tio" *o0 'eter #a" e the% oreti#all! o tai"e\$ usi"& the #o"ti"uit! a"\$ Ber"oulli2s e-uatio"s to&ether( The Ber"oulli2s e-uatio" is \$e5"e\$ for stea\$!.ul/!. a"\$ e)pe"si+e( I"si\$e the +e"turi 'eter the *ui\$ is a##elerate\$ throu&h a #o"+er&i"& #o"e of a"&le 8. N ?=o( The pressure \$iffere"#e et0ee" the up% strea' si\$e of the #o"e a"\$ the throat is 'easure\$ ! usi"& a \$iffere"tial 'a"o'e% ter a"\$ it pro+i\$es a 'easure for the \$is#har&e( The #o"i#al \$iffuser se#tio" \$o0"strea' fro' the throat 0ith a lo0er a"&le A N 8? o &i+es e)#elle"t pressure re#o+er! a"\$ so o+erall hea\$ loss is lo0 #o'pare\$ to other o stru#tio" *o0 'e% ters( De"turi 'eters are self%#lea"i"& e#ause of their s'ooth i"ter"al shape( Fi&ure ?(?I Ori5#e 'eter The ori5#e 'eter #o"sists of a *at ori5#e plate 0ith a #ir#ular hole \$rille\$ i" it( The #o"stru#tio" is +er! si'ple a"\$ so #ost is lo0 #o'pare\$ to other o stru#tio" 'eters( There is a pressure tap upstrea' fro' the ori5#e plate a"\$ a"other .

?L Kth H A8A? 8 CA? N A?E 8 ? BH& B0 N &h C?(?E 0here. Kth H A8D8 H A?D? H a #o"st( 0hi#h i'plies.*o0( Si"#e the Ber"oulli2s e-uatio" is a si'pli5e\$ for' of e"er&! e-uatio". 0e #a" su stitute D8 fro' the #o"ti"uit! e-uatio" a"\$ rear% ra"&e to &et. C/&J' 9E B6 H \$e"sit! of the *o0i"& *ui\$. 0here AH *o0 area C'?E a"\$ DH*o0 +elo#it! C'JsE C?(8E Let the pipe area e A8 a"\$ the throat area of the 'eter e A?( The" 0e #a" 0rite the #o"ti"uit! e-uatio" as.O1 H 18 N 1? is the pressure \$rop et0ee" the i"let a"\$ the throat of the 'eter i" NJ'?( Si"#e 0e use Mer#ur! \$iffere"tial 'a"o'eters to 'easure O1 0e #a" use the relatio" O1 H CBH& N B0E&h for #o"+ersio". 0here h is the hei&ht of 'er#ur! #olu'"( So the theoreti#al e)pressio" for \$is#har&e e#o'es. C/&J' 9E @ . D? H ? O1 B0 8 N A? A8 ? 0here. Kth H A D .D8 H No0 the Ber"oulli2s e-uatio" is state\$ as. 18 D 8 ? F G8 H B0 & F ?& 1? D ? F G? B0 & F ?& A? D? A8 Si"#e G8 H G?. & H a##eleratio" \$ue to &ra+it! C'Js?E BH& H \$e"sit! of the 'a"o'eter *ui\$. the assu'ptio"s use\$ for si'pli5#atio" 'ust e satis5e\$ 0he" usi"& it for pra#ti#al #ases( The #o"ti"uit! e-uatio" for \$is#har&e CKE throu&h a pipe 0ith the a o+e assu'ptio"s is.

A#tual \$is#har&e throu&h the \$e+i#e #a" e \$eter'i"e\$ usi"& the #olle#ti"& ta"/ a"\$ stop0at#h setup( A#tual \$is#har&e. lo& Ka# H lo& / F " lo& h C?(>E 0hi#h is the e-uatio" of a strai&ht li"e.E 0here P a"\$ " are #o"sta"ts \$epe"\$i"& o" the &eo'etr! of the o stru#tio" *o0 'eter( Ta/i"& lo&arith' o" oth si\$es 0e &et. aLH C'9JsE t C?(9E a H area of the #olle#ti"& ta"/. CD H Ka# Kth C?(:E The "e)t step is the #ali ratio" of the 'eters( Cali ratio" pro#ess is the +ali% \$atio" of spe#i5# 'easure'e"t te#h"i-ues a"\$ e-uip'e"t( It is the #o'pariso" et0ee" 'easure'e"ts of /"o0" 'a&"itu\$e 'a\$e 0ith o"e \$e+i#e a"\$ a"other 'easure'e"t 'a\$e i" as si'ilar 0a! as possi le 0ith a se#o"\$ \$e+i#e( I" or\$er to use a"! \$e+i#e for 'easure'e"t it is "e#essar! to e'piri#all! #ali rate the'( That is. C'?E HH hei&ht \$iffere"#e of the 0ater #olu'" i" the pie3o'eter. pass a /"o0" \$is#har&e throu&h the 'eter a"\$ "ote the rea\$i"& i" or\$er to pro+i\$e a sta"\$ar\$ for 'easuri"& other -ua"ti% ties i" a \$iffere"t lo#atio"( 1ro+i\$e\$ the sta"\$ar\$ 'e#ha"i#s of #o"stru#tio" are follo0e\$ "o further #ali ratio" is re-uire\$ for a si'ilar se#o"\$ \$e+i#e 0ith sa'e &eo'etr!( I" &e"eral. the #ali ratio" e-uatio" for *o0 'eters is state\$ as. Ka# H 0here. Ka# H P L h"( C?(. is \$e5"e\$ as the ratio of a#tual \$is#har&e o % tai"e\$ e)peri'e"tall! to the theoreti#al \$is#har&e o tai"e\$ usi"& the e)pressio" 0e \$eri+e\$( i(e(. C'E t H ti'e ta/e" to rise H 'eters. Cse#E The #oef5#ie"t of \$is#har&e CD. 0here lo& / is the ! i"ter#ept a"\$ " is its A . here i" the #ase of *o0 'eter.

i73.ust it to &et a stea\$! pressure \$iffere"#e et0ee" the li' s of the 'a"o'eter( Note \$o0" the #orrespo"\$i"& Mer#ur! le+els( >( Measure the ti'e t to #olle#t H hei&ht of 0ater i" the #olle#ti"& ta"/( @( Repeat the a o+e pro#e\$ure for \$iffere"t *o0 rates ! #ha"&i"& the outlet +al+e ope"i"&( Ta ulate the rea\$i"&s( A( Cha"&e the pressure tappi"& +al+es a"\$ repeat the sa'e pro#e\$ure for se#o"\$ 'eter( <( Close the i"let to the apparatus after ta/i"& the "e#essar! rea\$i"&s( 8=( Co'plete the ta ulatio" a"\$ 5"\$ the a+era&e +alue of C D i" oth #ases( 88( Dra0 the "e#essar! &raphs a"\$ #ali rate the 'eters( 2'5 O(.i73. 835 +86+068.*4-8.slope( The e)peri'e"tal +alues o tai"e\$ are use\$ to 5"\$ the +alues of / a"\$ "( The &raph lo& Ka# Ds( lo& h is to e plotte\$ to 5"\$ the'( 2'! P47+*504* 8( Che#/ the e)peri'e"tal setup for lea/s( Measure the \$i'e"sio"s of #ol% le#ti"& ta"/( Note \$o0" the *o0 'eter spe#i5#atio"s( ?( Ope" the i"let +al+e full! a"\$ allo0 the 0ater to 5ll full! i" the *o0 'eter( 9( Ma/e sure the hei&ht of Mer#ur! #olu'" i" oth li' s are sa'e if there is "o \$is#har&e throu&h the 'eter( :( Sli&htl! ope" the outlet +al+e of the *o0 'eter a"\$ o ser+e the 'a"o'eter li' s( . H M' H M '? Dia'eter of the throat H M' Dia'eter of the pipe Colle#ti"& ta"/ area < .( A\$.

"HQQ for ori5#e 'eter( The a+era&e #oef5#ie"t of \$is#har&e of the &i+e" o stru#tio" 'eters are. De"turi 'eter. CDD H Ori5#e 'eter . CDO H The re-uire\$ #hara#teristi#s are plotte\$( 8= .2'6 R*.. "HQQ for +e"turi 'eter a"\$ /HQQ. 835 I39*4*3+* The &i+e" *o0 'eters are #ali rate\$ 0ith the #ali ratio" e-uatio" K H P Lh ".06. 0here /HQQ.

