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CHINESE CHARACTERS

THEIR ORIGIN, ETYMOLOGY, HISTORY, CLASSIFICATION AND SIGNIFICATION. A THOROUGH STUDY FROM CHINESE DOCUMENTS

by Dr. L. WIEGER, S.J.


Translated Into English by L. Davrout, S.J. Second Edition, enlarged and revised according to the 4th French edition

PARAGON BOOK REPRINT CORP., NEW YORK DOVER PUBLICATIONS, INC., NEW YORK

This edition, first published in 1965, is an unabridged and unaltered republication of the second edition, published by the Catholic Mission Press in 1927. The first edition of Chinese Characters was published in 1915. This edition is a joint publication of Paragon Book Reprint Corp. and Dover Publications, Inc.

Standard Booh Number: 486-21321-8 Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 64-18441

Manufactured in the United States of America Paragon Book Reprint Corp. Dover Publications, Inc. 140 East 59th Street 180 Varick Street New York 22, N.Y. New York 14, N.Y.

PREFACE.

The end aimed at by the Author has been to analyse the ancient forms of the Chinese characters, to extract from them their primitive constituents, and then to group them together according to these primitive elements, in an order both logical and synoptical. The materials, figures and interpretations, were gathered from the works of the Chinese epigraphers and philologues. After having eliminated the useless characters, the Author picked out, among the usual characters, 224 Primitives. Around these elements were grouped about 1500 logical aggregates and phonetic complexes, from which all the other characters are derived. Then the whole matter was divided into 177 Lessons. A f t e r many experiences, this disposition seemed to be the most advantageous for study. The Introduction is designed to furnish some necessary explanation respecting the history, the categories, the analysis and the different classificalions of the Chinese characters. The Graphies are fac-similes of the oldest specimens of Chinese writing cast, not engraved, upon bronze bells and vases. The Phonetic Series, are a natural complement of the Lessons. Two Lexicons showing the characters arranged by o r d e r of Sounds a n d Radicals, complete the work. The Romanisation adopted by the Translator, was according to the Wade system.

L. Davrout S.J.

CHINESE CHARACTERS.

INTRODUCTORY.

I. HISTORICAL SKETCH.

Fu-hsi, and their first Tradition ascribes the idea of the. characters to Ts'ang-hsieh, two worthies of the prehistoric age. The systedrawing to Huang-ti, the founder matisation of the Chinese writing, is attributed to of the Chinese empire, 25th century B.C. Some texts of the Annals, may have been written earlier than the 22th century B.C. In the beginning, writing was used only for matters of government and administration. By its means, the Emperor was given information, and his orders were transmitted to the mandarins shih, recorders, registrars, scribes, were trained up in and to the people. The t'ai-shih grand-recorder. official schools, under the direction of a ku-wen graphies that have come down to us in their original The oldest form, are traced back to the 18th century B.C. Their study reveals the fact, that while their making was well defined, their form varied much. Towards the year Chou drew up, for the use of the official scribes, B.C. 800, the grand-recorder a catalogue of the then existing characters, and fixed their standard shape. Those chon-wen, or ta-chuan ku-wen are called by Chinese philologists k'o-toa-tzu tadpoles. The origin of the latgreater seal characters, or ter appellation is thus recorded, lo the 2d century B.C., when the house in which

Introductory Historical sketch.

Confucius bad dwell was pulled down, old books written in ancient characters were discovered in a hiding-place. At the sight of the big heads and the slender tails, Hung prince of Lu who was not a learned man, exclaimed: these are tadpoles!.. The name has stuck to them ever since.

As the decay of the Chou Dynasty grew worse, studies were neglected and the scribes became more and more ignorant. When they did not remember the genuine character, they blunderingly invented a false one. Those non-genuine characters, copied out again by other ignorant writers, became usual. Confucius himself made this statement. Towards the year B. C. 500, he uttered this complaint: When I was young, I still knew some scribes who left blank the characters which they could not write; now there are no more such men! Consequently ch'i tzu odd characters were multiplied without restraint, to the the great prejudice of etymology.

Towards the year B. C. 213, under the Emperor Ch'in-shih-huang who destroyed the classical books, Li-ssu, his prime-minister, published a new official index of the characters, and fixed a way of writing which became obligatory for scholars. His collection, entitled San-ts'ang, contained 3300 characters. This new form of writing was known as the hsiao-chuan, lesser seal characters. The study of the work of Li-ssu discloses two facts:.. l. He did not create a n y new primitive, but he contented himself with composing, by means of preexisting elements, the names for objects which were unknown before. Therefore the evolution of characters was certainly closed before the times of Li-sau, probably many centuries before him... 2. Deceived by the ch'i-tzu, then so numerous, Li-ssu wrongly interpreted some characters, and fixed them for posterity under a wrong shape. Many instances of these mistakes of Li-ssu wilt be seen in the Etymological Lessons.

A few years after the catalogue of Li-ssu was edited, a new era was opened in the study of characters. Two facts are peculiar to this change: an excessive multiplication; a gradual transformation. Let us briefly state the causes of these philological phenomena:

Introductory. Historical sketch.

\. Causes of the excessive multiplication of characters... First, the ignorance of scribes who continually brougt to light faulty forms which were stupidly reproduced by posterity ; then, the need felt to give names to new things. 1 he Empire was growing, learning was spreading; writing had become a public thing; the process hsing-sheng (see page 10) being an easy one, all took to it. From this disorderly fermentation, without direction, without control, without criticism, sprang up, together with useful characters, thousands of useless doubles. Things could not well be otherwise, when one remembers that the centres of fabrication were multiplied, and that the local idioms were very different. The index of Li-ssu contained 3300 characters. In the space of two centuries, it was completed seven times, a nd the 7th edition, published at the beginning of the Christian era, contains 7380 characters. Two centuries later, there were 10.000. Now the dictionary of K'ang-hsi(A.D. 1716), contains 40,000 characters that may be plainly divided as follows: 4000 characters in common use; 2000 proper names and doubles of limited use; 34.000 monstrosities of no practical use. We are far from the legendary number of 80.000 usual characters, ascribed to the Chinese language. 5. Causes of the gradual transformation of characters. The first to be noticed, is the complete change in the instruments and material used for writing. The ancient wrote with a sort of fountain-pen, upon small laths of bamboo or smooth wooden tablets. Hereby the figure of the fountain-pen of old, as it has been transmitted to us on a bronze of the 2d dynasty. Above, the reservoir holding the fluid, presumably a black varnish. The narrow bamboo tube contained probably a wick, to regulate the flowing of the ink. Such an instrument traces lines any way it is moved, either backwards or forwards, straight or curved, as one likes, but all equally thick. Therefore in the, chuan, greater or lesser seal characters of all ages, there are figures of every shape, round, ova), sinuous, the lines being all uniformly thick. Not long after the catalogue of Li-ssu was edited, Ch'eng-miao invented a pencil of soft wood, ending in a fibrous point, which being dipped in the black varnish, was used for writing on silk strips. Traced with this coarse instrumen t on a rough material, the rounded figures became square, the curved lines were broken at right angles. But this ungraceful writing being quicker than with the fountain-pen, the wooden pencil was adopted for public deeds, and the Litzu or official hand, became the current writing, while the lesser seal characters remained the classical writing. As it commonly happens, the way being opened, inventions succeeded one another. During his campaigns against the HANS, the general Meng-t'ien is

Introductory. Historical sketch.

said to have invented or improved the writing-brush, the ink a n d the paper. This invention was fatal to the characters. A writing- brush cannot trace lines against the hair, therefore m a n y characters could not be written and were replaced by arbitrary and fanciful sketches. The mate rials used further helped to increase the confusion. Paper is absorbent: hence came the thick strokes, the thin strokes and the slabbery letters, which were all unknown to the ancients. A writingbrush, made with stiff and elastic hair, flattens o u t when pressed down, twists when turned, projects its poi nt when raised u p ; hence the swellings, the joints, the crooks, which are not intentional, but are due to the instrument itself. Therefochieh-tzu, represents the hsiao-chuan re the actual classical writing as transformed by the writing-brush. There is more. The writing-brush galloping, the strokes were connected up, lien-pei-tzu; then it flew, throwing on the paper misgiving birlh to the ts'ao-tzu. The fancy for these novelties beshapen figures, which are called came a rage. At the beginning of the Christian era, a man believed himself dishonoured if he wrote in a legible way. In this crisis, the initiative of a private scholar saved what could still be saved. Towards the year A.D. 200, after long travels undertaken to get the authentic Hsu-shen or Hsu shu-chung, originals, a literate of renown Hsu-shih, published the lexicon Shuo-wen chieh-tzu. vulgo It was the collection of Li-ssu, controlled, amended, explained and classified under 540 rational keys. The aim of Hsu-shen was to impede any ulterior alteration of the characters, by setting their authentical form before the eyes of a l l scholars. His book contains 9353 simples and 1163 doubles, which makes 10.516 in all. It was not less useful to the nation, the admirers say, than the canals of the tzu, the authority great Yu It remained, from that time, the canon of the consulted in all doubts, by Chinese philologists. All the dictionaries published for the last 17 centuries, boast of their having followed the Shuo-wen, Bat the work of Hsu-shen had a more far reaching effect than the mere conservation of the hsiao-chuan. It was the origin of archeological researches which brought to light more of the antique ku-wen, a n d of philological studies which explained them. These successive discoveries were published, according to the Chinese way, in enlarged and annotated editions of the primitive Shuo-wen. Later on, u n d e r each key of Hsu-shen, were ranged a See chronological series of ancient forms, copied either f r o m stones or bronzes that were discovered, or from books t h a t were extracted from tombs or other hiding . Published in fine books, careplaces, throughout the Empire. See fully analysed, learnedly explained, these Series give the genealogy of the actual characters. Their study enabled the critics to rectify the errors and mistakes of Lissu and of Hsu-shen. It gave the material for the Etymological Lessons contained in this volume.

Introductory. Historical sketch.


For instance, Series of the character chun, prince, through 45 centuries.

1. The primitive form, ku-wen. A cap with horns, to inspire awe. Two arms, the executive power. A mouth, the legislative power. 2. A mere graphic variety. The elements are the same, but their form is different. 3. Another variety. The same elements, a different form; It is so with all the ku-wen: the idea is determined, the form varies. Then came a fanciful scribe who gave to the cap a curious form; whence the k'i-tzu 4, the elements being still the same. The next writer, an ignoramus, thought he saw two hands, instead of the horns on the cap, and he invented the ch'i-tzu 5. The hands figure the power, the mouth makes law; the idea is still the same, but the graphic elements are partially different. An idle writer, for the sake of abbreviation, replaced one of the hands by a simple stroke, which gave the ch'i-tzu 6. This last character, being in use at the end of the Chou Dynasty, Li-ssu interpreted if. a hand which acts, a mouth which makes law. Thus was fixed the hsiao-chuan 7. The wood-pencil made with this hsiao- chuan, the li-tzu 8 and 9. The writing-brush changed the li-tzu into the chieh-tzu. 10, which is still classic in our days. The latter being connected together, became the lien-pei-tzu 11, the successi veabbreviations of which gave the ts'ao-tzu 12, 13, 14. U is all about the same for the other Series,

10 II.

Introductory, Six Categories. LIU-SHU. Six Categories of Characters.

The Chinese philologists divide the characters into two great classes: the wen, simple figures, and the tzu, compound letters. The figures are subdivided into hsiang or nsiang-hsing, imitative drafts; and chih-shih, indicative symbols. The compound letters are subdivided into hui-i, logical aggregates, in which all parts have a meaning; and in hsing-sheng or hsiehsheng, phonetic complexes, in which one part has a meaning, while the other points out the pronunciation. _______ Let us summarise the matter, with a few details and instances. First category. Imitative drafts, rough sketches representing the object; The Shuo-wen contains 364 imitative drafts. Example: the right hand. Second category. Indicative symbols. A figure that suggests the meaning; The Shuo-wen contains 125 indicative symbols. Example: action of the authority which exerts itself from up down. Those symbols often suggest an idea of motion. Third category. Logical aggregates. They are made with two or several characters more simple. Their signification results from the meanings of the different elements; The Shuo-wen contains 1167 logical aggregates. Example: , composed of mouth and divination; the outcome is chan, to consult fortune-tellers, to cast lots. Fourth category. Phonetic complexes. They are made with two or more simple characters. One of them gives the meaning; the other is not a meaning element, but gives to the complex its pronunciation; The Shuo-wen contains 7697 phonetic complexes. Example: The first part , water, gives the meaning; the second , chan, gives the sound. The compound means, to tinge, to moisten, and is pronounced chan. To complete the study of the lin-shu, there are two more categories chuan-chu and the chia-chieh. The above four to be studied, the categories are based upon the composition of characters. The last two are based upon their use. Fifth category. Chuan-chu. Acceptation of the character in a meaning more extended, derived, generalised, metaphorical, analogous, adapted, figurative, etc.

Introductory. Six Categories.

picture of a fishing-net. By extension of the primitive sense, any Example: net-work, cobweb, reticulate design; lo catch with a net, to calch iu general, to envelop, to gather, etc. All these meanings are chuan-chu. i. e. begot by successive turns in the interpretation. Nearly all the primitive characters refer to concrete objects. As the ideas became broader, the signification of characters spread in the same proportion. The abstract terms are commonly chuan-chu of concrete characters. Sixth category. Chia-chieh. A mistake, lit. false borrowing. Use of a character in a sense which is not its own, either 1. By error, for an other existing character; or 2. By convention, to designate an object which has its name in the spoken language, but which has no special character. Examples: 1. In the first paragraph of the Analects of Confucius, one may lind the character meaning lo rejoice. Now means to speak, a n d to rejoice is written Once a scribe wrote for . It was a mistake, a chia-chieh, which was not amended, on account of the superstitious respect for the classical text. 2. Formerly, in some time, in some place, the elder brother was called ko. This word was used in the spoken language only. None among the then existing characters ko. had that meaning. Instead of m a k i n g a new one, it was agreed t h a t ko, to sing, should be used also to mean, elder brother. Though this meaning he unconnected with the composition of the character, however it was admitted. This was a chia-chieh, an arbitrary character. Not a few usual characters were thus given artificial meanings, besides their own meaning a n d their different meanings chuan-chu. Other characters, either names of lost things, or useless doubles, first disappeared and then appeared again with a meaning quite new and in absolute contrast with their composition. Thus the foreign student is quite puzzled when he sees the figure of a scorpion meaning also a myriad, a n d he wonders how a n y relation may be found between the two terms? The answer is very easy. There was not a proper character lo mean a myriad, wh i c h was said wan in the spoken language. On the contrary, there were many characters to write scorpion a nd one among them was just pronounced wan. It was dispossessed, installed in its new functions, and from that time, myriad is written with two claws and a tail. See, in the Lessons, the numbers 47 X, 49 H, 50 O, 71 Q, etc. Those chia-chieh are the very reason why the interpretation of the Chinese characters, which was primitively simple and easy, became so intricate a n d so difficult. They obscure many texts, fill up the lexicons, overburden the memory, and exasperate the students. These sad results spring not from a vice inherent lo the Chinese characters, but from their antiquity and from the carelessness of their successive keepers.

Notice. In the Lessons, for the sake of brevity, we shall not say in English, about each character; this is an imitative draft, that is an indicative symbol, or at logical aggregate, or a phonetic complex. More commonly we shall

12

Introductory Composition and Decomposition.

content ourselves wilh the Chinese definition given in Chinese characters. The ordinary formulas for these definitions are thus given: or hsiang or hsiang-hsing. Lit. imitative draft of the right hand. , chih-shih. Lit. shows the thing, indicative symbol, to act, action. , , , , Lit. from hand, draft; from to act, symbol; by the fusion of meanings, to govern. This is a logical aggregate. , , , , Lit, from hand, from rod; by a fusion of meanings, to strike. A logical aggregate. , , , Lit. from , to enclose; gives the sound; closed on the four sides, shut up hermetically. It is a phonetic complex. As for the derived or arbitrary meanings, we shall be satisfied with indicating them by the words chuan-chu or chia-chieh, inserted in the text. The most important chuan-chu have been indicated, b u t not all the chia-chieh. The latter are to be looked for in the larger dictionaries, which are absolutely necessary on their account.

III. COMPOSITION AND DECOMPOSITION. Primitives. Radicals. Phonetics.

From the calligraphic stand-point, the Chinese characters are all reduced into simple strokes. These material elements amount, for the modern writing, to nine in theory, and to about seventeen in practice. Their form is ascribed to the nature of the writing brush, as explained previously. The strokes are:

Introductory Composition and Decomposition. Note well and do not forget that this reduction into simple strokes, into material elements, has DO connection whatever with the etymological study of the characters.

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From the logical, etymological point of view, the compounds are made, not with strokes, but with characters more simple, having their own use and meaning. These simple characters are what we call elements, when we speak of compositions and decompositions. The more iutricate character was formed by their association, and the analysis must end when it has separated and isolated these formal elements. To go further, to decompose into strokes, would add nothing to knowledge. Just as, in systematic botany, the study of a plant is ended when one has determined its specific organs. The ulterior decomposition of these formal elements into cells and fibres, belongs to histology, and is of no interest for classification purposes. Examples: , a logical aggregate, is decomposed into , a phonetic complex, is decomposed into and and which are given as elements, are evidently themselIf one says that ves compounds, we answer: no doubt, if it is a question of material analysis, one into , and into and . But here, this is should decompose not the question. What we look for, is the logical etymological analysis. Now, in the logical aggregate , the element gives the meaning; it is therefore a formal element. In the phonetic complex , gives the sound; it is therefore a formal element. The etymological decomposition ends there.

It may be asked how numerous are those relatively simple characters or formal elements, which are used to compose the more intricate characters? Before answering, one must distinguish two categories, indicated previously: the meaning elements and the phonetic elements. \. Meaning elements. Theoretically, any simple character could be used for the composition of a logical aggregate. The ancient writers used those they wanted. Practically, how many of those elements did they use? Relatively very few. Indeed, the research of those elements had to be made among the ancient regular forms, and not among the modern corrupted forms. Different Chinese authors numbered from about five to six hundred elements, but their choice was imperfect because there were compound forms, either multiples or inverted, which were kept without reason. The first European who studied the question, J.-M. Gallery, suggested the number of 300. J. Chalmers who resumed this study, gave also 300 as a rough estimate Our own researches deliberately circumscribed in the practical, domain led us to give 224 meaning elements, the list of which may be found at the head of the Lessons.

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Introductory. Composition and Decomposition.

As said above, we call primitives the elements of the logical composition chien-shon, fundamental heads. The definition of called by the Chinese this term is to be noted well. Primitive, forrnal meaning element that cannot admit of an ulterior decomposition into meaning parts; or, more shortly, ideographic minimum. In other words, the primitives are characters relatively simple, having sound and meaning, and which are not formally resolved into figures having sound and meaning. Materially, they may be reduced into strokes, b u t this is without any use for the analysis. Just as a simple chemical body, or a bar of sulphur, or an iron ingot, can be smashed with a hammer, a n d y e t this is not a decomposition, but a breaking up. In a few characters, strokes or dots were added to extend or to modify the meaning. We call those characters partial primitives. They are primitives, relatively to the graphical details superadded. See, as examples, the nipples in , Lesson 67 0; the thorns in , Lesson 120 H; the grains of salt in , Lesson 41 D; etc. 2. Phonetic elements. Theoretically, the Chinese sounds not being numerous, four hundred characters would have been sufficient to compose a phonetic scale. Practically, the Chinese used as phonetic elements, a greater number of characters; the reason of this will be given below. Some Chinese authors numbered one thousand of them, which they called the thousand mothers of sounds. J.-M. Callery who made a special study of these characters a n d round in them a key to his system, numbers 1040. Our researches, circumscribed in the practical domain, gave 858 phonetic prolific elements. This list may he seen at the head of the Phonetic Series. In the choice of these phonetic elements, the Chinese cared only which has about the sound and not about the character. They employed, from which has twenty-four. one stroke only, till The inflected words of European languages are decomposed into radical and termination. The radical gives the meaning; the termination indicates case, time, mood. The (irst sinologists applied those grammatical terms belonging to inflected languages, to the Chinese language which is not an inflected one. In the phonetic complexes, they called radical the meaning part. They dared not call termination the phonetic part, and w i t h reason, for it would have been a mistake. They called that part phonetic. We make ours those two terms, radical and phonetic, but strictly in the sense above given, viz. Radical, formal element which gives the meaning. Phonetic, the formal element which does not give the meaning, but indicates the sound. Why do we insist thus upon the delinition of these terms?.. The reason is this: in sinologv, they were often used in an equivocal sense. Some divided the characters into categories, stating that such a one is a radical, and such a one a phonetic, while a n y character may be, in composition, either a radical, or a phonetic, according to the part it has to act. Others reduced the extension of the term radical to the keys of the dictionaries, and gave as radicals only the 214 keys of K'ang-hsi;

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Introductory. Important Notices.

put in circulation with that sound, went to the North and to the South. Now the Chinese philologists say that the North is known as corrupting the finals in the words, while the South alters the initials. Thus when passing over in the Northern dialects, had its final an transformed into en; was ended into yen and into yeh: which are dialectic differences of a common origin. In a Southern dialect, the ch of became t in , a n d n in : which are also differences of a common origin. At the same time, the tones and aspirates, special to different places, stuck to the former as well as to the latter. Then at last when, in the making of a big dictionary, Ssu-ma kuang for instance, gathered u n d e r the mother word its roving brood, it was diversified with odd colours; there were characters pronounced chan, chen, tien, nien and t'ieh. The compiler neither made a choice, nor criticised, nor tried to restore the primitive pronunciation, nor returned to a unique dialect, but simply set down what was then used, and posterity was told by him, once for all, t h a t was pronounced chan, that was pronounced t'ieh, and that was their common phonetic. Upon the whole, with regard to the phonetic series, note the three following points: 1. The sound was well determined in the beginning... 2. There were dialectical corruptions... 3. The sound was finally, and without any critical study, fixed by insertion in the dictionaries. But then when one says that the phonetics determine the sound of compounds, is this determination practically reduced to something rather vague? It is much to be regretted th a t it is often so. The determination is somewhat vague for the final (vowel), still more vague for the initial (consonant), and nearly non-existing for the tone and aspiration. But then is the study of phonetics useless? It is an exaggeration to say so. The study of phonetics and of the phonetic series is useful. For, after all, the sounds, initials and finals of each series varied only to a certain extent and according to certain dialectic rules. Therefore the knowledge of phonetics allows, after a certain use, to guess approximatively the sound of compound characters. It helps also to fix those characters in the memory. Further, the study of characters, made by following the phonetic series, is more attractive and more useful than by following the series by radicals or by sounds. It is the reason why we add to this volume a lexicon by phonetic series. IMPORTANT NOTICES. 1. Use of a compound instead of a simple, as a radical. The same need of variety, of distinction, that multiplied the phonetics (as above stated), impelled the use sometimes, as a radical, of a compound, instead of a simple character. Item, an inverted character was used instead of the straight form, etc. For example for , or or for , for , for M. for

Introductory Composition and Decomposition.

15

they called phonetic any character which was not radical. Hence arose ways of speaking, improper, equivocal and false. For example: because is the 75th key of K,ang-hsi, some say : the radical is phonetic in , instead of saying: is phonetic in , and radical in . Because is the 190th key of Callery, some say: the phonetic is radical in , instead of saying: is radical in , and phonetic in . To avoid such a confused and inexact way of speaking, one must remember that radicals and phonetics are not two categories of characters specifically distinct. They are two categories of a certain number of characters which, being neuter or indifferent by nature, are used in composition, either as radicals, or as phonetics, according to the cases. Even the primitives are, in composition, radicals or phonetics, according to the cases. They form a class by themselves only as elements formally indivisible; elements which, being not composed, compose all the others. Why did they use one thousand characters, when four hundred could do? It was to avoid confusion. In certain categories, there were to be placed objects of different kinds, but having the same sound. The radical proper to the category could not be changed and consequently the phonetics had necessarily to be changed, in order to get different characters. Example: In the category of trees, the radical of which is , the phonetic had given the phonetic complex k'u, dead tree. Now there is a kin d of elm which is also pronounced k'u. For this elm, the character k'n was made, in which is used as phonetic; and so on for many others. As above stated, the new characters are selected, for more than twenty centuries, exclusively among the phonetic complexes. Out of the ten thousand characters that constitute the main part of the big dictionaries, about seven thousands of them are phonetic complexes. Some variety in their composi tion was of absolute necessity, to form a way of distinguishing one. from another. In which sense must we understand the assertion that the phonetics give their sounds to the phonetic complexes? To answer the question, one must presuppose the following facts which are so evident that they need no proof. The Chinese language is spoken for tens of centuries past, in an immense territory. Its sounds are not numerous, and may be easily confounded. Hence arose a great number of dialectic differences. A Chinese proverb says that at a distance of one hundred li, people cannot understand each other. This assertion is exaggerated, but it is right to say that, at a distance of one hundred U, there are perceptible dialectic differences; that, at a distance of one thousand li, only a half of the things said are understood: and that, at a distance of two thousand li, nothing is understood. Further, the dialect of the same district varied in the course of ages. That fact being granted, let us take as example . In the place and time when was first chosen to be used as a phonetic, this character was pronounced chan. Its compounds, made after the same phonetic, were all pronounced chan, and being

Introductory. Important Notices.

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2. phonetic-Radicals. In some a n c i e n t characters, an element which is radical gives also its sound to the compound, being thus together radical and Lit. ping ice, from shui water, phonetic. For ex. from ping to freeze; ping is thus both radical and phonetic,Those characters are like a l i n k between the logical aggregates and the phonetic complexes. 3. Radical or phonetic redundancies. \. The ancient characters were relati vel y simple. When t h e systematic classifications begun to be made, then w i t h o u t change in t he meaning of those characters, a meaning clement was super-added to m a n y of them. This was a new radical, well chosen, but useless, under which the character was classified in the new dictionaries. Thus, to chiao, to teach, which nicely figured the action of the master descending upon the disciple, a h a n d was added, ho ld in g a rod, symbol of t he master's authority. This addition was the cause why was classified under the 66th radical in K'anghsi. Thus the old characters happened to have, nearly all, synonym compounds, and it is the compound that is used now, w h i l e the p r i m i t i v e character remains in the dictionaries with the mention ku-wen, ancient form. This is why one may often read in the Lessons the words it is now written. For ex., , now ; the ancient form was enriched with the radical , the rest being quite the same. 2. The ancient drafts, or symbols, or logical aggregates, had no phonetic element, and n o t h i n g helped the memory to remember the sound. Later on, specially in the ti m e of Li-ssu, a phonetic element was added to some ancient characters, w i t h o u t changing anything in the sense. For ex., to the character kui, was added tui, to recall the sound ui, which gave Those embellished logical aggregates differ from the phonetic complexes in this, t h a t they cannot be adequately decomposed i nt o two elements, one being a radical, the other a phonetic... Another example: cb'u was added with the phonetic hu, which ch'u... Now a n d are no longer used. They are found in the dictio gave naries, with the mention ku-wen, ancient forms of and i. Phonetics and Radicals contracted. See the phonetic Series 469, , etc. It seems to come from hsin, h u t it ends in ao. Its phonetic is not hsin, but nao, a logical aggregate made from hsin. Bu t nao having already a lateral radical , the addition of the radical of phonetic complexes would make is contracted, that is: its is suppressed, and ugly characters. To avoid this, in its place the radical of the. complex is substituted. It the series 469, nao contracted is the phonetic, . The same happens in the series 119, unchieh der ch'u, where one may find compounds in ieh. Their phonetic is contracted, in which gave place to another radical. Remember well this remark, it is very important in practice. One may often read, in the Lessons, the "contracted phonetic" In the logical combinations some expression radicals are abbreviated in the same way. Thus becomes or . See and , L. 44 E,J. The scribes definitively contracted several intricate ancient forms, for example:

18

Introductory. Classification ol Characters.

5. Phonetics mixed. Under some numbers of the phonetic Lexicon, one may find two series written in the same way, but of different sound. The reason is that in the modern writing, two ancient phonetics were mixed. Thus one writes to-day in the same way two series utterly distinct in the ancient writing. See, for example, the Series 227, 284, 359-549. 6. Synonyms. The great number of phonetic complexes, different in form and in sound, but perfectly synonymous, is explained by the fact that they sprung from many different places, in the modern times, after Li-ssu. Some double logical LL. 2 B aggregates probably owe their origin to the same cause, v.g. and 32 B. There were differences between the rival states and the jealous literati of those times. 7. Multiples. An element reproduced two or several times, figures graphically trees make a the great number, or the great intensity. For example: Two fires means to blaze. Three men , a multitude. Three forest. Two chariots , a rolling, a big rumbling. . 8. Figures straightened. Certain figures, broader than high, as , are ofL. 82 C, L. ten straightened in the compounds, to take less place. See L. 167, L 158, etc. 66, Conclusion. The knowledge of the Chinese characters consists in mastering less than 300 primitives, and about 1500 principal compounds made with the primitives, that is less than 2000 characters. A l l the others are derived from them. Those are the elements and groups that are treated in the Etymological Lessons, and collected in the Index of usual Groups, When the student knows them, he may explain to himself all the compounds. The Lessons explain the logical aggregates under their principal primitive. Each paragraph refers to the phonetical series which contains the phonetic complexes derived from the same element. The paragraph and the series form a whole, t h a t exhausts practically the study of an element.

IV. CLASSIFICATION OF CHARACTERS. A. Chinese classifications. 1. Natural classification. The first classifications were encyclopedias of lei-shu. The prototype of those things, after the manner of the present Erh-ya, the first sketch of which is ascribed to compilations is the Chu-kung ( 1 1 t h century B.C.). Remodelled in the 5th century B.C. by a disciple Tzu-hsia, it took its actual shape from Kuo-p'u, circa of Confucius,

Introductory Classification of Characters.

19

A.D. 280. The things of this world were distributed under 16 sections: kindred, houses, utensils, music, heaven, earth, mounds, hills, waters, plants, trees, insects, lei-shu, the heafishes, birds, wild and domestic animals. IN the actual dings are more numerous. 2. Logical classification, by Radicals. Starting from the meaning element of the phonetic complexes, or from one among the meaning elements in the logical aggregates, the characters were disposed by logical series, under keys called shuo-wen was the first Radicals, according to the number of strokes. The lexicon, thus disposed. It contains 540 keys, some of them being very abundant, and some very poor, according to the notion expressed by them. Later on, for the sake of simplification, the latter keys were suppressed. This reduction brought about the placing of the characters that had belonged to the keys left out, under other keys, with which the former had some analogy of figures, but no real relation. The classification thus became h a lf logical, half arbitrary. Under the Ming, the number of keys was reduced to 214; which meant that the characters belonging to more than 300 ancient keys, were arbitrarily placed where they should not be. , is based upon these 214 keys. This The dictionary of K'ang-hsi dictionary is easy enough to consult and precise in its definitions. But one must avoid to use it for an y study of etymology or of classification, under pain of committing the worst blunders. We shall indicate, in the Lessons, a certain number of these mistakes, for which the compilers are not personally answerable, because the system of keys used by them was composed before their time. Commercial Press of Shang-hai has printed a very Recently the abbreviated K'ang-hsi. good 3. Phonetic classification, by Rhymes. Towards the year A, D. 500, fan-ch'ieh, which consists in associating, Shen-yao introduced the system for the expression of a sound of any unknown character, two other known characters, the first of which gives the initial consonant, and the second the final vowel. Examples: p'an and nieh make p'ieh; li and mo make to; etc. The fan-ch'ieh was devised by Indian Buddhist Monks, in order to render approximately, in Chinese, the Pali or Sanskrit syllables. It was according to this system, yun-fu were made. In the beginning, they were that dictionaries called nearly dictionaries by sounds, the finals being very numerous: under the T'ang, there were 206 finals for 36 initials. Later on, the number of finals was reduced, by gathering in the same category all those that rhymed according to the Chinese prosody; so that now en, in, un, un, are mingled; an, nan, ien, form a yun-fu have all five volumens, one for each same category, etc. The tone. To find a character, one must know first its tone, then its prosodical category; lastly one must seek in the latter, following the order of initials. The largest P'ei-wen-yun-fu, was composed after Chinese dictionary, the this type. We join here the usual table of rhymes.

20

Introductory. Classification of Characters.

Table of Rhymes.

Ung. laug. Ih. Ei. O. D. I. Ai, uai, yeh. Ei, uei.

U, u, in, etc.

Ih, ei, i, e, etc.

En, in, un, un.

E, o, ai. A, ia. E, ieh, ueh. Iao, ieh, o, uo, ao.

An, uan, yen.

Ai, ei, e, i, ieh, ih, o, uo, u. I, ih. A, ia, o, uo. Ieh, yeh.

Ao, iao. E. o. A. ai, ya, ua. Ang, iang, uang. Eng ing, iung. Iu, ou. En, in, un

Introductory. Classification of Characters.

21

4. Phonetic classification, by sounds. Basing himself upon thesystem fan-ch'ieh, a certain Fan t'eng-feng invented, towards the year 1700, a combination of 20 initials and 12 finals, that is nearly as easy as the European alphabetical order though it does not attain it, for sounds li ke i, ih, u ei, are still confounded. Instead of being capital, the. division by (ones is accessory. This classification is far more convenient t h a n the dictionaries by rhymes. Therefore Wu-fang-yuan-yin was a great success. It was the. most comthe Cu'ing dynasty. Us key is thus given: mon dictionary in the days ot the
Initials Finals
Sh J Ch Ch' Hs Y K K' H W

P P' M F T
T
,

ien, an, nan. en, in, unn, un. ung, ing, cng, iung. an, iang, uang. iu, ou. ao, iao.

u.
uo, iao, o. e, ieh, ueh. u, ia, ua. ai, uai. i, ei, ui, ih, erh, u, iu.

L
Ch
Ch

5. The Tzu-hsiao-chuyiii t hat will be occasionally meutioned in the Lessons, is a small hook that gives the f o rm of the modern characters, as it was required for the official examinations, till A.D. 1905, with an index of the wrong characters. H contains some mistakes.

6. European classifications.

1. By radicals. The dictionary by radicals of K'ang-hsi was translated, fan-ch'ieh. For abridged or enlarged, a figuration replacing the original ex., the "Dictionnaire classique de La langue chinoise,du P.S. Couvreur S J., Ho-chien-fu, 1904. These dictionaries partake of the advantages and drawbacks of the K'ang-hsi's dictionary. 2. By phonetics. The characters "were gathered according to the phonetic series. The type of the k i n d is the " S g s t e na phoneticum scripturae sinicae, auctore J.-M. Gallery, C, Miss., Macao, 1841.

22

Introductory. Classification of Characters.

3. By sounds. Being given a system of figuration, the characters were classified according to the European alphabetical order. The big English dictionaries of Williams and Giles, and the big Dictionnaire chinois-francais du P.S. Couvrcur S.J., llo-chien-fu, 1890, are made after this method. Use of the dictionaries. To find a character the sound and meaning of which are unknown, one must refer to a dictionary by radicals, which supposes the knowledge of the 214 keys of K'ang-hsi. If the sound is known, with the help of a Chinese master, or otherwise, then the shorter method is to use a dictionary by sounds, supposing that one is well acquainted with its figuration. The phonetic series are the most useful for study, but they are not very useful as a dictionary, unless one is already far advanced in the study of Chinese.

ETYMOLOGICAL LESSONS
LIST OF THE 224 PRIMITIVES.

Modern form. The ancient form may be found at the number given.

Chi4. 11. Chn3. 4. Chuan3. 18. Chueh4. 6. I1. 1. I4. 8. I I. 9. Kun3. 6.

P'ieh1. 7. Ya2. 9. Yin3.


10.

2 Chi1. 20. Ch'i1. 33. Ch'iao3. 58. Chiu3. 23.

Chiu1. 54. Chiung3. 34. Ch'u1. 38. Ch'uei2. 13. Fang1. 51. Han3. 55. Han4. 59. I4. 39. Jen2. 26.

Ju2. 15. K'an3. 38. Kung1. 38. Li*. 53. Mi*. 34. Nai3. 19. Pa1. 18. Pi3.
26.

Po3. 56. Shin* 24. Shu2. 22. Sau1. 89. Tao1. 52. Ting1 57. Wu3. 39. Yu4. 43.

Ping1. 17.

24 Kung1.
3
87.

List of the Primitives. Chieh4. 97. Ch'ien4. 99. Chih3. 112. Chin4. 128. Ching3. 115. Ch'uan3.
134.

Ch'e4. 78. Chi*. 68. Chi1. 70. Chi3. 84. Chi2. 14. Chih3.
31.

Liang3. 35. Mien2. 35. Nu3.


67.

Ch'ih4. 63. Chin1. 35. Chiu3. 31. Chung1. 17. Fan2. 21. Hsi4. 64. Hsun3.
11.

Shan1. 62. Shan1. 80. Shao2. 54. Ssu4. 85. Sui1.


31. Ta4. 60.
T'o .
1

33.

T'u3. 81. Ts'ai2. 96. Tzu3. 94.

Chung1. 109. Fang1. 117. Feng1. 97. Hu4. 68. Hu4. 129. Huo3. 126. Hsin1.
107.

Shih4. 114. Shou3. 48. Shui3. 125. Tan1. 115. Tou3. 98. Wen2. 61. Wu4. 101. Wu3.
130.

Ho2. 121. Hui2.

76. Jan3. 116. Jou3. 23. Kua1. 162. Kuan3.


.108.

Kuan4. 153. K'ui4.


111.

I*.
71.

Wei . 74. Teh3.


107.

I3. 85. Kan1. 102. Ko4. 77. K'ou3.


72. Kung1. 82.

Ch'i4. 98. Ch'iang2. 127.

Jih4. 143. Ku3. 106. Mao2. 100. Mu4. 119. Niu2. 132. Pa1. 55. P'ien4. 127. Pu 2 . 133.

Ta . 147. Yu4. 83 Yu2. 95. Yueh4. 64. Yun2. 93. 5 Ch'ai2. 156. Chia3. 152. Ch'ieh3 20. Ch'ing1 55.
Chu4.
57.

Mao2. 95. Min2.


114.

Min3. 157. Mu4


158.

Ping3.
41.

Shih3.
131.

Ssu4. 42.
Tai3. 118.

T'ien2. 149. T'o1. 108. Tseng4 154. Wa3. 145.


Tu2.

Fu4.

87.

151.

Llit of the Primitives.


Shu2. 124. T'ien4. 41. Tzu4. 159. Yang2. 103. Yen3. 117.
7

25

Ch'i .
70.

Ch'ien1. 115. Chih4. 133. Chiu4. 139. Chon1. 66. Ch'u1. 51. Erh3.
146.

Shou3. 160. Ti4. 87. Tou4. 165. Yu3.


41.

9 Ch'ao1.
106.

11 Ch'ing4. 173. Lu4. 136. Niao3. 138. T'ou3. 82. Yin2. 172. Yu2. 142. 12 & Ch'i2. 174. Chiao2. 176. Ch'ih3. 175 Huan1. 106. Kai1. 108. Lung2. 140. Min3. 108. Shou*. 144. Sha 3 . 54. Shu 3 . 139. Yao4. 88.

Che3. 159. Chiu3.


170.

8 Ch'ang2. 113. Chin1.


14.

Chuan1. 164. Ch'uan2. 125. Fei1.


11. Ko2.

Ch'e1.
167.

Chiao .
142.