#a"als a"\$ ri+ers( For s'all s#ale appli#atio"s. 4*/0i4*5 The &i+e" "ot#h 5tte\$ o" a" ope" #ha""el of the e)peri'e"t setup. assu'i"& the a#tual \$is#har&e to e Ka# H Ph". a"\$ 9( 1lot the #hara#teristi#s C\$ Ds( h a"\$ Ka# Ds( h a"\$ K#al Ds( h( 3'2 E/0i12*3.E PERIMENT 3 CALIBRATION OF E TERNAL FLOW MEASURING NOTCHES 3'1 O()*+.e#ti+es of this e)peri'e"t are 8( Deter'i"e the #oef5#ie"t of \$is% #har&e of the &i+e" e)ter"al *o0 'easuri"& "ot#hes for \$iffere"t rates of *o0. ?( 1lot the #ali ratio" &raph. lo&CK aE Ds( lo&CHE a"\$ thus to #ali rate the i"stru% 'e"t ! \$eter'i"i"& the #o"sta"ts P a"\$ ".i-*. 0eirs are #o''o"l! use\$ to either re&ulate or to 'ea% sure the +olu'etri# *o0 rate( The! are of parti#ular use i" lar&e s#ale situatio"s su#h as irri&atio" s#he'es. The o . hoo/ &au&e to 'easure the 0ater le+el o+er the "ot#h a"\$ 'easuri"& ta"/ 0ith stop 0at#h to 'easure the a#tual *o0 rate( 3'3 P4i3+i16* I" ope" #ha""el *o0s. 0eirs are ofte" referre\$ to as "ot#hes a"\$ are sharp e\$&e\$ a"\$ 'a"ufa#ture\$ fro' thi" plate 'aterial( The asi# pri"#iple is that \$is#har&e is \$ire#tl! relate\$ to the 0ater \$epth a o+e the #rot#h C otto'E of the "ot#h( This \$ista"#e is #alle\$ hea\$ o+er the "ot#h( Due to the 'i"i'al i"stallatio" #osts *o0 rate 'easure'e"t 0ith a "ot#h is +er! less e)pe"si+e( The re#ta"&ular "ot#h is the 'ost #o''o"l! use\$ thi" plate 0eir( The D% "ot#h or tria"&ular "ot#h \$esi&" #auses s'all #ha"&es i" \$is#har&e to ha+e a lar&e #ha"&e i" \$epth allo0i"& 'ore a##urate hea\$ 'easure'e"t tha" 0ith a re#ta"&ular "ot#h( The *o0 patter" o+er a "ot#h or 0eir is #o'ple) a"\$ there is "o a"al!ti#al solutio" to the relatio"ship et0ee" \$is#har&e a"\$ hea\$ so that a se'i%e'piri#al approa#h has to e use\$( .

C\$e&E hH hea\$ of 0ater o+er the "ot#h.Fi&ure 9(8I Re#ta"&ular "ot#h( Fi&ure 9(?I Tria"&ular "ot#h( The e)pressio" for \$is#har&e o+er a re#ta"&ular "ot#h is &i+e" !. C'E &H a##eleratio" \$ue to &ra+it! C'Js?E 6ater is allo0e\$ to pass throu&h the &i+e" "ot#h at \$iffere"t *o0 rates( A#% 8? . C'E RH a"&le of the "ot#h. Kth H 0here. Kth H 0hile. ? ?& h. for tria"&ular "ot#h is. A R ta" 8.J? C9(?E ? 9 ?& L h9J? C9(8E L H 0i\$th of the "ot#h.

tual \$is#har&e throu&h the #ha""el #a" e \$eter'i"e\$ usi"& the #olle#ti"& ta"/ a"\$ stop0at#h setup( A#tual \$is#har&e. Ka# H 0here. Ka# H P L h"( C9(. lo& Ka# H lo& / F " lo& h C9(>E 0hi#h is the e-uatio" of a strai&ht li"e. here i" this #ase pass a /"o0" \$is#har&e throu&h the "ot#h a"\$ "ote the rea\$i"& i" or\$er to pro+i\$e a sta"\$ar\$ for 'ea% suri"& other -ua"tities i" a \$iffere"t lo#atio"( 1ro+i\$e\$ the sta"\$ar\$ 'e#ha"i#s of #o"stru#tio" are follo0e\$ "o further #ali ratio" is re-uire\$ for a si'ilar se#% o"\$ \$e+i#e 0ith sa'e &eo'etr!( The #ali ratio" e-uatio" is state\$ as.E 0here P a"\$ " are #o"sta"ts \$epe"\$i"& o" the &eo'etr! of the "ot#h( Ta/i"& lo&arith' o" oth si\$es 0e &et. C'E t H ti'e ta/e" to rise H 'eters. aLH C'9JsE t C9(9E a H area of the #olle#ti"& ta"/(C'?E H H hei&ht \$iffere"#e of the 0ater #olu'" i" the pie3o'eter. 0here lo& / is the ! i"ter#ept a"\$ " is its slope( The &raph lo& Ka# Ds( lo& h is to e plotte\$ to 5"\$ / a"\$ "( 89 . Cse#E The #oef5#ie"t of \$is#har&e CD is \$e5"e\$ as the ratio of a#tual \$is#har&e o tai"e\$ e)peri'e"tall! to the theoreti#al \$is#har&e( i(e(. CD H Ka# Kth C9(:E Cali ratio" is the +ali\$atio" of spe#i5# 'easure'e"t te#h"i-ues a"\$ e-uip% 'e"t( It is the #o'pariso" et0ee" 'easure'e"ts of /"o0" 'a&"itu\$e 'a\$e 0ith o"e \$e+i#e a"\$ a"other 'easure'e"t 'a\$e i" as si'ilar 0a! as possi le 0ith a se#o"\$ \$e+i#e( I" or\$er to use a"! \$e+i#e for 'easure'e"t it is "e#essar! to e'piri#all! #ali rate the'( That is.

usti"& the i"let +al+e ope"i"& a"\$ ta ulate the rea\$i"&s( @( Co'plete the ta ulatio" a"\$ 5"\$ the 'ea" +alue of C D( A( Dra0 the "e#essar! &raphs a"\$ #ali rate the the "ot#h( 3'5 O(. 835 +86+068.*4-8.i73.3'! P47+*504* 8( Che#/ the e)peri'e"tal setup for lea/s( Measure the \$i'e"sio"s of #ol% le#ti"& ta"/ a"\$ the "ot#h( ?( O ser+e the i"itial rea\$i"& of the hoo/ &au&e a"\$ 'a/e sure there is "o \$is#har&e( Note \$o0" the sill le+el positio" of the hoo/ &au&e( 9( Ope" the i"let +al+e of the suppl! pipe for a sli&htl! i"#rease\$ \$is#har&e( 6ait for so'eti'e till the *o0 e#o'e stea\$!( :( A\$.( Colle#t the 0ater i" the #olle#ti"& ta"/ a"\$ o ser+e the ti'e t to #olle#t H hei&ht of 0ater( >( Repeat the a o+e pro#e\$ure for \$iffere"t *o0 rates ! a\$.i73.ust the hoo/ &au&e to tou#h the "e0 0ater le+el a"\$ "ote \$o0" the rea\$i"&( Differe"#e of this hoo/ &au&e rea\$i"& 0ith i"itial still le+el rea\$% i"& is the hea\$ o+er the "ot#h ChE( . Le"&th of the re#ta"&ular "ot#h H M' A"&le of the tria"&ular "ot#h H M\$e& Colle#ti"& ta"/ area H M '? 8: .

0here /HQQ. CDR H Tria"&ular "ot#h. "HQQ for re#ta"&ular "ot#h a"\$ /HQQ. CDT H The re-uire\$ #hara#teristi#s are plotte\$( 8..06.3'6 R*. Re#ta"&ular "ot#h. "HQQ for tria"&ular "ot#h( The a+era&e #oef5#ie"t of \$is#har&e of the &i+e" "ot#hes are. 835 I39*4*3+* The &i+e" "ot#hes are #ali rate\$ 0ith the #ali ratio" e-uatio" K H P L h ". .

4*/0i4*5 Mouthpie#e apparatus. upstrea' e\$&e a"\$ the \$is#har&e #o"\$itio"s( Most #o''o"l! use\$ are #ir#ular a"\$ re#ta"&ular ori5#es( A 'outhpie#e is a short pipe of le"&th "ot 'ore tha" t0o or three ti'es its \$ia'eter. ori5#e apparatus a"\$ 'easuri"& ta"/s 0ith a stop 0at#h for 'easuri"& the a#tual *o0 rate( The 'outhpie#e a"\$ ori5#e apparatus i" the la orator! are sli&htl! \$iffere"t( The ori5#e apparatus has a" sli\$i"& hoo/ &au&e 0ith it to 'easure the #o%or\$i"ates of the 'o+i"& . The o . #o""e#te\$ to a" ori5#e of sa'e si3e pro+i\$e\$ .E PERIMENT ! FLOW COEFFICIENTS OF MOUTHPIECE AND ORIFICE !'1 O()*+.et( Fi&ure :(8I Ori5#e( Fi&ure :(?I Mouthpie#e( !'3 P4i3+i16* Ori5#e is a *at sharp e\$&e\$ s'all #ir#ular hole 5tte\$ i" o"e si\$e of a reser% +oir #o"tai"i"& *ui\$( The! 'a! e #lassi5e\$ o" the asis of their si3e.i-*.e#ti+e of this e)peri'e"t is to 5"\$ a"\$ stu\$! the +ariatio"s of h!% \$rauli# #oef5#ie"ts u"\$er \$iffere"t operati"& #o"\$itio"s of the &i+e" ori5#e a"\$ 'outhpie#e( !'2 E/0i12*3. shape.