Erh2. 164. Fao3. 130 Fu4. 40. Hsi1. 41. Hsia*. 41. Hsin4. 40. Hal.

Chih4. 166. Chiung3.


42.

135.
Hui1.

110. I1.
16.

Jou*. 65. Kua3. 118. , Mi3. 122.

Ch'uan4. 153. Ch'uang1 40. I2. . 82. K'uai3. 156. Lu3. 90. Pan1. 104. Pei4. 161. Pien4. 123. Shen1. 148. Shih3. 69.

Cho4. 43. Chui4. 168. Fei1. 170. Fu4. 86. I*.


101.

105. T'iao2.
41.

Yang2. 101.
1O

Li4. 163. P'eng2. 64. T'u4. 106. Tzu1.


150.

Ko2. 155. Kou4. 104. Ma3. 137. Ssu4. 136. Tsao2. 102.

Teni4.
141.

26

Etymogical Lessons. 1.

LESSON 1.
About the pr im it i ve , a single stroke. I1 represents the unity, pr in ci ple of numeration; It figures the primordial uni t y, source of a l l beings; It is the 1st r a di c al in K'ang-hsi's dictionary. In composition, says t he Shuo-wen, is most c o m m o n l y symbolic; I t s d i f f e r e n t s y m b o l i c m e a n i n g s may be s u m m e d up u n d e r four pri nc i pal categories. Firstly, w h e n w r i t t e n on top of [he c om p o u n d, represents e i t h e r heaven, or a roof, or any cover. Example: Yu3 The rain. Drops of water f a l l i n g from a cloud t h a t hangs to h e a v e n ; J m eans t h e vertical f alling;
It is the 173th radical in K'ang-hsi.

T'ien 1 . Heaven, the vast e x t en t of space that is above men, t he highest of things; Note that ( L . 60) means watt a n d not great; therefore do not translate the unique great. The derived idea, as expl ained by all the commentators, is that of physical or m o r a l superiority. The Ch'un-ch'iu says: Placed abo ve them, heaven governs men... According to this fundamental notion, Erh-ya, is the of his any superior, says the inferior; For the compounds of , see Lesson CO C. tree; Mo4. The outmost twigs, the top of a Phonetic series 138.

Etymological Lessons. 1. Secondly, placed below the compound, represents the foundation, the base, or any support. Examples: Tan*. The dawn, the beginning of the day. The sun above a line, viz. the horizon; Phonetic series 162.

27

(L. 60) standLi4. To stand, to be erected. A man the ground. This character is the reverse ing upon of , above C. It forms the 117th radical in K'ang-hsi. Phonetic series 134. tree Pen3. The t r u n k of a tree. The part of a above the earth. This character is the reverse of , above D Phonetic series 147.

Thirdly, represents a barrier, a hindrance. Examples: Shuan1 A beam used to holt a door.

Ch'iao3. Difficulty in breathing, oppression; The

line bent up represents the brealh that tries to go out, but is checked by the transversal barrier. See L. 58. Phonetic series 3.

Fourthly, represents something contained. Example: Hsueh3. Blood. A vase containing something. This character primitively meant the oblation of the blood of the victim in the sacrifices; See the tion, Part II, Bk VI, Ode VI, 5, The modern signification, blood, is a derivative, chuan-chu. See Lesson 157. It forms the 143th radical in K'ang-hsi. Phonetic series 208.

Legge's edi-

28

Etymological Lessons. 2. LESSON 2.

About the character

, two strokes, and some of its derivatives Erh4. Two. The number of the earth, because it makes the pair with heaven. The number of the two principles yin and yang. It is the 7th radical in K'ang-hsi.

In composition, Firstly,

has three different uses.

means two. Example: Jen2. The fundamental virtue of Confucianism, which t h e Shuo-wen defines: , to love each other. The benevolence his neighbour; that must l i n k each man with two, mutual, reciprocal. From is derived Ning4. Coaxing, flattery; women.

; the

of

Secondly,

represents two terms, two extremes. Examples: Chi2 . Activity, working up of faculties, struggle for life. A man who acts, who struggles, with his mouth and his hand, between heaven and earth, to gain his point; Phonetic series 325. Ken4 or Keng4. Idea of passage, of crossing, of duration, between two terms. Ilrepresents a passageboat, that crosses from one bank to the other: See L. 66. In the modern writing, (L. 76 H) is often used for . II is a mistake. Note the compound Heng. Constancy, perseverance. The heart (the w i l l ) crossing f r om the beginning till the end, as a boat does from one bank to the other; the moral trip c o n t i n u e d t i l l one reaches the harbour. Rather a well found simile.

Etymological Lessons. 2. 3. G Thirdly. is an old form of shang4, h i g h ; a n d reversal, an old 4, form of hsia low. See L. 5. This remark is to be remembered; there w i l l he many applications of it. See, for instance, L. 3 D, L. 29 H, etc... is sometimes reduced to a single stroke, as in L. 43 N, L. 50 0, etc.

29

LESSON 3.

About

, three strokes, and its derivatives. San1. Thr e e; heaven ea r th a n d h u m a n i t y ; the three Powers. Hence Wang2. King.

The n u m b e r of san is'ai ,


1 2

According to the ancients, the k i n g is the one, the man who connects together heaven earth and h u m a n i ty. See L. 83 C. Phonetic series 87. represents bo un dary lines, limits, in C h iang 1 . Bounds. The and limit two fields; Phonetic series 724. straightened
4

partitions that d i v i d e

, forms a part of

Shih . Influx coming from heaven; auspicious or inauspicious signs, by which the will of heaven is known to mankind ; The two horizontal lines are the old form of the character shang1, hi gh, superior (L. 2G); here they mean heaven; vertical lines represent what is hanging from heaven, viz. the s u n, the moon and the stars, th e mutations of which reveal to men the transcendent thing s ; The actual meaning, to teach, is chuanchu. forms the 113th radical of characters relating to transcendental matters. Note its modern contracted form, tha t is easily mistaken for the contracted form of garments (L. 16 A).

The three

30

Etymological Lessons. 3. 4 doubled forms hsuan4. It is believed that this character figures the. primitive abacus, and has not h i n g to do w i t h See an d L. 47 G, F. A n y how from is derived the phonetic compound hsuan4, garlic.

LESSON 4.
About the dot. Chu5. A dot, a sign of punc t ua tion, etc. Formerly the dot was r o u n d ; it is n o w p i r i f o r m , on account of the. w r i t i n g - b r u s h t h a t writes thus. It is the 3d radical in K'ang-hsi.

is found in the. following characters:


Chu3 T h e i n f e r i o r p a r t re pr esents a l a m p , the. f l a m e of w h i c h is now to mean a lamp, the character signifying the prince ( c h u a n - c h u ) pr i n c e , m u s t e r Becaus e , say t he i n t e r preters, rises a b o v e t h e m u l t i t u d e a n d is seen by a l l , as the f l a m e rises a n d shines over t h e lamp. Phonetic series 115. One wri te s

Ta n 1 . C i n n a b a r . The is s u p p o s e d to represent the red mineral, a n d the m i n e where it is found; The an cient charac te rs suggest a different interpretation. They represent the crucible of the Taoist alchimists, w i t h cinnabar in it Decompose and recompose cinnab a r, was their chief practice. See L 115 D. Ph o n et i c Series 83. Compare, (L.14T.) Two old characters express the (L.30 D) transformation of mortal m e n i n t o im mo r t al genii, by means of a l c h e m y an d divination (L. 56 A.) D N.B. In the modern w r i t i n g , many characters, for in s tance , are s u r m o u n t e d w i t h a dot, t h a t replaces e l e m e n t s w h i c h are ver y different in the a n cient w r it i n g . It is t h e same w i t h the d o t i n t r o d u c e d inside some of the characters, for exa mpl e The w r i t i n g - b r u s h is the cause of i t . Note by the way that t h e 8th radical, is but a corruption of the 11th tb radical.

Etymological Lessons. 5. 6. LESSON 5. We saw (L. 1, 1 and 2) used as meaning an horizontal line. From this acceptionare derived the following characters;

31

Shang4. Up, upon, superior, to mount. A sign placed above, the fundamental line , signifying above the level; The ancient form of this character was (L. 2 G), the s mall er top line being usep as a sign r elatively to the longer bottom line. In the more recent forms, the sign became more a nd more intricate. In the modern writing, kept up its ancient form at the top of many characters, for e xa m p l e, . It is to be distinguished from , the fictitious Sth,radical in K'ang-hsi. (See L 4 D). Hsia 4 . Below, to descend, inferior. A line traced below the fundamental line , signifying below the level; Of t h i s character was (L. 2 G), the shorter bottom line being used as a sign relatively to the longer top line.

The ancient form

LESSON 6.
About two primitives, and

Firstly, kun3. Kun3. A vertical stroke, a perpendicular; It forms the 2d radical in K'ang-hsi. It is f o u n d in m a n y characters, in which it has generally a symbolic significat ion. It represents the t r u n k , in Mu4. Tree. See L. 119 A. It represents a man standing, in Shen1. To gird up (with both hands). See L. 50 C. It represents an arow fixed in a target, in Chung1. Middle, centre. L. 109 A.

32

Etymological Lessons. 6. 7.

It represents a spindle running through two objects, in Ch'uan4. To string together. See L 153 B. It represents a bow-string, in Yin , to draw a bow; See L. 87 A. Etc.
3

Secondly,

chueh2. Chueh2. A crooked stroke, a hook; It is the fictitious 6th radical in K'ang-hsi. The Sbuo-wen gives no derivative s from this primitive. However, in the modern characters, occurs very frequently.

The reason of the fact is that, with the writing-brush, it is easier to trace 1. replaced in many characters, for e xa m pl e : Hsiao3. See L. 18 H. 2. figures, for example, for the longer line of in

than

Consequently:

is arbitrarily written, as an abbreviation of different

Ts'un4. See L. 45 B. N. B. inverted gives Chueh2. A hook, in . that is found

Yueh4. A halberd with a hook. See L 71 L.

LESSON 7.
About the primitive P'ieh1. An oblique line from righ to left; General idea of action, of motion. It is the fictitious 4th radical in K'ang-hsi. Nearly all the modern are abbreviations for other signs, while the true are hardly recognized in the modern writing. For example:

Etymological Lessons. 7. 8.

33

Sheng1 . The tenth part of a bushel. Composed of bushel, and of which figures that a tenth part of it is taken o ut. See L. 98 B. Mei 2 . Eye-brow; represents the curve of the orbita; the lines on the top represent the hairs; is the eye. Phonetic series 463.

inverted gives Fu2, an oblique line from left to right. This stroke that seldom occurs in the ancient writing, is now frequently used as an abbreviation. and combined, give I*. To cut down with scissors, to mow. See L. 39 B. LESSON 8. About the primitive I4. To draw, to drag; compounds, for ex. Forms several

I*. A crooked arrow, a dart, kept by a thread, to kill birds. In the modern writing, the hook was changed that represents the thread or the in t o a point; and action of drawing the arrow back, became . It forms the 56th radical in K'ang-hsi. I4. To draw. See L. 50 F. Phonetic series 213. The same in ti4, L. 135 G. in pa2, L. 134.A. 1 1 In hsi , L. 92 B. IN cheng , L. 49 D, where became in the modern writing. inverted gives I4. To drag; Yu2. To drag, to trail. See L. 50 G. Is found in

34

Etymological Lessons. 9.10. LESSON 9.

About the primitives

i1 and

ya2. Hence,

I1. Germination; it represents the germ that strives to get out; general notion of movement, of effort. Cyclical character. To be distinguished from B; It is the 5th radical. Among its derivatives, note L. 90 B, L. 129 A, and Shih1. To let slip from the hand, to lose. See L 48 B. Phonetic series 155.

Ya2. Swallow, It represents the jerking . To be distinguished flying of this bird, Phonetic series 1. Logical from A; , L. 94 A, B, etc. The modem wriaggregates, ting is Ya2 Swallow, the jerking bird. See L. 138.

Note: The scribes often write as an abbreviation of intricate compounds. In that case, it is n either i1 nor ya2, but a conventional sign. For instance, for , etc.

LESSON 1O. About the primitive and its two important compounds, and series; then about the derivatives , a group apart . Yin3. Curve; to cover, to conceal; , with their

First series:

combined with ( L . 1), gives

Hsi3. Chest, trunk, box; Therefore represents the cover, the chest or the action of containing. It is the 23th radical. Note the next derivatives:

Etymological Lessons. 10. Lou4. Shut up, in a confined space; As in a cliest. It forms the compound , mean, ugly ; perhaps cave-dwelling mountaineers (L. 86 A). As the engravers often take off a part of , to make room for , this character might seem to be derived from (L. 41 A), which it is not.

35

Ni4. To hide, to ahseoud; (L. 46 G) meaning to collect, to gather, the aggregate means, to gather and to hide in a chest. Phonetic series 639. Note. The derivatives of Hsi, the 23th radical, are to be distinguished from those of Fang, the 22th radical. In the ancient writing, the two series were distinct; in the modern writing, they are mingled together. See L. 5t A, and the Lexicon by order of Radicals.

Second series:

combined w i t h

(L. 15), gives

Wang2. Primitive meaning, to hide; Now meaning to enter, means to enter into a hiding place. Derived meanings, to die, to perish, to van ish. Phonetic series 35. Cha4. the line representing an obstacle, as in (L.1,I), the meaning of cha is, to try to hide one's self and to be hindered. Hence the modern meanings chuan-chu, suddenly, unexpectedly. Phonetic series 102. See L. 37 G. Kai4. To beg, a beggar; wandering man, who seeks a refuge in a foreign country, begging alms for his livelihood; See L. 54 A. In the old form, and were in juxtaposition; then covered . Note the fanciful modern contractions of this character.- It forms an important compound See L. 73 A. It is , plus . But

36

Etymological Lessons. 10 Sang1. to weep over the dead; funerals. This compound is a typical picture of the Chinese thing which it medogs do, ans: to howl with several mouths, as over a dead person. Meanings chuan-chu, to die, to destroy. Note the contraction of the lower part of the modern character. Wu2. (L 24 H) of me", acting upon a forest, felling the trees, clearing of wood a tract of land. In the old form J, stated t h a t the wood had vanished. Hence chuan-chu the general abstract notions of vanishing, defect, want, negation. Phonetic series 718. Etymologically.

A multitude

Note. The study of this second series, E F G H I J, proofs wit h evidence that it is impossible to understand the characters, if one attends only to the modern forms,

Third series : combined w i t h ten (L.-24), and the interesting following compounds :

eye (L. 158), gives

Chih2. Perfectly right, n o t curved in the l e a s t ; The eyes h a v i n g looked at something, d id not discover a n y deviation. Phonetic series 335. N o t e t h e r i g h t way of w r i t i n g t h i s character. The modern engravers cut , so that one may believe it is composed of two strokes . The scribes often change it in to a single horizontal line ,etc. Chen1. Perfectly t r u e ; mething having been exposed on a pedestal, ten eyes could not find a n y f a u l t in it... The of the pePerfect genuineness of nature destal was mingled w i th the lower p a r t of . b e i n g the characteristic of the Taoist Genii, the scope at which the Taoist transformation (L. 30 D) of man aims, the Taoisls replaced by at the top of chen (contraction). The calligraphic remarks made about , are to be made here also. Phonetic series 509. So-

Etymological Lessons.
2

10. 11.

37

Te . The rectitude of the, heart. In modern writing, the was bent down to gain room (L. 158 A), the is often reduced to a small horizontal stroke. It forms the compound te2, moral conduct ( L. 63 A) directed by a righteous heart, righteousness, virtue. Another compound is T'ing 4 of the h e a r t heart of a disciple (L. 81 0) or an aud itor, by his ear (L. 146 A). To hear, to listen, to be attentive, to conform to instruction, to obey... ting is also phonetic. It forms the compound T'ing 1. From shelter and to hear. An open hall, used for meetings, teaching, official proclamations (L. 59 J ). Rectification

Note:

Hsiao1 has n o thin g in common with this series. See LL. 12 N, a n d 160 A.

Lesson 11.
about , three series perfectly distinct in the ancient writing, but

mingled together in the modern writing. First series: hsun4. Before s t u d y i n g this primitive, one must explain Fei1. To fly. A primitive. It represents a crane (very common in China) seen from behind. Upwards, the head a n d the neck bent u p , as when the cranes arc flying. Below, the tail. On both sides, the wings fluttering. The small strokes represent the q ui ll s separated when the bird is flying. It is the 183th radical in K'ang-hsi. That being granted, one may now explain Hsun4. To hover. A primitive. Compare with A. The crane is hovering; its wings do not flutter. The feathers being close together, are not visible; Phonetic series 20. Note the

compound

38

Etymological Lessons. 11. Shih 1 . Formerly, it meant the mosquito, the hoveinsect, forming swarms, that bites men ; ring Now this character means a louse. Note its t h at it commonly called abbreviated form pan4 feng1, half wind. However (L. 21 B) has not hing in common with . See also hsu4, below G.

Second series:

Chi*. Is derived from the p r i m i t i v e Chi*. To catch. This primitive is found only in one compound, with the hand (L i8), which gives Chi*. To do, to hold. It represents the hand doing or keeping something; important compounds in which it is nearly always wrongly shaped. The scribes write (as above B), or (as below J), or (L 21 ), etc. See shu2, L. 4 2 chih , L. 102 G; lo3, L 75 E; i , L. 79 K; 74 B;etc. K'ung3. To do a work (L. 82 A), by pressing or knocking; pounds k'ung3, pulsations of the heart, fear; 2 and chu , to build a clay-wall by battering mud betwen boards a n d mats. Phonetic series 226, u n d er its modern form. Hsu4. The e n d of t h e night, before d a w n ; the time for oblations a n d sacrifices; Lit. To present one's self before dawn, when it is still night, while holding one's ofl'ering for sacrifice. In the modern form, mutilated covers Compare with feng1 denived from fan2,L. 21 B.

forms

Notice the com-

Inverted,

forms
Chu2. To seize, to hold; This ancient form is no longer used and was replaced

by

Etymological Lessons. 11. 12. Both combined form Tou4. To seize each other, to fight; It is the 191th radical in K'ang-hsi, not to he confounded wi th the 169th radical.

39

Third series.

wan2.
Wan2. A p i l l , a n y t h i n g round. Often used for the . It is chai3 i nverted (L. 59 E). The preceding deri vatives of (phonetic series 34) are to he distin(L. 21; phonetic series 19). guished from those of It is sometimes difficult to make the distinction.

LESSON 12.
Tins lesson contains three series, , a n d an appendix.

First series:

chuan3.
Chuan3. Small water course, rivulet; A primitive. Forms some important compounds, as: Shui 3 . Water, small river; added to the rivulet represent the waves of the water. See L. 125. It is the 85lh radical in K'ang-hsi. The four strokes

Yu1. Primitive meaning, to sound a ford. A man crossing writer, holding with the hand a stick ( L. 43 [)), s o u n d i n g t he river with a stick; An ancient form is s i m p l y composed of water and to sound. Chuan-chu the place where one is going. Often used chia-chieh as a relative pronoun. Phonetic series 318, in which the radical is placed under etc. In these compounds. may be easily taken for the radical; in real Ry is but a part of the phonetic. The small stroke at the has no right of is what remains of in the modern writing. Note that relation with this character; it is an arbitrary abbreviation of pi4, pei4 (L. 54 G).

40 Second series:

Etymological Lessons. 12. kuai4. It is doubled Kuai 4. A river, a stream larger than This character, now obsolete, was replaced . Forms some compounds, for instance

by

Lin2. A torrent (L. 126 D). Yu2. A boat ( L. 14 F). the character Note that engravers substitu te for easier to be engraved. But being also an abbreviation lor , the l8th radical, this double employ of the same sign brings confusion. ,

Third series:

ch'uan1. It is

repeated thrice.

Ch'uan 1 . A river, a bi g stream formed by the junction of several others;


Note the differences in the modern writing. It is the 47th radical. P honetic series 18 Note the following compounds:

Lieh4. Bubbles; hsi4 ( the 36th r ad ical), as the modern character tai3 (the 78th radi c al) contracmight suggest; it is ted, It forms the i m p o r t a n t compound lieh4 (L. 52 D). Yung1. Moats. the w r i t i n g ta-chuan, instead of i4, city ( L . 74 C), there was , representing circumvallations (L. 90 G); It forms the compound

The phonetic is not

In

Yung1. Wagtail; the bird that likes the sides . This character is the important of moats phonetic 769, under its modern contracted form takes the place of , and ( hsiang1, L. 26 M. Of . See L. 74 C, and the series

Etymological Lessons. 12.


1

41 feng-shui.

C hi n g . The u nd e r gr ou n d water courses, so i m p o r tant in the Chinese geomancy The currents of water that flow under the surface of the ground (L. 1 . 1 ) . The p ho n eti c is not kung1 (L. 82), as the modern character m i g h t induce one to believe, it is t'ing2 (L. 8l D). The primitive meaning was perhaps to ex a mi n e the underground veins. Phonetic series 262. Tsai 1 . A ct u al mean in g chuan-chu, calamity, misfortune; . Primitive sense, A river barre d (L. 1 ,3 ) , which causes t he c a l a m i t y of i n u n d a t i o n . The character now used to mean calamity, is the c o m p o u n d , t h a t represents indifferently either a flood ( water), or a fire ( fire). Note moreover the n ext compound: Tzu 1 . Grounds uncultivated, exposed to floods; One writes now
character tzu1 must be carefu lly distinguished tzu1 (L. 150) t h a t forms th e phonetic series from 406. The two have no co n n e ct i o n whatever. The engravers o ft en cu t , instead of , because it is easier; hence the c o n f u s i o n of series. H uang 1 . Devastation, rivers; ravage caused by the , See L 10 E. - It forms. H u a ng 1 . Wild, barren, drought, a co nsequence of inundations for the, plauts. Phonetic series 536.

Th

K'an3. Incorr uptible uprightness, inflexible rigidity of principles; Fidelity ( , an ancient form of ) to one's principles, constant as the current of a river. See L. 25 H. Chou1 Main lands inhabita ble (iles or continents), surrounded by waters. The lands are represented by three points in the modern writin g , and by three rounds in the old writing. This character was composed of two Phonetic series 187. superposed.

42

Etymological Lessons. 12. 13.

Appendix: In a l l the f o l l o w i n g characters, is not ch'uan, hut it represents the hair. Nevertheless they are nearly all classified under the 47th radical. See L 40 B. Tzu3. Different wr iti ng of See L. 94 A. , a child horn with hair.

T'u2. The l a st inverted. P r i m i t i v e sense, partus cephalicus, t h e h a i r y head coming first. See L. 94 F. Shou 3 . A h a i r y head. See L. 160 A Hsiao1. The last inverted. Head of a criminal h u n g up, as a lesson; the h a i r h angs down. See LL 160 A, 119K. Oh'ao 2 . A bir d' s nest u p o n a ( r e e , t h e b i r d covering it; a tree is the. nest (a p r i m i t i v e , a n d not both top ot hands (1, 50, A ) ; represent s t h e feathers o f t h e bird brooding on the nest. N ote t ha t this character has n o t h i n g in common w i t h kuo3 (L. 110 F), though t h e engravers a l w a y s c u t it in t h a t way. Phonetic series 594.

The

at the

LESSON 13.
About the p r i m i t i v e Ch'ui2. An object suspended, a pendant; with its multiples

First series:

doubled
3

. It is f o u n d in a Shen-si.

Shan .
A thief bringing under his arms stolen things ( ma n , L. 60 A). It forms the compound Shen3, the name of the Province of

Etymological Lessons. 13.

43

Lai2. represents bearded ears of corn hanging down, ; the other part of the character is a primitive, representing the plant. A sort of bearded barley, which constituted the main food of the people und er the Dynasty. This character now means chia-chieh to come, the contrary of to go. Phonetic series 374. Note the following derivatives: Mai 4 . It is composed of and of (the 35th radical) to advance; ripening corn. Now, either barley or wheat, according to HIP times, the places, or the epithet added to it. It is the 199th radical of a group of characters relating to corn. Sbe4. Primitive sense, gathered in corn the barn;

; this character is now written . Meaning chuanchu, thrift, parsimony; for the. countrymen are not inclined to waste corn that cost them so much labour. Note how, in the modern character, the bottom of and the top of were blended into a ... Phonetic series 755. Yin4. logical aggregate. A dog ( L. 134) that s hows his teeth, the points of which are. represented by instead of (page 16, notice 1) . It forms the phonetic compound yin4, to desire, to ask, etc. Note: chia4, to pinch (L. 27 F); tsu2, soldier (L. 16 M ) ; as well as different others (27 B C D E), have nothing in common with the primitive which is spoken of here.

Second series: A repealed twice and superposed the hair of the eye-brows, in

. It represents the hanging fruits in

Mei2, eye-brow, L. 7 A.

T'iao2, to bear fruit, L 41 E

44

Etymological Lessons. 13. . Note t h e arbitrary deformation of

Third series: repeated four times the modern forms in this series

Ch'ui2. A bough loaded with leaves and drooping flowers; now obsolete, was superseded by the n ex t compound, its synonym and homophone Ch'ui 2 . To hang, to be suspended from. It is the last character combined with t'a3, the earth (L. 81), the leaves hanging down towards the earth. Phonetic series 485.

This character,

Hua 1 . Flower; The vernal expansion ( L . 58 E) of leaves a n d flowers. In t h e second a n c i e n t ch ar act er, is a r adical r e d u n d a n c e (L . 78 B) . P h o n e t i c series 687. -- The modern character , means the term of vegetal ev olut i on, t h e flower ( L . 30 D).

Ch'a4. Divergency, error, etc. It is a logical aggregate. See L. 46 C, where this character was f ully explained. Phonetic series 500. Pongee, silk obtained from the cocoons of wild silkworms, collected on the boughs of mulberries. Chuan-chu, na tur a l, sim ple. Phonetic series 568.
SU
4

K u a i 1 . It represents the torso, back view. The vertirepresents the muscles on cal l i n e is t h e spine, each side, represents the waist;

It forms

Chi2. Spine, back (

L. 65).

Etymological Lessons. 13. 14. So far, all is right. But there wat a n ot h e r Kuai 1 . Odd. singular, irregular. See L 103 C.

45

The scribes confounded these two kuai1. So well defined and distinct in the ancient writing, and they formed the single modern character , which resembles neither of them. Now one may read in K'ang-hsi, under the arbitrary radical irregular. Who is to blame, if the students not forewarned, find Chinese characters absurd and inexplicable?

kuai, spine, odd,

LESSON 14
A b o u t the p r i m i t i v e Three series, a n d its more i m p o r t a n t derivatives.

Chi2. Notion of union, of assemblage, of a junction of different elements, represented by three lines. Three is used to mean m a n y ; w h i c h is n o w c o m m o n l y superseded by t h e character chi2 ( L . 119 G ) . It forms

. A primitive,

First series;
Ho2. U n i o n , a g r e e m e n t , h a r m o n y ;

Etymologically,
many ( t h r e e ) mouths ( L . 72) speaking together; good understanding. Phonetic series 198. Note the two following compounds: Ta2. Vetch, pea, vegetables whose boughs are joined, get entangled. Chuan-chu, to join, to adapt, to answer. In the last sense, this character is now written , which is unauthorised. Phonetic series 570. Yen3. To j oin the hands to cover so mething; to cover. See L. 47 L Phonetic series 496.

46

Etymogical Lessons
1

14.

She . A shed, a booth; Joining of and of thatch (LL. 74 and 78). In its modern form, (L. 102 C, this character seems to be derived from walls in beaten earth

1 3 5 t h radical), under which it was classified by K'ang-hsi. Rut there is no relation whatever between both. It forms the compound
2

she , to part with,

to reject, and the logical aggregate Yu . I. me; Comp osit io n : to distinguish (L. 1 8 ) ; contracted, . The Chinese custom requires that anyone enteri ng a house, should make known his presence and distinguish hi ms el f from any other person by c r yi ng o u t : It is I, so and so, who comes for such a n d such a purpose... A man entering a house and k e e p i n g silence, is liable to suspicion. P h o n et i c scries 3 1 9 It forms the, phonetic complex Ch'a . T e a ; modern s c r i b e s m u ti l a t e d the ancient form. Phonetic series 507.
2

being replaced by

The

Hui . To gather, a me e ting ; To order , to add (contracted, L. 40 D). The ancient c haracter was simpler;

To assemble
a multitude represented by scries 736.
1

three. Phonetic

Ch'ien .

Meeting,

together; several men, from

From

to gather, from

several mouths. It is a w e l l k n o w n fact t h a t a Chinese cro wd cannot keep silent. Phonetic series 726.
2

Yu A small boat, a pri mi ti ve barge; Junction of a few planks, forming a bout Note often cut for , to go up the river (L. 12 D). (. L. 66). Note also t h a t the engravers instead of , which wrongfully reminds

of the 18th radical (L. 52). Phonetic series 501.

Etymological Lessons.

14.

47

Lun2. To gather documents (L. 156), to compare, to me ditate, to develop them ; Phonetic series 380. Yao4. This character, w hich is much like the precedin g, is not derived f r o m it.

A flute, a p a nd ea n pipe. Assemblage of several bamboos, the holes of w hic h are disposed in a row, and t h a t gives sounds together;
Now, accord, h a r m o n y , in g e n e r a l. It is the 214th radical of characters r e l a ti n g to pipes a n d sim i l a r instruments. Phonetic series 835. Note, th e two f o l l o w i n g charact ers: ling 4 , decree; month, a n d its compou nd by the. a d ditio n of a 4 m ing , order. T h e r e is a dif ference b e twe e n th em. : to lix upon a written order t h e seal ( L. 55 B) w h i c h m a k e s it a w r i t of exe cution. ven orally. In t h e philosophical language, m eans the decree by which h e a v e n c a l l s men to life, a n d d e t e r m i n e s t h e ir f a t e . Two a n c i e n t characters expre ss this m e a n i n g w e l l : mouth of heaven d i c t a ti n g to a man h is d e s t i n y b e t ween heaven a n d earth (L . 2 D ) . . . combining of t h e destiny of a man.

; an order

gi-

Phonetic series 135.

J Note. In the modern w r i t i n g , may be easily confounded with 11th radical, L 15), ( 12th radical, L 18), ( 9 t h radical, L. 25) placed on the. top of a compound K'ang-hsi arbit r aril y classified under under , etc. But the horizontal li n e of , some vestige of which generally remains, is the test t h a t manifests t h e mistake. Its presence is indicative of a derivative from . See L. 15 B.

48

Etymological Lessons. 14. ,

Second series; . This character is put apart from the derivatives of on account of its many and important sub-derivatives.

Chin 1 . The actual moment; notion of actuality, of presence; The composition is taulologic; union, contact. Note that is often written . For the old forms of chi2, see L. 19 E Phonetic series 17. It forms Han2, hen2. To hold in the mouth ( to have actually in the mouth); Meaning chuan-chu, to co ntain, to shut up. Phonetic series 272. It is d istinct from yin2, to mutter, which is composed of the same elements.

T'an1. To covet; The feeling moved by the presence object Its phonetic compounds are unimportant. Nien4. To remember, to th i n k again o f ; , To make actually present to the heart, to the mind, a fart of the past. Derived meanings, to speak of, to recite, to read; these actions reviving, making actual, the idea of a thing passed or absent. Phonetic series 385. Yin3. wine (L. 41 G), new. It forms precious

Yin3. To d r i n k ; to water. This character is now written ,a wrongly chosen compound, for it means to wish for food. There were formerly three characters Yin3. To have water drink. Yin3. To have food Yin3. To wish for in one's presence ; to

at one's disposal wine: to drink.

; to eat.

The first character, which was the right one, became obsolete. An element was taken from each of the last two. Thus was made the irregular character

Etymological Lessons. 14. Yin 1 . Cloudy weather; Lit. There are actually (L 93 A). In the dualist system, yin denotes the inferior pri nc iple (obscurity ), by opposition to yang the superior princ i pl e (light). The compounds and are now used. yin1, the shady Northern of a v a l l e y ; yang2, the s u n n y South watershed watershed . See L. 86 A. Ch'en1. The sharp pike of a is a phonetic complex; series 253. mountain (L. 80). It

49

clouds

Phonetic

Ch'in 2 . A phonetic complex. See L. 23 E. Ch'in2. A phonetic comp lex. See L. 83 B. Note the contraction.

Third series:
Chin 1 . Metal. According to the Chinese geology, the metals are born from the earth. etymology: In the hosom of the earth , two grains or is phonet ic . The bottom stroke of nuggets of gold; is combined w ith the top of , and is sometimes in verted, as stated above K. This interpretation was made by Li-ssu. The old character was composed of four nuggets, of horizontal lines denoting the stratification of the metalliferous layer, and lastly of a cover which meant that the whole was conceited under It the earth. Evidently a primitive. is the 167th radical of a group of characters describing metals and their uses.

Hence the

50

Etymological Lessons. 15.

LESSON
About ll>e primitive and its derivatives.

15.

Ju3. To enter, to put in, to penetrate into; The character represents the penetration of roots into the earth ; the vertical l i n e representing the plant, the two descending lines denoting the roots. It is the reverse of ch'u1, to go out (L. 78 E), that represents a plant growing upw ards; It is the 11th radical. 2 Ch'uan . Complete, entire, perfect. The etymologists give two different interpreta tions of this character: 1. The ol d one : (L. 82) is ordered , linished, complete, perfect. According to this etymology, is derived f r o m (L. 1 4 ) a n d not f r o m The b ot tom stroke of is c o m b i n e d together w i t h the t o p stroke of 2. The modern one: A jade (L. 83) spotless, perfect; would he an abbreviation of yen3 (L. 117 B) , used as a phonetic. This unli ke ly supposition is of Li-s su. Ph o ne t i c series 192, u n d e r its present Conn.
N ei l To enter, interior, into;

The work

See chiung3, t he outside, L. 34 A. Phonetic, series 74. It forms i nt o O4. Na4 To speak in a whisper, as it were one's month. Note the mod ern form contracted. Taken for (the c o m p o u n d for t h e sim p le, p. 16, I ) , it forms t h e two following characters: Yu4. To penetrate into , to pierce with a sharp instrument ( L. 95 C). Phonetic series 720. Hsi1. Swallow; A bird that builds its nest within the dwel lings (a thing common in China); (and not , as the modern character might induce to believe) represents the head (L. 78 A), says the Glose. It represents the grass with which m a y b e so; it seems probable however that the swallow stuffs its nest. Phonetic series 840. is a wrong abbreviation of this character (see L. 87 C).

Etymological Lessons.

15. 16.

51

The following character is d e r i v e d from , a n d not from . It is formed by combination and fusion of and . The mouth at the bottom of the (L. 73 C). compound, belongs to Shang 1 . To give advice, to consult, 1o deliberate; To express , one's interior feelings. In t h e old c h a r a c t e r there, were two d a y s added, which proves that the were n o t shorter t h a n the p re s e n t t i m e onos; they p r o b a b l y took place d u r i n g the n i g h t , betw een two days, ju st as now; In the sense of trade, is chia-chieh for its compound w ith (L. 161, cowry, the money of the antalk and money. cients), trade, being made with The Glose says so. became on the top of wang2 (L. 10 E), E In the modern writing, in erh3 (L. 18 0). Two are a part of the lin3 (L. 76 B); and 3 character liang "(L. 35 H I).

deliberations of old,

LESSON 16.
About the primitive I 1 . Clothes, a cover, cloak. The summary outlines of c lothing. On the tup. the, u p p e r garments a n d sleeves, At the bottom, the robes wavin g a n d d raggling, r adical of a large group of characters relating to garments. The phonetic complexes are not important; note i1, to rely on, to trust to. Note the modern contracted form, and compare it with that of 113th radical (L. 3 D). Note. In composition, has three positions. 1. One the l e f t side of the character. It is then contracted u n d e r the form . 2. on the top or at the bottom, on the top, at the bottom, it is then unchanged. 3. Cut i n t o two halves, the phonetic being introduced between the two. These characters are n o t to be confounded with those belonging to th e 8th radical is the test; a n y time one sees at the bottom of a compound, the n it is a derivative of 145th ra8th radical. 4. Note also that in some characters, as a consedical, not of is quence of the fusion with an element placed on the top, the upper part of quite altered in the modern forms. The lower part has also been altered in the character (L. 16 M).

It is t h e 145th

52Etymological Lessons, 16. Examples of the four remarks.

Note the fo ll o wi ng derivatives; Ch'u1. Beginning; A knife and garments; for, says the Glose, the cutting is the first thing required to make clothes. . This is quite true! Nai 1 . To bewail, to lament; Howling of t h e mourners clad in m o u r n i n g
dress.

Shuai1. So1. Straw-clothes against rain ; (See L. 116). This character is now written The modern meaning, decay, is chia-chieh for , cachexy from malaria, slow ex haustion caused by the marsh-fever, the disease of the rainy countries. -- Phonetic series 563, un der its modern form. C hung 1 . P ri mitive sense, th e under-garments : clolhes, inside (L. 109); Then, by extension, the inside of man, the feelings of his heart, fidelity. Kun 3 Official robe of the Emperor, adorned . Its phonetic complexes kun3, to bubble. The two followin g characters a re to be c a r e f u l l y distinguished: Li3. The inside, the lining of clothes, Then, in general, interior, inside. is a synonym. See L. 149 D. Ko3. To tie up. Note that 3 lo naked, composed of the same elements, is neith er an homophone nor a synonyme. See L 120.F.

w ith dragons; See L. 18 C. Note the modern form. are not important, v. g.

Etymological Lessons. 16.

53

Hsiang 1 . To take off one's ,robe , in or d e r to work in common, to help t h e others. See (L. 72 H) the radical nang2, intricate and unrecognisable in the modern writing. Phonetic series 831. Huai 2 . To tie the clothes tight round the body; to hide in one's bosom; See (L. 100 C) the phonetic tai V Phonetie series 820. Piao3. The outside of the clothes (compare above G). were beasts'skins worn with The first garments the ha ir outside; See L. 100. Phonetic series 389. Yuan2. Trailing robe; About , contracted a n d combined with , see L, 91 E. P h o n e t i c series 587. It forms the phonetic complex

Huan 2 . Timid looks; See L. 158. Phonetic, series 734, u n der Its modern coutracled form.

Tsu2. Soldier, satellite; A gar me nt , marked with a sign. The u n if o r m of the a n c i e n t Chinese soldiers, viz. an ordinary garment Then, by w i t h an indicative m a r k ; e x te n si o n , t h e man who wears the uniform, a soldier, a satellite. Lastly, a sudden a n d unexpected accident, end, death; th e soldiers, says th e Glose, being unceasingly laid open to surprises a n d to death in their fights against the enemies and against the w i l d beasts. Note the alteration of the two modern forms, Phonetic series 403.

54

Etymological Lessons

17.

LESSON 17.
About the prim itive a n d . in an appendix, about some characters t h a t might seem to be d e r i v e d from it, b u t t h a t do n o t do so in reality.

Pi ng 1 . To freeze, ice; It represents t h e rays t h a t a p p e a r by crystallisation at t he sur fa ce of water when it is freezi ng. It. is the. !5th r a d i c a l of characters r e f e r r i n g to cold, freezing, a n d ice. It forms.

Ping 1 . Ice;

water

crystallised;

The scribes often write , whi c h is an u n a u t h o r i s e d form. This is not to be c o n f o u n d e d w i t h yung3 (L 125 D)

Y e h 3 To f u s e m e la l s, solidification metals; See T i a o 1 . T a k e n by

of the melted L. 85 E

fr o st , e x h a u s t e d , fading, d y i n g ; See L. 109 C.