et is "earl! #!li"\$ri#al 0ith a #o"sta"t +elo#it!( The . 0ith its i""er e"\$%*ush 0ith the 0all of the reser+oir so as to for' a sharp #or"ere\$ e"tra"#e is #alle\$ sta"\$ar\$ 'outhpie#e or Bor\$a 'outhpie#e( A 'outhpie#e usuall! *o0s full. the #ross se#tio" of the . a"\$ the +elo#it! pro5le is "earl! re#ta"&ular( This poi"t of 'i"i'u' area is #alle\$ the ‘vena contracta’.et is hel\$ to&ether ! sur% fa#e te"sio"( The ratio of the area of +e"a #o"tra#ta to the ori5#e area is #alle\$ the #oef5#ie"t of #o"tra#tio"( I" the #ase of a 'outhpie#e the +e"a #o"tra#ta re'ai"s i"si\$e the pipe.et e'er&i"& out of the 'outhpie#e 0ill ha+e the sa'e \$ia'eter of the pipe( As the tu e *o0s full at its outlet the #oef5#ie"t of #o"tra#tio" is u"it!( Ne&le#ti"& fri#tio"al losses a"\$ appl!i"& Ber"oulli2s theore' to a poi"t i"si\$e the reser+oir a"\$ other at the e)it of the ori5#e. = B&h F F=H B& ?& 0hi#h i'plies h H = D? F= F B& ?& D ? or Dth H ?&h ?& 8@ . 0e &et.et e)pa"\$s to 5ll the tu e #o'pletel!( Fi% "all! the .et to the at'osphere. if it \$oes "ot. a"\$ the" the .et \$e#reases sli&htl! u"til the pressure is e-uali3e\$ o+er the #ross%se#tio". #a"#eli"& the 3ero ter's o" oth si\$es 0e &et. 18 D8? F G8 H B& F?& 1? D?? F G? B& F?& C:(8E 0here the su s#ript 8 a"\$ ? are the properties at the re&io"s sho0" i" the 5&ure a"\$ h is the hei&ht of 0ater #olu'" i" the reser+oir( No0. fri#tio" 0ith the *ui\$ outsi\$e the . the" it a#ts li/e a "ot#h( The *ui\$ e'er&es out throu&h the ori5#e as a free . a"\$ is a#te\$ upo" ! &ra+it!( The thi#/"ess of the 0all is assu'e\$ to e s'all #o'% pare\$ to the \$ia'eter of the ori5#e( Be#ause of the #o"+er&e"#e of the strea'% li"es approa#hi"& the ori5#e. a"\$ the #ross se#tio" i"#reases( This \$i+er&e"#e is usuall! -uite s'all. oth ei"& at the le+el of the #e"ter li"e.i" the 0all of a reser+oir #o"tai"i"& *ui\$( It is a" e)te"sio" of the ori5#e a"\$ throu&h 0hi#h the *ui\$ is \$is#har&e\$( Both are use\$ to \$eter'i"e the \$is#har&e throu&h a ta"/( A #!li"\$ri#al 'outhpie#e a le"&th of. Be!o"\$ the +e"a #o"tra#ta.et CairE slo0s it \$o0". a"\$ the . t0o or three ti'es \$i% a'eter.

E Usi"& the a o+e e-uatio" the +erti#al a"\$ hori3o"tal \$ispla#e'e"ts ! a"\$ ) 8A . C'E t H ti'e ta/e" to rise H 'eters. Kth H ao LDth C:(?E The a#tual \$is#har&e is less tha" the theoreti#al \$is#har&e \$ue to fri#tio" loss a"\$ the loss \$ue to re%e)pa"sio" of the . Cse#E The #oef5#ie"t of \$is#har&e CD is \$e5"e\$ as the ratio of the a#tual \$is#har&e to theoreti#al \$is#har&e( CD H Ka# Kth C:(:E The a#tual +elo#it! of the .et throu&h the ori5#e is fou"\$ out ! 'easuri"& the #o%or\$i"ates of the 'o+i"& . Ka# H 0here.The". the theoreti#al \$is#har&e throu&h the ori5#e 0ill e.et are 'easure\$ usi"& the sli\$i"& hoo/ &au&e( 6e /"o0. aLH C'9JsE t C:(9E a H area of the #olle#ti"& ta"/(C'?E H H hei&ht \$iffere"#e of the 0ater #olu'" i" the pie3o'eter.et a"\$ appl!i"& Ne0to"2s la0s( Refer 5&ure elo0( The #o%or\$i"ates ) a"\$ ! of a"! poi"t o" the .et( The a#tual \$is#har&e throu&h the 'outhpie#e #a" e \$eter'i"e\$ usi"& the #olle#ti"& ta"/ a"\$ stop0at#h setup( A#tual \$is#har&e. S H ut F 8 at ? ? C:(.

#a" e e)presse\$ as. ) H D t F = a"\$ ! H = F &t ? ? Ca"#eli"& t a"\$ sol+i"& for +. ori5#e a"\$ the 'outh% pie#e( ?( Che#/ that the 3ero of the s#ale of the i"let ta"/ is the sa'e le+el as the #e"ter li"e of the 'outhpie#e or ori5#e( If "ot. 'easure the \$iffere"#e i" ele+atio" a"\$ ta/e it as 3ero error( 9( A\$.et at the e)it is fou"\$ out usi"& the #o"ti"uit! e-uatio". 0e &et the e)pressio" for a#tual +elo#it! of the .et e'er&i"& out fro' the ori5#e( &)? ?! 8 Da# H C:(>E The #oef5#ie"t of +elo#it! CD is \$e5"e\$ as the ratio of a#tual +elo#it! o % tai"e\$ e)peri'e"tall! to the theoreti#al +elo#it! o tai"e\$ usi"& the e)pressio" 0e \$eri+e\$( i(e(.et to the a#tual area of the ori5#e( It is fou"\$ theoreti#all! fro' the follo0i"& e-uatio"( CD H Ka# H CC LCD Kth I" the #ase of 'outhpie#e the a#tual +elo#it! of the .ust the ope"i"& of the i"let +al+e till the 0ater le+el i" the suppl! ta"/ e#o'e stea\$!( 8< . CD H Da# Dth C:(@E The #oef5#ie"t of #o"tra#tio" CC is \$e5"e\$ as the ratio of area of +e"a #o"% tra#ta of the . Ka# H a' LDa# C:(AE !'! P47+*504* 8( Note the \$i'e"sio"s of the \$is#har&e 'easuri"& ta"/.

CC Ds h a"\$ CD Ds h( !'5 O(. 835 I39*4*3+* H!\$rauli# #oef5#ie"ts.*4-8.et i" a #o"+e"ie"t poi"t( >( Usi"& #olle#ti"& ta"/ a"\$ stop 0at#h setup 'easure the a#tual \$is#har&e( @( Repeat the e)peri'e"t for \$iffere"t i"let +al+e ope"i"&s a"\$ ta ulate the rea\$i"&s( A( 1lot the #hara#teristi#s CD Ds h.i73.06.( Usi"& the hoo/ &au&e arra"&e'e"t 'easure the #o%or\$i"ates of the .:( Note \$o0" the hea\$( .i73. 835 +86+068. Colle#ti"& ta"/ si3e H M '? HM ' Dia'eter of the ori5#e Dia'eter of the 'outhupie#e HM ' !'6 R*.. CD H C+ H ?= .

the *o0 also loses pressure as it &oes throu&h 5tti"&s. C/&J'9E ( D H a+era&e +elo#it! of *o0 i"si\$e the pipe. #o"tra#tio"s a"\$ e)pa"sio"s( The pressure loss i" pipe *o0s is #o''o"l! referre\$ to as hea\$ loss( The fri#tio"al losses are referre\$ to as 'a. BD L# S C.or losses 0hile losses throu&h 5tti"&s et#. The &oal of this e)peri'e"t is to stu\$! pressure losses \$ue to fri#tio"al effe#ts C'a.(8E B H \$e"sit! of the *ui\$. a #olle#ti"& ta"/ 0ith stop 0at#h to 'easure the \$is#har&e a"\$ a \$iffere"tial 'a"o'eter to 'easure the pressure \$rop i" the test se#tio"( 5'3 P4i3+i16* 6he" a *ui\$ *o0s throu&h a pipe. C1a · sE( For *o0 throu&h a pipe e)peri'e"tal o ser+atio"s sho0 that la'i"ar *o0 . 4*/0i4*5 The pipe *o0 ri& 0ith pipes of \$iffere"t 'aterials. el o0s. are #alle\$ 'i"or losses( To&ether the! 'a/e up the total hea\$ losses( The Re!"ol\$s "u' er Re is a \$i'e"sio"less "u' er that &i+es a 'easure of the ratio of i"ertial for#es CD BE to +is#ous for#es CSJLE( It is a +er! useful -ua"tit! a"\$ ai\$s i" #lassif!i"& *ui\$ *o0s( Re H 0here.or lossesE i" *ui\$ *o0 throu&h pipes( 5'2 E/0i12*3.i-*. there is a loss of e"er&! Cor pressureE i" the *ui\$( This is e#ause e"er&! is \$issipate\$ to o+er#o'e the +is#ous Cfri#tio"alE for#es e)erte\$ ! the 0alls of the pipe as 0ell as the 'o+i"& *ui\$ la!ers itself( I" a\$\$itio" to the e"er&! lost \$ue to fri#tio"al for#es. C'JsE( L#H #hara#teristi# \$i'e"sio" H D for pipe *o0s.E PERIMENT 5 FRICTIONAL LOSSES IN PIPE FLOW 5'1 O()*+. su#h as +al+es. C'E( S H \$!"a'i# +is#osit! of the *ui\$.