This character suffered f r o m m a n y f a n c i f u l alterations in t h e course of ages. Its t r u e s o u n d is p ' i n g 2 . It m e an s a horse s l i p p i n g on xious. It forms the homophone derivative P'ing2. Anxiety of the heart.

ice, nervous, a n -

Now 1. The first of these, two characters was misused, as an abbreviation, for the f a mi l y nnme feng2. 2. The second was misused and written (chia-chieh) for 2 p'ing , proof, evidence, to lean upon. Then the scribes semi-repaired the mistake, which change gave b i r t h to the new character p'ing 2 , proof, etc.

Etymological Lsssons Tung1. Winter. It forms

17

55

chung 1 , end, extremity, term.

Before explaining these characters, the primitive must be dealt with. 1 Chung . thread skein, the extremity of which is fixed by a tie or a brooch, to keep it closed. Hence two notions, end and fixation. Compare L. 83 B. This character, in its modern form, is to be distinguished from the 34th, 35th, 36th, 66th radica ls of K'ang-hsi. Now let us come back to Tung1. Winter end of the year. The old character The frozen meant cessation of the solar action, confinement of the sun; must be interpreted as in says the Glose, Lao2, a paddock: modern w r i t i n g . scribes. Now Chung1 replaced t he pr i m i t i v e . oxen confined, In the was changed into by the

't represents a

For,

, in the sense of end, extremity, term.

Appendix
ln the f ollowing characters, is a special primitive, that has nothing in common with . It means thongs, folds, in G H I .J; scales, streaks, in K. Ju 4 jou 4 . Me at, flesh. dried meat , made up into a bundle (L. 54). The anc ien t Chinese were used to dry-salt meat, without smoking it. The pay of a school-master is still called shu-hsin, because he was formerly paid with dried meat. See L. 65. It is t he 130th radical of many characters rel ating to meat and food. Note the derivative Tsu3. Credence-table charged with meat, that was offered in the sacrifices; See L. 20 D. K'ang-hsi wrongfully classified this character under the 9th radical .Thongs of

Etymological Lessons.

17.

Ch'iao 4 . The top lip. flesh above t h e mouth ft forms the phonetic complex Ch'iao*. To restrain on'es desires. There are various chiachieh. See L. 55 B This character is now written ; it is a licence. It forms the phonetic complex chiao3 the feet. Distinguish ch'iao4 from ku3 (L. 18 E ) ; the modern writing of both is identic. T'ien4. This character matches with the preceding. It means the chin, flesh below the mouth (a line between the two lips closed ). The circle depicts the chin-dimple. See L. 41 B. Hsi2. Thongs of flesh drying or dried in the sun; Chia-chieh, formerly, in days of old, ancient; or perhaps chuanchu, the dried meat being old, if compared with the fresh meat. The second ancient form, which is incorrect, recalls (L 103 C). The modern form is contracted. Phonetic series 358. It forms the phonetic complex Chi2. Field ploughed by the Emperor. Appanage. Property. Phonetic series 770. represents the Yu2. Fish. See L. 142 A. Here scales. A sharp head, a scaly body, a tail represented by (L. 126 C), makeup a fish. The modern character is contracted. It is the 195th radical of names and parts of fish. Chiao3. Horn. See L. US B. It would be the tail. For, says the Glose, a preceding, less the horn resembles a fish. It seems rather to be that representing the streaks of the is a primitive, horns. It is the l48th radical.

Etymological Lessons. |g LESSON 18. About the primitive , and its derivative , which forms an important group.

57

First series:
Pa1. Etymological sense, to d ivide, to partake. It is a primitive representing the division in two parts, the separation; now means eight, this number being easily divided into two equal parts (note that four, a square, is a kind of unity in the Chinese reckoning). It is the 12th radical. Phonetic series 8. In the compounds, placed on the top of the character, is sometimes reduced to two points in t he modern writing, v.g. for . Most of the characters having at the bottom in the K'ang-hsi dictionary, as , have really nothing in common with this primitive. Note the following derivatives: Fen1. To divide, to separate, to partake; (L 52) t h a t knife divides. Phonetic series 58 It forms P'in2. Poverty, pecuniary difficulties. That to which leads partition of goods; the was the money of th e ancients(L. 161 ). The ancient form is still more expressive; dwellings, to partake. Note t h a t the heritage being equally divided among the male offspring, and the Chinese families c o unti ng many members, poverty follows the partition. Kuug1. Common. Division and distribution of goods (L. 89 A); private By extension, justice, implying a treatment equal for all; while ( L. 71Q) means justice in the sense of a kind, decent treatment. Phonetic series 68. It forms the phonetic complexes

This character

58 Sung1. The fie-

Etymological Lessons. 18. tribe; Phonetic series 394. \Veng1. Hairs or feathers in the neck. The modern m eaning, old man, sir, is a chia-chieh; the characters and were chosen to denote, appellations of politeness which existed before; Phonetic series 584. See. kun2, L. 16 F, etc. Pan4. To divide in two by the middle, equa lly; a half; Etymologically, to divide an ox in two parts, in all its length, as the, butchers do, hefore the c u t t i n g up. Phonetic series 144. K'ang-hsi w r o n gl y classified this character under the radical
Y e n 3 , The ravines, on the m o u nt ains' ridges; separation and flowing of wate rs;

. Phonetic series 169. Note the phonetic ch'uan2, a boat. Distinguish complex 1 pan , I. 66 B. See L. 29 D.

from

K u 3 . A deep h o l l o w , a gorge, a torrent; It is t h e 150th radical Phonetic series 284. Distinguish ku3 from 4 ch'iao , L. 17 H. The two are i d e n t i c in t h e modern wr i t i ng. It forms Jung 2 , yung2. To contain, to Shut up; and hollow, a recipient; . Chuan-chu, to endure, to hear, to compose one's demeanour, a mask, e the a face made to disguis

. From

to cover,

depths of the heart. Phonetic series 542.

Ilsun 4. A ravine, a

torrent. See L 118 D .

Etymological Lessons. 18.


Chieh 4 . Boundaries, limits; the tines separate men. that

59

Phonetic series 42. Pi2. Certainly, necessarily. An arrow that divides , t h a t solves a d o u bt , a dilemma; It seems to have primitiv ely been a ki nd of interjection pointing o u t a strict order; There are, different meanings derived from it. K'ang-h si wrongly classified this character u n d e r t h e radi cal . Phonetic series 148. It forms the phonetic co mplex Mi4. A quiet retreat (L. 36), close, still, silen t; P h o n e t i c series 383. It forms Mi4. A grotto, secret, mysterious ( L . 80); Etc. .

Second series:
Hsiao3. Small, trifling, mean; partition of an object idea is represented by the already sm all by its nature; It is the 42th radical. It forms Chien 1 . Point, sharp. A becomes small on its top It is a modern character. big object (L. 60) that vulgar This

Hsiao4. To he like one's father, not degenerate; Small flesh , offspring, like the big flesh, one's parent... degenerate; Phonetic series 277. In the modern writing, some derivatives of (L. 65 D) v.g. , seem to be derived ; the scribes are the cause of this mistake, from as of so many others. So3- A smal l object, not larger than the 161) cowries used as money by the ancients. (L.

pu-hsiao, to be

character is now written

In that sense, this . Phonetic series 566.

60

Etymological Lessons
4

18. very small, that leaves light (L. 88);

Hsi . Chink, fissure passage for a sl ender

Note how the top of disappeared, by its fusion with the upper . This character is now replaced by the compound hsi4, chink, fissure. Mu 4 . Striped; This character is derived from the preceding; the on the top was suppressed, and replaced by (L. 62 A) stripes, added at the bottom. It forms mu4, the waving of grain; chuan-chu, grace, amenity. Shao3 Little, few, wanting; from to diminish that which is already It comes small;

See L 7 A sheng1. Phonetic series 80 It forms Sha1. Sediment, gravel or sand deposed by water.

That which appears, when decreases. Phonetic series 302. It forms

water

Miao 3 . To contract the eyelids, or to use one eye only, in order to examine att ent ively By a subtile object. extension, subtle , confused Phonetic series 465. Chiao3. Is derived from , and not from .A sparrow. the small bird that lives from the, superfluit y of m e n; an d , by extension, a n y small bird. Note, tha t that reminds of , belongs to . See an the analogous case in ( L. 34 F). forms passed through t h e following compound, in which a still more singular alteration in t he modern writing. Chieh2. To c ut off; See 71 F. Not to he confounded with the d e r i v a t i v e s of , L. 96 B.

Lit.

For hsing3, see L. 158 D.

Etymological Lessons. 18. 19.

61

Appendix: The following characters have nothing in common with nor See L. 36 E, L. 35 F, L 92 A, L. 124 A, L. 75 C, with L. 59 C, L. 126 E, L. 112 G, L, etc. The following is L. 3 D, and not from derived from Erh3. A final used as a f u l l stop, equivalent to a there now, that is done; the end of a phrase, the voice is drawn in, and the reserve of breathing is sent forth; It is now used (chia-chieh for L. 35 L) as a personal pronoun, thou, you. The modern compound is used for the same purpose.

At

LESSON 19.

About the two series

and

First series; Nai3. A primitive. A difficulty of breathing; any difficulty in general; to represent the air curling to make its way through the wind-pipe. A sigh, a cry. This character, or rather the sound that is written , is in style an important , as say connective particle, a Chinese etymologists; the conjunctions being not meaning characters, but exclamations to make the hearer understand, how that which one is to say, is connected with that which does not form a series. one has just said Phonetic series 7. In reality, Among the derivatives ascribed to it, i Those in nai are arbitrary abbreviations for nai3, mil k. 2 Those in eng and ing belong of more intricate forms, e. g. to the phonetic (later on ) jeng1, for which was written from immemorial meant the shrieking gry of a bird surprised on its nest, a meaning time. (See L. 41 D, and L. 10 A). Now and being analogous to that of is the graphic radical of a series both read nai, are used one for another, and that has no relation whatever with it.

It is intended

the

62 To this character

Etymological Lessons. 19. combined with chih3 (L. 31 B), is ascribed the compound

Ying 2 . Note the fusion of the from ,with the well o u t of from . Success, h a p p y issue. To get difficulty; a (L. 157), the compound

. It forms with the dish

Ying2.
a b u n d a n c e that comes to one when, by one arrived to fill with provisions The etymologists give also as a de ri va ti ve of Yun4. To be with c h i l d , is a fancy one, as the c o m me nt at or s admit. In this is a primitive, that represents the character, (L, 94 A) foetus by the womb. closing in of t he Note. L. 22 C, a n d L. 23 B, have nothing in common w i t h

The
one's efforts, one's vessels.

, This derivation

Second series:
Chi 2 . To reach, to seize, to ca t c h; hand that seizes a man. Not connected with . Phonetic series 40. Note the compound Chi 2 . An emotion of the heart; with that which occasionally ensues, haste, zeal, impatience, hatred, etc. Note how the old form of was preserved in the modern character E Note: had old forms, primitives, now obsolete, but that may be still found in compounds. Those forms are

For instance at the

bottom of

Chin1. L. 14 K.

Shih4. L 34 D.

Etymological Lessons. LESSON 2O.


About the primitive , and its derivative

20.

63

that forms important compounds.

First series:
Chi 4 A seat, a stool; forms the artificial 16th radical. Phonetic series 4. Derivatives Ch'u3, ch'u4. To stop in a place, to sojourn; a place; p r i m i t i v e idea is to have found a seat, a place of hu is a phonetic rest. In the m o de r n character, L. 32 C. redundancy. Compare
P'i ng 2 . To lean u p , to sit do wn; (L. 82 C). To lean one's self on a stand. By extension, moral help, proof, evidence. This character is now written or L. 17 E. Note: is written as an ar b it r ar y abreviation of more intricate phonetics, e.g. chi1 for dearth, famine.

It

The

Second series.
Ch'ieh3. A partial primitive. It was formerly prosquare nounced tsu3 or chu3. It represents a small shelves superposed; this utensil, so stand, with common in China, was primitively used at sacrifices; the lower stroke represents the earth. See the stand, 17 G, the modern form more explicit ( the meat placed upon it ); Now changed its meaning and became (cbia-chieh) an important Phonetic series HO. It conjunction, forms the phonetic complexes Chu4. To help; strength (L. 53) for others. The fanciful ways of engravers are the cause why this character is often mistaken for a compound of the 109th radical. See the lead cut character here joined. Phonetic series 264. To exert one's

L.

64

Etymological Lessons.

20. 21. Chia-chieh for

Ch'a2. A proper Dame; . to examine, to search. Phonetic series 420. See below, note. Cha1. A proper name; series 589. See below note.

Phonetic

Note. The engravers fancifully cut the two preceding characters, F and G, as here joined, which leads one to mistake them for derivatives from These characters, with their series, would, according to the Chinese etymologists, origi nate from the Kiangsu. Hence the ir a n o m a l o u s pr o n u nc ia ti o n. It is an effect of the dialect. See pp. 15 a n d 16

L. 143 B.

LESSON 21 About the primitive fan2. Fan2. Idea of generality, of universality; This character was differently explained by the philolog ists. Some, starting f r o m an ancient form that was probably but an abbreviation, explain: ( a n old form, L 19 E) . The numof heaven a n d earth, generalised by ; a l l be i ngs e x i s t a n t . The classiber the cal form of t h e character seems to denote a more, n a t u r a l e x p l a n a t i o n : unity, the origin of beings a n d numbers (L. 1 A ), contained in a k i n d of p r i m i t i ve, which denotes the generalisation of a p ar ticular case. It is the t r u e n o t i o n of . Phonetic series 19. The scribes often write. instead of or (L. 11 (L. 11 G ) . E J). See also Feng1. The wind; Glose, when the wind blows, insects are born; This composition and interpretation are in the manner of Li-ssu. The ancient character was derived sun, motion (L. 7 A), from extension, expansion. A l l this seems to mean that the atmospheric currents are produced by the action of solar rays; which is t r u e for some wind s. It is the 182th radical of a group of characters relating to storms, ( L. 1 f C). etc. Phonetic series 439. See For, says the

Etymological Lessons. 21. 22. Feng4. The male phoenix. A modern character; See the old character, L. 64 I.

65

P'ei4. Small ornaments made of jade or ivory, scentcushions, hanging from the girdle, when full dress is worn. worn by a man on the piece of li ne n which, b eing rolled up, makes a gi r dle (L. 35 A). This cha racter seems to be of a relatively modern origin.

Anything

LESSON 22.
About the p r i m i ti v e First series: Shu2, ch'u2. The j er k y flapping of a short w i n g ; Then, in general, any rhythmical and jerky motion. The derivatives of must be carefully distinguished from those of L. 19, and L. 20; in the modern writing, this distinction is not easy to be made. Forms Fu2. A wild duck; the bird heavily; which flies , and its derivative

To3. The balancing of twigs and flowers. It is used as a specificative of flowers, Phonetic series 240. Note the modern form

i-to hua.

Second series;
Shu2, ch'u2. The right hand motion; to strike; . By extension, a slick, a ferule. It is the 79th radical. Phonetic series 51. Note the following derivatives Shan4; motion of the scythe that cuts the grass ; to mow. making a jerky

Jerky

60

Etymological Lessons. 22. 23. Ku3; . The upper part of the thigh, part of man's body, upon which the the fleshy ferule bountifully. mandarins of old bestowed the . The. great hall of a Tien4; tri bunal, was given on the breech; where flogging a realistic.but exact description. The modern scribes write . See L. 32 A. To notify an order; She4. to set in order, in the Asiatic way, with many cries and strokes; I4. The satellites; those who, being armed with a wh ip or a bamboo, prowl about every where, lo o k in g f o r a v i c t i m ;

Other i m p o r t a n t derivatives w i l l bo explained elsewhere, e, g. ch'ing 4 L. 173, pan1 L 66 B Etc.

tuan4 L 164 D,

LESSON 23

A b o u t the two p rimitiv es First series:

and

Chiu3. Nine; a numerical sign, without any other signification; 5. It forms Hsiu4. This character was made, they say, to be used as the name of the. founder of the Liu-hsiu. At his birth, Dynasty, a story says there were found, stalk, hanging down from o ne only nine b e a u t i f u l ears. This phenomenon was regarded as a presage of the Emperor's future elevation. Hence This auspicious character was used to designate the bachelors hsiu-ts'ai, was in imperial times. In t he modern writing, changed into (See L. 19 ). Phouetic series 278.

. Phonetic scries

Hou-han

Etymological Lessons.

23.

67

Second series:
Jou3. The h i n d legs a n d lail of an a n i m a l ; (he track of an animal's paws a n d rail; a step; It is a p r i m i t i v e t h a t has n o t h i n g in common with . It is th e 114th radical. F o u n d in Yu2. It represents an insect with a big lail, probably t h e sc or pion. Name of the c e l e b r a t e d Emperor who was the f o u n d e r of t h e Hsia Dynasty, 1989 B.C. Sec o u r Textes H i s t o r i q u e s , p. 38. Phonetic series 504. Yu3. M o n k e y ; says t h e Glose, resembles t h a t of t h e d e m o n s ( L 40 C), a n d its l a i l is a p r e h e n si l e one. Gf. [.. 49 H. Phonetic series 503. Note the successive f o l l o w i n g compounds Li2. A y a k ; th e the big t a i l ; is an ab bre viati on of L. 40 C, t h e b ead; changed i n t o in the modern w r i t i n g , represents the boms ( G f . L. 136). Phonetic, serie s 628. C h ' i n 2 . it is , the horns being replaced by the phon etic, chin1 (L. 14 K ) . W ild ani mal s by opposition to domesticated a n i m a l s ( b e l o w ). P h o n e t i c series 728. Fei4. A big ape. The c h a r a c t e r represents, t h e head, the. f o u r bands, a nd successive abbreviations. A c o n t r a c t i o n of t h e las t is considered as the c e n t r a l p a r t of t h e compound hsia2. Its bead,

paws and

the t a i l . ,

Note the

Hsieh 4 . The w h ite a n t ;

it forms

Ch'ieh;
A swarm of termites stealing grain in a storehouse, to eat it. To steal, to act by stealth, etc. The scribes write in different mauners this intricate character. Note is also mutilated. From (L. th a t the form authorised by the with (L. 123). 24 H) there remains only a . w h ic h leads to confound

68

Etymological Lessons. 23. 24. Wan4. A scorpion, The claws , the head , the tail . This character is now used to write the number 10000 (chia-chieh); see page 11. It has nothing in common with the 140th radical, under which it was classified by K'ang-hsi. It is not derived from yu2 (above E), b u t from ch'ai4 L. 47 X. Phonetic series 765, that must not be confounded with the series of . The sound of th e compounds is derived from ch'ai4, a n d not f r o m wan4; e.g. mai4. Note Li4. A scorpion

crouched down under a stone (L. 59 A). Pricking, sharp, bad, cruel, and other chuan-chu. Phonetic series 804, Shou4. The domesticated animals, by opposition to ch'in3 wild (above E); On the top two ears, in t h e middle the head, at the bottom the paws a n d tail. The second a n c i e n t c h a r a c t e r f r o m w h i c h c a m e the modern one, is an abbreviation. It forms the compound shou 4 , flocks or h erds guarded by dogs. B u t t'o2, c rocodile, has a nother origin. See L. 72 E. LESSON 24 About the p r i m i t i v e a n d its m u l t i p l e s Shih2. T e n The number that contains all the other simple numbers (decimal numeration). Symbol of extent (two dimensions) and of the five cardinal points (East, West, South, North, Centre). It is th e "24th radical. Phonetic series 10. Note the derivatives Ghi4. To k n o w how to calculate; To k n o w how to enounce the ten numbers of the decimal system. By extension, to reckon, to plan, a scheme.

First series:

Etymological Lessons. 24. 69 Shih4. An affair, a t hi n g; Because, says the Glose, ni l things are comprised between the two terms of numeration, and . By extension, a sage, a m a n pointed out, by his le arni ng, to become an official ( n o w .). It is the 33th radical. It forms Chi2. Speach of a sage, b r i n g i n g l u c k ; good, a us picious, happy; Com pare hsiung 1 , inauspicious, L. 38 L. 38 G. Compare D. P h o n e t i c series 180. See L. 165 B, L. 75 B. e t c. Note Chieh 2 . A phonetic c o m p l e x . To k e e p one's head straight; is phonetic. Phon.ser. 797. Ch'ien 1 . A th ou san d; Ten limes one hundred. The hundred is not represented in th e character. The on the top, an abbr eviat i o n of (L. 28), is phonetic says t h e Glose. perhaps an old primitive. Phonetic series 16. Forms Nien2. The crop, the h a r v e st ; The thousand grains. By extension, a year, the. t i m e required for a harvest. The modem character is an incongnious contraction. Chang1. A l e n g h t o f ten spans, now of ten feet;
A band See L. 43 L. P h o n e t i c series 13. Ku2. Old; and

is

ten

That which passed through ten mouths, i.e. a tradition dating back ten generati ons. hsieh composed of the same elements means u n a n i m i t y , ten mouths speaking in unison; Phonetic series 132. It forms Ku*. Hermetically closed on a l l sides (L. 74). Phonetic series 368. 2 Hu . T h e fetlock of an o x ; It is now used a? an interrogative particle, chia-chieh for Phonetic scries 450. 2 ti is not derived from . See L. 120 H. Note:

70

Etymological Lessons. 24. Chih2. Straight; t u n eyes have seen to it, the line must be straight. See L. 10 K, where this character was f u l l y explained. Phonetic series 335. When

Note: K'ang-hsi i n c o r r e c t l y classified u n d e r L 18 D, etc.

L 46 M,

Second series:

repeated twice

Nien 4 . Erh4 shih2 . Twenty;


The tens a d de d O U R to another. In composition, it O f t e n m e a n s a m u l t i t u d e (L. 10 I). It is l i a b l e to he confounded with kan 1 (L. 73 B). It forms

K u n g 4 . An a c t i o n d o n e in c o m m o n , a l l t a k i n g p a r t in twenty pairs ot h a n d s ; i t , represented by See L 47 Q P h o ne t i c series 225.

K u a n g 1 . L i g h t , lust er . P r i m i t i v e l y twenty , a man w i t h fire m o d e r n f o r m r epre se nt s (L 2 9 ) : p r o b a b l y a man c a r r y i n g a torch T h e a n c i e n t f o r m was m a i n t a i n e d in a few compounds ( b e l o w L) P h o n e t i c series 222 It f o r m s

tires (L 126). The

H u a n g 3 . Brightness sun, to dazzle:


537.

of t h e

Phonetic series

Huang 2 . Yellow, the hue of t h e ploughed e a r t h (L. 119); Note h o w and are mixed up. See t he derivatives, !,. 17 1 . It is t h e 201th ra di cal Phonetic series 688.

Etymological Lessons. 24.

71

Shu4. All the inhabitants of a dwelling, hearth (L. 126); among the gathered around the ancients, the hearth gave light and heat; Meanings chuan-chu the familial flock, concubines and children; the h u m a n herd, the people. Various chia-chieh. Phonetic series 615. Note the following logical was replaced by the. radical. aggregates, in which Tu4. To measure, a rule, a degree; A hand which counts or measures a quantity. Phonetic series 484. Hsi3. A mat, a meal; because, in the olden times, people used to eat, while sitting on mats, the dishes being placed oil a mat. See a napkin, L 35 A.

Third series:

repeated three limes; San1-shih2 Thirty; forms Shih4. A period of thirty years; duration of a man's active life; an age, a generation; The vertical stroke of on the left side is lenghtened, to denote the prolongation and duration of life. Phonetic series 157. It forms Yeh4. The successions of trees; a leaf leaves upon the (now ); by extension, a t h i n It

plate of metal or gold; Phonetic series 494. Compare


104 A.

L.

72 Fourth series:

Etymological Lessons. 24.25. repeated four times, Ssu4-shih2 Forty; twenty. Some etymologists think this part of the following character Twice to be the top

Tai4. A girdle, to take along as if worn at the girdle, This derivation is an to wear; arbitrary one, calligraphic, not etymological. is a primitive, while means the girdle, and the other part represents (L. 21 D) hanging from thegirdle; the trinkets At the bottom, the robes are represented by two (L. 35), one above the other; Phonetic series 648.
WU

. See L. 10 1, where this character was fully explained. A luxuriant forest destroyed by a great number of men. It is now an adverb of negation; no, none, no more. Phonetic series 718.

LESSON 25.

Note: The p r i m i t i v e jen 2 , a man, being written in different manners; several lessons are dev oted to it. Here is a list of them. jen2 slanding, or put on the side. L. 25 jen2 inverted. L. 26 Multiples of a n d , L. 27 jen 2 on the top of t h e compounds, curtailed. L. 28 jen2 at the bottom of t he compounds. L. 29 jen2 bent down. L. 30 A jen 2 sitting down. L. 32 jen2 overturned. L. 30 D jen2 doubled up. L. 54 jen2 moving on. L. 31 2 jen with arms. LL. 60, 61

Etymological Lessons. 25 About the primitive under its two forms, and

73

Jen2. A m a n . represented by his legs; t h e one. who stands upright. Compare (L. 60);

It is the 9th r a d i c al of characters relating to man. It forms


Ch'iu2 . A prisoner, to emprison ; A man in an enclosure, L. 74. See L. 157 C.

Shan3.

A man

in a

door (L. 129 C ) , moving sideways to give way to others; by extension, a sudden a n d quick motion in general. Shu4. To guard the frontiers; spear ( L. 71 F); the. c o m p o u n d (L. 90 D). a man with See a

Fu2. From man and dog (L. 134). A man imitating the dog, or m aking others imitate it. To crouch, to f a l l or lie prostrate, to hide, to h u m b l e , to subject, etc. Ph o ne ti c series 196. Wei4. The place where a m a n is standing erect; t h e place assigned, according to his d i g n i t y , to each official; By extension, seat, r an k, person. See (L. 60 H).

Jen2. The virtue that must unite men to men; See L. 2 B, where this character was explained. Hsin4. True words, and, by extension, the effect produced by these words upon others, truthfulness, faith, confidence; A man and a word. In the old form, a man and a mouth. In still more ancient form, a word and a heart; words coming from the heart and appealing to it.

74

Etymological Lessons. 25. 26. Hsien1.

The taoist Genii; According to the legends, they live OD the mountains, , man and mountain. hence the modern character a man who rose, The etymological meaning is by the taoist practices, above mortals. (See L. 50 P, L. 10 L).

LESSON 26.
About the inverted which is now written L. 25 A and 26 B). (Compare with the old forms,

Preliminary note: The modern . corresponds to two old primitives. 1. representsanold instrument, a kind of scraper, of spoon. This character became soon obsolete. In the derivatives that remained after it ( etc.) it was written even before the reform of Li-ssu. This explains how, in the series , one may f i n d several characters th a t mean utensils (below C, D, M). 2. i nverted, over-turned. Hence, the significations derived from the origin of this character; to turn round, to invert, to compare, to join, to match, to pair (right side and reverse). Pi3 . To t u r n one's self round, etc. is t h e 21 th radical. It

First series: Compounds in which

means an object. L. 112 I).

Shih2. A spoon, a key. (Phon.

Ch'ang4. A special liquor, used in the sacrifices, to induce the shen2 to come down; A vase (L. 38 E) f u l l of grain which, when fermented, produced the liquor; at the the spoon with which people drew up the bottom, liquor from the vessel. Compare below M. It is the 192th radical. It forms Yu4. Oblation of the liquor . See L. 130 E.

Etymological Lessons. 26.

75

Tsan1. A forked brooch used to fix the hair. Now The character represents a man , with a brooch on the top. Note the alteration of the modern character and try do distinguish it from wu2 L. 61 C, and from chi4 L. 99 E. Repeated twice, tsan1 is phonetic in hsun2, a caldron (L. 155), and in Tsan1. To murmur; t'i See L. 73 A. Not to be confounded, either with L. 79 B. (L. 60 L) as many scribes do, or with Phonetic series 709. Note Tsan2. I, we. This modern character is an arbitrary abbreviation of . It is used, regardless of the sense, to write the sound tsan2, a personal pronoun used by common peopl e in the provinces of the North. Its derivatives and , much used in the books written in spoken l angua ge, have no more v a l u e t h a n itself. chiu 1 , L. 31 B

must be distinguished from

Second series: Compounds in which

means man, etc.

Pao3. A tithing of ten men. It forms some phonetic compounds, eg pao3, a bustard, etc. Ni2. Near, in contact; Etymology, But ( L . 32) means also, a man. Therefore ni means, two men near one another. Phonetic series HO. Nang2. A high dignity, towards which rise the men; exalted, to desire; eyes and desires of yin4, L. 49 I. Morally, intimity.

Phonetic series 73. Compare

Ssu3. Dead, to die; A man, dead (L. 118 C). Note t. tn the is prolonged modern character, the top stroke of and covers . 2. In the ancient form, instead of , the inverted form, there is. the straight form.

76

Etymological Lessons. 26 P'in 3 . Etymologically, t h e row thai makes the pair with the bull. Now mu3 means the male, and p'in3 the female of a l l kinds of animals. Note yu1. hind, female of the the analogous compound 4 lu , stag. Keng3. Etymologically to t u r n the head. Then, to turn over, to overthrow, in ge neral ; There are also a few unusual phonetic complexes; for these, see tsu 3 , L. 112; and 3 pi , L. 27 I.

Third series: A special series is ascribed to the f o l l o w i n g compounds of on account both of the s i n g u la r f o r m s wh ic h were give n to t h e m in the modern writing, and of the importance of their derivatives. In t h e old writing, those characters were perfectly regular. Yao3. to the sun; obscure, hidden. It forms yao3, 3 dark as in a cavern; yao , the South-East house; etc. lu angle, t h e most retir ed place in a its modern form, the next seems to be a compound of the same e l e m e n t s ; it is not so. Chih 3 . The old t o r m is composed of , the tongue (L. 102 C ), a n d of , a sweet t h i n g (L. 1. 4 0 ); good, agreeable to t h e taste; After Li-ssu. the character was composed of kan1 sweet (L. 73 B), an d of phonetic ; Chuan-chu, an edict of the Emperor who is supposed to speak iu soft words. Phonetic series 186. It forms ch'ang2 (L. 36 E), ch'i2 (L. 30 E), chi1 (L. 121 M ) . Ken4. suddenly round , in order to look a man f u l l in the face, haughtily; anger, defiance. It is the 138th radic al. Phonetic series 219 and 741. Note. Hang- has another origin. See L. 75 F. Hem t'ui4. See L. 31 C. To turn To t u r n one's back

Etymological Lessons. 26. Hsiang 1 Boiled grain, the Chinese soup fan4- It is composed as (L. 26 C). A vase ( p r i m i t i v e ) ; its contents (L. 1.4); the spoon to draw up (L. 26 A). Its contra cted form must be distinguished from hang ( L . 75 F). It forms the following characters:

77

Hsiang1. The g rain producing country, between the walled cities, r epresented by two one of them being straight, the other being inverted and abbreviated in the modern writin g ( L. 74 C). Phonetic serins 682.

Ch'ing 2 . Ministers. Those who were present at the imperial meals, standing in two opposite rows, holding the sceptres, badges of their dignity; See L. 55 A.

Chi 2 . The c o n v e n i e n t measure (L. 55 B) of . Chi2 is soup; temperance, m o d e r a t i o n ; now w i d e l y used chia-chieh as a c o n j u n c t i o n exp ressi ng t h e logical consequence. Phonetic series 424. It forms the phonetic c o m pl e x. Chieh2. A segment of the bamboo, between two nodes. Chuan-chu, an article, a limit of time, a term. Chia-chieh for chi2, temperance, moderation. Phonetic series 798.

Chi4. To suck up, to swallow; (L. 99 E). Chuan-chu, already passed, as swallowed soup; finished.alrea_ Phonetic series 596. dy, since;

78

Etymological Lessons

26.
,

Shih2. ssu4. Food, to eat, to feed: See L 14, union, together; grain, food. Because, says the Glose. it is by mixing the. different (si x) kinds of grain that the human food is prepared; Note the top stroke of , a contraction of , is confounded with the lower . It is the 184th radical of characters stroke of relating to food. It forms

Shih2. To nourish; to give roan; food to a It forms the phonetic complexes shih4, to adorn, and ch'ih4, an order, injunction. See L. 28. Ts'ang 4 . A granary, government storehouse. In this character,
make room beneath t o r (L. 7 4 ) :

is mutilated, to

Phonetic series 575.

Chin4 is not derived from

. The modern forms are

corrupt. Compare the ancient forms with L. 1 1 7 B.


The rearing of c a t t l e , u n d e r trees, in the steppe. Hence now chin4, a stud, a stable.

O N. B. Let us recall \. That is the classical abbreviation of is the ken3 (26 L), h u t that it is also used for oth er compounds. 2. That 1 classical abbreviation of hsiang (26 M). By the principle of the least effort, the scribes often write instead of . 3. That these abbreviations are to be distinguished from the d erivati ves of liang2 (75 F); a thing easier to say than to do. 4. That the engravers, fo llowing the scribes, cut in fanciful ways, several , L. 31 C. characters of this series, as one may hav e noticed. See also

Etymological Lessons. 27. LESSON About the multiples of First series: . 27.

79

repeated twice (the straight form, L. 25). Ts'ung2. A m a n walking after another; to follow, to obey. It is the opposite , L. 27 C.

of

Ghuan-chu, a preposition, as the Latin ab, ex; is so often used in this work, it is in this sense that for the analysis of characters. It is now practically superseded by the. next homophone and synonym compound Ts'ung2. Note the curious form of the modern character. It is composed of , and of (Rad. 162; L. 112 E) dislocated; the three placed on the left side simulate , the 60th radical, under which K'ang-hsi wrongf ully classified and its similes ; the lower part is placed under . ID the ancient character, there is simply A juxtaposition of the e l e m e n t s . Phonetic series 657. Ch'ien1. To c ut. Two men a n d a halberd; See, L. 71. Compare 25 D, and L. 47 E. It forms

L.

Ch'ien1. The wild garlic ; See L. !70 B. Phonetic series 829. Ch'ien1. Reunion, meeting. By extension, together. (L. 14), A meeting of several men, who speak. Phonetic series 726.

Second series: Two

turned face to face. Tso4. To sit down, to be seated; Two men sitting on the ground, in the old fashion, and facing each other to talk. Phonetic series 309.

80

Etymological Lessons.

27.

Wu1. The work (L. 82) of witches; magic, incantations. Two witches who dance to obtain rain It forms Shih . The
1

stalks

of

Achillea Sibirica , t h a t were used by the wizards to divine. It forms the phonetic complexes shih4, to bite, to gnaw; shin4, bank, quay. See Ling2, L 72 K. Distinguish from L, 16 M, a n d from contracted in L. 13 C, etc, Chia1. A man (L. 60) who clasps two others in his arms: to press, to squeeze, to pick up, to f i x ; Phonetic series 257. To be distinguished from shan3 (L. 13 B), and from lai2 (L. 13 C). It forms the, p h o n e t i c co mpl ex Ch'ieh4. Box, casket, (L. 10. B), It is now wr i tt e n

Third series: Two

t u r n e d one against a n o t h e r . Pei3. The opposite of ( L. 27 A). Not to follow each other, to t u r n one's back, disagreement; Derived meaning, the back extension, the North t he cardinal point towards w h ic h o ne t ur n s one's hack when s i t t i n g down facing the South, according to custom. The modern scribes wr ite for different more intricate characters. See kuai1, L 103 C ; ch'eng2, L 31 E, etc. Ch'iu1. A hill, a mound; The Glose is summed up thus: represents the top of a height. On the top, two men turned one against another, instead of four men whom it w o u l d have been too difficult to depict. The meaning is that, from the top one may see towards the four ; a n d , by

Etymological Lessons. 27.

81

directions i. e. towards a l l directions; a c ul mi nati ng point. Phonetic series 113. Note that ping1 (L. 47 D) is unconnected will) Item, the k i n d of primitive (L. 80 B)... But forms Hsu1. A high upland; These uplands being generally wild and barren, hence chuan-chu, empty, that which contains nothing; Phonetic series 685, under its modern corrupt form.

Fourth series:

repeated twice (
4

, inverted form, L. 26). To

Pi . It is inverted (27 A), effect a union, to follow, to cooperate, to plot. PP. Meanings derived from th e inversion (See L. 26 A, 2), to draw a parallel between, to compare, r an k . It is the 81th radical. Phonetic series 77. It forms Pi3. A synonym of the preceding. The two men are placed upon (L 81 ) the earth. Phonetic series 299.
Chieh1. Together, all;

Sev era l men (L 169 A c o n t r a c t e d ) a c t in g in concert, Pho n etic scries 428. K' a n g - h s i e r r o n e o u s l y classified this c hara cter u n d e r t h e radical 106 K'un1 A number or men u n d e r t h e 143); m u l t i t u d e , generality; su n (L.

Chuan-chu of different kinds; those who will succeed in life, under t he s un; the multitude of insects that the sun is supposed to bring forth... Chia-chieh , an elder brother; compare ko1, p. 11. Phonetic series 371. P'i2. The navel which is supposed to be in communi(L. 40 A) through channels cation with the head vital spirits. in which circulate theSo the lower part would not be , but a kind of primitive, representing the channels. Instead of , the scribes write hence the erroneous character here joined. Phonetic series 567.

, a posterity,

82

Etymological Lessons. 27.

Note 1 : is intended to delineate the feet in some characters that represent animals, e. g. Ch'ao4, jerboa, L. 106 C. Note 2:Two Lu4, antelope. L. 136 A.

, one above the other, represent also the feet in the following series Neng2, formerly Nai4, which explains the sound of some derivatives. The great brown bear. After Li-ssu, this character was explained thus: two paws, the body, the growling of the angry bear. (L. 85 E). But the study of the old forms reveals a special primitive delineati ng a head, a hairy body standing, and claws. (L. 146 H ). The bear is the symbol of bravery; hence the meanings chuan-chu, valour, an officer ; Phonetic series 55*. It forms
T'ai4. Martial attitude. interior outward of the The valour. represents

Hsiung2. The s m a l l black bear; the feet (L. 126 C), a graphic redundancy. Pa4. A bear, f i g u r a t i v e l y an officer t a k e n in a net (L. 39 C). to dismiss, to resign, to cease, and other cbuan-chu. The Glose explains that the. net means calumnious accusations. Compare L. 39 F.

Fifth series:

repealed thrice.
Chung4. Gat h eri n g, meeting. Tres collegium faciunt; The next compound, a synonym a n d homophone, is now used instead.

Chung4. A crowd; that is not (as above, in ), but the eye (L. 158) depicted horizontally. The visual space f u l l of men; all the m e n taken in at a glance; crowd, a ll, etc. The scribes fancifully and strangely altered this character, as one may see by the two specimens here joined. Ghu4. To meet; series 775. a reunion of men; See L. 146 F. Phonetic

Note

Etymological Lessons. 28. LESSON 28.

83

About some peculiar forms of . curtailed in the modern writing, either through want of space, or through a p arti al f u sio n w i th a phonetic; is reduced to , , etc. In the ancient writing. has its normal form. Chi2. To attain, to seize upon. A hand th a t seizes a man T h i s character was explained, L. 19 D. phonetic series 40. Hsien 4 . A trap, a p i t ; A man who fa lls int o a p i t ( L 139). Cf. L. 38 D. Phonelic series 360. Fu4 1. Morally, a m a n who has cowries, m o n e y (L. 161); the pride caused by fo rtune,; insubordination, disdain ; Physically, a m a n who bears a load on his back, in order to gain cowries; to toil hard, to suffer;

2.

She4.

P r i m i t i v e sense, th e flush of the face; The composition of t h i s ch a r a rt e r is typical; a man, (L. 55) a seal; because, says the Glose, the and c ol o u r of t h e face corresponds w i t h the feelings of the h e a r t , as t h e s t a m p reproduces the seal. By extension, the flush arising from passion, sexual pleasure, colour in general It is t h e 139th radical. Wei2. A m a n l o o k i n g from up a steep cliff (L. 59); a perilous situation, danger; There are i m p o r t a n t compounds, a b o u t w h i c h see L. 59 H. Ch'ien 1 . O n e t h o u s a n d This a n o m a l o u s character on t h e lop is p h o n e t i c ; was e x p l a i n e d L. 24 D. ten times one h u n d re d , says is for the Glose. Phonetic series 16. T'ing2. Upright, raised, attentive; A man on the ground (L. 81). Not to be confounded with jen4 (L. 82 C). In the modern writing, the two characters are almost identical.

84

Etymological Lessons. 28. 29. Tiao4. Actual meaning, to mourn for one dead, in order to console his family. Composition: a man who carries a bow (L. 87) over his shoulders. The Chinese of olden tim es did not bury their dead. The corpse was packed up in a bundle of grass (L. 78 G),

an d l e f t to rot away in some remote place. The rite of condoling, at that time, consisted in offering one's self with a bow, to protect the corpse against wild beasts. The meaning, to hang u p , to suspend, comes from the fact that the bow was carried hanging across the shoulder, wh ic h is represented by the old character. Chiu 1. Primitive sense, egotism hurting one's who does not look for his own neighbour; a man (L. 31 B) benefit; By extension, offence, fault, mistake; Phonetic series 338. Shen1. Body, person. It is with a big belly and a leg. See L. 148. Ii is the 158th radical of characters relating to the shapes of the body.

Note: The head ( s h a r p s n o u t ) of some a n i m a l figures, in the is like ancient writing. The resemblance is merely a graphical one. For instance:

T 'u2, h ar e, L 106 B.

Yu 2 , fish, L. 142 A.

LESSON 29.
About , the form taken by , when placed at the bottom of the characters.

Jen 2 . A m a n ( t w o legs). It sometimes means, feet, It is the 10th radical. support Erh 2 . An i nf an t: A body and a head (L. 40 C) opened in the form of , represen ti n g a s k u l l , the fontanels of which are not yet closed. Phonetic series 352.

Etymological Lessons.

29.

85

Mao4. The face; From man and ( L. 88), white, colour or form of the face. Instead of this, the synonym and homophone co mpound is now used. Huang 4 ; A mouth man; to speak strongly, on the top of a emphatically, a ut horitatively. Note the two modern chuan-chu, with change of sounds 1. K'uang4. An emphatic conjunction, so much the more, a fortiori. The scribes write , but their writing is rejected by the critics, 2. Hsiung1. The eldest among several brothers; the one who must exhort and correct his brothers. Phonetic, series 123. Note also the compounds Chu4 An oration that goes with the oblation sacrifice, and that touches the shen; of a

Chou4 A modern character. The added is a redundancy. Adjuration, impre catio n ; This character is often erroneously wr itten Yueh 4 Good words t h a t dispel grief a n d rejoice, the he a r e r ; hence the. two meanings, to speak, to rejoice. added with a ( L. 18), that means, dissipaIt is tion ; It is u n c o n n e c t e d w i t h ( L. 18 E. ). It is used as a modern a r b i t r a r y chia-chieh to mean, exchange, d e l i v e r y in th e commercial transactions; it is then p r o n o u n c e d tui4; Phonetic series 313. Yun3. To consent, to grant. A man who says yes; To make out one's assent, by breathing forth a yes. See L. 85 E. Phonetic series 100. Note the phonetic complex Tsun1. To walk solemnly;

Phonetic series 311.

86

Etymological Lessons. 29.


Ch'ung . To nourish a knowing how to
1

child, from its birth till,

walk, it has become a man;

To feed, to fill, f u l l , etc. Chuan-chu a n d chia-chieh of different kinds. Phonetic series 189. Yeh4 The head: A head (L. 160) u p o n a body Note t h e c o n t r a c t i o n of in the modern character. It is t h e 181th radical of a g r o u p of characters r e l a t i n g to t h e head, neck, etc.. Yuan2. That which is on the top, u p on Head, principle, origin; as caput in latin; man.

See , an ancient form of , L. 2 G. Ph o netic series 97. Note t h e compounds Kuan 1 . The man's cap, then caps a n d hats in general; (L 45 B) s t a n d s f o r w h a t is placed on t h e head, to cover it. Wan 2 . En t ir e , finished, done; The p u t t i n g up of the roof completes a building. Phonetic, series 314 It forms K'ou 4 Robbers, to loot. The m a n who ar m e d w i t h a stick { L. 43 D ) threatens the dwelling-places; K u a n g 1 . Light. The ol d f o r m of this character was e x p l a i n e d L. 24 J. T his is t h e modem form, probably, a m a n carrying a torch. Phonetic series 222. Jung3. I n a c t i o n , to rem ain in a ctive; A man in his bouse, because he has no work to do in the lields. yin3, composed of Not to be confounded w i t h and (L. 34 E). The m e a n i n g is,

Etymological Lessons.
4

29. 30. upon a support;

87

Wu . A stool. A plane surface

Phonetic scries 36.

LESSON :30.
About ( turned up). who bends forward ), and ( inverted, the feed being

First series:
Jen 2 . A m a n who leans, who bends u p ; It f o r m s

Ch'en2.
A woman f o r w a r d to conceal her shame, says the Glose; p r o b a b l y h e r menses (not h e r pregnancy L. 112 L). H e n c e chuan-chu time, epoch, period. It is t h e 161th r a d i c a l . Phonetic series 254.The p r i m i t i v e ine a ning; h a s been preserved in t h e c o m p o u n d Ju 4 . To sh a m e, to i n s u l t ; reveal ( l o r , L. 43 A ) a shameful or t h i n g . Phonetic series 541. situation who bends

To

Ho u 4 . A p r i n c e ( b y extension, a prin ce ss).

The m a n who notifies bis orders, bending tow ard s t h e people. This composition is ana logous to that ot chun2, a prince, See page 9. P h o n e t i c series 109. inverted, forms Ssu4. The government, the administration, that is like the reverse of the prince; Phonetic series 159.

Second series:
Hua4. A man tumbled head over heels; The primitive sense was, to die; Derived meanings, to overthrow, to It forms transform;

88

Etymological Lessons. 30. 31. Hua4. To change, to convert men by teaching them; series 64. It forms hua1, flowers, the term of the evolution of plants. See L. 13 F. Chen 1 . Transformation by the Taoist practices. See, L. 10 L.

Phonetic

Lao3. Old, venerable, a septuagenarian. A man (L. 100) change , grow whose hair and beard white; Note the strange modern contraction of and of . - It is the 125th radical. This character forms i m p o r t a n t c o m p o u n d s, in w h i c h was suppressed to give room to t h e radical or to the phonetic. For in st a n c e: Ch'i2. Sexagenarian; old man who better food. See L. 26 K. P h o n e t i c series 513. K'ao3. Old age; represents the a st h m a o f old men (L. 1, 1). By extension, to e x a mi n e, to interrogate p u p i l s a n d candidates, which are attributes of worthies. Phonetic .series 218. Hsiao4. Filial piety; the t h i n g which th e aged persons in general, a n d to c h i l d r e n owe to the t h e i r parents in particula r; Phonetic series 276. But chiao1, to leach, has n o t h i n g in common w i t h This character, whose exact form is g i v e n here, w i l l be e x p l a i n e d L. 39 H. Che3. This character is not derived from L. 159 B. . See needs a

LESSON 31.
About three derivatives of , partial primitives, viz.: chiu3, chin3, su1.

First series:
Chiu3. A man hinder e d w h i l e w a l k i n g , by a k i n d of train; Hence the notion of slowness, of duration Phonetic series 17.

Etymological Lessons. 31.

89

Second series:
Chih 3 . To follow, to pursu e a man who walks; It is the 34th radical, o r di n aril y placed on the top of compounds. It forms Ko3. To go on one's way. w i t h o u t hearing the advice of others; Separated, distinct, particular, other. The i n d i v i d u a l described by his self-love, his own way. Phonetic series 220. It forms Chiu 1 . A man attached to his own opinion, who cares only for his own interes ts, a n d who consequently offends against othe rs. By extension, offence, fault; See L. 28 I. Note the contraction of the modern character. Phonetic series 338. Lu 4 . Way, road ; trespasses. Phonetic series 748. each one K'o4. Ch'ieh4. A guest, a traveller; to stay for a time in a house not one's own. 4 Liao . B o u n d a r y t h a t divides the fields. Chuanchu, to p a r t i t i o n , to s h o r t e n , a l i t t le , etc It forms liao4, to l a y d o w n , to d e p o s e 4 Lao . O l d m e a n i n g : a t r e n c h to i r r i g a t e ; water ev e ry b od y . It forms lao4, the fall of the used by leaves, to sink. See ; through which ;

hai4, L. 97 H ;

feng 1 L 97 A: and

tung1 L. 17 F. hsi4.

The 34th radical the 66th radical

chih3 (three strokes) must be carefully distinguished from p'u1 (four strokes), and from the. 36th radieal

Third series:
Sui 1 . A man who goes on, despite of shackles; To be distinguished from analogous forms, as stated above. It is the 35th radical, ordinarily placed at the bottom of the compounds. It forms

90

Etymological Lessons. 31. Chih 4 To reach or make others reach a i m , despile of d i f f i c u l t i e s ; L. 133 B. the See

T'ui4. To have walked with difficulty all the day long, and consequently, to refuse to advance more, or to go backwards, on account of the difficultie s of the road. To refuse, to retreat . The added is a radical redundancy (L. 112.E). Note the contraction of the modern character, and read again the note L. 26 0. Phonetic series 578. See L. 29 E; L. 79 K; L. 38 D; etc.

inverted, forms
K'ua4 To overcome an obstacle represented by The modern character ko 1 , a pot. k e pt t h e old form. P h o n et i c in ;

straight and inverted, forms


C h ' u a n 3 . I t . is composed of , t h e s t r a i g h t a n d the inverted form, ba rk to h a c k ; To po in contrary d i r e c t i o n s : opposition, contrad i c t i o n , offence, e r r o r ; It is t h e 136th ra dical. In th e compounds, represents two men hack to hack Note the following Wu3. A dance wi t h gestures, performed by twogroups opposing each ot her (See L. 65 D); the a phonetic contracted (L. dancers hack to hack, 10 I); Chieh2. Primitive sense: tree, on which cr i mi n al s were hung, gallows of hack old. to This hack; character the now means a roost, for f o w l s to rest on; P h o n e t i c series 518. It forms the f o l l o w i n g Sheng4, ch'eng2. A warriors' car, a so rt of roost for men standing back to back, on two r a n k s; the top represents a roof. The modern form does credit to the ingeni ous scribes. Phonetic series 512 See also , and L. 126 D;etc.

Compare L. 27 G.

Etymological Lessons.

31. 32.

91

Chiang 4 . From , the straight and the inverted form one above the other; Two men, one of th e m (th e inferior) is subject to the oth er (the superior). This character is now written . and the pronunciation is different according to th e two different meanings. Hsiang4, to subject, to s u b m i t ( t h e inferior.}. Chiang4, to descend, to send down, to degrade, to gra n t (the superior). Phonetic contracted is phonetic in lung2, series 182. L. 79 F; being reduced to Another form of straight a n d inverted, one above t h e other. It is f o u n d o n l y in the compound Wei2. R e f r a c t o r y op p o sit i on : two men who p u l l at the same object in c o n t r a r y directions; ( L . 74). This character is now P h o n e t i c series 487. See written L. 23 F.

LESSON 32. About a peculiar form of ,


1

shih1, analogous to.

, which was explained L 30A.

Shih . A seated m a n . The l i v i n g person who anciently represented the dead; by extension, a dead person. The Glose says: The sons, not seeing the deceased ancestor whom they worshipped, i n v e n t e d the, to i mp er son at e h i m ;

It is the 44th radical of characters relating to parts a n d positions of bodies. It forms Shih 1 . Corpse; a man, dead (L. 26 H ) .

Ni2. Two men near each other (L. 26 F). T'un2. The lower part of the body; the part seated (L. 20 A); represents this part;

Hence tien4, the flogging on the buttocks (L 22 D). , the scribes write , which makes one Instead of more false character.

92

Etymological Lessons. 32. I2. It is composed as bind man to man ( ( L . 2 B), the feeling that must two, men). Is phonetic in hot

Wei4. To smooth cloth, the hand holding a iron. By extension, to make even, to sweeten;

It forms wei4, to soothe, to console, to iron the wrinkles of the heart. Note how the scribes into , and changed into Phonetic series 658.

Chu1. A place, a spot, an abode. Et y m o l o g i cal l y , a man who f o u n d a seat. Its c o m p o si t i o n is a n al o . above A ; gous to t h a t of This c h a r a c t e r was a r b i t r a r i l y changed by the scribes in to Phonetic seri es 345.

Compare L. 20 B

I3. Wei 3 . Tail. The h a i r at the e n d ot the body. Contracted into and sometimes into forms i m p o r t a n t co m p o u n d s (See L. 100 B). The Shuowen t el l s us t h a t t h e ol d Chinese put on a fal se t ai l , in order to be as b e a u t i f u l as a n i m a l s ;

Sui1. Niao4. U r i n e , water coming f r o m u u d e i the tail, for is contracted. Shih3. Excr eme n t; th e residue of grain similarly is contracted. This character is a moejected ; dern one a n d superseded the old .See L. 122 C. Ch'ih3. The span of a ma n , of a male adult's hand. This s p a n was, u n d e r t h e Dynasty, t h e u n i t y of length and measured about twenty centimeters. The grew longer, after that time, up to thirty centimeters . The Europeans c a l l it a foot. In China it is a hand; The (L. 9 A ) , says the Glose, represents the opening of the hand, f r o m the t h u m b to the little finger. See (L. 45 B). It forms

Etymological Lessons. 32. 33.

93

Chu2. To fit up, workshop where things are fitted up. This end is obtained by using both mouth and hands (span, used for the hand); Phonetic series 266. being Wu1. Abode, lodgings. Place where a man arrived (L. 133 B), takes rest. Compare Shih4 (L. 133 B), which is a synonym. Phonetic series in several characters; for 490. It is contracted i n t o instance
Lou4. The rain a ; to leak: house passing through the roof of

See L. 125 B.

LESSON 33.
About the two primitives, First series:
Ch'i 1 . Seven. A numerical sign, wi t h o ut a n y other signification: ch'en3, second teething, about the age of seven years. It is phonetic in ch'ih4, to cry out at, to scol d ; a n d in It is radical in

and

Ch'ieh1. To cut; k nife, L. 52. - Phonetic series 43.

Second series:
T'o1. A partial primitive. It represents a small plant s i n k i n g its root into the. ground. The ground , the root beneath, the stalk and a small ear above; Phonetic series 29. It forms Chai 2 . Habitation, abode; The place where a man takes root, fixes his dwelling, Phonetic series 177.

94

Etymological Lessons. 34. LESSON 34

In this number we distinguish t h e series of two primitives. mingled together by the scribes, and mixed up by K'ang-hsi.

and

, wantonly

First series:
Chiung . The. suburbs, the country, the space. The t w o ve rt i c al strokes delineate the limits; the horizontal s t r o k e represents the interval between t h e m , the void space ; 1 3 t h radical. Note the deri vat i ves Chiung . A synonym of the preceding. The representation is more e x p l i c i t ; ( L. 74 delineating are to be
2 3 3

It is the

t h e w a l l e d t o w n in the middle of t h e c o u n t r y . P h o n e t i c s eries 1 1 4 . The d er iv a t iv e s of distinguished from those of


3

(L. 76 G). e. g. hui . to return. hsiang and


4

chiung , to go in remote places; Distinguish also


4

chiung from
4

shang ( L. 36 E) ; from chiung (L. 42 B) Nei . The i n t er i o r; to ent er


4 3

o (L. 15 C); from

in a

void space, is already

in t h e i n t e r i o r . This ch a r a c t e r was e x p l a i n e d L. 15 C. Not e how in the old form here joined, m is ta ke n f o r e x p l a n a t i o n . - Phonetic series 74. Shih . A market The t h e y are in need of;
4

(34 H), whi le the Glose gives t h e true

grass-grown

space out

of the c i t y , wh er e people go and get

(L. 19 El what

(L. 79 B)
This c h a r a c t e r has nothing in common with hsi. It must be carefully distinguished . from (35 B), and from nao , to bustle; market place
4 4

(L. 35), fu
4

under which it was erroneously classified by K'angfei (L. 79 G ). There are a few (L. 11 I) to quarrel as in the

i nsignificant compounds. Note the logical aggregate ; the noisy wrangling and confusion

of a market, so dear to the Chinese. Yin . To go away, to withdraw. A walks in order to go out of a
2

man who

space;

confounded with

Phonetic series 94. Not to be jung3, L. 29 J.

Etymological Lessons. 34. that rises up in Hao4. To rise up, high. A bird space; the this character is not well engraved, one might believe ( L. 36); in reality it is the of it is topped by a crosses the. left side of , that crosses , just as in the preceding. Phonetic series 531.

95

When

Ming2 Obscurity, darkness; The six Chinese hours (half a day) during which the space is in darkness, the being absent. Phonetic series 553. Note. One. may see how, in the modern forms, together. and sun

are absolutely mixed

Second series:
Mi2. To cover. A line t ha t falls at both ends, to cover; It is the 14tlh radical of a few characters meaning, to cover. Note the f o l l o w i n g derivatives Mi*. A t r i v et covered (L. 127 D)

Kuan1. To cover

the head

; a cap. See L. 29 H.

Yuan1 Ill-use without motive, wrong, grievance. Etymologically a rabbit (L. 106 B), trapped It forms a few insignificant phonetic complexes. This character is sometimes wrongly written is met, with the meaning of physical cover, of moral blindness, in many characters, e.g. L. 126 F; L. 154 B; L. 72 D; L. 39 1. But the following are derived from (L. 54), and not from , as the modern form might induce one to believe, e.g. L. 69 G; L. 167 C; etc.

96

Etymological Lessons. 34. Mao3. To cover something It forms (L. 1 , 4 ) ;

T'ung2. Agreement, u ni o n , reunion; The primitive meaning is: adaptation to the orifice of a vase. Phonetic of a cover series 246. with flowers ( L. 79 B); (vegetable objects; compare L. 1021). By extension, the shell of mollusks, covers them, and is ornaof fruits, of eggs, t h a t fine designs; mented with In these last meanings, this character is now written chia-cbieb ch'iao1, the primitiv e meaning of which was to strike. This character forms t h e p h o n e t i c series 517, in which the radical is placed u n d e r contracted; e.g. Ch'iao1. A cover

The scribes a n d t h e engravers often forget the s m a l l stroke of . On t h e o t h e r ha nd, they fancy the different writing s . etc. Meng2. To cover. Its composition resembles that of ( L . 34 If ), a boar t a k e n in a snare. It f o r m s meng2, the wistaria, a trailing plant t h a t cover s: to cover. Phonetic series 784. The characte r meng2 is to he distinguished 3 chung , L. 69 G from

Mao4 A covering f o r t h e head; that which the head (L. 1, 40); It is now written The scribes write

covers

; so that the derivatives of mao4 cannot be distinguished from those of yueh1 (L. 73 A). Still improving on the scribes, K'ang-hsi, a f t e r having classified, under , characters that do not belong to it, placed the true derivatithe 14th radical . Such is the value ves of , the whole series . u n d e r the 13th radical of classifications based upon the modern characters, altered or mingled with others. It forms the compounds.

Etymological Lessons. 34.

97

Mao4. To rush on heedless, to act with the eyes covered ; imprudence, temerity; Phonetic series 462. It forms the phouetic complex headless Man2. To offend by action. The of is bent (L. 158), to give room to . Phonetic series 635. T'a4 Birds of passage flying in flock; swarm of wings covering the sky; Phonetic series 571. Chou4. A helmet, the headgear of soldiers; (L. 151 A) is phonetic; to be confounded w ith the character chou4 posterity, that is pronounced a nd written in the same way (L.65 wei4 ( L. 122 C). B); neither with Mien 3 . Offici al phonetic. Compare cap; mien3 ( L. 106 A) is yuan , L. 34 H.
1

Not

Tsui4. A meeting under the same L. 146 F. Phonetic series 711.

roof. See

Appendix. The

repeated twice, is given as being the lower part of the next important compound, though it appears seldom, the modern scribes having changed into Yen1. Disappearance, loss, absence. An object that was at one tine (L. 159 A) in a store, a n d became invisible (a double cover) later on. See L. 23 G. Note the phonetic complex Pien1. To walk on the edge of a precipice, r u n n i n g the risk of fal li ng into it and disappearing. Chuanchu, bank, edge, margin, a boundary in general;

98

Etymological Lessons. 35. LESSON 35.

About two primitives nearly identical in the modern writing, liang3, with their derivatives. :

chin1, and

First series:

chin1.

Chin1. A small piece of cloth resembling the European handkerchief, that was worn in ancient times, hanging from the girdle, and used for cleaning and dusting. By extension, a bonnet, the ancient Chinese putting on a cloth to cover their heads; cloth in general, represents the two extremities of cloth hanging from the girdle; represents the slate of suspension ; It is the the 60th radical of characters relating to cloth. Note. The lower part of some ancient characters, v.g. L. 119, L. 92, accidentally resembles . Note also t h a t (L. 79 C) has n o t h i n g in common with . But (L. 21 D) is derived from it, as are also t h e f o l l o w i n g characters
Fu4. The cloth worn by t h e a n c i e n t Chinese, a k i n d of skin apron hanging from the waist, down to the knees. It was preserved as a s ou v e ni r of ancient custom in the Imperial dress... represents the girdle, the piece of cloth, the hanging of the same;

Compare of which is analogous.

tai4 (L. 24 Q), t h e construction

Note. The modern form is used for three characters th a t must be carefully shih4 market, L. 34 D; fu4 apron, L. 35 B; fei* vegetation, distinguished; L. 79 G, that forms the important phonetic series 45, whilst the two preceding ones have only a few derivatives. Pu4. A piece sf cloth made of h e m p , nettles or dolic; the ancient Chinese did not know of cotton. At the bottom , on the top fu4 (L 43 G) as phonetic. Chuan-chu; to spread out, to display, to explain, etc. Phonetic series 152. Hsi1. The interstices of a woven material, between the crossed threads (L. 39 G); Cbuan-chu, loose, not close, thinly, scattered, infre, literally quent. Different chia-chieh. Now thin-sown. Phonetic series 275. grain

Etymological Lessons.

35. 99

Chou3. A dusting-brush. See L. 44 K, L, Shua1. To wipe one's wipe; in the c o m p o u n d Shua1. To scrape w i t h scrub, to cleanse: body with a rag; to It is contracted a k n i f e or otherwise, to

Pi4. Rag, latters. A piece of cloth riddled with holes (L. 18 A, division). K'ang-hsi erroneously gives eight strokes to this character, instead of seven.

It forms the homophone and synonymous compound Pi4, in w h i c h (L. 43 D) represents the p hysi cal action t h a t lorethe cloth into shreds. Phonetic series 641.

C h i h 3 . It is also der iv ed f r o m . The top is contracted (L. 102,1), houghs, foliage. has been pierced with needles a n d so flowered. Leaves were the first designs used for embroidery; It is th e 204th radical.

cloth that

Second series:

liang3.
Liang 3 . It represents scalse in equilibrium. This character is no w obsolete, but forms important c o m p o u n d s in w h i c h its p r i m i t i v e m e a n i n g may be still found. In these compounds, a supperadded element develops the notion of weighing and equilibrium. Thus two, represents the weight and counterpoise; to enter-enter (L. 15), means that an equal weight was placed on both sides; graphically represents the same thing. Etc.

100

Etymological Lessons. 35. Liaog3. Two weights e q u a l , state of balance; Hence

Leang3. One ounce. This character is of modern origin. The level beam, is a graphic redundancy. In the sense of two, this character is chia-chieh for t he preced ing. Phonetic series 376. The scribes mutilate in different ways, as may be seen here

Tsai4. A second weighing , equal to the first on the top represents the horizontal beam. one. Twice, again, repeated; It has nothing in common with . L 116 A.

Ch'eng4. This character is formed like the preceding; hut instead of a beam, there is a hand that lifts the balance, in order to let it oscillate; represents the equilibrium of the two scales. To weigh, weighing, sca les; now . It is often written by the scribes.

Erh3. Symmetry, harmony of proportions; balance loaded e q u a l l y on both sides. On the top, erh (L. 18 0) is phonetic. See L. 39 N. Chia-chieh, personal pronoun, thou, y o u ; It is often incor rectly engraved The right form has only 14 strokes. Phonetic series 776. A

Man2. Before the equilibrium is perfect, the balance oscillating hither and thither. Compare L. 103.C. The vertical strokes of the two e lements are united. The modern scribes commonly write instead of . It forms.

Etymological Lessons. 35. 36. Man2. Equality, equilibrium; Compare L. 35 I. represents the level beam. Phonetic series 636.

101

Chien 3 The cocoon of the silkworm: fr o m silk, the worm, the regular form of the cocoon; The modern character is place d h e r e purposely to show how the engravers transformed the

LESSON 36.
About the primitive Mien1. It represents a h u t , a dwelling ; It is the 40th radical of characters relating to dwellings. It forms

Sung*. A hut

made with

wood;

T'ang4.

A cave-dwelling

, in the

rock;

Tsung1. An ancestral h a l l ; The b u i l d i n g from which ema nates (L. 3 D) the influence of the deceased ancestors o v e r their posterity. By extension, ancestors, a clan. Phonetic series 404. Ning2. Rest, happiness; the heart of man being satisfied, when he has a shelter and a full dish, board and lodging; It is found contracted in is in need of, to e n j o y Ning2. That which one rest; The of The srribes often write i n c o r was replaced by rectly

102

Etymological Lessons.
2

36.

N i n g . That which one aspires to , to enjoy peace. To wish, to prefer; peace, to soothe; The modern writers put (L. 57) instead of ( L. 58), out of respect for the etymology. P honet ic series 785, under t he modern form . This character was specially ill-treated by t he scribes. See, underneath t he right one, some wrong ones invented by them. . L. 17 F. Note: lao2 is not derived from

Second series. In some modern characters, i nst ea d of being contracted i n t o , mien2 k e p t its a nc ie n t f o r m . O n l y t h e d o t w h i c h represents t h e top of the roof, sometimes slipped to the le f t, a nd was changed i n t o . Exa m ple s:
See L. 123 F.

Hsiang4. A small round w i n d o w in t h e Northern wall, under the roof , for ventilation; The is the represent ation of the small window, and not the mouth, 30th radical. Chuan-chu, to face, direc tion . Phonetic series 200. To be distinguished from t he series 122. chiung3 (L. 34 B). It forms

Shang4. Has n o t h i n g iu common w i t h (L. 18 H), u n d e r which it was classified by K'ang- hsi. The vertical stroke is th e top of protracted; the two l at er al (L. 18 A), division, separation ; strokes are The crest or ridge ou the roof of Chinese houses, which divides wi n d an d rain,and which is placed last of all. Hence the meanings, to add to, still, elevated, superior, to esteem, etc. Phonetic series placed above the radical, is contrac391, in which . In composition, ted into house. Ch'ang3. To knock (L. 43 D ) a t a to open. Phonetic series 663. house door,

means a roof or a

Etymological Lessons. 36. T'ang2. Dry and even soil under a roof. A hall, a meeting-house, a court. Phonetic series 649. Tang1. Value of a field (L. 149 ), or of a house. To value, equal to, to compensate, to match, convenient, etc. Phonetic series 763.

103

Tang3. A house which is smoky or dark. A poor hamlet. To clob together in darkness, secretly, a cabal, a conspiracy. Phonetic series 857. Ch'eng 1 . To give feet (L. 112 B) to a house, to prop it up. The scribes altered the ancient form. Phonetic series 666. Shang 1 . The flowing g a r m e n t , robe, which covers the lower part of tbe body (L . 16); Shang1. To bestow as a reward cowries (L 161), the money of the ancients; It forms ch'ang2, to pay, to compensate. Chang3. The palm ot the grasp, to rule (L. 48); hand. Chuan-chu, to

Ch'ang2. A banner used to head the troops ( L. 35); hence cbuan-chu, rule, constant way, constantly; Ch'ang 2 . To t hi n k something good, to taste Chia-chieh for the last. It (L. 26 K ) ; is often engraved incorrectly.

104

Etymological Lessons. 37. LESSON 37.

About

, derived from the. pr i m i ti ve


2

, explained in the last Lesson. A space obtained

Hsueh . l>y the removal of rock or of earth; a cave, a hole a den. It is the 116th radical. Phonetic series 125. It forms T'u4. A dog (L. 134) t h a t rushes headlong out of kennel, to attack an its i ntruder. Chuan-chu, impetuousness, suddenly;

Ts'uan4. A rat (L 139) in its hole. To hide one's self, to conceal one's self in a place of safety; Phonetic series 843. Ch'uan 1 To bore ,with the teeth perforate, through, to put on; (L'. 147). To to r un

Wa1. A hole, to make a hole as the robbers do when they pierce through the walls; It forms wa1, to dig out, to scoop out, to excavate. Ch'iung 2 . A man (L. 28) who looks (L 168) cavern, to h it (L. 43 D) or to catch. out from a To be on the watch for, to spy , to expect, to covet. It is often altered, as are a l l the intricate coinpounds; It forms the phonetic compound ch'iung2, a precious stone. It is a radical contracted in the important compound Huan4. To exchange, to change; To pass an object from one hand to another, whil e examining it attentively, to avoid deception. . Note the contraction of into , in the Now modern writing. Phonetic series 451. Chai3. In a confined space, narrow, as when one is crouched down in a hole. See L. 10 F.

(L. 9 B).

Etymological Lessons. LESSON 38. About the three primitives: in the modern way. A

38.

105

k'an3 ch'u1, and kung 1 , which are both written

Note: Two other primitives,i 3 (L, 85 B) and ssu1 (L. 89) are also w r it t e n , in the modern running h a n d : so that is used for four ancient primitives, which fact does not make the matter cle arer.

First series:

k'an3.
K'an3. A hole in the earth, a pit; It is the 17th radical. It forms K'uai 4 . A clod, a shovelful of earth; there is a hole , where the earth was removed; a f urr o w, a trench; incorrectly engraved ; a man (L. 32) sitting down on th e trench w h i c h marks the l i m i t of his properly, and thus asserting his domain. Boundary, limit. Hsiung 1 . This character represents the f al l ( L. 39 B ) of a man into a p it ; Chuan-chu, an accident, unfortunate, u n l u c k y . Phonetic series 62. Note the compounds Hsiung 1 . The t h o r a x , the breast, the heart, the affections. concealed in a man (L. 54). In the second form, ( L. 65) represents the flesh enveloping For, says t h e Glose, it is in the heart that the evil is conceived; Phonetic series 206. Hsiung 1 . A man (L . 29) under evil influonces, contemplating or doing e v i l ; , It forms the phonetic complex Tsung1. To move, to s h a k e ; (L. 31 C). Phonetic.series 483. Hsu. Mad G). with d r i n k (L. 41

It forms

chieh4 often

the inte

106 Second series: ch'u1.

Etymological Lessons. 38.

Ch'u1. Basin, porringer; representation is found in more intricate characters designing different vessels, e. g.

This

Ch'u4. An empty vessel and its cover; The top resembling in the modern writing, and in the old one, is a special primitive. Chuan-chu, to empty, to remove, to lay aside, to leave; ideas coming from the removal of a vessel's cover, and of its c ontents. Compare below . Phonetic series 119. It forms Tiu 1 . To lose. Falling down of an object; L. 48 B Chieh2. To prevent by from violence (L. 53) a man and disappearance Compare

going. as the brigands do; By extension, , which ,a in ieh,

coercion, violence The scribes often write contracted phonetic, the compounds of as chieh4, etc.

is a wrong character. The philologists refer to

The same cover, upon a different vessel, may be found in the ancient forms of the following characters Hu2 A pot, a jug. The representation of the vessel is a primitive. On the top, the cover. It has nothing in common ya4, L. 82 H. Not to be confounded with with k'un3, L. 15 A. It forms the next. 1 I . A kind of ritual vase of old. This character, now obsolete in the primitive sense, is used instead of one, in casting up accounts. See 24 C, and was the auspicious vase; was the 38 D. inauspicious corresponding vase. Phonetic series 680.

Etymological Lessons. 38 39.

107

Ho2. A dish filled and its cover. To till, to cover. This cover resembles the cover of , the vase being (L 157 A) instead of . In the represented by vase. represents the contents (L. 1, 4).

In the modern writing, the scribes contracted the cover and the contents into , thus forming an illogical character, for it is made with one cover and two vases, and . It is often chia-chieh for , an interrogative particle: Phonetic series 532, under its modern form. Note the compound Kai4. A. roof made with course grass used for thatching, to put a roof on, to conceal both literally and figuratively; a cover; The mois admitted by the critics, but is an unauthorised character.

dern form

Third series:

kung1.
K u n g 1 . I t w a s a t first a rudimental representation of the arm bent; (L. 46) was added. The latter forms the phonetic series 69. Then the hand

LESSON 39
About the, character , which corresponds with two primitives (Series I and2); and about its multiples (Series 3. 4. 5.1.

First series:

wu3
Wu3. Five; a numerical sign, represents, says the Glose, the live elements (four sides a n d the centre; compare L. 24 A). Later on, two strokes were added, to represent heaven and earth, and thus was formed Wu3 Five; The two principles yin1 and yang2, begetting the live elements, between heaven and earth. It forms Wu2. An appellation to design one's self; I, my, me; Phonetic series 316. It

108 Second series: i4.

Etymological Lessons. 39.

I4. This character is intended to depict the blades of shears; action Of cutting or turning; action or influence of any kind. It is formed of two (L. 7 C) intercrossed and jointed; To c u t grass, to mow,. Jt is f o u n d in Sha1. To cut an ear. See L. 45 J.

Hsiung 1 . To roll down

into a

pit. See L. 38 D,

Third series: Two character

, side by side, represent the meshes in the important Wang3. A net; to throw down the net, to entangle, to catch. It is derived f r o m covering (L. 34 H), representing the and net; It is the 112th radical of characters concerning nets. The scribes alter so 1hat it m a y he mistaken for bent down ( L . 158). It forms Wang3. To car r y off by a cast of the net (L. 10 E). By extension, disappearan ce, absence, negation; compare (L. 10 I, J). The scribes in such a way t h a t it resembles the 169th wrote . Phonetic series 408. Not to be radical confou nded with the next Kang 1 . The culminating p o i n t of a mountain (L. 80), covered by t h e cloudst Close rejects as being a g r a p h i c redundan cy , a n d gives as an irregular f o r m of Phonetic series 365. Chao4. To take a bird (L. 168) in a net; The

Lo2. To catch birds with a net made w i t h threads (LL. 168 an d 92). Phonetic series 815.

Etymological Lessons. 39. Li4 To blame. To entangle a culprit, in the reproaches (L. 73 C) addressed to h im ; Fa2. To punish, a penalty; Railings and corporal maimings inflicted with a sword ( L. 52 ). Chih4. The Glose explains this character as follows: to procure the delivery of a just man (L. 10 K), fallen into the net of a slanderous accusation;

109

Chuan chu, to procure, to dispose. Pa*. To dismiss a mandarin, drawn into a snare. To cease, to stop. See L. 27 J.

F o u r t h series: Two

superposed. Yao2. M u t u a l action and reaction influence; symmetrical dispos ition, net-work, etc. on the top It is the 89th radical. Note the f o r m of Of the compounds. Hsiao2. To learn. The disciple (L. (4), improving u n d e r the influence of the master; See below .Not to be confounded with hsiao4, filial'piely, L. 39 E. It forms Chiao 1 . To teach. Here the ( L . 4 3 D) ferule is joined to the master's influence, for the for disciple; (L, 39 B ) ;

mation of the

Hsiao2. To learn. This character is more, explicit (above H ) . Both hands (L. 50 A) of the than master, acting from above upon the darkness which covers (L. 34. H) the mind of the disciple. Phonetic series 733, under the contracted form , always giving place to the radical. Note chiao3, to perceive, to feel, whi ch forms some insignificant compounds.

110

Etymological Lessons.

39 40.

Yao3. Meat , cut up and made ready according to the rules. Phonotic series 4 1 2 . Hsi1. Interstices of any material, between the intercrossed threads; loose, scarce, etc. See L. 35 D. Phonetic series 275. Fan2. Fence, hedge-row. From two and interlaced , to form a hedge; trees, bound

See
Po2. A hoise (L. 1 3 7 ) ,

, L. 47 Z.
dappled, spotted;

By extension, to lind fault with, to criticise, to censure, to refute. This character is often incorrectly written

Fifth series: repeated four times action, in the following


3

representing symmetry, meaning

Erh . Harmony. See L. 35 L Phonetic series 776.

Shuang3. A man (L. 60) acting arms; active, alert, cheerful;

with both

There are diflerent chia-chieh Compare 13 B, and 27 E.

LESSON 40

About the three series

, indudiug five primitives.

First series:

hsin4
Hsin*. The skull, the cover of the brain; In composition, the head It is often altered in the modern writing, so that it resembles (L 119) It forms Pi2. The navel, which is supposed to be In communication with the head .through ducts in which circulate the vital spirits See L. 27 I. Phonetic series 557.

Etymological Lessons. 40. Ssu1. To think;

111

When one is thinking, says the Glose, the vital fluid of th e heart ascends to the brain. Phonetic series 477. It forms Lu4. To meditate; Phonetic series 807. Head and hands. It wil l be explained, w i t h its i m p o r t a n t series, in the L. 50, M N 0 P. Hsi 4 . Tenuous, slender, like a t h r e a d ; It may be t h a t the pr i m i t i ve sense was hair, the f i l a m e nt s that cover the head.

Sub-series:

hsin4, which is often engraved by the modern writers


4

op

Hsin . The hairy head; This was fi r s t a special primitive, representing the h a i r raised up a n d k n o t t e d in a t u f t ; then the was covered w i t h h a i r (L. 12 M ) . The engravers often instead of , the derivatives of bsin4 cutting 1 are easily c o n f o un d ed wirh those of tzu . Sec LL. 150 A, an d 12 I. It forms Nao3. The brain, the m a r r o w of the head, says the Glose; The ( L. 56 A, 2 ) is i n t e n d ed to mean the symmet rica l structure of t h e brain, hemispheres a n d lobes. Note : always contracted into g i v i n g place to the radical, forms the p honetic s eries 469, etc. Lieh4. Hairy, bristly, disorderly; The top is the h a ir y head, as above. The bottom is shu3, rat (L. 139 B) contracted ; the whiskers and the t ail of a rat. Phonetic series 80S. Fei4. Monkey. Sec L. 23 F.

112 Second series: fu .


4

Etymological Lessons. 40.