The Dar#! fri#tio" fa#tor f is "ot a #o"sta"t a"\$ \$epe"\$s o" the para'eters of the pipe a"\$ the +elo#it! of the *ui\$ *o0( It 'a! e e+aluate\$ for &i+e" #o"\$itio"s ! the use of +arious e'piri#al or theoreti#al relatio"s. 0hi#h relates the hea\$ loss \$ue to fri#tio" alo"& a &i+e" le"&th of pipe to the a+era&e +elo#it! of the *ui\$ *o0( L D? hf H f· · D ?& h f H hea\$ loss \$ue to fri#tio".(. or it 'a! e o tai"e\$ fro' Moo\$! \$ia&ra's( The Dar#! fri#tio" fa#tor for la'i"ar *o0 CRe T ?9==E is &i+e" ! the follo0i"& for'ulaI fH >: Re C. C'JsE( LJDH le"&th to \$ia'eter ratio of the pipe. H a+era&e +elo#it! of *o0 i"si\$e the pipe.(:E The +alue of the Dar#! fri#tio" fa#tor 'a! e su . the *o0 is ter'e\$ as tra"sitio" *o0 0here oth la'i"ar a"\$ tur ule"t *o0s are possi le( The a+era&e +elo#it! of *o0 #a" e fou"\$ out ! 'easuri"& the a#tual \$is% #har&e usi"& the #olle#ti"& ta"/ a"\$ stop 0at#h( The" the a+era&e *o0 +elo#it! 0ill e.8 F V 9(@ Re f C.e#t to lar&e u"#ertai"ties i" the tra"sitio" *o0 re&i'e a"\$ so here the e-uatio" for tur ule"t *o0 is assu'e\$ to e +ali\$( For tur ule"t *o0 Colebrook equation has to e use\$ to 5"\$ f ( 8 V H N? lo&8= f WJD ?(.o##urs 0he" Re T ?9== a"\$ tur ule"t *o0 o##urs 0he" Re U :===( I" the e% t0ee" ?9== a"\$ :===. C' of *ui\$E( D C.(?E The hea\$ loss \$ue to fri#tio" i" pipe *o0s #a" e #al#ulate\$ usi"& the DarcyWeisbach e-uatio"( It is a phe"o'e"olo&i#al e-uatio".(9E 0here. DH \$is#har&e area of the pipe C. C'E( f H a \$i'e"sio"less #oef5#ie"t #alle\$ the Darcy friction factor.E 6hi#h is a" i'pli#it e-uatio" a"\$ is \$if5#ult to sol+e( A" appro)i'ate e)pli#it ?? .

HM'? HM' Colle#ti"& ta"/ area. a Dia'eter of pipes. 835 C86+068. #alle\$ the Haaland equation is #o''o"l! use\$( 8 V H N8(A lo&8= f WJD 9(@ 8(88 F >(< Re C.(>E 0here. L HM' ?9 .( Note the 'a"o'eter rea\$i"&s( >( Measure the \$is#har&e throu&h the pipe usi"& #olle#ti"& ta"/ a"\$ stop 0at#h( @( Repeat the pro#e\$ure for \$iffere"t *o0 rates a"\$ for \$iffere"t pipes( A( Ta ulate the rea\$i"&s( Dra0 the plot sho0i"& the +ariatio" of f 0ith Re!"ol\$s "u' er( 5'5 O(.for'.ust the *o0 usi"& the outlet &ate +al+e( .i73. D Le"&th of test se#tio". WJD is the relati+e rou&h"ess of the pipe( 5'! P47+*504* 8( Measure a"\$ re#or\$ the rele+a"t \$i'e"sio"s re-uire\$( ?( O ser+e the i"+erte\$ U%tu e 'a"o'eter( Ma/e sure the le+el of 0ater is sa'e i" oth li' s( 9( Ope" the \$esire\$ pressure tap +al+e fro' the pipe li"e to the 'a"o'eter( Ma/e sure o"l! o"e is ope" at a parti#ular ti'e( :( Ope" the i"let &ate +al+e a"\$ a\$.*4-8.i73.

.06.5'6 R*. 835 I39*4*3+* The Dar#! fri#tio" fa#tor for the three \$iffere"t pipes for \$iffere"t +alues of Re!"ol\$s "u' er ha+e ee" fou"\$ out e)peri'e"tall! a"\$ #o'pare\$ 0ith the theoreti#al results( ?: .

the i'peller la\$es a"\$ the shrou\$ is #alle\$ the i'peller( Ce"trifu&al pu'ps are use\$ for lar&e \$is#har&e throu&h s'aller hea\$s( Flui\$ e"ters a)iall! throu&h the hollo0 'i\$\$le portio" of the pu'p #alle\$ the e!e. the hu . the rotati"& asse' l! that #o"sists of the shaft. 4*/0i4*5 Ce"trifu&al pu'p test ri&. To 5"\$ the perfor'a"#e #hara#teristi#s of a #e"trifu&al pu'p a"\$ to 5"\$ its spe#i5# spee\$( 6'2 E/0i12*3. t!pi#all! fro' a" ele#tri# 'otor to a" i"#rease\$ stati# *ui\$ pres% sure( The! are #o''o"l! use\$ to 'o+e li-ui\$s throu&h a pipi"& s!ste'( I" pu'p ter'i"olo&!.i-*. a"\$ a#-uires a\$\$itio"al ra\$ial +elo#it! ! #e"trifu&al for#es( The *o0 lea+es the i'peller after &ai"i"& oth spee\$ a"\$ pressure as it is *u"& ra\$iall! out0ar\$ i"to the s#roll Cor +oluteE( The purpose of the s#roll is to \$e#elerate the fast%'o+i"& *ui\$ lea+i"& the traili"& e\$&es of the i'peller la\$es. pressure &au&es at the su#tio" a"\$ \$eli+er! si\$es. a #olle#ti"& ta"/%stop0at#h setup to 'easure the \$is#har&e( 6'3 P4i3+i16* A #e"trifu&al pu'p is a roto\$!"a'i# pu'p that uses a rotati"& i'peller to i"#rease the pressure of a *ui\$( It 0or/s ! the #o"+ersio" of the rotatio"al /i"eti# e"er&!. i"#o'pressi le a"\$ if the outlet a"\$ i"let \$ia'eters are are sa'e. e"er&! 'eter to 'easure the i"put ele#tri#al e"% er&!. the". a##or\$i"& to the #o"ti"uit! e-uatio" the a+era&e *o0 spee\$ at the outlet is i\$e"ti#al to that at the i"let( . after 0hi#h it e"#ou"ters the rotati"& la\$es( It a#-uires ta"&e"tial a"\$ ra\$ial +elo#it! ! 'o'e"tu' tra"sfer 0ith the i'peller la\$es. there ! further i"#reasi"& the *ui\$ pressure. a"\$ to #o' i"e a"\$ \$ire#t the *o0 fro' all the la\$e passa&es to0ar\$ a #o''o" outlet( If the *o0 is stea\$!.E PERIMENT 6 CONSTANT SPEED CHARACTERISTICS OF SINGLE STAGE CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 6'1 O()*+.

e+e" if the po0er is "ot 'easure\$ i" horsepo0er( It is \$e5"e\$ as. K H 0here. Cse#E The "et hea\$ is proportio"al to the useful po0er a#tuall! \$eli+ere\$ to the *ui\$ i" the pu'p( Tra\$itio"all! it is #alle\$ the 0ater horsepo0erC0hpE. C'Js?E G H ele+atio". C'E( The +elo#it! of 0ater #a" e #al#ulate\$ usi"& \$is#har&e a"\$ \$ia'eter of the pipes( The \$is#har&e pro\$u#e\$ ! the pu'p #a" e \$eter'i"e\$ usi"& the #ol% le#ti"& ta"/ a"\$ stop0at#h setup( Dis#har&e. C1\$el N 1su#E CD\$el? ? NDsu#E F CG\$el N Gsu#E F ?& B& C>(?E 1 H A solute 0ater pressure. 0hi#h is \$e% 5"e\$ as the #ha"&e i" Ber"oulli hea\$ et0ee" the su#tio" si\$e a"\$ the \$eli+er! si\$e of the pu'p( h is e)presse\$ i" e-ui+ale"t #olu'" hei&ht of 0ater( h0 H 1 D? FG F B& ?& N \$eli+er! 1 D? FG F B& ?& C>(8E su#tio" The su s#ripts sta"\$s for su#tio" or \$eli+er! si\$es( This e-uatio" #a" also e 0ritte" as. Net hea\$.The perfor'a"#e of a pu'p is #hara#teri3e\$ ! its "et hea\$ h. h0 H 0here. aLH C'9JsE t C>(9E a H area of the #olle#ti"& ta"/(C'?E H H hei&ht \$iffere"#e of the 0ater #olu'" i" the pie3o'eter. 10hp H BK L &h0 C6attsE C>(:E The i"put ele#tri#al e"er&! to the 'otor #a" e \$eter'i"e\$ usi"& the 0att ?> . CNJ'?E D H Delo#it! of 0ater i"si\$e the pipe. C/&J'9E & H a##eleratio" \$ue to &ra+it!. C'JsE B H De"sit! of the 0ater. C'E t H ti'e ta/e" to rise H 'eters.