Fu 4 . Head of a devil, of a p h a n t o m ; It forms Kui 3 . The s p i r i t of a dead m a n , a manes, a ghost, a spectre. Fu r t h e r , a f t e r the introduction of Buddhism, it m e a n t , a d e v i l , a preta. The old character is evidently a primitive representing a h u m a n f o r m floating in t h e air. The more recent forms o f t e n show the, split head of B u d d h i s t pretas, a n d alw ays ha ve an appendage, t h a t was sometimes taken for a tail, but that really represents the whirling made by t h e ghost, while, it moves. It forms the 194th radical of characters relating to devils. Phonetic series 5i8. Now is a s y n o n y m for horrid, repulsive, malignant. Wei4. To dread, to be in awe, a w f u l , terrible. The c h a r a c t e r was first composed of t h e head of a spectre , a n d of claws (L. 49). Later on, a man frightened, was added; for, says the Glose, nothing insp ires more awe, t h a n the head of a demon, or the claws of a tiger; Compare the composition of , L. 135 H. The bottom of t h e modern character is a strange contraction (compare L. tO H ) ; lost its ; finally K a n g - h s i placed this character t h u s alt ere d under , the 120th r a d i c a l , Phonetic series 488. Yu2. An ape; and its tail and paws ; the head resembles that of a demon, See L. 23 E Phonetic series 503. Pi4. To agree, to enter into an engagement. is not a head, It is the pledge, the earnest-money p laced upon a small table (L. ?9 K), an act that conclndes a transaction. By extension, to yield (to the conditions), to give (the earnest-money). Classified by Its head

Etymological Lessons. 40. K'ang-hsi u n d e r the 102th radical.

113

Compare L. 47 R i4, difference, disagreement. hands rejecting the pledge placed upon The , that is, the affair is not concluded, the the table bargain is not made. Pi4 is phonetic In PI2. The nose; See (L. 159 A ) . - It is the 209th radical. Note: and much annoyed K'ang-hsi. Finally he classified under the 31th radical, and under the 102th radical. It Is therefore not easy to see the etymological meanings in th e modern series of radicals.

Third series:

ch'uang1.

This modern character has two ancient forms, each forming a distinct series. Further there will be an appendix for the modern abbreviation Ch'uang 1 . A window, closed by a shutter or by It is now replaced by its lattices (two forms); compound

1. Derivatives from the first a n c ie n t form Besides cb'uang window, and shu1 shutter, note Ts'ung 1 . To feel alarm or agitation; When the heart being restless.one looks t h r o u g h the window, to see what is coming. Phonetic series 660. 2. Derivatives from the second ancient form. Hei1. Black. That which the fire deposits around the, aperture through which t h e smoke escapes; soot ; In the primitive Chinese huls, the smoke found its way through the window. Note the contraction of (L. 126 D) in the modern character. It is the 203th radical. Phonetic series 678. It forms Mei1. Chinese ink, an earthy substance made with soot;
1

114

Etymological Lessons.

40.41.

Hsun 1 . Smoke, to fumigate. Black va pour that rises from the (ire; (L. 78 A) is used symbolically; Note the modern contraction. Phonetic series 781. Tang 3 . A meeting in the darkness See L. 36 E Phonetic series 857. ; conspiracy.

Tse ng 1 , ts'eng 2 . The words t ha t people say to door, at the moment each other, when still at the deparlure; adieu. By extension, still, more, to of a dd. Phonetic series 710. H u i 4 . The words that people say at the door, (L. 14 A) they meet; greeting. By exten sion, when mee ting, reunion Phonetic series 736. Note. with . See L 75 A. an a b b r e v i a t i o n of , a b o ve iO D, is f o u n d in Hence ts'ung 1 o nion. ts'ung1 for 3. A p p e n d i x . Chien3 does not come f r o m . It is added

LESSON 41 The seven series of t h i s Lesson are devoted to seven characters, distinct in the ping3. ancient writing, analogous or identical in the modern writing, viz: 1. t'ien 4 3. hsia4. 4, 5, 6 hsi1, t'iao2, yao 1 . 7, yu 3 . 2. First series: ping3. Ping 3 . F ire, calamity. The fire u n d e r a roof, in a house. The more recent form represents the flames rising up and spreading over the roof; Phonetic series 150 It forms K e n g 1 . To change, to improve; , Intervention of the armed fire, in an u n h a p p y s itua tio n; h a n d (L. 43 D) in a change, amendment. Nole the contraction of the modern character, and the su1, to return to life. K'ang-hsi erroneously classified compound under , the 73th. radical. Phonetic series 283. It forms

Etymological Lessons.
4 2

41.

115 who settles his

Pien . Pien A man afTairs well; advantage, convenience, ease; Phonetic series AH.

Second series:

tien4.
T'ien4. Chin A primitive. The second ancient character is considered as an abbreviation of the first, which was explained in the L 47 I. In composition, is often used for (L. IT G), dried meal, It forms the phonetic compound Ch'ien4. Rubia cordifolia, a climbing plant with large ovate leaves, used in dyeing. Hsu4. A m a n who eats or offers dried meat It forms (for )

Hsu 1 . Hsu3. A roof under which a traveller stops, to spend the n igh t; means, either that he eats the dried meal he brought w i t h hi m , or ra t her t h a t he gives the dried m eat to pay his host. Constellations, the. celestial i nns. The scribes write for ; it is a licence. Phonetic series 613. Pi 4 . A i d , helper, lieutenant, Two bows, strung on a bamboo with leather-strongs, to prevent deformation; The idea of helper, of minister, comes from the fact that, in ancient times, bows, like swords, were paired, not single. See L 87 B.

Third series:

hsia4
Hsia4. A k i n d of stopper, of cover; . It is the 116th A primitive, often engraved radical of a few common character. It forms Chia3. Ku3. To buy. To cover an object by its value in eowries (L. 161 ), to pay its value. Fu2. To cover. See L. 75 1.

116

Etymological Lesson. 41.

Fourth series:

hsi1. hsi1. A primitive not to be confounded with the preceding, under which K'ang-hsi wrongly cbassified it. Image of a bird sitting on its nest; note the successive contractions; chu, t h e West, for the birds go to roost when the sun is setting; It forms

Chuan-

Jeng1. Cry and flight of a bird caught on its nest; It is n o w w r i t t e n . See L. 19 A, where this character was fully explained.

Yin 1 . To destroy, to wall, to dam i n ; See L. 81. It is now written The pri mit ive idea was probably tha t of mud nests built by certain birds, v.g such as the swallows. Phonetic series 499. Lu3. The rock salt, that was first used by the Chinese, a n d that comes from t h e West, says t h e Glose. Hence the composition: hsi1, West, in its ancient form, and four grains of s alt ; It is the 197th radical. It forms the compounds Yen2. Salt obtained by evaporation of the sea-water; salt and the basin (L. 157 A) used Ancient form to prepare it. Compare L. 82 F. Chien3. impure carbonate of soda. Hsien2. Salted. Tan2. Pickled. See L. 75 G.

Etymological Lessons. 41. Fifth scries:

117

t'iao4, contraction of T'iao 2 . Fruits h a n g i n g f r o m plants or trees, in ears or in bunches; the top the pedicle, at the bottom the ear or the bunc h. The ancient form was thrice repeated, to mean the mu ltitu de of fruits. Not to be confounded w i t h a singular form of yu3 (L. 41 G). K'ang-hsi wrongly classified t h i s character under , the 25th radical In composition, in the modern forms, is written , v.g. Li4. Chestnut-tree; 119. Phonetic series 550. Su4. Ears, grains of corn; L. 122. S i x t h series: yao4, c o n t r a c t i o n of See L. 50, N, 0, P.

A primitive. On

See

L.

See

Sev enth series:

yu3.
Yu3. A p r i m i t i v e . It represents an ancient vase, a k i n d of a m p h o r a , u sed for m a k i n g or keeping t h e f e r m e n t e d liquors. By extension, fermented liquor, now chiu3. chia chieh of different kinds. It is the 164th radical of characters re l a t i n g to liq u ors It forms Yu2 or shu 2 . To offer up way, on a straw b u n d l e libations, in the old ;

There are

See page 362.


Chiu4. Liquor obtained when the fermentation is over, when the dregs are entirel y separated (L. 18A); spirits that have settled; Phonetic series 432. It forms Tsun1. To offer with both hands, the wine, to the manes. By extension, to honour, h igh, noble. See L. 46 E. The scribes replaced Phonetic series 713.

by

118

Etymological Lessons. 41. 42 Tien4. Spirits for the libations, placed upon a tL. 29 K ) ; to offer libations. The .small table scribes often contracted compound Cheng1. Name of a city.

into

It forms the

LESSON 42

About the two primitives First series: ssu4.

ssu2 and

chiung3.

Ssu4. Four. N u m e r i c a l sign. Even n u m b e r , w h i c h is easily divided into two halves. The old f o r m graphically represents the d i v i si o n nf into two halves. Phonetic series 1 0. Liu 4 . Six. The even number, also easily divisible, that comes after four. marked with a dot. Note that in the other simpl e ev en numbers, the divisibility is also indicated; two; eight, P'i3. Half of a whole. The whole is represented by . A little more than the h a l f of was kopt, so that the character is still recognisab le;
That w hic h, be ing j o i n e d wit h its like , forms a pair, a m a t c h See the c o m p o u n d L 73 B

Second series:

chiung3.
Chiung3. A window; light; Compare L 40 D, and L 41 G. The modern form is to be distinguished from L. 15 C. It forms the compounds Meng2. A liliaceous plant, Fritillaria Thunbergii. A phonetic complex. By extension,

Etymological Lessons. 42. 43.

149 moon hence

Ming2. Brightness, to illustrate. The sbining through the window; Li-ssu read instead of sun a n d moon, light. Phonetic series 384. It forms Meng 2 . Note in the first place that the radical is not . as the modern character might induce one to believe; it is blood; To clear up swearing, in the old wa y, up on a vessel full of blood. Meng2. To bud, to germinate, to open, to appear in the light; L 78 B.

an obscure affair, by

See

LESSON 43

The eight following Lessons, 43 to 50, treat about the character representing the human hand. Among the modifications introduced in the modern writing, there were none more deplorable, than the replacing of those very expressive characters, by unrecognisable abbreviations. In the old writing, the hand is represented in s i x different ways: The right hand in profile. L. 43 seq. The l e f t h a n d in profile. L 46 The h a n d facing. L 48. The right hand prone. L. 49. Both bands raised. L. 47. Both h a n d s hanging L. 50.

A Note. The use of a compound, instead of the primitive, is frequent in these series, in order to make easier the distinction between the numerous derivatives from hand. See p. 16, aote 1.

120

Etymological Lessons.

43.

First series:
Yu4. The right h a n d . The Glose explains that the fingers are reduced to three, for the sake of simplification; in a great n u m b e r of compounds. It is th e 29th radical. Chih 1 . Bough, branch. The right h a n d holding a bough. The old form represents the hand separating t he bough from the stem; It is the 65th radical. Phonetic series 45. P'u1. To tap; right hand holding a rod. Compare L. 43 G. The engravers inve nted t h e m o d e r n form . It is th e 66th radical of characters relat ing to strokes and motions. Note t h e two followin g compounds M u 4 S h e p h e r d , to feed. The superintends, has man who oversight of cattle; Chiao1. To teach. The master rod, acting armed with a upon his disciple. See L. 89 H. Fan3. To t a r n over, inversion. The m o t i o n the band t urn i ng over; Phonetic series 55. Chi2. To reach, to seize. A h a n d man; tic series 40. seizing a See L. 19 D. Phoneof The

It is found

Fu4. Father, considered as the e h i e f a n d instructor of his family. Composed of hand a n d a stick; Compare L. 43 D. It is th e 88th radical. Phonetic series 60

Etymological Lessons. 43.

121

P'i2. To flay; skin. The hand that flays; The left stroke, represents tbe skin; hand may represent tbe knife. the stroke above th e These two strokes are a special primitive. It is the 107th radical of characters relating to skins. Phonetic series 149. It forms Chia3. False, borrowed; two skins, a double skin, a borrowed skin over one's true skin. The modern character reproduces the ancient one. Phonetic series 427. Nan3, nien 3 . T h in sk in. It is an abbreviation of fu2, L. 55 C. It forms Not to be confounded w it h 3 nan , to blush. Turning red of the thin skin that covers the cheeks. To have

Second series:
K In the modern writin g, the stroke of is su p p resse d, when it coincides with a stroke in t h e same d i r e c t i o n , c oi ning down f r o m the, top of the character. fiom . In the a n c i e n t wr iti ng, these characters In this case, there remains b u t are made l i k e those of t h e f i r s t series. Chang4. A l i n e o f t e n s p a n s (See hand and ten; Phonetic series 13. L. 32 F). A grasping

Shih3. A n n a l i s t , scribe, liter ate. A h a n d the f o u n t a i n- p e n (pag e 7 ) ; It forms

Li*. Those among the literati, who were (L. 2 G) set over the instruction and administration of the people ; See L. 44 H.

Chueh2. To divide, to partake; A hand holding one h a lf of a bilateral object, which was divided into two halves. K'ang-hsi wrongly classified this character under , the 37th radical. Phonetic series 53.

122

Etymological Lessons. 43. 44. Yu3. Friend, friendship. The character represents the right hands of two friends, acting in the same direction; for, says the Glose, true friends are those who cooperate; Compare L. 46 C. Jao2. Three hands picking herbs; to gather; It is an ancient form of L. 46 G The hand represented thrice signifies activity. It forms Sang1. The mulberry, the tree, the leaves of which are plucked to feed the silkworms; Phonetic series 558. Cho4. To sew; has nothing in common with the hand. It is a primitive that represents the stitches encroaching upon one another. Compare (L. 57 B). - Phonetic series 341. LESSON 44. This character

Third series: Multiples of

A In this Lesson, we sh all examine some characters in w hich the hand kept almost its ancient form in the modern writing. The ancient forms of these characters resemble those of the last Lesson. Do not confound the h a n d , with the 58th radical Ch'ou 3 . A hand bound. To bind, to tie u p ; Chia-chieh, a cyclical character. Sometimes, in composition, it means the hand (L. 43 A). Phonetic series 50. It forms. Hsiu1. To be forced to offer a sheep in expiation, as a reparation for wrong. Hence, to feel ashamed, to blush. 3 Yin . A magistrate, to govern. A hand that exerts a u t ho r i t y ; It forms i1, a proper Dame; and Ghun1. A prince; See, p. 9, for the story and the Interpretation of this character. Phonetic series ts'ang1 is not derived from . See L. 26 267. But M, under

Etymological Lessons. 44.

123

Nieh4. A hand writing upon a surface. In the ancient form, hand writing upon a tablet, whose top o n l y is figured. Yu4. A more explicit form. Hand writing a l i n e on a lahlet. The line is horizontal, because it was impossible to truce a vertical one (p. 18,8). The modern writing-brush is written , because its handle is hamboo. It is the 129th radical. See its made of important derivatives, L, 169.

Tai4. To reach, to seize, to hold. A hand that seizes a tail ; when running, one seizes from behind ; For contracted, see L. 100. Compare ch'iu2, L. 45 K. See, also (L. 102 B) k'ang 1 , that has nothing iu common with . -~ It is the 171th radical.

Chieh2. Result, success. The hand having reached its end, ceases from ac tin g. See L. 112, and L. 78. Phonetic series 330 It forms

Ch'i 1 . Wile. This form is a relatively modern one; (L 67) a w o m a n who holds a broom or a duster. For, says The Glose, the woman must take care of th e household. Compare (below K). A more ancient form gives: daughter, an d price (L. 111 B). The price paid to the parents, for their daughter, by the husband. Phonetic series 326.

Shih 4 To serve. Chia-chieh any affair. Hand acting with fidelity, is a false interpretatio n. This character has nothing to do wit h L. 43 M. It represents the hand of a son invitin g the soul of his ancestor. See page 370.

124

Etymological Lessons. Ping 3 . Sheaf of grain in sheaves, to hold;

44. hold by a hand, to bind

Chien1. A han d t h a t binds up into sheaves two (several) stalks of grain. By extension, to join several together, a whole. Note the contraction of the two in the modern form. Phonetic series 519. Hui4. A broom, hundle of branches held in a

See L 97 B. K'ang-hsi wrongly classified this character under the 58th radical. Phonetic series 617. It forms Hsueh 3 . Snow; swept solidified, t h a t m a y he away; The scribes contracted

ra i n

into

Chou3. A duster, mode w i t h a cloth, fixed by the m i d d l e to a h a n d l e . I n v e n t e d in t h e 2 1 t h C e n t u r y B. C., a c c o r d i n g lo th e Glose., it is s t i l l used in o u r days. A hand, t h e h a n d l e , a n d a double cloth h a n g i n g . Compare t h e b o t t o m of L. 24 Q. Phonetic, series 343. It f o r m s
Fu4. A married w o ma n , w i f e ;

A woman

with a

duster, indicating

her household duties. The ancients, says, t h e Glose, gave to this character the f u , obedient to her husband. sound of fu, to remind the wife that she must be 1 Compare ch'i , above G. Kui 1 . The ar ri val of t h e br i de at her husband's ( contracted); bouse, where she w i l l slay as a wife Later on was a d d e d as a phonetic. Chuanchu, to b elo ng to, to depend u p o n ; the maried woman belonging to a new f amil y, being submitted to a new authority. C h i n 1 To dust A h a n d holding a duster ). The (above K) Pleonastic composition (two scribes invented the modern form. P honetic series 261. The compound ch'in 4 . to encroach u p o n t h e neighbour's ground, is explained thus: to act g r a d u a l l y and discretely, as with a thus gaining on one's neighbour's ground; dusting-brush,

Etymological Lessons. LESSON 45

45.

125

A About five d e ri v a l i v e s f r o m , t h a t arc of a special interest, on a c c o u n t of the series derived from t h e m . These are:

First scries
Tsun4.The Chinese i n c h. The clot represents th e place on t h e w r i s t w h e r e the puls e is felt, w hi c h pl a c e is an inch d i st a n t f r o m the h a n d ; hence the meaning i n c h ;

By extension, measure, rule. In composition, is o f t e n w r i t t e n instead o f . ; see L. 43 A. It is the .41th radical. Phonetic series 32. It forms Fu 4 . To give A h a n d to a m a n : series 420. it forms t h a t gives up some, object Phonetic Fu3 Building records, the litle-deeds of donations, the diplomas, were kept; Phonetic series 355. Shou3. A m a n d a r i n , a p r e f e c t ; the m a n , w h o , in hi s t r i b u n a l , a p p l i e s the law. By extension, to observe, to keep. Phonetic series 237. Te2. To acquire, to obtain; To lay one's hand on the thing one had in view The compound is now used instead. Phonetic series 397. Sometimes is used as an abbreviation of , e.g. for nai4; it is a licence. Note the, contraction of the modern character. Hsun2. To wind, to unravel treads with ; the latter probably representhe hands and the ting an instrument used for the winding. The old character where t h e

By extension, t r i b u n al , palace.

represented the unravelling of threads by two hands holding combs. By extension, to examine, to invesli-

126

Etymological Lessons. 45.

gate (the winding requires attention); length, duration (as of a thread winded ). The c h a r a c t e r was altered by the scribes. There are different chia-chieh. Phonetic series 686. Chou3. The fore-arm, the elbow; The fleshy
4

part above the

wrist. The

Chou . The crupper of a saddle; preceding contracted, is supposed to be the phon etic. Now T'ao3. To rule by one's words; to chide

Second series:
Ch'a1. To cross, to interlace. The a n c i e n t character represented t h e two hands i n t e r l a c e d . In t h e modern character, the l e f t h a n d is represented by By extension, gearings, toothed wheels, etc. Phonetic series 12.

Third series.:
Chao3. Claws; points; It forms Tsao2. Flea. The insect that irritates men, says the Glose. Pho netic series 570. Hand or paw with

Fourth series:
Shu2. A glutinous grain, rice or millet ; The idea of glutinousness is represented by the hand , that separates three agglutinated grains. The ancient charater represented the plant. Phonetic series 158. It forms Sha1. To decapitate; The cutting (39 B) of the ear, upon a stalk of rice, sorghum or millet. The ancient forms represent: on the top, the hand after th e cutting ; at the bottom, the stalk beheaded. To behead a man is now said (L. 22 D) representing the sword's stroke. sha1,

Etymological Lessons. 46. 46.

127

strokes in 6 again in-

Note that the modern scribes, leaving off the dot on the top of , write etc., which gives the phonetic 6 strokes, instead of 7, and makes one mistake for (L. 119). It is a licence. K'ang-hsi numbered 6 , 7 in , then , etc. It is an inconsistency.

Fifth, series:
Ch'iu2. To search for, to ask, to implore. According to the Glose, the primitive composition and meaning (L. 44 E); of this character would be l i k e those of ; to seize, or to by the tail hold contracted (L. 100 B). The meaning, to beg, to pray, would come from Chow Dynasty. Perhaps, in this sacrifice of a b ull for impetration, as under the sacrifice, the offerer held by its tail the offered b u l l . It seems rather that the hairs (L 100) of the victim, with prayers, as primitive sense, was , to offer under wawas done in the ancient sacrifices. K'ang-hi wrongly classified ter. Phonetic series 263.

LESSON 46

A The first Series of this Lesson treats about the left hand . In the modern writing, on the top of the compounds, it becomes ; af the b otto m, it becomes , etc. It is never written (See LL. 44 and 135 H). The second Series treats about some compounds, in which the right hand in the modern writing. In their ancient form, placed on the top, became also those compounds are made just like those given in the LL. 43, 44, 45.

First series:

for
Tso3. The left hand; replaced by Tso3. Properly, the help to the right, its action; given by the le ft hand Was soon

128

Etymological Lessons. 46. Gh'a4. Variance, and consequently, aberration, failure. Two h a n d s opposite. W h i l e the l ef t h a n d is act i n g, offering some object, t h e r i g h t one does not move, does n o t receive, remai ns hanging. Compare 43 P, 47 B, 47 Y, 50 A, etc.. The tracing of the h a n g i n g right h a n d bei ng too difficult with the modern writingbrush, the co m position of t h i s character was modified left h a n d , m a k i n g two with the as follows; right one, not agreeing with it, f o r s a k e n by the right (L 18 E) remains h a n g i n g , instead of helping that the l e ft ; Finally, a foolish scribe wrote instead of , and has nothing in comLi-ssu adopted. Conclusion : mon, either with , or w i t h (L, 103). Phonetic series 506. To4. To b u i l d a (L. 86) l i n e of c o n t r a v a l l a t i o n , terraces, to besiege, a f o r t i f i e d t o w n , according to t h e represents t h e action of the besiegers; Chinese ways; twice repealed, me ans t h e i r great n u m b e r ; left, means that their action is the inverse, the contrary to the action of t h e besieged ; to d e s t r o y . It forms To4. S u i 2 M e a t c u t up. One of the two replaced by the radical (L. 65). It forms, contracted i n t o in t h e modern writing, the phon etic series 480. The phonetic compl ex sui2, to follow, forms the phonetic series 759. PI 4 . O r di n a r y , vulgar. This m e a n i n g is chuan-chu from

By extension,

was

the primitive meaning ; This c h a r a c t e r represents an ancient drinking vase provided with a h a n d l e on t h e l e f t side (a p r i m i t i v e distinct from (L. 152), and which was held wi t h the left hand. How came th is character to mean tsun1 a n d common, v u l g a r ? There were, says t h e Glose, two w i n e vessels, the 1 1 1 the pi . The tsun was used for t he sacrifices, t h e pi was used every day. Later on, the two characters were taken in the abstract sense for noble and vulgar, a n d the vases were written tsun1 a n d pi1 ; Phonetic series 388.

Etymological Lessons. 46. Second series: for

129

Yu4. It me a ns now, the right h a n d (chia-chieh for L 43 B), the right side. The primitive meaning was. to put in the mouth; to help the mouth, as the Glose says; which is a proof that the ancient Chinese used the right hand to eat; Hence, to help. Compare L. 46 13. _ Phonetic series 172.

Jao 2 . Pr i mit i ve sense, to pick, eatable herbs, in order to eat t he m; Q. Jao- is now (chia-chi eh) an impor tant conjunction, if, as, etc. See the compound L 10 D. Phonetic series 454.

Compare L. 43

Yu3. Primitive meaning: the phases of' the moon , its m o n t h l y darkening, as if a h an d covered it; Or, a c c o r d i n g to oth ers, ecl ipse of the. moon, the interpretation being the same. The following interpretation: eclipse of the s u n , the moon placing the hand before it, is rejected by t h e com3 mentators. Yu means no w (chia-chieh) lo be, to have. Phonetic series 250.

H u i 1 Ashes, fire that can be p er h a p s that which remains of the covered, smothered; Phonetic series 210.

h an d l e d ; or fire that was

Kung2 The a r m ; Phonetic series 69. Pu4. Linen, cloth. In this character, is not ,but fu (L. 43 G) contracted, phonetic. See L. 35 G. Phonetic series 152.

See L. 38 H.

130

Etymological Lessons. 47.

LESSON 47.
A About the two hands. The simplification of this character, in the modern writing, made many compounds quite unintelligible. See the examples given below, and you may verify the remark. Any signs are good to replace ; etc. Kung3. The two hands joine d and held up, as when presenting a thing: It is the 55th radical.

First series.
Tsun 1 . To ofter a w i n e vessel that was held with both hands; T he scribe s changed into . See, L. 40 E, the o r i g i n of t h e modern chuan-chu, noble, high, eminent. Phoneti c series 713. P i n g 1 . Arms, soldiers; h a n d s brandishing an axe (L. 128). C h i e h 4 . To d a u n t , to forbid with threats; Two hands h o l d i n g a halber d (L. 71) Phonetic series 258. L u n g 4 , neng 4 . Two h a n d s playing with a jade ball (L. 83); h a n d l e , to make. Phonetic series 290. Hsuan. To calculate. It has nothing in common with lung 4. It is a different writing of , below G, the representation of the abacus being instead of Chu4. To heap up, to hoard up, to prepare. The is contracted into .Two hands heaping up cowries ( L. 161), the money of the ancients; Phonetic series 347. Hsuan4 To calculate, to plan. It has n o t h i n g in common with chu4; Two hands manipulating the Chinese abacus (a primitive) made of bamboo. Compare above F. Phonetic series 780, the radical being placed at the bottom, etc. To Two

Etymological Lessons
4

47.

131 On the

Pi en . Hat ; tup, t h e hat, a p r i m i t i v e form. At the bottom, two hands, th e r i t u a l r e q u i r i n g both hands to be used in covering or uncovering oneself. The form is u m o d e r n contraction. Phonetic series 78.

Yen3, To cover, o join order to cover something; Phonetic series 496. the T hands, in

Second series.
In the modern writing, the hands are often mixed up with the object which they hold. Among these compounds, that are now unrecognisable, some are very important. The two following, J and K, are to be carefully distinguished. Cheng4. Fire that can be handled, embers, live coal, lit. grain of fire; Compare , L. 46 I. It forms Gheng4. To c a u l k the seams of a boat ( for rather, to curve with fire planks to build a h u l l . Phonetic, series 511, in which the radic al is inserted at the bottom of etc. From the year B. C. 221, was used (chiachieh) to write the personal pronoun chen by which the E m p e r o r designated h i m s e l f .

L 66); or

Chuan4. To pick a n d sort hands, to choose the best. The top Is not (L. 12 2). Phonetic series 191, in which the radical is placed at the bottom, etc. Note the derivative Chuan4. A deed sealed 55 B), a roll, a scroll, a section is or division of a work; phonetic. Phonetic series 350.

(L. 123) with the

L.

132 Third series:

Etymological Lessons.

47.

This is another series formed hy the hands mixed up with the object which they hold. Though the object is not the same in the ancient characters, the is the same. The radical is at the bottom. modern contraction Peng4. To hold up (or to receive) respectfully in both hands, as required by the ritual; Note that at the bottom, has only two transversal strokes, as in the ancient says the Glose, represents the character (L. 48). something, while the two action of presenting represent the ritual reverence. . Phonetic hands series 354.
Tsou4. To i n f o r m , a m e m o r a n d u m . To present one's Self (L. 60 V) before a superior, a n d to offer one's advice; to hi m symbolic, P hon et i c series 482. Ch'ung 1 . To b ark the g r a i n by p o u n d i n g it. Two h a n d s t h a t raise up the pestle (L. 130), above the mortal (L. 139); According to the Glose, the. g u i l t y women were co nd emn ed to this hard work. Not to be conf ounded with , below P. Phonetic series 606. The composition of the next is analogous. Ch'in 2 . A k i n d of rice, cultivated in the. Wei valley; then the name of this valley, an d last l y of the Ch'in Dynasty. The character represents the barking of thi s rice. Phonetic series 522. Tai 4 A man, who struggles, in water; flooded river, inundation. Hence the derived notion, vast, w i de -s pr ea di n g. The modern character is a strange contraction. Ch'un 1 . Spring. Here the m od er n d ifferent meaning from th at of the preceding charact ers. Outburst of the. plants , u n d e r the influence of the s u n , at the b e g i n n i n g of the year. See L. 79 A. Phonetic series 436. has a quite

The

(L. 78 A) is

Etymological Lessons. 47.

133

Fourth scries. O t h e r m o d e r n c o n t r a c t i o n s of Kung 4 Generally, all, altogether. Action in common , symbolised, in the old character; by four hands joined together, and in the more, recent form, by twenty pairs of hands; See L. 74 C. Phonetic series 225. Note: L. 22 D, has nothing in common with The same may be said of the two following characters, R a n d S I4. To disagree, discord, variance, difference, hetero, thrust aside the earnest dox. Two hands money, from t h e s mall table, upon which it was l ai d d o w n ; the parties do not want to conclude, they t he agreement, L. 40 C. disagree. Compare Phonetic series 620.
Pao4. i n s o l a t i o n , e x p o su r e to the s u n ; to s p r e a d out the grain . w h e n the su n e x t e n si o n , a n y intense, violent action or influence. P h o n e t i c series 809.

is risen

. By

F i f t h series. Other m o d e r n contractions of Sai1 To wall i n , to block u p , to sh u t u p . An empty is filed w it h bricks, or other materials, pl ac e hands. It is now written t h a t ar e i n t r o d u c e d by the . P h o n e t i c series 530. The top of the compounds, w h i c h now resembles the top of the derivatives f r o m ( b e l o w U), was different from them in the old writing.
H a n 2 . Cold;

A poor m a n , who tries to protect h i m s e l f from frost, (L. 17 A), in his shelter, by b u r y i n g himself in straw. Phonetic series 530, in w h i c h the top is the s ame as in the derivatives from sai1 ( a b o v e T) ; gives room to the radical, v.g. Gh'ien5 To go lame;

134

Etymological Lessons. 47.

S i x t h series. Other modern contractions of Ch'eng2. To aid, to second; a deputy, a minister Two hands holding a , the official sceptre, to mean the min i st er (See L. 55 A, B). A mou ntain represents the pri n ce who is assisted; for, says the Glose, m o u n t a i n means eminence, dignity. flattened was changed In the modern character, into . It forms the phonetic, compound Cheng1. To steam, to boil; Phonetic series 510. Note also Chin 3 . The symbolical wedding cup, two halves of a same gourd. Ch'eng2. To present, Sec (above L), the composition and meaning of w h i c h are n e a r l y identical; instead of , there is representing any object whatever.

S e v e n t h series: In the two f o l l o w i n g c h a ra c t e r s , a scorpion.

represents t h e claws of

Ch'ai4. A scorpion represented by its claws, head The legs being added, this and tail; charact er became Wan4. Scorpion ; This character now means chia-chieh a myriad. See the Introduction, p. 11, and L. 23 H. Phonetic series 765.

Eighth series:

the hands diverging. P'an1. To discard. Gesture of a man w h o exerts h i m s e l f to separate, to repel obstacles, on the right an d on the le ft. v i a t i o n is an u n h a p p y one. It forms Fan2. Hedge, tr ellis, obtacle, to stop; The hands try ing in vain to separate the interlaced branches of a Phonetic series 801, in which the radical is added at the bottom, , etc.

The modern abbre-

hedge ( L. 39 L).

Etymological Lessons. 48. 49. LESSON 48. About , a special form of the hand.

135

Shou3. is the hand seen half face; is the The, small hand (palm) seen f u l l f a c e ; in the, ancient form, represents the lines of the h a n d . Now or . It is t h e 64t h r a d i c a l of characters r e l a t i n g to the h a n d . See L. 11 E, a n d note the following, fall f r o m the See L. 9 A. The a n ci en t c h a r a c t e r is h a r d l y r e c o g n i s a b l e in i t s m o d e r n form. Phonetic series 155. K'an4. To look at, to re ga r d c a r e f u l l y . A h a n d eye; covering an the Glose, in o r d e r to see well, o n e s h a d e s t h e eye with the hand, that stops t he rays of the s u n ; Compare L. 37 F. Che2. She2. To c u t , to b r e a k , to burst ; hand holding an axe ; This is a mistake of Li-ssu. The old character r e p r eaxe. and the two parts of a c u t sented an branch; Pai4. To honour, to reverence. Two held down; , L. 5 B. ancient form of LESSON 49 About the hand, not raised up, but prone. Chao3. The right hand, prone, leaning on the palm By extension, paw, claw; is the 87th radical. Phonetic series 39. On accaund of its meaning, in the compounds, the n o r m a l position of is on the top of the c o m p o u n d : : Ull, contracted form in the modern w riting. hands that are See .an Shih1. To lose, to let hand;

For, says

Phonetic series 252.

It

136

Etymological Lessons. 49. Ts'ai3. To pluck, w i t h the tip of the fingers, upon a tree, a /lower or a f r u i t ; Now . Phonetic series 402. Lueh4. To draw, to stretch between fingers; Two hands a n d ; represents t h e stretching. Compare below D, E. Phon e t i c series 292, C heng 1 . To p u l l in different directions; to q u a rr el , to light. Two h a n d s , and the primitive (L. 8) t h a t m e a n s , to p u l l ; The Glose e x p l a i n s that p u l l i n g brings quarrels Phonetic series 324. P'iao3. To pass an object downwards, from own hand, to another's; it forms Shou4. To gi v e or to receive, from hand to hand, to confine i n t o a recipent; Therefore is t h a t w h i c h rem ains L. 66. One may follow, in t h e from ancient characters, the successive, alterations of this element. The ch aracter represents a lading ; a h and , on the , in the boat, bank, delivers the goods; another receives a n d stows them away. The mo dern abstract meanings, to receive, to endure, are chuan-chu. Phonetic series 39'2. Note t h a t ai4 (L. 99 F) has n o t h i n g in c o m m o n w i t h Yuan2. A traction eq u al on both sides; action a nd reaction, (L. 115 B contracted) annulling eac h ot her; eq uilibri um, pause, halt. Phonetic series 505. Y in 3 . To enjo y the result of the work of one's of one's toil, of t h at which h ands one has gathered; a life secure a n d free from care; It forms , peace of heart, t h e man who has what he needs, a n d who desires n o t hi n g else; now . Phonetic series 794. one's

Etymological Lessons.

49. 50.

137 (Compare L.

Weil. Female mo nke y , on the, top, a n d two others mingled at 23 E). One the bottom ; be cause, says the Glose, among all the animals, t he f emale monkey is the most prone to claw ; The m i d d le is intended to represent the. body of the. fema le monkey. This body is compoman ( o n account of the resemblance), and sed of of a coarse representation of t h e breasts (to signify the female). This last element is a primitive (See L 67 0) That is all pure f u n . The a n c i e n t a charac ter represented hand carding textile fibres. Now chuan-chu to do, chia-chieh to be; for, in order to, etc. Note the modern usual abbre via tion. Phonetic series 717. Yin 4 . A se al , to seal, to p r in t. A ha n d , bolding a piece of jade , the seal of office. (L. 55 B; L. 47 V, W), and using it downwards; In the modern character, the two elements, instead of overlying each other, are in juxtaposition, which is illogical. The following is inverted. I4. The. contrary idea: stamp, pressure, to compress (positive-negative, c o m p a r e L 30 C);
The hand

added further, is a redundancy of radicals. Then lost one stroke, LESSON 50. About the two hands lowered, the i n v e r t of , L. 47

Chui2 Hands lowered, giving or ta king downwards; There are numerous compounds. Note that The mo d e r n writers and engravers often draw , which makes the compounds unintelligible, and changes the nu mber of strokes. Kuan 4 To wash o n e s hands. W ate r hands, over a vessel; upon the poured

138 F i r s t series:

Etymological Lessons. and its derivatives.

50.

Shen 1 . A n c i e nt f or m: two hands e x t e n d i n g a rope; idea of extension, of expansion. Later on, the rope straightened by the scribes was interpreted as being a man standing, who girds himself with both hands; The oldest forms were primitives, figuring the alternate expansion of the two n a t u r a l powers. Phonetic series 153. It forms the following. Tien4. Lightning, thunderbolt, the expansion (discharg e) towards the earth, of a .stormy cloud, la the modern character, the l i n e is curved towards t he right, in order to take less room. The Glose explains the nature of a thunderbolt as follows: The ch'i4 yang 2 , the male power, rushing on the earth, lights with the ch'i4 yin1, the female power, which gives b i r t h to the lightning. Thus the Chinese, twenty c e n t u r i e s before F r a n k l i n .
Yen 3 . A m a n ( L. 60) who stretches his legs and Phonetic scries 418. I4. To stretch , to p u l l in a direction;

covers a stri de's length; by extension, to r o ve r ;

See L. 8 A. Now series 213.

. Phonetic

, to p u l l in another direction; See L. 8 B Now . Phonetic series 502. Ch'en2. Name of a place. The fi r s t C a p i t a l , the first seat ot a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of China, u n d e r Fu-hsi (See our Textes Hisloriques, p. 19). From L. 119, c u t t i n g down of trees; L. 86, building walls; exerciand of are sing authority. The vertical lines of joined. Derived notions of antiquity, of a long duration, to dispose, to fit up, etc. It has n o t h i n g in common with , L. 120 K. Compare L. 12 0.

Yiu2. To stretch

Etymological Lessons. 50 Second series: and its d e r i v a t i v e s

139

Yu2. To lift up. many hands drawing or pushing; It forms compounds, in which the radical is inserted on the top, between the two ; v.g. Yu2. A heavy car (L. 167), a roller drawn or pushed with much trouble.

Yu3 To give. See and the analysis of . L. 5* H. Phonetic series 768, in which the radical is added ; v.g. at the bottom, between the two Chu3. To raise;

, several men acting together; confounded with the derivatives of (L. 151) , etc. Chuan-chu, animation, success, the results of cooperatio n a n d concord; to be in d e m a n d , fashionabl e .

Hsing1. To lift up

Not to he

Third series:

and its derivatives Hsiao2 To learn. Was explained L. 39 1. When the of the master act hands downwards, th e darkness that covers the mi nd of the disc i pl e 733. giving is dispelled. Phonetic series place to the radical.

Fourth series:

and its derivatives. Yao 1 . This compound represents a head and two hands. It means sometimes, head and hands; and sometimes, head and shoulders, the bust. It forms compounds that are important, but unrecognisable in the modem form, on account of the fusion of different elements.

140

Etymological Lessons.

50.

Yao1. The loins, t h e waist; A hea d . t he two hands , t ha t s u r r o u n d a wom an' s figure. women t a k i n g more care of t h e i r waist th a n m e n . T he a n c i e n t forms represented a h u m a n face, a n d two h a n d s g i r d i n g t h e w a i st ; To m e a n , loins, waist, t h i s c h a r a c t e r is n o w w ri t t e n The a n c i e n t cha ract er n o w m e a n s chia-chieh, to w a n t , to ne e d, to a sk for, etc. P h o n e t i c series 493. P'iao 4. I gn i s fat u u s (vul g o The Chinese f e a r t h e m . On t h e top , t h e bust of t h e the fla me t h a t takes the hobgoblin. At t h e b ot t o m , place of t h e body's l o w e r p a r t In t h e m i d d l e , the waist. The m o d e r n m e a n i n g s of t h i s character, a warrant, a b i l l , a r e c h ua n- c h u ( t h i n g s t h a t a re f eared). Phonetic, series (642. K'ang-hsi who m i g h t have rightly cl a ssi fi ed under , placed it un de r , w h i c h is a m i s t a k e . B u t I b i s is th e worst insta nce, a n d shows how a l l his classifications a r e arbitrary a nd wit h o ut foundation: instead of classifying under . as he d i d f o r , be classified it u n d e r (113th r a d i c a l ) , w i t h w h i c h it has n o t h i n g in common, I h e c h a r a c t e r at t h e b o t t o m bei n g (86th r a dic a l) . C h ' i e n 1 To rise by c l i m b i n g u p . The bead fo ur bands. The idea is probably taken from t h e m o n k e y s ( q u a d r u m a n a ) . By e x t e n s i o n , to rise up, to m a k e h e a d w a y , p r o m o t i o n . The m o d e r n fo rm was a d d e d w i t h an official s e a l , wh i c h m e a n s p r o m o t i o n in t h e h i e r a r c h y , t h e seal b e i n g t h e badge Of the r a n k . Now , to be p r o m o t e d . See L. "25 I , t he Immortal s, t he m e n who rose above the h u m a n cond ition. Nung 2 The h u s b a n d m a n ; . and t h e b r e a k ot t h e day c o n t r a c two h a nd s ted g i v i n g place to . The o i a n who w o r k s f r o m early da wn: a l l f i e l d - w o r k be ing d one very early in hot countries P h o n e t i c series 751. A head phantom-fire)

and

Note:

has nothing in common with

ch'u1 L. 51 B,

li3 L 97 B,

ts'ao2

L. 120 K. Neither of the last two are derived from

Etymological Lessons.. 51. 52. LESSON 51.

141

About two primitives, which were united on account of their resemblance in the fang1 and ch'u1. old writing,

First series:

fang1.
Fang 1 . The p r i m i t i v e wooden vessel, a log h o llow ed The ch arac ter is written out; h o r i z o n t a l l y . By extension, chest, t r u n k , box. It is the 22th radical. To be distinguished from the 23th r a d i c a l (L. 10 B ) ; the, two are much a lik e. It forms. C h i a n g 4 . The primiti ve art, t h e first ha n dicraft, w h i c h consisted in h o l l o w i n g the wood w i t h an ax e, to m a k e the vessels; carpentry; a c a r p e n t e r ; then, by extension, craft, art, in general.

Second series:

ch'u1.
Ch'u 1 . Represents a piece of wood t h a t is bent. It was later on replaced by fang 1 ( a b o v e A) raised up. By extension, curved, c ro oked, oblique, not straight. Phoneti c series 190. But li3 L. 97 B, 2 L. 50 Q, ts'ao L. 120 K, are not d e ri v e d from

nung2

LESSON 52 About the primitive Tao1. Edge-tool, knife, sword; h a n d l e is curved, to take less room. The u p per hook belongs to the handle, the lower hook is the edge. See page 365 the primitive instrument, of silex, fixed into a curved handle of wood. Note the contracted form of this character, when it is placed on the side. It is the 18th radical of characters relating to cutting, etc. This character is not found in the old dictionaries. It is considered as a different writing of It Is read tiao1, and means, perverse, caballing. The

142

Etymological Lessons.

52.

J e n . Edged weapons, the edge, sharp, pointed: The character represents a sword wi t h a dot on the blade, to i n d i c at e t h e place where the i n s t r u m e n t cuts. Phonetic series 21. It forms Jen3. To bear, to sustain; From heart and a cutting weapon. The heart wounded. Liang2 Cutting weapon m a d e , a c t i o n of a c u t t i n g w e a p o n ; It is f o u n d in Liang2. P r i m i t i v e l y , a narrow foot-bridge, made w i t h two trees placed over a brook a tree, harked Later on, a n d planed, placed ove r a brook. Then, by extension, a beam, a sleeper. It forms by to , substituting the character liang 2 , sorghum. Chao4. P ri m i ti v e m e a n i n g , d i n g to the Chinese way, viz. to chide a n d to a m p utati o n. Compare the similar make some a n d , L. 39 E. By extension, to composition of cite, to sen d for, to call. Phone tic series 105 Lieh 4 . To div ide seriatim, to arrange, to place according to r a n k or r u l e ; See L. 12 F. Phonetic series 228. Tsai2. Law, rule to be, observed; a n d the penalties of old, fines a n d mu ti la ti on s; C h u a n - c h u , c o n se qu en tl y . P h o n e t i c series 4 8 1 , Tsei2. In its modern form, this character m i g h t be (L. 71 0). This is not so. taken for a derivative of a halberd, a sword, It is composed of cowries, To plunder with arms in h a n d ; robbery; a bandit. It derives not from f i x e d in t h e notch it

, to j u d g e accor-

Etymological Lessons. 52. 53

143 Cbuan-chu, the

Li*. To cut the corn ; reaping-hook; hence, sharp, acute; harvest, the acquisition of the year; hence, gain, profit, intere st on money. An old form was composed of , and ( L. 101) representing the motion of the sickle. In t he corresponding modern form, lost one stroke, as it may be seen above,. The, two f o r m s are found in the compounds, the old one being used spec iall y when is placed on the top of the compound, as in This last character is composed of and , the 202th radical. The of the radical, and of the phonetic, are mingled together. Phonetic series 288. See L. 18 B, L. 16 B, etc. Do not mistake for , the contracted, e.g. in . See the whole Lesson 28. However has somet ime s, but seldom, this form. See L. 55 G. repeated three times is found in Li4. .Nephelium li-chih the fruit so dear to t he Chinese. The. sound li4 (L. 53) induced the scribes to write , th us m aking one more wrong character. ,

LESSON 53.
About the primitiv e Li4. Sinew; by extension, strength; The lop of the m iddle-line (the sinew) is curved, to take less room. The two side-lines a nd the transversal s troke represent the fibrous sheath. It is the 19th radical of characters relating to effort of any kind. It forms Lueh3. I n f i r m , feeble; from strength and few:

Nan2. The man, by opposition to the woman, the strength in the work male. The one who exerts his of the field, the woman being busy at home;

Compare

L. 135 C.

144

Etymological Lessons.
Chia1. To add

53.54.
the month, By

sinews to the violence to persuasion; extension, to add to, to increase, to insist, to inflict, etc. Phonetic series 108.

See

L. i'O E;

L. 38 F;

L. 90 A.

Hsieh2. Ac ti o n in common, represented by the union strength of three persons; union, concord, of the cooperation; L. 47 Q. Phonetic series 20t It forms Hsieh2. Union, ten joining their efforts; L. 24. Hsieh2. The sides of the chest Perfect cooperation of the ribs; persons, i. e. a multitude,

Compare

See

LESSON 54.
In the first part of this Lesson, a particular form of the primitive in the. modern writing. (L. 25) the

will be studied. The second part is dev o te d to the primitives compounds of which resemble those of

First part.
P a o 1 . A man who bends to enfold an object; To wrap up, to envelop, to contain; a bundle, a whole. It is the 20th radical of characters relating to wrapping and enclosing. Note that in a few modern characters, like ( 1 4 t h radical); vg. (L. 167 C), (L. 69 G), etc. The following compounds form important groups. Pao1. Actual meaning: to wrap up, to contain, in general. Primitive meaning: gestation, the foetus inwrapped in the womb; Compare L. 30 B. Phonetic series 145. T'ao2. A furnace burning earthen ware; for (L. 130C)

is written

Phonetic series 396.

Etymological Lessons. 54. Chu2. A bandful, to grasp. Primitive meaning: the q u a n t i t y of grains that can he grasped by a hand; Phonetic series 346.

145

Now

Yun2. To divide a whole , into parts supposed t o be equal; uniform repartition; regularity, equality; Phonetic series 98. It is contracted in the two following Hsun 2 . A period of ten days; Phonetic series 209. Hung 1 . The noise of a crowd; Phonetic series 453. It seems rather that these two characters are derived directly from , a n d not from contracted. Hsun2: a whole , a period of ten days. Hung1: a whole , a u n i o n of voices. See L. 38 D; L. 10 G; L. 54 G; !. 17 G, etc.

Second series:
C h i u 1 . A p r i m i t i v e , i n t e n d e d to represent the tangle of creeping plants; extension, c u r v e d, crooked, entangled. Phonetic is sometimes reseries 5. In the modern writing, e.g. for ; it is a licence. From , placed by , comes a n d not f r o m Kou1. Curved, crooked, hook; The form is a modern abbreviation; is also read Chu4. A sentence; because, in the Chinese compositions, the end of each sentence, the pause, is indicated, when it is so, by a hook, which is the equivalent of the. European punctuation ; By

Phonetic series 131, in which are found the two sounds kou and chu. (L. 32 F) has nothing in common with

146

Etymological Lessons.

54.

Note: The following, chi 4 , conies from , a n d not from . It must be kou3 ( under the 140th radical ). carefully distinguished from Chi 4 . To restrain one's self, self-possession, deferential reserve. Etymologically, (L. 103 C); one's mouth, and to stand quiet It forms Ching . Deferential behaviour, modesty reverence, reserve, in t h e presence of the a u t h o r i t y ( t h e h a n d h o l d i n g the rod, L. 43 D). P h o ne t ic series 192. Pei 4 . Pi4. To prepare, to make r e a d y a l l t h e t h in g s necessary, with mode sty. This is m e a n t for women, on w h o m devolve the preparations, the care of the h o u s e h o l d . The is contracted, g i v i n g room to . Now . The engravers strangely altered t h i s character. Some specimens of t h e i r sk ilf u ln e s s m a y be seen her e:
4

to restrain

Shao2 A p r i m i t i v e r ep re se nt in g a k i n d of spoon, t h a t was used to d r a w u p ; (L. 1, 4 ) represents the contents; series 27. It f o r m s Yu 3 . T h e f u l l spoon., with an i n d e x meaning t h a t it is b e i n g e m p t i e d ( c o m p a r e L. 1, 5). To give ( t h e This character became c o n t e n t s) ; intricate of the receiver in course of time. T h e two h a n d s were first a d ded (L. 4 7 ) . Then, on t h e top, t h e two of t h e g i v e r (L. 50). U n d e r this last form, hands makes the phonetic series 768, the radical being added at the bottom. See L. 50 J.

Phonetic

Etymological Lessons. 54. 55.


3

147

Shu . A primitive, that has nothing in common, either with , or w i t h . It represents a silk-worm mo ving on. On t h e top , t h e h ead. The c u r v e d l i n e represents the body that b end s a n d stretches. At the (L . 110), radical, was added later o n ; bottom Phonetic series 756. It forms Shu2. The. tail (L. 100 B), t h a t wriggle; at the extremity of the body. By extension, to stick to (as the tail to t h e hody), to d ep en d from. Phonetic series 856.

appendix,

LESSON 55 About three primitives First series: ch'ing1, han 3 , pa1.

ch'ing 1 .
Ch'ing 1 . In a n c i e n t t i m e s the E m p e r o e , when investing the feudatories or officials, h a n d e d o v e r to t h e m o n e h a l f ot a piece of wood or of j a d e d i v e r s e l y c u t o u t ; t h e o t h e r h a l f was u sed to m a k e t h e proof, as the m odern c o u n t e r f o i l The t w o pieces gathered are ch'ing 1 . We s h a l l see f u r t h e r (L 55 B, I) the and , the. two ha lves, l e f t and right... When they a p p e a r e d before t h e E m p e r o r , or when t h e y h e l d t h e f u n c t i o n s of t h e i r office, t h e feudatories or officials had this k i n d of sc e p tr e in t h e i r h a n d s It was u s e d also as a seal. It forms Ch'ing 2 . This character first meant the feasts (L. 26 M) of the. court, the high personages at tending, two opposite rows. By exten sion , minisranged in. ters, high offici als

Note: The modern form is not s y m m e t r i c a l , be ca use t h e w r i t i n g - b r u s h cannot trace, the left h a l f against the grain. Note also that many symmetrical representations, absolutely different in the old writing, nowadays ressemble nang2, L. 26 G; ch'ing1. K'ang-hsi classified them u n d e r .These are mao3, L. 129 L); luan3, L. 108 D; yu3, L. 129 E.

148

Etymological Lessons.

55.

Chieh2. The right h a l f par t of , t h e one committed to the f u n c t i o n a r y , t h a t was used by h i m as a badge a n d as a seal; d i g n i t y , a ut h o rity, rul e, j u st measure, p r i n t ; part of a whole, segment, f r a g m e n t . See L. 26 M; L. 64 D; L. 47 V, W; L. 49 I. It is t h e 26tb ra d i c a l . Note t h e three different w r i t i n g s of the modern form. The first must be d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m , a contracted form of t h e 16 3 t h a n d 170th radicals The seco nd f o r m is h a r d l y recognisable from th e cursive form of han3 (L. 55 K); as w e l l as f r o m chi s (L. 84), i 3 ( L . 85 B), ssu 4 (L. 85 A ) . K'ang-hsi did n ot succeed in di st inguishing two strokes, a n d at o t h e r s t h r e e strokes. t h e m ; he c o u n t e d sometimes The t h i r d form is to be d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m pa1 (L 55 L ) . In a l l t h i s series, it is q u i t e impossible, w i t h o u t re c urri n g to t h e old forms, to k n o w exactly whi ch e l e m e n t is used. holding a sceptre; to impose Fu2. The h a n d one's authority; f u 2 , to steer a boat (L. 66 C ) ; a n d pao4, to 3 repress bandits (L. 102 G). But nan is not derived f r o m ; see L. 43 ,J. C h i h 1 . A vessel t h a t was u ed, in t h e feasts, for pouring wine with measure; The t o p t h a t res sembles L. 30 A. is intended to r e p r e s e n t the vessel, a k i n d of sip h o n. . Fleshy , m u s c u l a r , j u s t as m u c h as it is proper, for t h e sacrifices, for t h e tab le. The just measure of flesh ;
FEI
2

, By extension,

It forms

She4. The b l u s h of the h u m a n face, a m a r k of t h e passions. By extens ion, colour, passion, lust. See t h e e x p l a n a t i o n s g i v e n L. 28 D. It is the 139th rad ical. The following' is not d e ri v e d from Chueh2. To cut (L. 52) a thre ad (L. 92), in pieces; To cut, to cease, to leave, to renounce, etc. See the ancient form L. 90 E Has nothing in common with the last

Etymological Lessons. 55. Two , with which the scribes made two (L. 87), are f o u n d in

149

Hsuan4-. To elect, to choose. Two seals of officials, placed upon a table. (L. 70), to be c o m m i t t e d to those who were elected, c h osen. Later on, t h e were added to two hands mean the awarding, the investiture. In the modern character, and joined k u n g 4 (L 47 Q); together, gave , which h a s n o t h i n g in common w i t h This character is seldom Seen well w ri t t e n Phonetic series 535. T he l e f t h a l f of (L. 55 A ) ; i4, t h a t m e a n s , p r i n t i n g of t h e f o u n d in See the explanation given L. 49 I. It is seal.

Second series:

han3.
Ha n 3 . To b u d, to p u t f o r t h b u d s , to bloorn. A p r i m i ti v e , representing t h e effort of t h e blooming, of the springing up . Note the m odern form, identical with the second form of (L. 55 B ) ; hence c o n f u s i o n s . Phonetic series 6. Note the following compounds, in which there remains something of t h e p r i m i t i v e idea of , external manifestation of an interior force, expansion, eruption. Fan4. To rush l i k e a dog. To invade, to offend. Compare L. 37 B. In the symbolism of characters, the dog p lays a con siderable, though not creditable part.

the lolled tongue, and Han2. To withdraw hold it in the mouth. Compare L. 102 C. By extension, to endure in silence. the awful modern abbreviation, which became usual. Phonetic series 356.

Note

150

Etymological Lessons. 55.56. yung4 Yung3. Blooming , opening of flowers; (L. 109 B) is p h o n e t i c ; yung 3 , bravery, cxercice of series 320. It forms the manly vigour. Yu2. To shoot branches, boughs. Not to be confounded with (L. 58 C). Phonetic

p'in2

Third series:

pa. Ssu-ch'uan an d elsewhe-

Pa1. A k i n d of boa, large and short, f o u n d in the Southern Provincos, in re. Its flesh is eat en ( ), a n d its s kin is used to cover the guitars. The character represenls t h e boa ra ised on its t a i l ; Compare L 108 A. Not to he con fo un d ed with th e third form of (L. 55 B). Phonetic series 76. Note the c o m p o u n d pa1, a guit ar made from a boaskin ( L . 83 B). LESSON 56. About the primitive Pu5, po3. To d i v i n e by l o o k i n g at the cracks in a tortoise-shell as the heat d evelops them. The character represents two cracks, one be ing longitudinal, and the othor transversal;
It is t h e 25th radical. P h o n e t i c series 9. It frorns Chan 1 . To ask about some enterprise, by singeing a tortoise s h e l l ; d i v i n a t i o n ;
r

N o t to be c o n f o u n d e d

with chi 1 , m a d e w i t h the same e l e m e n t s ; and s y n o n y m . P h o n e t i c series 104 Cheng 1 . The salary of a fortune-teller; a sum of cowries given to I he mm who singes the shell;
The answer

received was considered as most certain, most firm, a n d most immutable, hence the derived meanings : i mmu tability, constancy, perseverauce in purpose generally, and specially in the. purpose of keeping continence ; Phonetic series 423.

Etymological Lessons.

56. 57.

151

Chao4. N u m e r o u s c r a c k s on a tortoise-shell ; In the middle, in its ancient form ; on each side, two other crac ks; the first left crack is c o n f o u n d e d with the vertical stroke of . By extension, an o m en, a num ber. now a m i l l i o n - Phonetic series 178. Kua4 T h e diagrams of the the of M ut at i o ns. It seems that, in the beginning, shell was first used to find th e hexagram which might resolve the pen ding difficulty. Later on, people m i l f o i l stalks had re c ourse, for that purpose, to the The is n o t kui 1 L. 81 B, b u t represents an hexagram. Phonetic series 369. Wai4. Composed of the e ve nin g, a n d to When I Ching, t he Book

divine; t h e she ll was consulted a b o u t the m e a ni n g of a dr eam one. hart d u r i n g the n i g h t , t h e d i v i n a t i o n o u g h t to t a k e place in the mo rning, or d u r i n g the day, in any case before the e v e ni n g. A f t e r sunset, the d i v i n a t i o n was no longer ad rem, b ei n g o u t s i d e t h e ritual limits. Hence the chuan-chu m e a n i n g of this i m p o r t a n t character, outside, out of. Note: Like a l l the characters s i m p l e and easy to write, is used by the scribes as an a rb i t r a r y a b b r e vi at i o n for the most different ele m ents. It represents a bi rd in ( a n c i e n t f o r m ) L. 41 D; t h e a n t e n n a e of an insect L. 23 G; the p e d u n c l e ot a f r u i t L. 41 E; a rod L. 43 I). - Note also that has n o t h i n g in common w i t h ; it is a m o d e r n c o n t r a c t i o n of L 47 H. K'ang-hsi w r o n g l y place d the 25th radical. severa l among those a b b r e v i a t i o n s u n d e r

LESSON 57. About two primitives. and T i n g 4 . A nail (head and tack). It is now written Tin g 4 , to n a i l ; Is used, on account of its simplicity, as a numeral sign, for u n i t y , and f o r other different chiac hieh. - Phonetic series t'ing 2 , L. 75 B; a n d ch'eng 2 , L. 11. It forms the important compounds ning2(L. 36 C) comes from (L. 58 A ) , a n d n o t f r o m . Item, 71 M. But (L. 63 B) has nothing in common with

First part:

152 Second part:

Etymological Lessons. 57. 58.


Chu4. Storehouse, to warehouse. It is now written . The old character

shows the storehouse, we ll dosed on all sides. The m o d e r n c h a r a c t e r is a nonsense. Compare t h e primitive (L.43 R) P h o n e t i c series 116,

LESSON 58
About the partial primitive First series: C h'iao 3 D i f f i c u l t y on effort of the respiration, fighting against an so bbing, h i c c u p , t h e b r e a t h o bstacle. See L. 1, 3.
P h o n e t i c series 3. It forms

, a n d its derivatives.

Hao4 To l a m e n t , to h o w l ; t he mouth uttering shrieks; series 122. It forms Hao4. To call, to cry. The s trong voiced tiger compounds that mean, cries, roars. It forms t'ao1, covetousness; Pin 2 . To make out one's motives with cries a n d noise; to quarrel, to reproof; See L. 151. Not to be confounded with yu2, L. 55 K. Phonetic series 300. Hsi1. A sigh, a sound used to indicate a pause in the music, in th e verses, in the sentences; a k i n d of phonetic punctuation; It forms Hu 1 . A sigh that passe the caesura, the pause. A particle of varied uses, interrogative, expletive, euphonic, etc.

- Phonetic

enters

into different

It forms of the Hui The roaring tiger. To cry, to call for. Phonetic series 615.

Etymological Lessons. 58.

153

Second series:
Yu2. The breath having overcome the obstacle, spreads in liberty. A particle of transition, a preposition; t alk, show; Phonetic series 38, u n d e r its two forms. It makes P'ing2. Compare w i t h L. 58 D; the top is is composed of a n d of (L. 18) different. placed between the two t op lines, an d reinforcing the idea of free e xpa ns i on on both sides, on all sides. The modern meaning, plane, even, is derived from the last idea; there is no more obstacle; Phonetic series 151. K'ua1. Vanity , boasting; a ma n who show of himse lf. Phonetic series 221. Yu2. Invocations series 662. to obtain makes a

rain. Phonetic

Third series:

(L. 58 A) inverted Ho1. A synonym of It is now obsolete. It forms the important compound K'o3. To s end forth a breathing of approbation. To express one's satisfaction. To be willing, to permit, to consent, to a d mire ; Phonetic series 130. It form the following Ch'i . Extraordinary, surpri sing, strange; that which impels men to utte r exclamations of surprise and admir ation; 328. Ko1. It is repeated twice; sing Expression of satisfaction. The primitive singing consisted probably of a succession of cadenced exclamations of joy. This c haracter became (chiachieb) the appellative of an elder brother; See p. 11.
2

Phonetic series To

154

Etymological Lessons.

58. 59.

Note: Other compounds of and L. 30 D; L. 36 C; L. 13 F; L. 123 F; L. 135 F. But L. 102 D, has n o t h i n g in common wi t h . Item L. 1 D, does not come from

LESSON 59.
About the p r i m i t i v e First series: Han4. A c l i f f which projects, a stiff slope; On the top, the s u m mit; on the l e f t side, the slope. in composition, the accessories which should be represented on the clilf, are placed at the bottom, to make the compound smaller. This character represents two notions. I. If the top is considered, it suggests t h e Idea of an elevated place near an abyss, dangerous, exposed to the view. 2. If the side is considered, it suggests the idea of a slide, of a fall. It is the 27th radical.
Y'eh 2 . Sleep of a mountain, with e a r t h ; rising g r o u n d . P h o n e t i c series 413. covered

a n d its derivatives,

Yuan2. A sprint; t h a t gushes out f r o m ahill sp r ing , w h i l e is used in t h e It is n o w w r i t t e n extended m e a n i n g of principle, origin, , see, L. 125 F. In th e p r i m i t i v e character, there were th r e e . P h o n e t i c series 588 Shih 2 . A piece of rock f a l l e n down or t a k e n down from a c l i l f , rough-stone, shingle, p e b b le , stone; Note t h e alteration of in t h e modern writing. It is t h e 112th radical of characters relati n g to stones. Phonetic series 156. Chai3- A m a n who, w h i l e c l i m b i n g up a stiff slope, bends forward. By extension, inclined, slanting, sloping; It forms chai4: the sun, leaning towards the horizon. Inverted, becomes

For

Wan2. A man who t u mb l e s down on a stiff slope, rolling down. By extension, round, pellet, pill; Phonetic series 34. Yao4. Visible f r o m afar, as a tree (L. 78) over a rock, standing out in relief against the sky;

Etymological Lessons.
4

59

155

Nan . Stiff slope of a high mo untain (L. 80). 4 t'an , charcoal, which is made in the It forms mountains, so cragged that wood cannot he taken away from them. Wei3. A man looking afar; forms (L 28), watchi ng upon a rock, It

Wei2. A m a n , upon a rock, w h o restrains (L. 55 B) his motions, who takes care not to f a l l ; a perilous situation, danger, fear; Phonetic series 247. Chan1. Verbose, t a t t li n g ; to scatter i m p r u d e n t l y one's words (L. 73 C) w h i c h is dangerous; Phonetic series 722. Hou2. In this character, target a n d a m a n . An meaning. It represents a arrow (L. 131) is fixed in the target. The sh o o t i n g at a target was used in a n t i q u i t y , for the election of feudatories and officials. The. precision in shooting was supposed to represent the uprightness of the heart, and vice-versa. Hence the derived meaning, aristocracy. Note the alteration of the character in the modern writing. The on the top became ; became or ; was u n i m p a i r e d . Phonetic series 444. In t h e c o m p o u n d , the of was contracted into a small vertical stroke. Note: L 129 A, is u n c o n n e c t e d w i t h ; a n d so is , L. 61 ['. has q u i t e another

Second series:
Yen 3 . Comp a re the h ut , L. 36 A. is h a l f of a hut, a shed, a shop. it is t h e 53th radical. See L. 24 M, etc. It forms K'u4. A shed for the shop; Note: d erived from Se e L. 102 B. Item lu4, L. 136. keng1, chariots (L. 167); out-house,

k'ang1,

fang2,

yung1, are not

156

Etymological Lessons, 60.

LESSON 6O.

About the primitive and its derivatives. ln the ancient writing, forms, for which we reserve two distinct series.

has two

First series:

the Drst form.


Ta4 A primitive. A grown up man standing (body, legs and arms); By extension, chuan-chu, the stature of an a d u l t (by opposition to the child's But in composition, stature), great, tall; means a man, and not great. It is the 37th radical of miscellaneous characters. It forms Yin1. To confine a man Compare , L. 25 B. It is n o w obsolete in that sense, b u t is much used in the chnan-chu meanings, cause, reason, argument; that with which one confines, one catches one's opponent. Phonetic series 249. T'ien1. The heavens, the firmament which is over men; See L. 1 C. It forms the phonetic complexes

Tien3. To outrage;
(L. 107). series 389 Phonetic

T'un1. To gulp down. (L. 72).


armed with bows ; the prim i tive inhabitants, barbarians, borderers of the Eastern Sea, inhabitants of the South-West countries; Phonetic series 212. Compare shan L. 13 B; chia1 L. 27 F; L. 88 B; L. 39 0; , L 10 I. Sui 1 . Bird spreading its wings to fly, as the man stretches o u t his arms in the character 1s. The men

It is DOW obsolete, but forms the important compounds.

Etymological Lessons. 60. 157 To2. Chuan-chu, the modern m e a n i n g is: to take by violence, to seize , to carry off. Primitive meaning: to apprehend with the hand, a bird that flies, that is free. The for is a modern substitution. See L. 43 A. Fen4. Chuan-chu, the mo dern meaning is: to excite, to arouse, to exert one's strength. The primitive meaning is: a bird flying upwards o v e r t h e fields; T'ao'. To advance, to move forward, to prosper the man who has past his tenth rapidly, as year. Speedy growing. By extension, to enter, to go in gladly; See tsou4, L. 47 SI. It forms ; light, f u l l day; clearness Note the m o d e r n a l t e r e d forms

Kao1. Growing

Second series:

the second f o r m . Ta4. Primitive sense: a man standing (head, a r m s an d legs; compare L. 60 A ) ; It forms the important following compounds

Li 4 . A man To stand;

st an di n g on t h e ground (L. 1, 2).

- It is the 117 h radical of characters relating to position a n d posture. Phonetic series 134. See t h e t h i r d series, below L. It forms Wei4. The place upon which stands straight; a man position, dignity, person;

Yu1. Sun

risen. Light, day

158

Etymological Lessons. 60. I 4 . In its ancient form, thi s character belongs to the first series. Its modern form i nduced to place it in the second. The primitiv e meaning is, the sides. A two standing man, whose sides are indicated by lines or dots; conjunction, and, also, etc. Phonetic series 214. It forms Yeh4. What is done by men, when the night comes; to lie down on the right side, in order to sleep Now, by extension, the night. The modern f o r m of t he c h a r a c t e r is a q u a i n t i n v e n t i o n of the scribes. P h o n e t i c series 415. Fu1. A g r o w n up m a n , wit h a p i n in his h a ir , to s h o w t h a t he is of a g e : the v i r i l e c a p is n o t r e pr e sented ; P h o n e t i c series 59. Yang1. A m a n in t h e m i d d l e of t h e space (L. 34 A). M i d d l e , centre. There a r e d i f f e r e n t chiachieh series 168

By extension, a contact,

Phonetic

Third series: M u l t i p l e s of confusions.

a n d of

. Note t h e modern contractions a n d

Ping*. Two or several men (L. 60 H) standing si de by side; together, successio n, etc.; Note the modem deformation. It forms P'u3. Succession of the days, course of times, indefinite extension, ubiquity. Phonetic series

duration; then, by generality, universality , 754.

T'i*. Succession in a prefixed order, after a list (L. 159); then, by extension, substitution, permutation, in the place of, instead of. The sil ly scribes into two , and into changed the two

Etymological Lessons. 60. Pan4. Two men keeping together; It is f o u n d in

159

Nien3. Imperial car, drawn by men. It forms the phonetic complex nien3, to drive away, to cast out.

Fourth series: In some modern characters, is written ; v.g.

on the lop of the compound

Ch'ih4 Composed of and (L. 126), both being contracted in the modern form; The human lire, bl ushing through anger. By extension, red colour. It is the 155th radical. See nan3 (L. 43 J), to blush through shame.

T'a4. A man forms

, who feeds

flocks;

It

Taz To lead forward (L. 112 E) flocks. By extension, a large space in which one moves at ease, as the sleppes, ; open way, to attain, to prosper, etc. Phonetic series 76t.

P Note; Do not mistake for a c ertain cover, similar to the first ancient form of , which is also written in the modern writing, e.g. in , etc. See L. 38 F, G.

160

Etymological Lessons. 61. LESSON 61.

About t h e different m o d i f i c a t i o ns of appendix on t h e p r i m i t i v e First series: chai3.

(L. 6O):

w i t h an

Chai3. A ma n who bows the head behind. It is f o u n d in Wu2. A man who bows t h e louder; head behind, to cry to vociferate; It became an important proper name. Phonetic series 315. Note the strange alteration of the r nordern chara ct er. Second series: yao1.
Yao1 A m a n who b e n d s t h e h ead f o r w a r d , in o r d e r to r u n , to j u m p , to m a r c h . By e x te n s io n , to le an, to to i n c l i n e , to h a n g , to rock, to sh ake. Phonetic, ser ies 92. On t h e to p of t h e co mpound s, so m eti me s becomes in t h e modern w r i t i n g (as , L. 60, 4 f o u r t h s erie s), e.g. in hsing L. 102, a n d tsou3 2 4 L. 112, ch'iao L. 75 B. Note hsiao , to l a u g h . Etymologically, bamboos rocked by th e w i n d ;

The sp a sm o d i c m o t i o n of t h e b e l l y , when a t a t Chinese is la ughin g.

Third series:

wang 1 . Wang1 A man who puts his weight on his ri ght l eg , to m a k e an effort, a spring; It is often written , or (a p h o n e t i c bei ng added). It is the 43th radical. It m u s t be distinguished from (L. I34 C). It forms Wu2. A man who exerts h i m s e l f against an obstacle, with out surmounting it, unsuccessful ly, in v a i n By exte nsion, negation, not, no. It is th e 7 1th radical, a fictitious one, for the whole series belongs to chi4, L. 99 E.

yu

Etymological Lessons. 61.

161

Fourth series:

chiao1.
Chiao 1 A man who crosses his legs, who To entwin es between his legs; join, to u n i t e , to have intercourse, etc. Phonetic series 183.

Fifth series:

k'ang4.
K'ang 4 . A man who puts his weight on both legs, stretched apart, to make an effort; Compare L. 61 C. The upper part of the body is shortened, to represent that it is the lower part that acts. Derived meani ngs: exaggerate firmness, destination, rebellio n. I'honetic series 67.

Appendix.

wen2 has nothing in com mon w i t h Wen2 A primitive. Lines that intercross, veins, wr inkles, ripples; sketch, literary, genteel, elegant; It is the 67th radical of a few characters rel ating to ornamentation. Phonetic series 88. It forms Lin4. The wrinkles of an emaciated man, who does not eat enough; parsimony, stinginess. Ch'ien 2 The w rink les pre sence of a oft en wrongly written caused by terror, in the tiger; reverential awe. It is

Wen2. A whole of intricate, lines. To the thick li nes , are added finer lines (L. 62). It forms Yen4. A collection of lines still more intricate; , and that has nothing in common with hart4 L. 59 A. The wrinkles of the old men's face. By ex tension, a venerable, person or a ppearance. Phonetic series 497. It forms Ch'an3. The wri n kles formed on the body consequent upon child-birth . Fecundity, to bear, to produce. Phonetic series 592.

162

Etymological Lessons. 62. LESSON 62.

About the primitive First series:

, and its derivatives.

Shan1. Hair, feathers, lines, etc. It is the 59th radical of characters alluding to stripes. Phonetic series 26. It forms Hsu1. Beard. The h a ir on the chin, beneath the head (L. 160 C ); Now Men, in China, only allow the ir beards to grow, when the time has come f o r t h e m to govern their f a m i l y , to be a master over it. Hence the extended m ea ni ngs : necessary, requisite, appointed time, etc. The two following compoun ds, often confounded in the modern writing, are to be carefully distinguished : Chen3. Hair of a man, says the Glose; Phonetic series 106.
Shan 1 . A w i n g (L 22 A) provided with feathers; F l a p p i n g , v i b r a t i o n . It f o r m s

Shen1. Ts'an1. The three starsin the m id d le of Orio n . They are represented by three , of which is the modern abbreviation. The lower part represents the rays emitted. Compare L. 79 F. Phonetic series 652, under its modern form

Second series. Multipl es of a n d of . The Chinese philologists consider, as derivatives from , the two following, D and E. It seems rather as if there were two other ways of representing a pair of wings, analogous to Jao4. Slender, fragile, weak. The wings of a young bird, with their first feathers; skeleton of the wings resembles two bows, L. 87. The two wings are represented as torn out; the crook on the top represents the extremity by which they were united to the body; in the modern writing, the crook at the bottom replaces one of the strokes of . Phonetic series 540.

The

Etymological Lessons.

62 63.

163

Yu3. Another representation ot a pair of wings with fe athers; I! is the 124th radical of the characters relating to plumes and feathers. Ph onetic series 251. It forms m a ny important comp o u n d s We saw L 18 C; L 34 J ; note also

Liao4. To flutter, to rise while flying;


Phonetic series 629. Ti2. A pheasant, Phonetic series 791. See ti2, L 78 E. H si 4 . To gather 681. Shan4 The two sections of a (L . 129); Phonetic series 559. folding- door the wings

t'iao4 and

; union, ha r mony ; Phonetic series

LESSON 63.
About the primitive Ch'ih4. To take a step forward w i t h t h e l e f t foo t; . By exlension, in composition: to walk. It is t h e 60th radical of characters relatin g to w a l k i n g . See the d e r i v a t i v e i4, L 22 D. Inverted, gives 4 Ch'u . To fi ni sh the step, by br i n gi n g forward the right foot; nothing in common with ting4, L. 57 A. Both together, they form

It has

H s i n g 2 . To m ar ch , composed of one step w ith the left foot, joined to one step w i t h the right; to slep; is t he 144th radical of characters relating to motion. The phonetic is inserted in the middle; e.g. etc.

It

164

Etymological Lessons. 63. 64. lengthened, to represent long strides ; It is t h e 54th radical. To be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from t h e 162th radical , and (See L. 112 E ) . composed of Yin3. It is

LESSON 64.

About the three primitives, First series: hsi4.

hsi4,

yueh4,

feng 4 , p'eng2.

Hsi 4 . The evening, the be g i n n i n g o f n i g h t ; represented by t h e moon e m e r g i n g on t h e horizon, t h e lower p a r t of the moon being s t i l l invisible. Compare t h e a n c ie n t (L. 64 G ) ; t h e latter form of , w i t h t h a t of has one stroke m o r e ; It is t h e 36th r a dica l a n d forms M in g 3 . The na me, t h e personal a p p e l l a t i v e of a month a n d e v e ni n g , man, from because, at dusk, it is necessary to g i v e one's n a m e to be k n o w n ;

Phonetic series 230. Sun1. An evening meal, supper;

Yuan1. Decency, (L. 55 B) modesty d u r i n g night. It is not decent corpse, says Confucius. Good behaviour, good hearing, Compare L. 60 1. Phonetic series 174. It forms Wan3. Jn the house, good b e h a v io u r. To c o m p l y with t h e demands of others; hence the derived meaning, to bend. Phonetic series 407, To1. Two . meaning symbolically, reduplication, multiplication, multitude, many. The old character (two nights) was used chia-chieh in this sense, on account of its simplicity; Compare 72 L, and 147 F note. - Phonetic series 239. It forms

to lie like a

Etymological Lessons.

64.

165

I 2 . Idea of the good ordering of all the objects c ontained in ;\ house, between the roof and the ground. The unique is supposed to be contracted. By extension, tit, right, harmonions, proper; A more simple explanation is at h a n d : in the house, to spread out, in good order, the mats and bed cover for night. Regular s tir at night. We are indebted to the scribes for , the modern form. Compare pei4, L. 54 G. : see wai4, L . 5 6 F ; Other derivatives from yeh 4 ,L. 60I; hsu4, L. 11 G, meng4, L. 158 F; etc.

Second series:

yueh4.
Yueh4. The moon's crescent, completely visible hsi4, L. 64 A ) ; (c ompare It is the 74th radica l of characters relating to the. moon. It forms Hsien3. From door and moon; the moonlight streaming in through the crackles of the door Interstice, idle, empty, leisure, and other chuan-chu; The modern scribes . Phonetic series 684. often write incorrectly Other derivatives fro m : see yu3, L 46 H; ; see

sho4, ming2, L. 42 C; L. 102 D; wang 1 , L. 81 G; etc. B u t L. 117 D.

chao1 does not come from

Third series

. Has n othing in common with

yueh4.

The ancient character, a primitive, represents the f a i l of the fabulous and felicitous bird Feng 4 , the phoenix; by extension, the phoenix complete. Was the 2 phoenix called P'eng in certain Provinces, or was the p'eng2 another auspicious feng4, the bird? We do not know. Anyhow, two new characters were made: 2 phoenix; and p'eng a monstrous bird, like the rakh or roc of Arabian story

166

Etymological Lessons.

64 65.

(according to European definitions). From that time, is no more read feng4, 2 and docs not mean p h o e n i x It is read p'eng , a n d means, friend, friendship; for, says the Glose, when the phoenix flies, it draws all other birds a f t e r it, by sympalhy; hence the idea of affection, friendship, association; Phonetic series 387. B u t does not come from ; see L. 156 H.