ra"&i"& fro' =(=? to 8(. a"\$ is a \$i'e"sio"less "u' er( The spee\$ a"\$ \$is#har&e use\$ i" the e)pressio" shoul\$ e the spee\$ a"\$ \$is#har&e for 'a)i'u' ef5#ie"#!( Ce"trifu&al pu'ps ha+e lo0 spe#i5# spee\$s a'o"& ro% to\$!"a'i# pu'ps. Cra\$Jse#E h0 H Net hea\$ of the pu'p. spee\$ a"\$ the \$is#har&e \$esire\$. it is eas! to 5"\$ the &e"eral t!pe of roto\$!"a'i# pu'p that 0oul\$ pro+e satisfa#tor! usi"& spe#i5# spee\$( But it is "ot reall! a spee\$. X pu'p H 1 hp 10hp C>(>E The spe#i5# spee\$ Nsp of a pu'p is \$e5"e\$ as. Ei" H 0here. 0hi#h #a" e #al#ulate\$ ! #o"si\$eri"& the ef5#ie"#! of the 'otor( p hp H X'otor L Ei" The pu'p ef5#ie"#! X pu'p is \$e5"e\$ as the ratio of useful po0er to supplie\$ po0er. C' of 0aterE The spe#i5# spee\$ 0ill e a #o"sta"t for a parti#ular pu'p. or pu'ps si'% ilar to it( If 0e /"o0 the hea\$.( C>(@E 6'! P47+*504* 8( Che#/ the pressure &au&es( Ma/e sure oth of the' sho0 at'ospheri# pressure( ?@ . V YK Nsp H C&h0E9J: 0here.hour e"er&! 'eter( The e)pressio" for po0er is. re+J/6 hr( t H ti'e ta/e" for " re+olutio"s. Y H A"&ular +elo#it! of the 'otor shaft.E " H "u' er of re+olutio"s of the e"er&! 'eter \$is/( / H e"er&! 'eter #o"sta"t. 9>== L " L 8=== /Lt C6attsE C>(. Cse#E I" pu'p ter'i"olo&! the e)ter"al e"er&! supplie\$ to the pu'p is #alle\$ the ra/e horsepo0erC hpE of the pu'p.

Dsu# H Dia'eter of \$eli+er! pipe. a Dia'eter of su#tio" pipe. G\$el N Gsu# H ?A .i73.i73.*4-8. D\$el H Spee\$ of the 'otor.( Ope" the \$eli+er! +al+e sli&htl!( O ser+e the pressure &au&e rea\$i"&s( >( Measure the \$is#har&e usi"& the #olle#ti"& ta"/ stop0at#h setup( @( Note the ti'e for " re+olutio"s of the e"er&! 'eter \$is/( A( Ope" the \$eli+er! +al+e &ra\$uall! to 'a)i'u'( Repeat the a o+e o ser% +atio"s for \$iffere"t \$is#har&es( <( Ta ulate the rea\$i"&s( Dra0 the perfor'a"#e #hara#teristi#sZ H Ds( K.?( O ser+e the su#tio" a"\$ \$eli+er! pipe \$ia'eters( Measure the \$i'e"sio"s of #olle#ti"& ta"/( Measure the \$iffere"#e i" ele+atio" et0ee" the su#tio" a"\$ \$eli+er! pressure tappi"&s( 9( 1ri'e the #e"trifu&al pu'p( Peep the \$eli+er! +al+e full! #lose\$( :( Start the pu'p( . 835 C86+068. / H H Ele+atio" \$iffere"#e. N E"er&! 'eter #o"sta"t. 1 Ds( K a"\$ X Ds( K( hp 6'5 O(. H Colle#ti"& ta"/ area.

6'6 R*. X pu'p.. X pu'p.a+&H ?( The 'a)i'u' pu'p ef5#ie"#!.'a)H 9( The spe#i5# spee\$ of the &i+e" #e"trifu&al pu'p. NspH ?< . 835 I39*4*3+* 8( The a+era&e pu'p ef5#ie"#!.06.

To 5"\$ the +aria le spee\$ #hara#teristi#s of a si"&le sta&e #e"trifu&al pu'p a"\$ to 5"\$ its spe#i5# spee\$( #'2 E/0i12*3. 4*/0i4*5 Si"&le sta&e +aria le spee\$ #e"trifu&al pu'p test ri&. h0 H C1\$el N 1su#E CD\$el? ? NDsu#E F CG\$el N Gsu#E F ?& B& C@(?E .E PERIMENT # VARIABLE SPEED CHARACTERISTICS OF SINGLE STAGE CENTRIFUGAL PUMP #'1 O()*+. the hu .i-*. \$is#har&e pipe 5tte\$ 0ith a +e"turi 'eter. the rotati"& asse' l! that #o"sists of the shaft. the i'peller la\$es a"\$ the shrou\$ is #alle\$ the i'peller( The perfor'a"#e of a pu'p is #hara#teri3e\$ ! its "et hea\$ h. +olt'eter a"\$ a''eter to 5"\$ the a'ou"t of ele#tri#al e"er&! i"put to the pu'p. Net hea\$. t!pi#all! fro' a" ele#tri# 'otor to a" i"#rease\$ stati# *ui\$ pres% sure( The! are #o''o"l! use\$ to 'o+e li-ui\$s throu&h a pipi"& s!ste'( I" pu'p ter'i"olo&!. ele#tri#al s!ste's to +ar! the 'otor spee\$. 0hi#h is \$e% 5"e\$ as the #ha"&e i" Ber"oulli hea\$ et0ee" the su#tio" si\$e a"\$ the \$eli+er! si\$e of the pu'p( h is e)presse\$ i" e-ui+ale"t #olu'" hei&ht of 0ater( h0 H 1 D? FG F B& ?& N \$eli+er! 1 D? FG F B& ?& C@(8E su#tio" The su s#ripts sta"\$s for su#tio" or \$eli+er! si\$es( This e-uatio" #a" also e 0ritte" as. ta#ho'eter to 5"\$ the spee\$ of pu'p et#( #'3 P4i3+i16* A #e"trifu&al pu'p is a roto\$!"a'i# pu'p that uses a rotati"& i'peller to i"#rease the pressure of a *ui\$( It 0or/s ! the #o"+ersio" of the rotatio"al /i"eti# e"er&!.

C'JsE B H De"sit! of the 0ater. 1 H A solute 0ater pressure. C'E( The +elo#it! of 0ater #a" e #al#ulate\$ usi"& \$is#har&e a"\$ \$ia'eter of the pipes( The \$is#har&e pro\$u#e\$ ! the pu'p #a" e \$eter'i"e\$ usi"& the +e"turi 'eter pro+i\$e\$ i" the \$eli+er! pipe( Dis#har&e.E " H "u' er of re+olutio"s of the e"er&! 'eter \$is/( / H e"er&! 'eter #o"sta"t. e+e" if the po0er is "ot 'easure\$ i" horsepo0er( It is \$e5"e\$ as. 0hi#h #a" e #al#ulate\$ ! #o"si\$eri"& the ef5#ie"#! of the 'otor( p hp H X'otor L Ei" The pu'p ef5#ie"#! X pu'p is \$e5"e\$ as the ratio of useful po0er to supplie\$ 98 .0here. /. C'E The "et hea\$ is proportio"al to the useful po0er a#tuall! \$eli+ere\$ to the *ui\$ i" the pu'p( Tra\$itio"all! it is #alle\$ the 0ater horsepo0erC0hpE. C'Js?E G H ele+atio". Cse#E I" pu'p ter'i"olo&! the e)ter"al e"er&! supplie\$ to the pu'p is #alle\$ the ra/e horsepo0erC hpE of the pu'p. C/&J'9E & H a##eleratio" \$ue to &ra+it!. K H /H " C'9JsE 0here. " H #ali ratio" #o"sta"ts of the +e"turi 'eter H H hei&ht \$iffere"#e of the 'er#ur! #olu'" i" 'a"o'eter. 10hp H BK L &h0 C6attsE C@(:E C@(9E The i"put ele#tri#al e"er&! to the 'otor #a" e \$eter'i"e\$ usi"& the 0att hour e"er&! 'eter( The e)pressio" for po0er is. 9>== L " L 8=== /Lt C6attsE C@(. CNJ'?E D H Delo#it! of 0ater i"si\$e the pipe. Ei" H 0here. Cre+J/6 hrE( t H ti'e ta/e" for " re+olutio"s.