LESSON 65.

A b o u t the p ar tial p r i m i t i v e . See , L. 17, G, H, I, J . Note also that, in its contracted form is e a sily c o n f o u n d e d w i t h yueh4 ( t h e m o o n , L. 64 G), and with for chou1 (boat, L. 66 A ) . J u 4 . J o u 4 . Pieces of d r y m e a t gat here d in ; meal smoke-dried in the old bundle; f a s h i o n ; n o w , m e a t in g e n e r a l . See L. 17 G. it is the 130th radical of a large group of characters relating L. 39 J, L, 18 J, L. to m e a t a n d f o o d . See 94 E. L. 46 D, L. 13 I, L l 2 2 C, etc. Note chin1, the sinews; the parts of the flesh , elastic strength; l i k e bamboo . t h a t give

Chou4. Compare t h e com position of t h i s c h a r a c t e r w i t h t h a t of , L. 18 J. Flesh c o m i n g from its principle; posterity, offspring. Do not c o n f o u n d this hel met, L. 34 J. The mo der n forms character w i t h are identical; t h e ancient ones differ. K'en3. The flesh , by opp o sitio n to the skeleton, ( L. 118 A) The top of was a l r e a d y missing in the hsiao-chuan w r i t i n g . The m o d e r n scribes replaced it by a , which is a nonsense, k'en3 havin g nothing in common w i t h (L 112 A ) ; The flesh being soft and flexible relatively to the hones that are tough an d rigid, hence the derived meanings, to model one's self, to yield, to follow, to be easy tempered, to be inclined, prone to. Phonetic series 367, under its modern form.

Etymological Lessons. 65.


4

167

I . The antique dance. The panlomimists dancing on two ranks, hack-to-back (contracted into )o Now forms hsieh4, which the scribes changed into Resting ceived then small gifts. Hence the extended meaning, of small value, of little importance, insignificant. Yuan 4 . Larvae fleshy without skeleton, that can double themselves up, like mosquito and ephemera larvae, that swarm in summer, even in the wells;

It of dancers

after the dance; they re

Phonetic series 321. Chien 1 . Shoulder; In the ancient characters, represents the whole of the p ectoral and the scapulary muscles, the line that springs from them representing the arm. In the m odern character, the shoulder-blade is outlined. The s cribes strangely contracted it into . It is unconnected with L. 129 See L. 75 K.

J a n 2 . Meat

of

dog (L. 134); It forms

To be glutted Yen4. To be satiat ed; (c hanged by the scribes int o ), with meat of dog. This satiely seems to have been the ideal one. It w ent, in an ancient form, till belching took place (L . 85 C). By extension, disgust, aversion. It is now replaced in this sense, by the compound yen4, re presenting the retreat from eating. Phonetic series 793. flesh of dog By extension, Jan3. To roast to roast, to burn, to l ight. It is now also used, chiachieh, as a conjunction, an adverbial particle, etc. Phonetic series 691.

168

Etymological Lessons.

65. 66

Chi 4 . Oblation, sacrifice; Offering of meat , t h a t bring s down th e influences from heaven (L. 3 D) Phonetic series 595. There is an analogous composition in teng1 (a vase in which 4 4 meat is offered). B u t wang is derived from yueh , moon, and not from jou4. See L. 81 A.

LESSON 66.
About the primitive chou . Us contracted form is to he distinguished from yueh4, L. 64; a n d from. jou 4 , L 65. C h o u 1 . C an o e , vessel, b o at of a n y sort. The first canoes, says the Glose, were trunks of trees hollowed out; It represents a k i n d of canoe, st r a i g h t e n e d , to t a k e less room. Turned up how, deck p r o p p e d up by a pivot t h a t represents the i n t e r n a l wood-work; an o ar on front, a h e l m behind t h e boat, w h i c h is opened, to mean t h a t t h e h e l m goes b e y o n d . It is t h e 137th radical of characters r e l a t i n g to vessels. It forms P a n 1 . To m a k e a boat move a l o n g , by repeated s t r o k e s of t h e o a r (L. 22 B ) ; The action of t h e oars must he equal a n d regular; hence, the derived meanings, regular way, manner, equally. Do not c o n f o u n d t hi s character w i t h ch'uan2, boat, L. 18 E. Phonetic series 555. Fu2 To govern (L. 55 C) a boat, that obeys;
1

Chuan-chu, to obey, to yield to; m o u r n i n g clothes as coarse as the clothes of sailors, clothes in general, etc. K'ang-hsi , as well as (L. 47 J), incorrectly classified u n d e r t h e 74 th radical , the moon. Ch'ien2. To advance, forward, before, formerly, etc. A boat advancing towards the harbour, where it will stop. The modern character, is a strange i n v e n t i o n of a scribe; Phonetic series 431. Other chara cters d e r i v e d f r o m L. 49 E; , L. 117 D. L. 47 J ; , L. 2 E; , L. 14 F;

Etymological Lessons. LESSON 67.

67.

169

About the primitive First series:

nu3.

and its multiples.


Nu3. A girl, , The character hsiao-chuan is already a cursive modification of the ancient character, t h a t was uneasy to write, on account of the. perfectly symmetrical lines. The right part was altered. The ancient character represented the ritual bearing of the Chinese women, the arms hanging down, a n d crossed over the body. The head was not represented. The shoulders, arms, chest and legs were o utlined. Compare L. 67 0. tt is the 38th radical of characters relating to women. When meaning thou, and are mere chia-chieh, adaptation of a you, sound. Hao3. Hao4. What is good, what one loves: wife and children. By extension, good, to love;

Nu2. Female slave. Women under the hand of a master; a guilty woman, condemned to pound L. 47 N). the rice (see Phonetic series 141. Ju . To speak like a woman, with a womanly skill, in conformity with the circumstances, and the dispositions of the man one desires to wheedle. Extended meaning, as, like, according to. Phonetic series 216. Ch'ieh4. Daughter of a culprit, reduced to servitude, according to the old way; by extension, a concubine; (L. 102 E), Phonetic series 331. T'o3. Security, tranquillity. When the hand ia firmly placed upon women; Phonetic series 306. It forms sui1, a thread that attaches, that makes sure. Nan1. Good order, peace. When the house; well enclosed in the Phonetic series 176. women are
2

170

Etymological Lessons.

67

day, to the gyneYen4. Visit during the cium; siesta, mid-day nap; It forms yen4, recreation, feast, banquet; and the phonetic c o m p o u n d Yen3. To hide; (L. 10 B), s eries 495. ch'i1, L. 44 G; Other derivatives from yao1, L. 50 N; etc. Chien1. Quarrelling, mutual slandering. For, says the Glose, not without melan choly, two women cannot be on good terms; Chien1. Amours a n d i ntrigues among and with women; traitorous, for, says the Glose, a man who debauches women, is a t r ait or to his fellow-men; ; see

Phoneti

Second series: wu2. A series is reserved to t h i s derivative from because it forms a group. Note the malf or ma t ion of the modern character. Wu2. A woman pl a c e d u n d e r luck and key (L. I, 3 ) f o r m i s b e h a v i o u r . Prison of t h e guilty women. Each palace had a p l a c e reserved for that purpose. The persons t h u s confined were utterly unemployed, and saw nobody. Hence t h e derived meanings, to avoid, to abstain, inutility, nothingness; It is t he 80th radical. Ai3. A man contined,

(24 C) who behaves badly; or w o r t h to be so: a d e b a u c h e e ; grow here avoided; poison,

Tu2. The poiso nous vegetabl es t h a t a n d there, a n d t h a t must be venom ;

Lou2. Woman confined, enclosed in the prison of the gy n eciu m ; for ever idle; useless, etc; Phonetic series 631. It forms Shu3. Shu4. Formerly, it meant to govern the conf i n e d women. Now, it means, to count, a n u m b e r ; Pbonetic series 812.

Etymological Lessons. 67. 68, Third series: mu3. It is another derivative from , forming a group.

171

Mu3. A woman who has become a mother. This is represented by the addi tion of two breasts to the . She suckles a child, says the Glose; character Idea of fecundity, of multiplication . Phonetic series 139. It forms Mei3. Grass (L. 78), prolific; The actual meaning of this character, every, each, is cbia-chieh. Phonetic series 294. It forms. plants twisFan2. Luxuriant vegetation, the ting into a tangle; on account of a mistake made by the scribes, says the Glose; Yu1. See L. 94 F. LESSON 68. About the primitive chi4. An a p pe n di x is reserved for a few analogous forms. In the modern writing, has different forms and is easily mistaken for the hand (L. 44).

Now

First series;

chui4 and

hu4.
The representation,

Chi 4 . A primitive. It is intended to represent a boar's Or a hog s snout; wich is lifted up, is very rough. The top stroke represents the nose flattened. The bottom stroke represents the neck. The left stroke is a boar's tusk, the point being forward. The hoar and the hog played a very important part in the Chinese hunting and cattle-breeding, therefore they gave birth to many characters. It is the 58th radical of characters, mostly relating to swine. It is unconnected with the following. Hu 4 . A primitive. Represents the twisting of two or several strands, to make a rope; By extension, reciprocity, relation, connection, communication.

172

Etymological Lessons. 68. chi4.

Second series: Derivatives from

Chih4. Boar , wounded by an (131 A) arrow, under the neck, between the two (27 I, note 1) fore-legs; killed at the hunting. 12. Offerings to the manes of ancestors; head, grain, the hands, A boar's silk, the whole being offered with

I4. Boar, a bristles, the Compare L. 23 C;

bristlecovered animal. The head, the hind-legs and tail. It forms

Wei4. Hui4. This character, utterly altered in the modern writing, first meant, the hedgehog, the snout of which resembles the hog's; The animal is specified by (ancient form, L. 122 C) the stomach, on account of its extraordinary voracity. In t h e modern character, on the top ; then the two long bristles of the third ancient form; then for the ancient form of ; lastly for the hind-legs and tail of . To mean hedgehog, the character is now written ; while hui4 is used chuan-chu to mean collection. The idea is taken from the collection of sharp points t h a t cover the back of a hedgenog.

Appendix. According to their modern writing, t h e f o u r following compounds seemingly come from ; but the two first ones are certainly not derived from it. Lu4. To behead, to trim and to bark a tree (the stump being upright). On t h e top, an axe of a special form, the haft of which bends to the right; its action; t h e tree beheaded; four small strokes represent the branches and the bark cut. Now . Phonetic series 461. The ancient character simply represented the cutting off the trunk, the branches falling on both sides, and the shreds of the bark torn out. Compare L. 45 J.

Etymological Lessons. 68 69. Mei4. A modification of the preceding The axe's handle is not represented. Ancient form: a head of (L. 40 C) upon a trunk cut down. Now Spirit of dead free; supposed, to be malignant;

173

The two following characters, of identical composition, head, and body of a hog, have probably been fabricated in two different centres (see page 7). They differ only by one stroke, the head being separated in the first, a n d joined with the rest in the latter. Sh ih 3. Pig. The, scribes write it, as the following, in its derivative li3, bristle-covered larvae that eat away the tissues a n d the books. T'uan3. Usual meaning, pig's bristles. Derived m eaning, commentaries, accessories to the text as the bristles are accessory to the pig. Phonetic series 577.

LESSON 69. About the primitive shin3. An appendix will treat abont hai4 and hsiang4.

Shih 3 . Boar, hog. The head is replaced by a line; on the left side, the belly a n d the paws; on the right side, the hack and the tail ; It has many compounds, e. g. chu2, to drive or push out pigs, to expel in general. It is the 152th radical of characters mostly referring to swine. Hun4. Inclosure of pigs, a sty, a privy: the pigs in Chirm eating fecal matters; series 538. Chia1. Human dwelling, says the Glose. By extension, family. The pigs live around the houses of the Chinese countrymen, and even enter in them, as well as the dogs. The street-cleaning and privy-emptying are left to these two animals. Phonetic series 516. Phonetic

174

Etymological Lessons. 69
Chu4. To fight with rage, as a boar that defends

it self against

a tiger; Phonetic, series 731.

T un 2 . A s u c k i n g pig. It was offered in some sacrilices, henre the ancient form, flesh of w h i c h is ottered. Compare chi4, L.

a pig, the 65 H.

Sui 2 . To partake flocks:

(18) the

pigs, in bands, in It forms

Sui 2 . A band of pigs marching, following th eir lender; hence, to f ol l ow in general; Phonetic series 758. Tui4. Troops; garrison that guards th e walls. It forms the phonetic compound chui4, to fall,

Cho2. A pig
It forms

h a v i n g two feet

tr a mm ell ed ; Phonetic series 340

Chung3. Tumulus, knoll, tomb, chia-chieh of an ancient character used in hunting; Compare L 34 I. the com position of w hich is similar Phoneti c series 527.

1*. Boar

that

sense, the compound

attacks (L. 102 E); Bravery, heroism. In this i4 is now used.

Shih3 and T uan3. See L. 68 H, I.

Etymological Lessons. 69. 70.

175

Pin . A flock of pigs; two being taken for a multitude. It forms Pin1. A district in the mountains of Shensi, where boars formerly abounded. Hsien3. To b u r n brush-wood, in order to drive out the boars. hai4 and hsiang4. Hai4. The hog (L. 69 A), with one stroke added to the tail; horary cycle, to designate the time 9 to 11 p. m.. This time, says the Glose, is the most propitious for the conception. Hence numer ous different figures, that represent two persons, sometimes a man and a woman (L 670), under heaven (L. 2 G ) , that is to say, cooperating with the producti ve action of heaven, by begetting chidren. Phonetic series 197. Hsiang4. Elephant. A primi tive, representing the characteristic parts of this a n i m al - On the top, the t r u n k ; then a bow representing the tusks. The legs and tail look l i k e those of th e pig.
Phonetic series 683.

Appendix:

It is used, in the

LESSON 70
About two primitives, chi2 and 4 wu (L. 29 K ) ; as well as f r o m chi 1 . The latter is to be distinguished from or at the bottom (LL. 18 a n d 47).

Chi2. Sieve, riddle. It represents t he object; Chi 2 . Prop, stool; Both being combined form Ch'i2. Sieve placed upon its support; The old utensil being no longer used, the character has become chia-chieh a demonstrative Phonetic series 327. L. 156C; L. 41 G; L. 40 C; L. 55 H.

pronoun; Chi is found in

176

Etymological Lessons. 71.

LESSON 71.
About the primitive i4. Special series are reserved for the important derivative 1 ko , and its numerous family.

First series:

i4.
I4. Primitive Some see, in th is figure, a hook driven in t h e w a l l , to suspend objects; others see an arrow w i t h a t h r e a d ; others, see in it a fish or pin that was used to count, to mark, to order, to decide. Note for the understanding of this Lesson, that the ancient weapons were varied. Each one had its own representation. Later on, m a n y of them disappeared, and the ir characters were used for other purposes. It is the 56th radical, and forms Tai4. Order of succession, substitution, of men, and by extension, of things ; instead of, in place of; Phonetic series 161, N o t to be confounded with L. 71 G. Shi h 4 . Work done after patter n ; a m o d e l, to i mitate; series 236. indications, after a Phonetic fa1,

Erh4. Two pins, two. There is an old analogous form for one. It forms

Erh4. Profit; a second sum (L. 161) added to the first, to the capital;
It is now use.d for security in accounts, instead of t h at may he easily changed into or . Phonetic series 674. Pi. A t h i n g certain, de c id ed. An arrow or a fish that divides , that solves a doubt, a dilemma; See L. 18 G. K'ang-hsi erron eously classified this character under the heart. Phonetic series 148. Note t h a t does n o t come from . See below K.

Etymological Lessons. 71. Second series: kuo1. K u o 1 . A k i n d of halherd, formerly much used. A hook or crescent on t h e top, then a cross-bar, and a halter hanging; 62th radical of words relating to spears and arms. It forms Fa1 To destroy, to cut down. A man who receives from behind a stroke with a halberd;
from

177

It is the

Phonetic series 195, To be dist inguished tai4, L. 71 B. in the modern

Ts'ai2. At t he bottom, . On the top, the p h o n e t i c ts'ai2 (L. 96), co nt r act e d i nt o writing. To w o un d w i t h weapons; . Phonetic series 2it. Ch'ien 1 . See L. 27 B. Chih 4 . The a n c i e n t chiefs or officials. They held a weapon, when they made known their (L. 73 E, contracted) will to t h e i r people Note the combination of the bottom stroke of , w i t h the horizontal stroke of , which gives one stroke less to the phonetic series 671. Yu4. A p r i m i t i v e ap p an ag e, a post, a centre; t h e land that a landlord defended with represents his residence, castle or of his m e n ; Town ; the li mi ts are not i ndicated, because there were none; Huo4. Extended meaning of the preceding, an indeterminate person, whose name is not given, known o n ly to be from such a principality; a vague determination. Phonetic series 364. It forms Kuo3. An estate, well defined a n d surrounded w i t h marks, as they were la ter on. Extended meaning , a state, a country; Phonetic series 625. Po4. Anarchy, revolution. When the fiefs are upset ; being straight up, the other upside down; one

the weapons

178

Etymological Lessons. 71. Wu3. The army, soldiers. The lances that stop the hostile incursions, thus allowing the people to prosper, says the Glose; Note that, in the modern character, by a singular of was placed on the top of the exception, the compound. Phonetic series 410.

Third series. Characters derived f r o m Yueh4. A halberd

a n d easily confounded. with a hook; Phonetic series 175.

Wu4. H a l b e r d with a crescent; See below P, th e series derive d from it. It forms the phonetic complex Mao4. Flourishing, blooming; On its side,
2

contracted forms

Ch'eng . To grow, to prosper, to a t t a i n , to e n d ; (L. 57 ) is phonetic; P h o n e t i c series 179. is a b b r e v i a t e d in t h e modern writing Shu 4 . The men armed with defend the frontiers; See the derivative , 90 D. J u n g 2 Arms in general, war. From arms for the offensive, and (L. 152) armour for the defensive; the latter character is reduced to two strokes in the modern writing; Phonetic series 217. Hsu1. To attack, to wound, to kill. A halberd and a wound; It forms Mieh4. To extinguish; to destroy the fire; This character is now written Wei1. Fear; the awe felt by women menaced death; with extension, a stern composure, an exterior that inspires awe; dignity, majesty. lances, who

By

Etymological Lessons. 71 179 Hsien2. To bite; to wound all, together, with the mouth; The modern meaning, is or . chia-chieh for

Phonetic series 446. It forms bitten by a Kan3. Heart passion, an emotion. Phonetic series 740. Sui4. Jupiter, indicated whether an attack was to be made, or is broken up, a not. See L 71 P, L 112 G The h a lf being on the top, a half at the bottom. The ancients had also, for the compulation of time, a cycle of twelve years based u p o n the revolution of Jupiter. Hence, later on, the extended an d adapted meaning, a period of twelve months, a solar year; Note that is a modern a n d wrong form. Phonetic series 760. Fourth series: doubled, in opposite directions; o8. O2. Ngo2. Two weapons in conflict, two rights that oppose one another, my r ight, a n d , by extension, my Ego, my own person; personal pronoun, 1, me. This character being uneasy to write, was soon changed into . Phonetic series 297. It forms I4. Harmony, good und erstanding (L. 103), peace a conflict; convention concluded restored after after a disagreement, restoring concord and giving satisfaction to the interested parties. Hence all the derived meanings of this important character,; the bottom of an affair, trut h , right; conventional, just, L 54 G. Phonetic series equitable, proper, etc. Compare L 73 D, a n d 737. It forms Hsi 1 . The imprecations (L. 53 D) that accompanied the of a treaty. They conclusion were made u p o n immolated animals. Hence the ex. Phonetic series 830. tended meaning, victi m ; now the planet that

Filth series:

doubled, in the same direction;

chien1.

Ghien1. To exterminate, to destroy. The common work of two (many) halberds; Phonetic series 333.

180

Etymological Lessons.

72.

LESSON 72
About the primitive k'ou3, and its multiples

First series:

simple.
K'ou3. It represents the mo u t h . M o u t h , entrance. His the 30th radical. Phonetic series 23. This primitive is found in many co m p ou nd s. Let us recall L. 18 E; L 64 B; L. 2 D; etc It is to be distinguished from wei2 L. 74, and f ro m other L. 59 D; L. p r i m i t i v e a nalogou s cha racters; L. 109 A; etc. Note th e derivatives 90 F;

L. 24 F;

L. 60 C;

C h i h 3 . B u t , however. The Glose e x p l a i n s this particle as follows: When a sentence is o v e r , t h e b r e a t h issnes m o u t h , in two puffs, t h a t co n ne c t what f r o m the follows w i t h w h a t precedes. B u t w h a t follows is w r i tt e n below, in the vertical Ch i n e se lines, therefore t h e two strokes are t u r n e d d o w n w a r d s .. . A l l t h e particles are i n t o n a t i o n s or finals, r a t h e r m u s i c a l t h a n significative, an i n t e r p u a c t u a t i o n t h a t is read; Phonetic, series 11 1 , Fei4. Fr o m dog a n d dog; to howl; (L. 134). Ch'ui 4 . From to grumble. (L. 99). mouth The hark of the

mouth and

to puff; to blo w,

Second series:

doubled,
Hsuan1. C l a m o u r s Two m o uth s expressing t h e i n t e n s i t y of the actio n of the mouth ; K'u1. To lam e n t. To wail, as w i t h m a n y mouths, a f t e r the dogs m a n n e r ; It forms 1 Sang F u n e r a l s. To w a i l , as dogs , over a dead b o d y ; These two characters v i v i d l y depict the Chinese t h i n g that they mean.

See L. 10 H.

Etymological Lessons. 72. Chu1. Repeated cries phonetic. Ghia 3 . Large sing round, to call the hens;

181 is

cup, with a cover; a hanap pasa l l m o u t h s d r i n k i n g out of t h e same.

Tan1. To assault somebody, w i th cries a n d a (L. l04). Compare L 72 F. The pripitchfork mitive meaning of this c h a r a c t e r Is obsolete. It now means, single, thin , a check, a bill, only, etc These are mere chia-chieh. Phonetic series 705 It has n ot h in g ia common with T'o2. A crocodile, whose s k i n was used for making droms; It represents the monster. The top part resembles L. 23 1. For the bottom, see L. 108 C. It is unconnected with tan1

( ) 4 To accuse somebody w i t h great cries. Two m o u t h s , and (L. 102 D) to attack; Mot e t h e m o d e r n form i m a g i n e d by the scribes. Double p h o n e t i c series 470, u n d e r its t w o forms.

Y e n 2 , Cries that i n sp ir e awe. See L. 141 H. Severe, st e r n , majestic. Phonetic series 858. Nang2. Cries , and agilatioh, that accompany execution of a common work ; cooperation, the working in common. Here again, the Chinese at work are well described. By extension, big disorder; See LL 39 B, 39 G, 82 A. In the. modern form, was changed into , by a fancy of some, scribe. It forms Ilsian g 1 . Composed of the last and of clothes, L. 16 A. To disrobe, in order to plough, or to work, or to h e l p others. To work, to cooperate, to help. Note the modern contraction. Phonetic series 831.

182

Etymological Lessons. 72. Nang2 A satchel, a recip ient (L 74 A), in which are, or m a y be enclosed p ell-mell any objects whatever; a bag, a sack. Phonetic series 854. Ch'ien 1 . Meeting, together. Men gathered who chat. See L. 14 A and E Phonetic series 726. Kuan4. The heron Bird with a crest (L. 103 C), a n d clamorous. Phonetic series 841. Note: chou4 L. 29 D, a n d shou4 L 23 I, are not

derived f r o m

Third series:

repeated th ree times in the same line, Ling 2 . Noise of voices; following characters are no t derived from they have a f igur e of the same kind

The two , though

Yao4. A P an dean flute. The three represent the holes of the pipes uni t e d together in a straight row. See L 14 H It is the 244th radical. Phonetic series 835. Ling2. Falling of rain in big drops; Formerly, it made a p honetic series, in which is now written the compound Ling2 To offer to hea ven jade (L. 83 A ) , or dances (L. 27 E), in order to get rain certain Compare L. 58 H. It was t he first t hi ng asked from the magicians a n d sorcerers, by a people whose life depended upon rain. By ex tension, spiritual, mysterious, s upe r na t ura l power or effect, transcendent, marvellou s. Phonetic series 853.

Sub-series:

repealed three times in a pyrarnidical form, P'in3. Disposition by order a nd degrees, graphically represented by the dispo sition of three elements, taken for a multitude. is used as a sign and has no meaning.

Etymological Lessons. 72 183 Yen2. Rock s scattered upon a mountain. The three are used as signs and have no meaning. Ch'u1. To dispose, to stow away things in a box ; place, site; Phonetic series 607. But, in the two f o ll ow in g characters, the three mouths. j oined by lines. To be yen2, above. To cabal, to plot; Now nieh 1 , a mouth t h a t pour s its words into three ears. Tsao 4 . S i n g i n g 764. of the birds on trees; Phonetic series N ieh 1 . Three mouths d i s t i n g u i s h ed from mean

By extension, lodging,

Fourth series:

repeated lour times, Ch'i1. Many mouths, clamours; F o u r m o u t h s may be seen in d i f f e r e n t characters, e.g. Ch'i 4 . The vessels for t h e mouths, used for dog t h a t cleans them. It eating. In the mi d d l e , a (work, utensil) was not very refined, therefore was substituted for ; b u t this form was not admitted by the critics. A very old form shows a h a n d a n d three pots. The p rimitiv e m eaning was probably, earthenware, clay vessels, made by the potter. By extension, any utensil. Hsiao4. A m a n w i t h four mouths. To vociferate, to clamour; Yin2 An Chiao4. Union ( L . 54 F). officer with four mouths. To speak loud; of several mouths. Cries, appeals . See L. 72 F. Phonetic

O4 A modern form of series 470.

184

Etymological Lessons.

73

LESSON 73.

About three derivatives of series. First series: yueh1.

yueh1,

kan1,

yen2, that form important

Yueh1. To speak, to tell. The mouth that exhales a breath, a word ; Sometimes, by deriv ation; exhalation, emanation. It is the 73th rad ic a l. In the compounds, is to be accurate l y distinguished, from 143, a n d from mao4 L. 34 J, which is written by the modern scribes. Note a more ancient and more evolved form of : t h e b reath f o r m i n g like a v ol ut e of v a p o u r before the mo uth, as when condensed in winter. See L. 76 K Ho 2. A stranger , a beggar, who speaks, in o r d e r to ask his way or to b eg By extension, to ask, w h e i e ? w h y ? how? See L 10 G. Phonetic series 443. Ch'ang 1 E m a n a t i o n , sw arming, u n d e r th e sun's heat ( L 143); by extensi on, prosperity, splend o u r , glory. The ol d forms f i g u r e sun and moon, light a n d l i f e . Phonetic series 322.

jih4 L.

Ta2. Flow series 395.

of

words (L 125). Phonetic

Ts'ao2. Judges P r i m i t i v e ly two worthies who sat and pronounced judgment in the See L. 120 K. Note the u g l y modern contraction. Phonetic series 653. See LL. 26 D; 40 D.

East halls.

Etymological Lessons. 73.

185

Second series:

kan .
Kan 1 . Sweetness of so m e thing held in the m o u t h ( L . 1, 4); good, sweet; by extension, satisfaction, affection; It is the 99(h radical of few characters r e l a t i n g to sweetness. Phon etic series 129 It forms M u 3 . The t h i n g sweet to the taste, the f r u i t s trees; that grow on It is used now, by a mere con ventional chia-chieh, to mean, a certain person whose name is unknown, or respect or c a u ti o n forbids to use, Phonetic series 467. Shen4 In the more ancient form, what was taste. In the more modern form, agreeable to the th at makes the pair affection for the being (s exual) See L. 42 A. This affection being very great, says the Glose, hence the extended m eaning, superlative, very, extremely, excessive. Phonetic series 475. H s i a n g 1 Savour or odour agreeable, of the ( c o nt r act ed , L. 121 I) fermented grain, of t h e arack; By
extension, fragrant, odoriferous. It is the 186th radical. Chih 3 . Formerly, the tongue (L, 102 C), in contact w i t h a sweet thing (L. 1 4 0 ). Now sweet; is t he pho netic (L. 26 K). By extension, edict of t h e Emperor lhat is supposed to be couched in sweet words Phonetic series 185.

mu-jen;

Tien 1 . Sweet to the tongue; it is f r o m this phonetic contracted, that are derived, in the phonetic series 227 , the compounds in ien. See L. 102 C. with the meat of a Yen4. Satiated. Glutted dog. See L. 65 G. In the modern character, became , as in and above. It forms yen4, L. 65 G.

186 Third series: yen2.

Etymological Lessons. 73.

Yen2. To speak, to tell; speech, word. Words issuing (L. 102 E) from the mouth. The sounds of the heart , says the Glose; radical of characters re lating to speech. It forms Chi 4 . To compute, to c a lc ulate. To know how to ten, i.e. all the numenunciate the numbers till bers. See L. 24 B. T'ao3. To rule by one's See L. 45 B. words; to chide;

It is the 149th

Hsin 4 . Sinceri t y; the q u a l i t y that the words of should have. Faith, truthfulness, the every man man by the words of effect produc e d upon a another. See L. 25 H Hsuan4. To go here a n d there , wh ile offering a n d praising one's goods, as t h e pedlars do. To praise up one's self Luan4 See L. 92 D. Shang 1 . See L. 15 D.

Fourth series:

doubled Ching 4 . Primitively, words against words, Then t he two men dispute, (L 29 A) were added; Lastly, the scribes contracted this character into , and K'ang-hsi wrongly classified it under the 117th radical . Not to be confounded with L. 97 I. Shan 4 . Harm ony, good u nderstanding (L. 103), peace made again after an altercation By extension, a menity, pleasantness, sweetness, good, well; Compare L. 71 Q. This character being uneasy to trace, the scribes altered It in a strange way. Phonetic series 702.

Etymological Lessons.
Fifth series:

73.
, on account

187

yin1. A series is reserved to this derivative of

of its important compounds. Y i n 1 . Utterance of a phonation, modulation; sound. A sound, tone,

Compare the composition of kan1 and chih3, L. 73 B It is the 180th radical. Phonetic series 498. It forms

Chang 1 . A strain in music , or an essay in literature, perfect (ten representing the finishing, the perfection); series 593. It forms Kan* Music . t h a t ruled t h e and L.

-- Phonetic

evolutions of the dan cers in ancient times (see radical Kan 4 . Kung 4 . The gratification (L. 1 6 1 ) given to the musicians. Com pare L. 65 D. The scribes changed racter is now written into , therefore this cha Phonetic series 850. 31 E). It forms, by adding the

Ching 4 . Limits, boundaries; where the languages or dialects of men change By extension, end; K'ang-hsi who took 1 8 0 t h radical, arbitrarily classified Phonetic series 603. I4. The intention by the sounds of the man who speaks, manifested he utters; intelligence of words of the speaker; By extension, the under . for his

meaning, the signification that the the hearer perceives in the

Phonetic series 739. It became, by contraction, the compound

in

Chih4. Officer. See L 71 I. Phonetic series 671.

188

Etymological Lessons. 73. 74.

Note: In the phonetic series 739, are enclosed some derivatives of another compound, which the scribes confounded w i t h I4. Pleasure, cheerfulness, caused by a word, that hit the point (L. 109); is divided, a h a l f being on the top, a half at the bottom; is in the middle. With at the bottom, we have a compound which is also written It meant, pleasure. This sense became obsolete, and the Compare L. 47 X. Conclusion: in character now means 100.000. It is written modern characters, the series is u n i f o r m ; written in ancient characters, it is decomposed into two distinct series.

LESSON 74.

About t h e p r i m i t i v e

wei2. See

L. 76,

Wei2. A r o u n d , a c i r c u m f e r e n c e , an inclosure, to co n t ain; It is t he 31th radical of characters relating to enclosure s. To be distinguished from the 30th radical , m o u t h Different compounds of wei2 were already explai ned. Let us recall Yuan4. Larvae without skeleton, tht can bend in round . See L. 65 E. Yuan2. Cowries 161 B. of a round form. See L,

She4. Dwelling made with walls. See L. 14 C. Ts'ang1. A granary to See L 26 M. Ch'iu 2 . A m a n Yi n 1 . A man See L. 60 B Hun4. A sty keep the provisions.

i m p ri s o n e d

See L 25 B.

enclosed, k n o w i n g not what to say.

for

pigs. See L. 69 B

Etymological Lessons. 74.


3

189

Lo . Penning, cattle-breeding, fattening. To catch an a n i m a l in a pen, in order, later and inclose flesh; on, to get its into . ti E, 65 A. The scribes changed Phonetic series 747, the radical being inserted at the and bottom, betveen Lei2. A fattened. Lean, feeble, meagre. sheep that needs to be

See LL. 10 E,

Ying 2 . To feed one's purse ( cowries). To gain at a game, or in doing commerce. Is phonetic contracted in the compounds in ing of the phonetic series 747. I4. Seat of the government's authority (L. 55 B). Capital of a district, of a lief. Walled city; It is the 163th radical of characters denoting towns. Let us recall the compounds Y u n g 1 . The moat ar ound a city L 12 G. Y u n g 1 The wagtail, the bird moats. L 12 G. Note: straight or turned, when abbreviated, becomes on the left. Hence t he following Y u n g 1 . The wa g ta il , as ab ove; . Phonetic series 769. on the right, that likes the

is for

is for

Hsiang 1 . The country, the s pace between the cities and , where the grains are growing See L. 26 M Phonetic series 682. Lastly, in the next, is reduced to (L. 55 B).

Hsiang 4 . Composed of (L 47 Q) and of two , later on reduced to one, and th en to . What is of a common use in the cities , i.e. the streets, the paths;

190

Etymological Lessons.

75.

LESSON 75.
About several series derived from important and difficult. wei2, viz. etc , that are

First series:

shu4.
Shu4. To bind, to tie, to inclose a tree, taken

here as meaning any object; Phonetic series 303. It forms Su4, Sou4. To clear the throat, to cough; Phonetic series 647. Chien 3 . To select; to choose bundle ,

(L. 99)

in a previously opened; Not to be c o n f o u n d e d with the compounds of L. 40 D. Phonetic series 429,

This is a s i n g u l a r compound, that forms an interesting series. It is composed of , with a second greater, inserted h a l f w a y up the tree The r adical, or sometimes the phonetic, is introduced in this frame. The general idea of t h i s now obsolete character was, a recipient, a case, a bag, placed hi gh, out of reach. The scribes altered it in many ways. The large is geto n e r a l l y reduced to , a n d the foot of t h e tree . Some compounds are given here : Kao1. Quiver, a case for arrows; is phonetic.

T'o2. A bag; , stone, represents the contents See the ancient character above. It forms Tu4. Worms book-worms. in cases, books or clothes, moths,

Nang2. A sack. Explained L 72 H. Phonetic series 854.

The philologists attribute also to this compound, taken in the sense of euclosure, the Intricate forms of K'un3. See below, the different writings of this character. It means the path in the shape of a , which cuts the square yards of the

Etymological Lessons. 75

191

Chinese palaces, giving in the angles four spaces, planted with flowers; The first ancient form graphically represented this idea, which was darkened by successive additions. The contractions were made by the scribes. Not hu2, L. 38 G. It has nothing in common with ya4, to be confounded with L. 82 H.

Second series:

kao1.
Kao1. A kind of pavilion , raised upon a represents the hall in this substructure; under building; An elevated place; high, lofty, eminent. It forms the 189th radical. Phonetic series 544. When it is variously contracted, or overturned, or when its strokes are mingled, it forms the singular following series. T'ing 2 . The phonetic ting1 (L. 57 A) replaced the at the bottom. In the modern writing, became . Pavilion, terrace; Phonetic scries 479. Po4. An old city, (L. 33 B) root of the dynasty, built upon a height. Shang

Hao2. An a n g r y boar (L. 69) bristling u p ; contracted is phonetic. Extended meanings, bravery; compare L. 69 D. I L.. or bristles, a ha ir, a n y t h i n g v e r y m i n u t e . Hence the modern form , w h ic h is not classical ( mao2, hair, L. 100) Recently t h e character has been adapted to the porcupine, common in the West of China. It is supposed to be very brave, and to shoot out its quills, like arrows. Phonetic series 777. Ch'iao2. In this character, it was the top of that disappeared, to make room for yao1, L 61 B; Something high, a tree for instance, the top of which bends down, overhangs. Phonetic series 670 K'ang-hsi wrongly classified this character under the mouth.

192

Etymological Lessons
2

75

T'ai . A high place, a lofty lerroce, a look-out. Here is reduced to was replaced by and , L 133 . The which means t h a t the L. 59 on the top, is replaced by of t h e bottom

birds alight there. The F.

L 79, which indicates the summit, as in

By extension, any elevated place, staging, tower, ob servato ry. Phonetic series 790.

Third series:

ching1, derived from


C h i n g . It is
1

, t h e bottom p a rt of which is

replaced by a pivot (L. 6 A ) ; idea of loftiness, of central ity. The capital or metropolis, centre of th e Empire. scribes altered the bottom in the modern character. It is u n c o n n e c t e d w i t h forms Chiu
4

The P h on e ti c series 336. It

Admiration

(L 134 C), before something

e x a l t e d . By e x t e n s i o n , to go towards, to follo w, consequently. Ching . The sun a prospect. Forms object, intercepting the sun at the, capital
3

very

high; brightness; a vista, ying , shade caused by an


3

light. Another e x p l a n a t i o n : Prognostics given by it

about t h e affairs of the Empire, state of things, circums tance s Phonetic series 672. Liang . The more enlightened than those of the provinces, advisors to the Government, etc. By extension, clear, illumined. The actual form is relatively modern.
4

men of the

capital,

Fourth series:
n o t e 1.That with compounds of

hsiang3; modern form

derived from
, which has nothing in common as an abbreviation of two

D Before studying 1hts series, th at was specially distorted by the scribes, let us is an arbitrary abbreviation of
2 1

L. 94 2. That the scribes used the same

ch'un and kuo (below E and H), that form series, if therefore

Etymological Lessons. 75. the group is gathered, one gets a m i x t u r e of yang, un, wu, uo, etc. This phonetic confusion betrays a p r i m i t i v e d iver s ity of characters which cannot be distinguished in the modern writing, b ut is manifest in the ancient forms.

193

Hsiang 3 . To offer a g i f t to a superior represents the object offered; it is a contracted); modern primitive, distinct from yueh1 L. 73, and 4 from jih L. 143. The a n c i e n t f o r m was composed of t w o abbreviated, o n e b e i n g str a ig h t, the o t h e r i n v e r t e d ; one offering, the o t h e r r e c e i v i n g ; Hence two meanings; to treat with favour ( n o w heng1), or to enjoy t h e favour received ( n o w hsiang3). C o m p a re L 75 G. P h o n e t i c series 274 a n d 359; the latter is almost completely attributed to the comp o u n d s Ch'un 2 a n d huo 1 , below E, H.

Fu2. A b u n d a n c e . According to some interpreters, this character is composed of gifts received, a n d of t h a t d i v i d e s in f o u r parts , this division im plying t h a t a l l t h e corners are f i l l e d ; A more a nc ie n t e xpla na tion, t h o u g h less c o m m o n l y a d m i t t e d , seems to be t h e t r u e one. A c c or di n g to this, t h e character means ( c o n t r a c t e d ) , t h e h e a p i n g up of t h e productions of t h e f i e l d s , goods of t h e e a r t h A b u n d a n c e , prosperity, , and Then the c h a r a c t e r is derived directly from not f r o m . Note the modern d ef or m at i o n, a n d the compounds fu4, bouses filled, wealth; fu 2 , a transcendent influence that brings luck; Phonetic series 441.