( Ope" the \$eli+er! +al+e sli&htl!( O ser+e the pressure &au&e rea\$i"&s( >( Measure the \$is#har&e usi"& the #olle#ti"& ta"/ stop0at#h setup( @( Note the ti'e for " re+olutio"s of the e"er&! 'eter \$is/( A( Ope" the \$eli+er! +al+e &ra\$uall! to 'a)i'u'( Repeat the a o+e o ser% +atio"s for \$iffere"t \$is#har&es( <( Ta ulate the rea\$i"&s( Dra0 the perfor'a"#e #hara#teristi#sZ H Ds( K.( C@(@E #'! P47+*504* 8( Che#/ the pressure &au&es( Ma/e sure oth of the' sho0 at'ospheri# pressure( ?( O ser+e the su#tio" a"\$ \$eli+er! pipe \$ia'eters( Measure the \$i'e"sio"s of #olle#ti"& ta"/( Measure the \$iffere"#e i" ele+atio" et0ee" the su#tio" a"\$ \$eli+er! pressure tappi"&s( 9( 1ri'e the #e"trifu&al pu'p( Peep the \$eli+er! +al+e full! #lose\$( :( Start the pu'p( . Cra\$Jse#E h0 H Net hea\$ of the pu'p. C' of 0aterE The spe#i5# spee\$ 0ill e a #o"sta"t for a parti#ular pu'p. ra"&i"& fro' =(=? to 8(. V YK Nsp H C&h0E9J: 0here. X pu'p H 1 hp 10hp C@(>E The spe#i5# spee\$ Nsp of a pu'p is \$e5"e\$ as. a"\$ is a \$i'e"sio"less "u' er( The spee\$ a"\$ \$is#har&e use\$ i" the e)pressio" shoul\$ e the spee\$ a"\$ \$is#har&e for 'a)i'u' ef5#ie"#!( Ce"trifu&al pu'ps ha+e lo0 spe#i5# spee\$s a'o"& ro% to\$!"a'i# pu'ps. spee\$ a"\$ the \$is#har&e \$esire\$. or pu'ps si'% ilar to it( If 0e /"o0 the hea\$.po0er. 1 Ds( K a"\$ X Ds( K( hp 9? . Y H A"&ular +elo#it! of the 'otor shaft. it is eas! to 5"\$ the &e"eral t!pe of roto\$!"a'i# pu'p that 0oul\$ pro+e satisfa#tor! usi"& spe#i5# spee\$( But it is "ot reall! a spee\$.

.'a)H 9( The spe#i5# spee\$ of the &i+e" #e"trifu&al pu'p. 835 C86+068. NspH 99 . G\$el N Gsu# H #'6 R*. X pu'p. N E"er&! 'eter #o"sta"t. X pu'p.*4-8. / H H Ele+atio" \$iffere"#e. 835 I39*4*3+* 8( The a+era&e pu'p ef5#ie"#!. D\$el H Spee\$ of the 'otor. H Colle#ti"& ta"/ area. a Dia'eter of su#tio" pipe.06.a+&H ?( The 'a)i'u' pu'p ef5#ie"#!.i73.i73.#'5 O(. Dsu# H Dia'eter of \$eli+er! pipe.

e#ti+e is to stu\$! the perfor'a"#e #hara#teristi#s of a re#ipro#ati"& pu'p a"\$ to 5"\$ the slip( \$'2 E/0i12*3. 0hi#h #auses a *ui\$ to 'o+e ! trappi"& a 5)e\$ a'ou"t of it the" \$ispla#i"& that trappe\$ +olu'e i"to the \$is#har&e pipe( The *ui\$ e"ters a pu'pi"& #ha' er +ia a" i"let +al+e a"\$ is pushe\$ out +ia a outlet +al+e ! the a#tio" of the pisto" or \$iaphra&'( The! are either si"&le a#ti"&Z i"\$epe"\$e"t su#tio" a"\$ \$is#har&e stro/es or \$ou le a#ti"&Z su#tio" a"\$ \$is#har&e i" oth \$ire#tio"s( Re#ipro#ati"& pu'ps are self pri'i"& a"\$ are suita le for +er! hi&h hea\$s at lo0 *o0s( The! \$eli+er relia le \$is#har&e *o0s a"\$ is ofte" use\$ for 'eter% i"& \$uties e#ause of #o"sta"#! of *o0 rate( The *o0 rate is #ha"&e\$ o"l! ! a\$. The o . 4*/0i4*5 Re#ipro#ati"& pu'p test ri&. e"er&! 'eter to 'easure the i"put ele#tri#al e"er&!. pressure &au&es at the su#tio" a"\$ \$eli+er! pipes.E PERIMENT \$ PERFORMANCE OF RECIPROCATING PUMP \$'1 O()*+.usti"& the rp' of the \$ri+er( These pu'ps \$eli+er a hi&hl! pulse\$ *o0( If a s'ooth *o0 is re-uire\$ the" the \$is#har&e *o0 s!ste' has to i"#lu\$e a\$\$itio"al features su#h as a##u'ulators( A" auto'ati# relief +al+e set at a safe pressure is use\$ o" the \$is#har&e si\$e of all positi+e \$ispla#e'e"t pu'ps( .i-*. a #olle#ti"& ta"/ stop 0at#h setup to 'easure the \$is#har&e( \$'3 P4i3+i16* Re#ipro#ati"& pu'p is a positi+e \$ispla#e'e"t pu'p.

C'Js?E G H ele+atio". C'E( The +elo#it! of 0ater #a" e #al#ulate\$ usi"& \$is#har&e a"\$ area of the pipes( The \$is#har&e pro\$u#e\$ ! the pu'p #a" e \$eter'i"e\$ usi"& the #olle#ti"& ta"/ a"\$ stop0at#h setup( Dis#har&e. CNJ'?E D H Delo#it! of 0ater i"si\$e the pipe. e+e" if the po0er is "ot 'easure\$ i" horsepo0er( It is \$e5"e\$ as. 9>== L " L 8=== /Lt C6attsE CA(:E " H "u' er of re+olutio"s of the e"er&! 'eter \$is/( 9. aLH C'9JsE t CA(?E a H area of the #olle#ti"& ta"/(C'?E( H H hei&ht \$iffere"#e of the 0ater #olu'" i" the pie3o'eter. Ei" H 0here. C'JsE B H De"sit! of the 0ater. C/&J'9E & H a##eleratio" \$ue to &ra+it!.The perfor'a"#e of a pu'p is #hara#teri3e\$ ! its "et hea\$ h. h0 H C1\$el N 1su#E CD\$el NDsu#E F F CG\$el N Gsu#E B& ?& ?? CA(8E The su s#ripts sta"\$s for su#tio" or \$eli+er! si\$es( 0here. Cse#E( The "et hea\$ is proportio"al to the useful po0er a#tuall! \$eli+ere\$ to the *ui\$ i" the pu'p( Tra\$itio"all! it is #alle\$ the 0ater horsepo0erC0hpE. . K H 0here. 1 H A solute 0ater pressure. 10hp H BK L &h0 C6attsE CA(9E The i"put ele#tri#al e"er&! to the 'otor #a" e \$eter'i"e\$ usi"& the 0att hour e"er&! 'eter( The e)pressio" for po0er is. 0hi#h is \$e% 5"e\$ as the #ha"&e i" Ber"oulli hea\$ et0ee" the su#tio" si\$e a"\$ the \$eli+er! si\$e of the pu'p( h is e)presse\$ i" e-ui+ale"t #olu'" hei&ht of 0ater( Net hea\$. C'E( t H ti'e ta/e" to rise H 'eters.

Slip H Kth N Ka# Kth CA(@E \$'! P47+*504* 8( Che#/ the pressure &au&es( Ma/e sure oth of the' sho0 at'ospheri# pressure( ?( O ser+e the su#tio" a"\$ \$eli+er! pipe \$ia'eters( Measure the \$i'e"sio"s of #olle#ti"& ta"/( Measure the \$iffere"#e i" ele+atio" et0ee" the su#tio" a"\$ \$eli+er! pressure tappi"&s( 9> . Cse#E I" pu'p ter'i"olo&! the e)ter"al e"er&! supplie\$ to the pu'p is #alle\$ the ra/e horsepo0erC hpE of the pu'p.E The theoreti#al \$is#har&e of a re#ipro#ati"& pu'p #a" e #al#ulate\$ ! /"o0% i"& the &eo'etri#al spe#i5#atio"s a"\$ a"\$ rate of tra+el of the pisto". 0hi#h #a" e #al#ulate\$ ! #o"si\$eri"& the ef5#ie"#! of the 'otor( p hp H X'otor L Ei" The pu'p ef5#ie"#! X pu'p is \$e5"e\$ as the ratio of useful po0er to supplie\$ po0er. Kth H 0here. Crp'E( A H Area of the pisto"./ H e"er&! 'eter #o"sta"t. LNA LNCA N A prE F >= >= C'9JsE CA(>E L H Stro/e le"&th of pisto". C'?E( The slip of a re#ipro#ati"& pu'p is \$e5"e\$ as. re+J/6 hr( t H ti'e ta/e" for " re+olutio"s. C'?E( A prH Area of the pisto" ro\$. si"#e it is positi+e \$ispla#e'e"t t!pe( The +olu'e of the *ui\$ \$ispla#e\$ 0ill e e-ual to the sto/e +olu'e of the pisto" i"si\$e the #!li"\$er( For a \$ou le a#ti"& si"&le #!li"\$er re#ipro#ati"& pu'p the \$ispla#e\$ +olu'e of 0ater per se#o"\$ is &i+e" !. X pu'p H 1 hp 10hp CA(. C'E( N H Rotati"& spee\$ of the pu'p #ra"/shaft.

G\$el N Gsu# H \$'6 R*. S a+&H 9@ .9( Ope" the \$eli+er! +al+e full!( Ne+er #lose this +al+e elo0 a #riti#al le+el to re\$u#e the *o0 rate( The *ui\$ has "o pla#e to &o a"\$ so'ethi"& 0ill rea/( :( Start the pu'p( .. Dsu# H Dia'eter of \$eli+er! pipe. 1 Ds( K a"\$ X Ds( K( hp \$'5 O(. 835 C86+068.i73. Colle#ti"& ta"/ area. / H Ele+atio" \$iffere"#e. X pu'p.( Note \$o0" the pressure &au&e rea\$i"&s( >( Measure the \$is#har&e usi"& the #olle#ti"& ta"/ stop0at#h setup( @( Note the ti'e for " re+olutio"s of the e"er&! 'eter \$is/( A( Close the \$eli+er! +al+e &ra\$uall!( Repeat the a o+e o ser+atio"s for \$if% fere"t \$is#har&es( <( Ta ulate the rea\$i"&s( Dra0 the perfor'a"#e #hara#teristi#sZ H Ds( K. a H Dia'eter of su#tio" pipe.06.*4-8. 835 I39*4*3+* 8( The a+era&e pu'p ef5#ie"#! is fou"\$ to e. D\$el H E"er&! 'eter #o"sta"t.a+&H ?( The a+era&e slip of the &i+e" re#ipro#ati"& pu'p.i73.

e"er&! 'eter to 'easure the i"put ele#tri#al e"er&!. alo"& 0ith the spee\$ of rotatio". To i"+esti&ate the perfor'a"#e of a &ear pu'p a"\$ to plot the #hara#teristi#s( &'2 E/0i12*3.i-*.E PERIMENT & PERFORMANCE OF GEAR PUMP &'1 O()*+. stora&e ta"/ 0ith oil. effe#ti+el! pre+e"t the *ui\$ fro' lea/i"& a#/0ar\$s( The ri&i\$ \$esi&" of the &ears a"\$ housi"& allo0 for +er! hi&h pressures a"\$ the a ilit! to pu'p hi&hl! +is#ous *ui\$s( . pressure &au&es at the su#tio" a"\$ \$eli+er! pipes. 0here the 'eshi"& of the &ears \$ispla#e the *ui\$( The 'e#ha"i#al #leara"#es are o" the or\$er of 'i#ro'eters( The ti&ht #leara"#es. #reati"& a +oi\$ a"\$ su#tio" 0hi#h is 5lle\$ ! *ui\$( The *ui\$ is #arrie\$ ! the &ears to the \$is#har&e si\$e of the pu'p. 4*/0i4*5 4ear pu'p test ri&. a #olle#ti"& ta"/ stop 0at#h setup to 'easure the \$is#har&e( &'3 P4i3+i16* 4ear pu'p is a positi+e \$ispla#e'e"t pu'p 0hi#h utili3es the 'eshi"& of t0o &ears to pressuri3e the *ui\$( The! are o"e of the 'ost #o''o" t!pes of pu'ps for h!\$rauli# *ui\$ po0er appli#atio"s a"\$ are also 0i\$el! use\$ to pu'p hi&hl! +is#ous *ui\$s( As the &ears rotate the! separate o" the i"ta/e si\$e of the pu'p.

Ei" H 9>== L " L 8=== /Lt 9< C6attsE C<(:E .The perfor'a"#e of a"! pu'p is #hara#teri3e\$ ! its "et hea\$ h. C'E( The +elo#it! of 0ater #a" e #al#ulate\$ usi"& \$is#har&e a"\$ area of the pipes( The \$is#har&e pro\$u#e\$ ! the pu'p #a" e \$eter'i"e\$ usi"& the #olle#ti"& ta"/ a"\$ stop0at#h setup( Dis#har&e. K H 0here. e+e" if the po0er is "ot 'easure\$ i" horsepo0er a"\$ the pu'pi"& *ui\$ is "ot 0ater( It is \$e5"e\$ as. hoil H C1\$el N 1su#E CD\$el? ? NDsu#E F F CG\$el N Gsu#E B& ?& C<(8E The su s#ripts sta"\$s for su#tio" or \$eli+er! si\$es( 0here. C'E( t H ti'e ta/e" to rise H 'eters. Cse#E( The "et hea\$ is proportio"al to the useful po0er a#tuall! \$eli+ere\$ to the *ui\$ i" the pu'p( Tra\$itio"all! it is #alle\$ the 0ater horsepo0erC0hpE. aLH C'9JsE t C<(?E a H area of the #olle#ti"& ta"/(C'?E( H H hei&ht \$iffere"#e of the li-ui\$ #olu'" i" the pie3o'eter. C'Js?E G H ele+atio". 1 H A solute *ui\$ pressure. 10hp H BK L &hoil C6attsE C<(9E The i"put ele#tri#al e"er&! to the 'otor #a" e \$eter'i"e\$ usi"& the 0att hour e"er&! 'eter( The e)pressio" for po0er is. CNJ'?E D H Delo#it! of *ui\$ i"si\$e the pipe. C/&J' 9E & H a##eleratio" \$ue to &ra+it!. C'JsE B H De"sit! of the pu'pi"& *ui\$. 0hi#h is \$e% 5"e\$ as the #ha"&e i" Ber"oulli hea\$ et0ee" the su#tio" si\$e a"\$ the \$eli+er! si\$e of the pu'p( h is e)presse\$ i" e-ui+ale"t #olu'" hei&ht of *ui\$ 0hi#h is pu'pe\$( Net hea\$.

H Colle#ti"& ta"/ area. re+J/6 hr( t H ti'e ta/e" for " re+olutio"s. 835 C86+068. a Dia'eter of su#tio" pipe.*4-8. Cse#E I" pu'p ter'i"olo&! the e)ter"al e"er&! supplie\$ to the pu'p is #alle\$ the ra/e horsepo0erC hpE of the pu'p. Dsu# H Dia'eter of \$eli+er! pipe.E &'! P47+*504* 8( Che#/ the pressure &au&es( Ma/e sure oth of the' sho0 at'ospheri# pressure( ?( O ser+e the su#tio" a"\$ \$eli+er! pipe \$ia'eters( Measure the \$i'e"sio"s of #olle#ti"& ta"/( Measure the \$iffere"#e i" ele+atio" et0ee" the su#tio" a"\$ \$eli+er! pressure tappi"&s( 9( Ope" the \$eli+er! +al+e full!( Ne+er #lose this +al+e elo0 a #riti#al le+el to re\$u#e the *o0 rate( The *ui\$ has "o pla#e to &o a"\$ so'ethi"& 0ill rea/( :( Start the pu'p( . " H "u' er of re+olutio"s of the e"er&! 'eter \$is/( / H e"er&! 'eter #o"sta"t.i73.0here.i73. 0hi#h #a" e #al#ulate\$ ! #o"si\$eri"& the ef5#ie"#! of the 'otor( p hp H X'otor L Ei" The pu'p ef5#ie"#! X pu'p is \$e5"e\$ as the ratio of useful po0er to supplie\$ po0er. 10hp Ds( 1i" a"\$ X Ds( h( &'5 O(. D\$el H := .( Note \$o0" the pressure &au&e rea\$i"&s( >( Measure the \$is#har&e usi"& the #olle#ti"& ta"/ stop0at#h setup( @( Note the ti'e for " re+olutio"s of the e"er&! 'eter \$is/( A( Close the \$eli+er! +al+e &ra\$uall!( Repeat the a o+e o ser+atio"s for \$if% fere"t \$is#har&es( <( Ta ulate the rea\$i"&s( Dra0 the perfor'a"#e #hara#teristi#sZ K Ds( 1 0hp. X pu'p H 1 hp 10hp C<(.

G\$el N Gsu# H &'6 R*. 835 I39*4*3+* 8( The a+era&e pu'p ef5#ie"#! . / H Ele+atio" \$iffere"#e. X pu'p.E"er&! 'eter #o"sta"t.a+&H ?( The 'a)i'u' pu'p ef5#ie"#! e.06.. X pu'p.'a)H :8 .

#e"trifu% &al pu'p.E PERIMENT 1% LOAD TEST ON PELTON TURBINE 1%'1 O()*+.= 'eters 0ith relati+el! lo0 0ater *o0 rates( For 'a)i'u' ef5#ie"#! the ru""er tip spee\$ shoul\$ e-ual a out o"e%half the stri/i"& . ra/e \$ru' \$!"a'o'eter 0ith rope a"\$ 'ass loa\$i"& arra"&e% 'e"t( 1%'3 P4i3+i16* A" i'pulse tur i"e is a tur o'a#hi"e i" 0hi#h /i"eti# e"er&! fro' o"e or 'ore fast%'o+i"& . t!pi#all! a o+e a out :. 4*/0i4*5 E)peri'e"tal setup #o"sists of 1elto" tur i"e.i-*. i"let pressure &au&e. pre%#ali rate\$ +e"turi 'eter 0ith \$iffere"tial 'er#ur! 'a"o'eter. ut o"l! o"e has sur+i+e\$ i" appre#ia le "u' ers to the prese"t \$a!. 1i" to the tur i"e is the i"itial /i"eti# e"er&! of . a"\$ so the tur i"e \$oes"2t re-uire a housi"& for operatio"( The #o"\$uit ri"&i"& hi&h%pressure 0ater to the i'pulse 0heel is #alle\$ the pe"%sto#/( I'pulse tur i"es are 'ost ofte" use\$ i" +er! hi&h hea\$ appli#atio"s( Se+% eral t!pes of i'pulse tur i"es ha+e ee" i"+e"te\$. ta#ho'eter.et( The 'o'e"tu' of this .ets is #o"+erte\$ to rotatio"al 'e#ha"i#al e"er&! \$eli+ere\$ to the shaft of the 'a#hi"e( A "o33le tra"sfor's 0ater u"\$er a hi&h hea\$ i"to a po0erful . 0hi#h is the 1elto" tur i"e( The free 0ater .et +elo#it!( The ef5#ie"#! #a" e)#ee\$ <8 per#e"t 0he" operati"& at >=%A= per#e"t of full loa\$( The i"put h!\$rauli# po0er.et is \$estro!e\$ ! stri/i"& the ru""er.et stri/es the tur i"e u#/ets ta"&e"tiall!( Ea#h u#/et has a hi&h #e"ter ri\$&e so that the *o0 is \$i+i\$e\$ to lea+e the ru""er at oth si\$es( 1elto" 0heels are suita le for hi&h hea\$s. 0hi#h a sor s the resulti"& for#e( No pressure #ha"&e o##urs at the tur i"e la\$es. To i"+esti&ate the perfor'a"#e of the 1elto" tur i"e 0ith \$iffere"t ra"&e of *o0 rates a"\$ to 5"\$ its spe#i5# spee\$( 1%'2 E/0i12*3.

C'JsE h H Hea\$ o+er the tur i"e. CN'E N H Rotati"& spee\$ of tur i"e shaft. C'E of 0ater K H Dolu'e *o0 rate to the tur i"e. & H A##eleratio" \$ue to &ra+it!. C/&J'9E The *o0 rate of 0ater throu&h the tur i"e #a" e 'easure\$ usi"& the +e"turi 'eter #o""e#te\$ i" the i"let pipe li"e( The +e"turi 'eter is pre%#ali rate\$ 0ith K H /h" a"\$ the +alues of / a"\$ " are /"o0"( h is the #ha"&e i" pressure i" ter's of ' of 0ater( For a 'er#ur! 'a"o'eter the this #o"+ersio" is #arrie\$ out usi"& the e-uatio".the *o0i"& 0ater . C'E The effe#ti+e loa\$ o" the ra/e \$ru' is #al#ulate\$ as. C' 9JsE B H De"sit! of the 0ater. L H C6ha"&er F 6a\$\$e\$ % 6Spri"& :9 ala"#eE L& . C/&JsE D H Delo#it! of .et( 8 1i" H 'D ? H BK L &h ? C8=(8E 0here. C'E hH& H O1 i" ter's of hei&ht of Mer#ur! #olu'".et at the "o33le e)it. C'Js?E ' H Mass *o0 rate of 0ater. C/&J' 9E B0 H \$e"sit! of the *o0i"& *ui\$. BH& N 8 L hh& B0 C8=(?E h0 H O1 i" ter's of hei&ht of 0ater #olu'". C6attsE T H Tor-ue a#ti"& o" the ru""er shaft. Crp'E L H Effe#ti+e loa\$ o" the ra/e \$ru'. ?[N L L L De ?[NT [DeNL ? H H >= >= >= C8=(9E 1 r H output ra/e po0er of the tur i"e. h0 H 0here. C/&J' 9E The shaft of the tur i"e ru""er is #o""e#te\$ to a ra/e \$ru' \$!"a'o'eter 0ith rope a"\$ 'ass loa\$i"& arra"&e'e"t to 'easure the output ra/e po0er( 1 rH 0here. C'E BH& H \$e"sit! of the 'a"o'eter *ui\$. CNE De H Effe#ti+e \$ia'eter of the ra/e \$ru'.

J: V Y1 C8=(. C'Js?E( The tur i"e ef5#ie"#! is \$e5"e\$ as the ratio of the po0er a+aila le o" the ra/e \$ru' to the h!\$rauli# po0er supplie\$ to the tur i"e( Xtur H 1 r 1i" C8=(:E The spe#i5# spee\$ Nst of a 0ater tur i"e is \$e5"e\$ as. to =(?( 1%'! P47+*504* 8( Che#/ the \$!"a'o'eter 'e#ha"is' a"\$ the \$iffere"tial 'a"o'eter li' s( Note \$o0" the \$ia'eter of the ra/e \$ru'( Cha"&e the \$!"a'o'eter to 3ero%loa\$ positio"( ?( 1ri'e the #e"trifu&al pu'p. a"\$ is a \$i'e"sio"less "u' er( The spee\$ a"\$ po0er use\$ i" the e)pressio" shoul\$ e the spee\$ a"\$ po0er for 'a)i'u' ef5#ie"#!( I'pulse tur i"es ha+e lo0 spe#i5# spee\$s. ra"&i"& fro' =(=. C6attsE Y H a"&ular +elo#it! of tur i"e shaft.( Re&ulate the +al+es to rea#h the rate\$ spee\$ at rate\$ hea\$ of the tur i"e( Che#/ the rp' usi"& ta#ho'eter( Note \$o0" the rea\$i"&s( >( Loa\$ the tur i"e ! putti"& 0ei&hts o" the loa\$i"& ha"&er( Tur" o" the #ooli"& 0ater suppl! to the ra/e \$ru'( :: . Nst H r 8J? B0 C&h0E.0here. 0hi#h is use\$ &e"erates hi&h pressure hea\$ i" the pe" sto#/( 9( Peep the spear +al+e a"\$ the i"let &ate +al+e #o'pletel! #lose\$( Start the pu'p( :( Slo0l! ope" the &ate +al+e a"\$ a\$.E 0here. it is eas! to 5"\$ the &e"eral t!pe of tur i"e that 0oul\$ pro+e satisfa#tor! usi"& spe#i5# spee\$( But it is "ot reall! a spee\$. or tur i"es si'ilar to it( If 0e /"o0 the hea\$. Cra\$Jse#E The spe#i5# spee\$ 0ill e a #o"sta"t for a parti#ular tur i"e.ust the spear +al+e( O ser+e the 'i"i% 'u' ope"i"& positio" of the +al+es to start the tur i"e at "o loa\$( Note \$o0" the 'a"o'eter a"\$ the pressure &au&e rea\$i"&s( . 1 r H output ra/e po0er of the tur i"e. spee\$ a"\$ po0er \$esire\$. & is the a##eleratio" \$ue to &ra+it!.

1 r Ds( K a"\$ Xtur Ds( K( 1%'5 O(. 6ei&ht of rope a"\$ ha"&er Dia'eter of ra/e \$ru' Dia'eter of the rope Rate\$ spee\$ a"\$ rate\$ po0er H H H H The 'a)i'u' loa\$ o" the ha"&er H 1%'6 R*.i73.@( Re&ulate the spee\$ to rate\$ spee\$ ! a\$.usti"& the +al+es( Note \$o0" the rea\$i"&s of the 'a"o'eter. 835 I39*4*3+* 8( The a+era&e tur i"e ef5#ie"#! of the &i+e" 1elto" tur i"e. 835 C86+068.i73.a+& H QQ ?( The spe#i5# spee\$ of the tur i"e. X tur.*4-8.06. ef5#ie"#! a"\$ spe#i5# spee\$( 88( 1lot the #hara#teristi#sZ 1i" Ds( 1 r. Xtur Ds( 1 r. Nst H 9( The 'i"i'u' \$is#har&e re-uire\$ to start the tur i"e H QQ :.. pressure &au&e a"\$ the spri"& ala"#e( Repeat the pro#e\$ure ! i"#reasi"& the 0ei&ht o" the ha"&er &ra\$uall! up to the 'a)i'u' loa\$( A( Ta ulate the rea\$i"&s( <( Re'o+e the loa\$s o" the ha"&er a"\$ a"\$ #lose the &ate +al+e slo0l! a"\$ stop the #e"trifu&al pu'p( 8=( Cal#ulate the ra/e po0er. .

M#4ra0 Hill( \?] Yu"us A( Ce"&el.or) :> . Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics (ncludin) Hydraulics Machines. th !dition. S( M( Seth.*iki%edia. Tata M#4ra0 Hill( \9] ^( F( Dou&las. Theo\$ore H( O/iishi( Funda#entals of Fluid Mechanics. 'th !dition. ^oh" M( Ci' ala( Fluid Mechanics" Funda#entals and \$%%lications. 1re"ti#e Hall( \:] Bru#e R( Mu"so". &st !dition. ^oh" 4asiore/. ^oh" 6ile! _ So"s( \. Do"al\$ F( You"&.] 1( N( Mo\$i. 'th !dition. ^oh" S0af5el\$( Fluid Mechanics. Sta"\$ar\$ Boo/house.BIBLIOGRAPHY \8] Fra"/ M( 6hite( Fluid Mechanics. I"\$ia( \>] ***.