Ch'un2. A l a m b grown up, big and. nice enough to be offered as a present: Is altered into , as it was explained above D Phonetic series 359. It forms

194

Etymological Lessons. 75. Shu2. To take lamb (L. 11 E) a

acceptable, to be roasted; Note the compound shu2, shon2, the lamb roasted ( L. 126); by extension, well cooked, ripe. Phonetic series 644. Now is used chia-chieh, as an interrogative pronoun. Tun1. Meek-minded, honest, simple as a lamb, that is a n d does not cry; to beaten bear, to beat, etc. Phonetic series 715.

Liang2 The ev o lution of t his character parallelled the evolution of Chinese moral philosophy. Primitively (as in L. 75 D), the capital gift, the the gift nature heavenly received. In t he second aucient character, t h e coming down from heaven of the gift, is shown graphically (school of Meng-tzu, good nature). In the third ancient character, (school of Tung chung-shu). Fi nally, the gift has been lost (school of Li-ssu a n d Hsun-tzu, bad nature). Anyhow, the primitive m e a ni n g has been preserved: , original qualities, nature, natural, inborn, good. The actual character is an arbitrary contraction. See L. 26 0. Phonetic series 289. It forms

good and evil

Lang2. Name of an old Phonetic series 460.

city. Chia-chieh, a title.

Liang2. Measure, weight, to measure, to weigh. Composed of (L. 120 K) weight, natural; the weight of things according with their nature. Note the contractions. It has nothin g in common either with L. 149 D, or with L. 143 B. It forms liang2, rations, food, provisions; the quantity of grains required for food.

Etymological Lessons. 75 inverted, and contracted, forms Hou 4 . Liberality, generosity. The reverse of , L 75 D. The inferior receives a gift ; It is now w ritt en H o u 4 . Liberality, generosity. The represents the coming down of the gift, f r o m upwards. By extension, thick, large ( q u a l i t i e s of a generous gift). The modern character is an a r b i t r a r y abbreviation. T'an2. A b u n d a n c e of s a l t ( L . 41 D); salting, pickling; by extension, different macerations; various chia-chieh. After many contractions, t h e bottom of the c h a r a c t e r became . Phonetic series 706.

195

Fifth series:

kuo, derived from


Kuo1 Walls, fortifications The fence ( L . 76) of the ancient cities, simple, or d o u b l e d w i t h two ( f o u r ) doors opposite, each surmounted with a look-out. The is contracted. For th e mod ern a b b r e v i a t i o n , see the note, L 75 D. Phonetic series 349. It forms Kuo 1 . Walls ( c i t y ) ; it is now used f o r t he last character. Phonetic series 549. Fu4 This character is derived from kuo1 (above, the second anci en t form, wit h a simple ), taken in the sense of city, place. The replaced by the radical (L. 31 B), to march, to go. To go in a city, to market. By extension, to go where one already o f t e n went, to return for a second time, reiteration, repetitiou, etc. Note the absurd modern contraction. Phonetic series 442. It forms Fu4. A sy n o n y m of the last; it is now used for the simple form; See below J. (L 74)

t u r n e d up was

196

Etymological Lessons.

75.

li3, shoes, Note. We incidently treat here about an important compound, to walk; it is seemingly derived from , but in reality, it has no connection whatever with that character. Its story is thus given: primitively it was

Li3. The boats (L. 66), that men put their feet in (L. 112). In fact, the ancient shoes of Chinese much resembled a small boat; Then (L. 63), to walk, was substituted for feet; a man (L. 32) for . Later on, the character and was increased with , to march (L. 3} C); this was a mere redundancy. Lastly the scribes contracted int o , the bottom of the character thus and fu4 (L. 75 I). becoming identical to
Finally,

this c o m p o u n d became like a radical of shoes,

Chi4, clog. Chu4, shoe Hsueh1, boot Chiao1, shoe. being replaced by different phonetics. For in st a n ce :

Sixth series:

k'o1, derived from

K'o1- To overcome, to prevail over, to repress, to subdue, etc. The top part is means, pressure from upwards, a weight that hangs heavily. Some say, the bottom is (L 65 F) shoulder, contracted. A load that weighs heavy upon the shoulders; The lo w er part seems rather to be a primitive, repre sen t ing th e idea of b e n d i n g u n d e r a load Note that, a m o n g t h e three compounds k'o1, to be a bl e of s u p p o r t i n g, of mastering, t h e first is the right o ne,
though it is now used the least; of supp o rting, of subduing. To have the strength

contracted, that

does not come from

. See L. 97 I.

Etymological Lesions LESSON 76.

76.

197

The first series of this Lesson is about , which is wei2 L.74, doubled. The 2 secoud series is about the primitive hui , that is often written by the modern scribes. To be distinguished from the series chiung3, L. 34 B.

First series:
Wei2. Hui2. Double fence (see kuo1, L. 75 H); a vase hermetically closed. It forms very important radical compounds, but no phonetic compounds. Those lhat are sometimes attributed to it, belong to , below G. Lin3. A and forms Lin3. A depot for grains, a storehouse; distribution of grain to the poor; gift, favour. Phonetic series 746. Note t h a t Ping 3 , is a modern character, that is not found in the ancient dictionaries; to let know to the authorities the poor that must be inform. T'an2. G r a n a r y that may be examined at the (L. 143 B) day's light; all the grain that must be there, is really there; sincerity, honesty. Phonetic series 762. She4. Grains enclosed in a grange. When one has grains, he does not spoil them; thrift, parsimony. See L 13 C. In the modern character, the bottom of , and the top of , are mingled together. Phonetic series 755. Pei3. Pi3. To have a small heap of grains , an overplus t h a t cannot be received in the granary. S uperabundant, a n d hence, not precious. It forms Pi3. Vulgar, low (extended meaning of the simple character). Primitively, the small garrisons on th e barbarian borders; (contracted) helped; to warn, to depot, to put in (L. 15) the grains; It is now written

198

Etymological Lessons.

76.77.

T'u2. The plans to be made to order one's granary, when there are too many grains to be received therein. By extension, to plan, to scheme, to calculate, l ong for, etc. There are four in this character.

Second series:
Hui 2. Image of an object (clouds, volutes of the smoke) t h a t turns, that rolls, that revolves; Abstract notion of revolviug, of return. The scribes often write (L. 76 A). Phonetic series 211. It forms Hsuan 1 . To make a complete revolution, either on ones self, or through a nd through, or from one L. 2 D E F. To revolve, to end to the other. See go through, completely. Phonetic series 207. The into . modern scribes changed It forms Hsuan1. A palace; Phonetic series 449. Mu2. To dive, while t u r n i n g on one's self, in something u n d e r water, order to get the head being below; By extension, to disappear, to be no more. Phonetic series 72. The modern scribes changed into The p r i m i t i v e is found also, more or less modified, in the old f o r m of yun2 cloud (L. 93 A); in an old form of yueh1 (L. 73 A ) ; in the old form of lei2 (L. 93 D), thunder rolling above the fields.

LESSON 77.
About the primitive ko*. Ko4. A twig of bamboo, with a knot, and the whorl of pending branches inserted in the knot; It is now written , or . B y extension, an article. Specificative of unities. Let us recall the compound

Etymological Lessons. 77. 78.

199

Chih1. The hand, breaking a bamboo sprig between two knots; or, in the more modern form, the hand holding a bamboo sprig. A branch, a twig, to hold. It is the 65th radical. Phonetic series 45. Chu2. Bamboo, the twigs of which are not raised drooping; up, but written . Contracted form . It is the 118th radical of characters mostly referring to the many kinds or articles of bamboo. It is phonetic in some characters, e.g. Chu4. A multitude of bamboos. The common name of India in Buddhist books. Chu2. A kind of rude harp, composed of thirteen strings that were struck with hammers. It forms Tu3. To advance. Firm, resolute.
LESSON 78.

It is now

About the primitive and its multiples. The complete series of the compounds derived from this important element will be treated in the L. 73. simple. Ch'e4. A plant that sprouts from its grain; the minimum of a plant; at the bottom, the root; on the top, the culm; on each side, one leaf; it is often used as a symbol, either to represent any object (L. 44 H), or to mark a point (L. 59 F). It is the 45th radical of characters mostiy referring to springing plants. In the modern writing, the scribes disfigured this element in the most fanciful ways. See, for instance, L. 44 H, etc. T'ao1. To hold. A hand holding an object; 1 Forms t'ao , a bow-case, a scabbard, etc. Ch'en3 An insect that crawls (L. 110), the head being raised ( beak and feelers). There are unimportant compounds. Not to be confounded with ch'ih1, L. 79 B. First series:

200 Second series:

Etymological Lessons repeated horizontally. Ts'ao 3 . Plants

78.

with herbaceous stems. The

repetition means their multiplicity; it is the 140th radical of c haracters relating to plants. Modern contracted form . The

scribes c o n t r a c t e d in the, same way a few ve ry different elements, e.g. in L 23 H; in L. 54 G; etc.

Third series:

repeated vertically,
Che3, she 2 and the two written Ch'u2 Grass

not united.
To c u t , to break; stumps of a branch cut. It is now bound in .sheaves (L. 54); By extension, An a x e ,

. See L. 48 D. Phonetic series 252.

vulgar, of s ma ll va lue , as the grass. Compare L. 44 I. -Phonetic series 524.

Fourth s eri e s:

repeated v e r t i c a l l y ,

united. (L.

Ch'u 4 . Springing of p l a n t s ; the small p l a n t .

78 A) formed a. second pair of leaves, and thrusts itself out; to go out, to spring from, to manifest, and other chuan-chu. It is often disfigured by the scribes, so t h a t it beco mes , etc.. Phonetic series 147. It forms To issue,

Ch'u1 away

is

tail c o n t r a c te d (L. 100 B). To go lowering;

, the tail

By e x t e n s i o n , depression, grievance, bent down. Compare li4, L. 1 29 A. Phonetic series 348.

Nao2. To go out A):

in order to

saunter ( L. 117 Now By

extension, excessive relaxation, pride, insolence. Phonetic series 638 The scribes contracted into

Etymological Lessons. 78.


4

201

Mai . To sell. This part of business (L 161 D) exporting goods; to sell them; which consists in The scribes
contracted into . Note that form phonetic compounds; t h e phonetic series in has a n o t h e r origin. See L. 79 J. Pao4. To spread the grain, in order to d r y it, rising. Sec L. 47 S. The modern when the sun is contraction is a strange one, Phonetic series 809. Sui 4 . Unpropitious transcendent emanation. Bad omen, noxious influence; confounded with ch'ung2, to revere. T'iao4. To sell grain ; a n d its correlative Ti2. To buy grain ; (L. 62 G) is phonetic... to go out; to enter. mai4 does not

Not to be

Fifth series:

repeated three times, a n d contracted Hui3. Vegetables, plants in general; the three representing the multitude; , The modern form is to be dist inguished thirty, derived from , L. 24 N. It forms from Pen4. A To stride, is for Phonetic series 472. man (L. grass. 60) who w a l k s in the In the ancient character, there (L. 61 B).

Fen4. Ornaments, and plants. These were the first motives of decoration, being easier to be traced than others. See L. 35 G. Phonetic series 732.

Shells

Sixth series:

quadrupled Mang3. High plants, luxuriant vegelation; Note the modern abbreviation. In the compounds, the added part is inserted between the on the top. and the at the bottom, the latter being often changed by the scribes into etc.

202

Etymological Lessons 78. 79. frisking about in the Mang3. A hound thickets. A kind of greyhound; Phonetic series 698. Mo*. The sun fading away at the horizon, in the plants. Sunset; now . By extension, to disappear, to be no more, negation. Phonetic series 637, in which the radical is often placed at the bottom, between the two down strokes of the lower , changed int o ;eg. , , etc. Tsang*. The ancient bur i al; to tie a corpse in a bundle of grass. See L. 28 H. The tie has disappeared from the modern character.

who tries To protect himself Han 2 . Cold. A man against cold . in a shelter, by burying h i m s e l f in straw. See L 47 U. Phonetic series 530.

LESSON 79. This Lesson, one of the most intricate, is reserved for the important series that are etc. derived from (L. 73), viz.:

First series:

t'un2.
T'un2. The underground germ ination. The two cotyledons part from each other; the curved line represents the struggles of the young plant in order to take root; the plumula rises above the earth, and is

brought to light;

By
extension, the difficult be ginning of an establishment, a foundation, a village, a camp. Phonetic series 85. It forms Ch'un1. Spring. Germination and pullulation of plants, by the effects of the sun. Phonetic series 436. The modern character is another strange alteration made by the scribes.

Etymological Lessons. 79

203

Second series:

chih. Chih 1 . A small p l a n t ascending from the ground; to grow; idea of development, of progress, of continuity; used (chia-chieh) as the sign of the genitive, as an Not to he confounded expletive, etc. 2 fa , L. 112 K. In the modern compounds, with either has its ancient form, or is contracted into , or otherwise. Note the derivatives
Ch'ih1. A scarab, large black beetle, boring through the hard soil, coming to light. Chuan-chu, clumsy, stupid. Compare ch'en3, L. 78 A. Phonetic series 520. Shih2. The time, succession of the annual sprouting periods of plants, under the action of the sun; compare L. 24 D, L. 79 A. Constancy, Later on, the character was erroneously connected with Phonetic series 562. Ssu4. Court, temple. The place where the law or the rule are applied, in a constant manner; Phonetic series 238. Chih4. The will; a purpose that is fixed, that develops itself; is, according to the Chinese, the seat of the intellect and of the will. Phonetic series 260.

It is now

The heart

Hsien1 To advance; to progress with one's feet (L 29); Phonetic series 202. Repeated in Shen1. To advance, to present one's self, in order to give one'sadvice. It forms Tsan4. To pay a visit order to give an presents offered, or, more bably, received; Phonetic series 849. in advice; pro-

204

Etymological Lessons. 79.

Shih4. A market. The grass grown place gets what one is in need of (L . 34 A ) , where one (L. 19 E)... instead of , the down stroke being mingled with the horizontal stroke of Compare L 14 C. The modern form is not to be confounded, either with fa4 (L 35 B), or with fei4 (L. 79 G). It forms shih4, the kaki (phonetic complex); and nao4 (logical aggregate), to wrangle as on the ma rket, to quarrel, to scold, etc.

inverted forms
Tsa1. To go r o u n d ; to perform a circuit or entire revolution; as which turned on its axis; In the modern times, this character was changed by the scribes into ; shin1, L. 86 B; an d in wei4, to escort,

is found in a different writing of , in which replacing the while means the going.

of the phonetic

, means perhaps the return,

Sub-series

and

combined wi t h

t'u8 (L 8 l ) forms

Wang3. Luxuriant vegetation, that sprouts from earth, here a n d there; rambling, wandering; the Note. In its modern contracted forms, wang3 might be confounded w i t h chu3, master, L. 83 D; a n d with 2 wang , king, L 83 C. In the first case, the sound prevents a n y mistake. In the second case, the distinction is not easy, the two phonetics being homophonous. See phonetic series 87 and 115. Note the derivatives Wang3 To stray, to go away; K'uang2. A mad dog that roves; P h o n e t i c series 285 K u a n g 1 A regular assemblage. It is supposed to rome from (L 51 A ) , and already contracted in is a the writing hsiao-chuan. It seems rather that primitive, representirig a regular ordering. Compare hsuan4, L. 47 F. Phonetic series 223.

Etymological Lessons. 79. Sub-series , another combination of with t'u3, (L. 81).

205

Feng1. Fields and meadows , under the of a feudatory; an appanage, a domain, authority a tenure; This explanation seems to be erroneous. tree upon The ancient character first represented a tumulus; , the authority, was added later on. a was also added It is composed like , in which later on. A knoll surmounted with a tree, represented the Imperial possession of the land. A similar knoll, but smaller, was erected in the fief granted by the Emperor to a feudatory. Symbol of the jurisdiction ; fictitious principle of propitions influences; etc. By extension, to raise a tumulus, to invest a noble, to appoint to office, to seal, to close, etc. The modern forms are contracted. Nothing in common with (L. 81 D). Phonetic series 440,

Third series:

sheng, often contracted into Sheng1. A plant that grows more and more. A whorl WHS added to L. 79 B; By extension, to bear, to spring, to live, to grow. It is the 100th radical. Phonetic series 154. Note the derivatives Ch'ing 1 . Green. The hue of growing plants, the light green of sprouting plants; But (L. 115 D) means red! Was the inventor of a Daltonian? It is the 174th radical. Phonetic series 337. Hsing1 The stars; the quintessence of sublimated ascended and crystallised into stars; mailer, that The three top elements of the anci ent character are a primitive, representing the stars. The modern character is a contraction of the same. Phonetic series 447.

206

Etymological Lessons. 79. Ch' an3. The signs of parturition. See L. 61 F. Phonetic series 592. Luny2. Prosperity, abundance. What descends (contracted) from heaven; what is produced on earth; all goods. See L. 31 F. Tu2 The noxious weeds that grow everywhere, and that must be avoided. Poison, venom. See L. 67 M. Su4. This character does not mean to rise from the (L. 41 A) one's existence, dead, but to change in the Taoist or Buddhist sense. Hsing4. The natural disposition, temper, spirit, the qualities and propensities; the heart of a man, at his birth. Hsing4. The place where the dan-chiefs of old, born from a woman were impregnated by heaven. They were surnamed after that plac e; hence family surname. the extended meaning, Sheng 1 . A multitude, a great number of beings.

combined with

(L 18) forms the two series 4 and 5.

Fourth series.

fei4.
Fei4. The branching plants, that do not stand, but creep, .and whose bough's-multiply indef i nitely; by extension, multiplication, fibres; Phonetic series 57 The modern f o r m is to be distingu ished from shih4, L. 34 D. and from fu4, L. 35 B... Fei4 is, sometimes, used also under the contracted forms and . Note the derivatives Po4. The multiplication, the human procreation ( child, L. 94). Phonetic series 30t. So3. Fibres cord. (L. 92) of the plants; to tie up; a Phonetic series 565.

Etymological Lessons. 79.

207

luxuriant Nan2. The South. Regions in which the expands everywhere. The (L. 102 F) vegetation country of lianas. Phonetic series 468. development Tzu3. A stop (L. t. 3), in the of vegetation. To stop. The modern form was invented by the scribes; Phonetic series 86.

Fifth series:

p'an4.
P'an4. To strip he mp and divide the fibres from the stalk; The modern form is to be distinguished from mu4, 2 4 tree, L 119; a n d from shu , L. 45 J. P'an ( a n d 4 not mu ) is the radical in hsi3, hemp. It forms P'ai4. Textile fibres Not to be confounded with mu1, L. 119 L. It forms lin2, that comes from Ma2- Prepared hempen tow, k e pt u n d e r a shelter (L. 59 I). It is the 200th radical. Phonetic series 634 It forms Mei 2 . Bad tow, had; negation.

(L. 170),

San4. Striking to separate;

of the fibres, to dissociate them; It forms San*. To strike meat and to reduce it into filaments, in the Chinese way; modern form contracted Is now used for the last; to scatter, to separate, to disperse, to break up, etc. Phonetic series 701.

The

Sixth series.

In4. From
4

and

(L. 60).
that stands as a The is con-

Lu . Mushroom. A plant man; tracted. It forms

208

Etymological Lessons. 79. 80. Ch'iu 4 . The tadpoles that swarm like mushrooms. Hence the p h o n e t i c c o m p o u n d Tsao4 A stove for cooking; intricate characters, is often contracted into to give room. See L. 108 C. Mu4. A benevolent liness. Now , lu4 It forms In these ,

look; is phonetic. Friend(below) being the phonetic.

Yu4. To chaffer; to haggle about the price in friendly terms. is contracted into , so th at the modern form of this character is identical to mai4, to sell, L. 78 E. Phonetic series 817. Lu4. Earth, soil, a mound; Phonetic series 379. It forms I4 To cultivate the ground; See L. 11 E. Phonetic series 619. The following is considered as a derivative from contracted: Ling 2 To stu mble, to obslacle; a tumulus, a hillock. Phoneiic series 378. For these two forms, see L. 165 B knock against an

LESSON 80.
About the primitive shan . Shan1. Mountain. On the top, three rocks; It is the 46th radical of characters relating to hills. Phoneiic series 25. This character is to be distinguished from certain modern contractions, e.g. L. 164 B, L. 165 B, etc. See L. 25 I, hsien1, the genii, the men who dwell on the mountains. Sometimes a symmetrical phonetic is introduced in the radical , e .g. L 90 D, L. 69 J.
1

Etymological Lessons. 80. 81.

209

Note the development of the image in the following Yao4. The highest peaks of mountains (4, then 5), where the Emperors worshipped when visiting their empire (Textes Historiques, p. 32). The ancient character represents the rows superposed; the modern character is a fanciful deformation made by the scribes; It is used also chia-chieh, as a term of respect.

LESSON 81.
About the primitive ting3.
First series: t'u3.

t'u3, and its multiples. A special series is reserved for

T'u3. E arth, soil, ground. The earth t h a t produces a l l things. The top line re presents the surface, the soil; the down line represents the subsoil, the rock;
It is the 32th. radical of characters r e l a t i n g to earth. Phonetic series 32. See L. 38 C; L27 D; Note the f o l l o w i n g K u a i 4 . To clear t hus his appearance; new, strange; Forms kuai*, singularity; singularity in general; l a n d , changing

L. 79 E, F; etc.

moral

N i e h 1 . Clay exposed to the sun. Hence clay watered, t h e n h a r d en i n g when exposed to t h e sun. To mould earthenware, bricks, etc. Phoneti c series 296. Nieh1. ( m i s t a k e n for the prec ed ent) H ui 3 . The primitive mortar to pound rice, a hole dug in the hard soil, or perhaps a hollow brick. Hence

210

Etymological Lessons.

81.

Hui 3 . To pound (L. 22 D) in the mortar, to grind to dust. Cbuan-chu, to destroy utterly. is a vicious form. Phonetic series 735. Note: t'u3 is to be distinguished from (L. 60) or

(L. 61) on the top of etc; and from or (L. 79) on the top of etc. In composition, t'u3 is ord ina ri ly at the bottom, or on th e left side of the compound.

Second series: Multiples of


K u i 1 . Lands; ancient feuda tories. By extension, the different sceptres given to nobles by the Emperor, when they were invested with their fief. Phonetic series 224. that is not derived from , see. L. 79 E. For Yao2 Earth heaped u p ; It forms Yao2. Knoll, mound. From earth heaped up on a high base; Name of the celebrated Emperor Yao2 (22 Centuries B. C.). Phonetic series 719. Appanages of the

Third series:

t'ing2, composed of

and

standing on the ground; Compare L. 60 H. To be distinguished from jen2 (L. 82 C). It forms Yin2. Idea of encroachment, of usurpation, of outrage, of violence; Lit, while standing on one's rights, to encroach on another's rights. The compound yin2, that is DOW used to mean lewdness in general, is in that meaning chia-chieh for rape.

T'ing2. A man

Etymological Lessons. 81.


2

211 at one's

T'ing . To go to the court, to stand place, for an imperial audience:

The Emperor sat on his throne before the inner door, the ministers were standing in two lines, on the left and the right side, in the courtyard. Each of them held in his hands the sceptre, sign of his dignity. See LL. 55 A, B; 85 F; 81 G. Phonetic series 305. Ch'en2. A minister who, when standing at his ( L . 82 F). place, bows down profoundly. See moon (L. 6* G), the quaint Forms, by adding compound Wang4. A solemn imperial audience The ministers reflecting the splendour of the Emperor, as the moon reflects the light of the sun; Forms by substituting to : Wang4. This character has two different meanings. 1. The f u l l of the moon, after which the moon decreases. 2. To look at, or forward, or towards, to desire; in this sense, it is cbia-chieh for the last.

Ch'eng2. To speak . w h i l e standing at one's place; to notify, to lay before a superior. Phonetic series 255. It forms Sheng4. Those who listened to and understood advices giv en, a n d therefore became wise; the wise, perfect;

Tieh4. Notification made with menaces (L. 71 F). It became by the redundant addition of contracted into Tieh4. Hence the phonetic complex t'ieh, iron,

Other derivatives of H; L. i) 0; L. 120 K.

explained elsewhere:

L. 12

212

Etymological Lessons 82.


LESSON 82.

kung1, and its important derivatives, jen2, chu4, About the primitive 2 4 ch'en , ya . Two other primitives, i2, and t'ou3, will be incidentally explained.

First series:

and its multiples.


Kung 1 . It represents the ancient square. By extension, work, skill, labour, any ornament requiring skill. For, says the Glose, the square gives the shape to all things; it forms the right angle that forms the squares, that form the circles, etc. In an ancient form, represents the parallel lines traced with the square; It is the 48th radical. Phonetic series 24.

Different compounds of were explained elsewhere. See L 27 E; L. 49 G; L. 46 B; L. 71 G; L 11 F. But is not derived from it. Note the following: K u n g 1 . A work that requires (L. 53 A) strength, and therefore meritorious; work done, achievements, merit ; Hsia ng 4 The nape, the head, on which the The part behind loads are carried (L. 160), work done; salary, (L. 161). (L. 37);acavern, Phonetic

Kung4. Cowries paid for a contributions, taxes; K'ung 1 . Artificial excavation a bale, an opening, empty: Scries 372.

Cha n 3 Symmetrical and intricate ordering drawing, for which the square It forms

or was much used;

Chan3 Gowns (L. 16) embroidered with ornaments, worn by the ladies at the court. Contracted in

Etymological Lessons.
3

82.

213

Chan . The skirt of t h a t gown, the train which unrolls itself from the lower part of the body; By extension, to open out, to unroll, to expand, to exhibit Now The modern contraction was made by the scribes. Phonetic series 508. Sai1. To fill or s tu f f a hole, to stop u p , to obstruct. Two hands pile up bricks or other materials, in an opening: Now Phonetic series 350.

Second series:

jen2.
Jen2. Not to be confounded witd t'ing2, L. 81 D. A man (as in I . 50 C) who carries a load; the Chinese carrying bamboo pole with a load hanging at each end. The figure is couched, to take less place; see page 18-8 A loan, a burden; to bear, to e nd ure, etc. This character was used to mean the n int h of the ten stems in the cycle, and the compound was made to replace it

Phonetic-series 66. Jen . A b u r d e n , a charge, to bear, etc. It is used for . The tone was changed: Phonetic series 215.
4

Third series.

chu.
L 82 A ) , for longer Chu4. A greater square ( measures, either agrari an or others. It had a handle or a tie, to be handled. Now . By extension, big. Phonetic series 118.

Ch'u2. A d r a i n . a canal, a place for water to run It comes from , a kind of into; wooden square or level, used to make the aqueducts. There are different chia-chieh.

214 Fourth series: ch'en2.

Etymological Lessons. 82.

Ch'en2. Minister, attendant on a prince. The character, straightened in modern wr iting (see page 18-8), represents the minister prostrate before his master; 131th radical It forms Huan4. Minister at the palace; an official, 1 an eunuch. Compare kuan , L. 86 C. Tsang1. Compliance, the virtue of the ministers. (LL. 127 B, 71 F). There are different Phonetic chia-chieh Phonetic series 792. Chien1. To have hold solid; 332. of one's men ; firm, Now . Phonetic series

It is the

Wo4. To resalute

kindly the saluting


It forms

minister;

Lin9. To treat k i n d l y the different classes of officials (L. 75). By extension, to be condescending, amicable; Chien1. To bend over a f u l l vase (L. 157), to see its contents. To examine carefully, to watch over; places u n d e r watch, as an office, a bureau, a prison, etc. Note how, in the modern character, the contracted received between its two dislocated. In the compounds, strokes, the of when a radical is added at the bottom, placed on the top, on the right side, becomes ; see the following lan3. Phonetic series 772. Compare L. 41 D. Lan3. To examine consider; carefully, to

Phonetic series 852.

Etymological Lessons. 82. 83. The derivatives of

215

are to be distinguished from those of the primitive I2. This character, a straightened figure (page 18-8), rudely represents the. face and projecting chin; Compare L. 41 B. Phonetic series 279. See L. 85 A. ya4. Ya4. A work deformed; ugly, as a hunchback. The vertical line is doubled, to show a deformation in different directions. The meaning second, derived from , is chia-chieh. Phonetic series 411. It forms O4 Wu4. The moral evil, deforof the heart (o4), mation and the repulsion which it causes (wu 4 ); to detest, to hate.

Fifth series:

Note: in the modern writing, several characters contain a relation whatever with the ya4 of this Lesson; e.g. L 38 G, the next primitive has nothing in common with

that has no L. 75 A. Item,

T'ou3 A wine vessel, prob ably wooden made; Is f o u n d in


Cho2 To cut, to scoop out: scribes wr ite . which is a wrong form. The

Tou4. To quar rel (L. 11 I ).

LESSON 83. About the primitive yu4, jade; and incidently, about the analogous characters 2 3 wang and chu . First series: yu4, often written Yu4. The half-translucid minerals, milky or coloured, as jade and others, of which the Chinese are so fond; They ascribe to it different effects, and make with it articles worn at the girdle. The character represents three pieces of jade threaded; The addition of a dot is modern, and made in order to distinguish yu4 from wang2. It is the 95th radical of characters relating to gems It is found in many compounds, e.g. lung4, neng1, to handle an object made with jade , L. 4 7 F.

216

Etymological Lessons. 83.

doubled, forms thy next two: Pan . Veined stones. Pan . Division of charges, of offices. The middle is (L. 52) in the sense of The two L. 55 H. Ch'in . Harpsichord of soniferous
2 1 1

(L. 61 F), like certain nice

(L. 1 8 ) to divide.

are two jade sceptres, signs of dignities.

stones, hanging

from a string. See Textes Historiques, p. 82 (one stone). The ancient character represents two stones, and the suspension string (a prim itive ). Compare L. 17 F The following characters are said to he derived from ch'in (radical contracted; the phonetic is at the bottom): or harpsichords. ch'in ,
4 2

she ,

p'i ,

pa , etc., different kinds of citharas

Second series:

wang2.
Wang . A king; the man
2

who connects

heaven, earth and man. See L 3 B, where this c h a ra c t e r was fully explained. - Phonetic scries 87. It forms Huang .
2

Originally,

it meant

the three most Fu-hsi, L.

renowned rulers of antiquity, Shen-nung, 159) It was used to designate the modern Emperors, from the year 221 B.C See Textes Historiqttef, p. 209. The of the Empire. Compare with the definition of Phonetic series 452. Yun . Lun . Intercalary moon, supplementary. Two explanations of this character are given. 1. Formerly, in the plenary andience at the Court, when the moon was intercalary, the Emperor , not iu his ordinary place; moon must be intercalated; from L. 3, aris phonetic; In that case, is not derived from , but directly 2. Once , every three years, a sat at the door
4 4

Huang-ti; those who were (a contraction of

kings, in the beginning

gives this definition: light , below D.

Etymological Lessons. 83 84.

91?

Third series:

chu3.
Chu3. A lamp-stand w i t h the flame rising. By extension, a man who spreads light, a lord, a master. See L. 4 B, where this character was f u l l y explained. Phonetic series 115.

Note. Do n o t confound w i t h the derivatives of a n d of D; , , etc This is more easily said t h a n done.

, those of

L. 79

LESSON 84.
About the primitive L. 85. chi3, to be distinguished from i2, a n d from ssu4,

Chi3. The a n c i e n t character represented the threads of the weft, on the weaving-loom. On the top, two threads transversal, one thread longitudinal; at the bottom, the thread in the shuttle. The character was simplified later on. When was chosen, on account of its simplicity, to become a cyclical character (the sixth of the ten stems), it was replaced by . It means also, chia-chieh, a person, one's self, 1, myself; It is the 49th radical. Phonetic series 14 Note the compounds: Chi4 Used for the last; extension, set, succession. to sort threads. By arrangement, disposition, of facts, either by

Chi4. To tell the succession speaking, or by writing. Ch'i3. To rise; te put one's self Fei1. Women

in motion

secured for one's own seif; The secondary wives or concubines of an emperor. Its original meaning, to match, to suit, was given to the next. P'ei4 The wine drunk at the wedding-feast (contracted). See L. 47 V. To pair, to mate, marriage. Chi4. The series of events or times that are kept in memory ; death of great men, of parents; , anniversary day of the death. By extension, because on such days, music, spirits, meat, etc. were avoided, the character meant, to shun, to abstain from. Phonetic series 256.

218

Etymological Lessons. 84. 85.

Note. The derivatives of chi3 are often scarcely distinguishable from those i 3 (L. 85), when these are wrongly shaped; as well as from of ssu4 a n d (for L 55), as in . K'ang-hsi wrongly classified this character those of under chi3. On their side, the scribes commonly maltreated those series, as may he seen by the characters given above.

LESSON 85.
ssu1 and i3, to be distinguished from chi3, L. 84. About two primitives, K'ang-hsi gathered under the 49th radical , all those heterogeneous elements.

First series:

ssu4.
Ssu4. The figure of an embryo, a foetus See pao1, L. 54 B. In the maternal womb, the child is or ; at birth, or L. 94 E, F; when swaddled, L. 94 A; when it begins to walk, 29 B. Ssu4 is used as a cyclical character. Phonetic series 28. Note the derivatives Ssu4. Sacrifice See L. 3 D P. The ch i n; (L. 82 G), It forms

Hsi1. Bright, splendid, glorious.

Second series:

i3.
I3. This very ancient character is supposed to represent the exhalation of the breath, the virtue that emanates from any object, its action, its use. By extension, use till exhaustion, to terminate, to decline, to have done with, to be no more, passed; Compare L. 73 A, and L. 76 G. is uniform in the ancient writing. IN the Note: modern writing, it is written by the scribes In four different ways, and that we shall explain successively

Etymological Lessons. 85. C 1. written , e.g. I2. To extract from a thing all t h a t can be extracted from it, then, to stop, to finish. Kai3. To treat a person or a Ihing ( w i t h hand and rod), so that amendment is produced; to change, to alter, to reform, to correct.

219

D 2.

written

, e.g.

Ssu4. Plough-beam a n d h a n d l e ; the wood that fertilizes the fields. It is unconnected with L. 86 B.

E 3. written in the following series. (Note that is used as an abbreviation for three other primitives, L.L. 38 E, 38 H, 89 A; hence an easy confusion). I2. The mouth exhaling a breath. By extension, to speak in or der to make one's s elf k n o w n ; I, one's self; It is used as an arbitrary abbre viation of t'ai2 (L. 75 B). Phonetic series 127. Yun3. To manifest one's consent, one's approbation. A man who says yes. See L. 29 E. Phonetic series 99. Forms the phonetic complex dignity Phonetic series with 311.

Tsun1.

To walk

Mou3. To low, to bellow. An breath;

ox that exhales its

See L. 132. Phonetic series 231. I3. A final particle denoting that one has finished speak; The dart (L. 131) to means that the action is ended, fixed, as when the arrow has hit the mark. Compare L. 71 E. Phonetic series 880.

220

Etymological Lessons. 85. 86. Neng2. Here represents the roaring of the angry bear, that st ands up ready for a fight ( the fleshy body, two claws). See L 27 J. Phonetic series 554.

. By, with, to use, by means of; K'ang-hsi counts five strokes for this character, that really has four only. Phonetic series 65. It forms F 4. Ssu4. A man who has the same another. By extension, like, similar, to resemble in general virtue as equivalent,

writteu

LESSON 86.

About two primitives, t h a t really form o n l y one, because they differ o n l y by plus fu4, and tui1. or m i n u s strokes of the same k i n d ;

First series:

fu4, now Fu4. Compare L. 59 A. Declivity with successive , so rows superposed. The steps are placed u n d e r that the compounds may not be too large. In the first ancient form, the three small rounds represents forest on the top. The scribes invented the modern a rbit rary abbreviations By extension, big earthworks, embankments, dams. It Is the 170th radical and dis(also contracted tinguished from the I63th radical into ), by the fact that is on t he left side in the Series 170, while it is on the right side in the yin1, the Series 163 Note the two d eri vatives, 2 yang , the sunny shady side of a hill ( Nor th); and side of a h i l l (South). It is now used to mean the dual powers, day and night, life and death, male and frmale, etc.

Etymological Lessons. 86. Second series: tui1.

221

Tui 1 . A lighter declivity; two steps only. By extension, ramparts, city, troops that keep it, a legion. The lost its in some modern compounds; it is then to be distinguished from i3 (L. 85 D). Phonetic series 245. Note the derivatives Shuai4 To lead a legion; a general; The (L. 35 A) is the guidon of the commander. Compare the following Shih1. It is the first banner, that staid at the capilal; the guards, whose commander was comrnander-in-chief, the one above the others. Hence, by extension, capital, army, multitude, master, etc. The old forms are made of a primitive that means waving, and tsa1 (L. 79 C) that means rol ling. A waving and r ollin g mass; the people or the army. Phonetic series 561. in march Chui1 Legion Phonetic series 526 ; to pursue.

Nieh 4 . A plant that grows on a declivity. Compare L. 59 F Notion of visibility, of notoriety. It forms Nieh4. Evil deed, sin; scandal; This character not being easy to write, the scribes replaced it by the derivative contracted ( properly hsieh1, hsueh1). in the phonetic compound , son of sin, child born in adultery. The admitted the change. Kui 1 The arrival of the bride in her husband's family, to which she will belong as a wife is a modern (contracted). See L. 44 K. The phonetic redundancy. (L. 102 H),

222

Etymological Lessons. 86. 87. Kuan1. Primitive meaning, the residence of a mandarin who presides over a city, the hall of the city, ( is the modern abbreviation) By extension, the mandarin, the government. Phonetic series 370.

LESSON 87. About the primitive kung1, and incidentally about the primitives 4 ti . that resemble it in the modern writing. fu4 and

First series:

kung1.
Kung 1 . It represents a Chinese bow, with its handle in the middle; forms represent t h e bow be nt or vibrating. It is the 57th radical. We ha ve seen it already, in L. 28 H, L. 60 D, etc. For , see L 90 L, L. 110 B. Note the following strin g of the bow; Chuan-chu, to attract, to lead, to induce, to seduce. Phonetic series 93. Ch'iang2. Muscular strength. To have the strength to bend a kind of bow, the resistance of which is equal to the resistance of two ordinary bows. In the military competitions, such exercises took place. Yin 3 . To d r aw the The ancient

Note 1. The bows were kept by pairs, fixed upon a s t i f f piece of wood, in a sheath. Hence it comes that, sometimes, in composition, two mean a pair, or that which makes the pair, a second ; as in Pi4. Auxiliary, minister. See L. 41 B. Note 2. In the following, the scribes f a n c if u l l y wrote another thing. Jao4. Feeble, fragile, slender. Wings of a young bird. See L. 62 D. Li1. A caldron (L. 155) steaming (the two sidelines undulating represent the steam). Chou1. Rice water or gruel; grain that boils in a caldron. This last character is now contracted into

for

Etymological Lessons. 87.88.

223

C The bow is kept horizontally, in the following, as it is natural, to shoot a bird that flies above th bowman. Tsun4. To shoot a bird on the wing; Phonetic series 714. is a wrong form of tsun4. is a wrong abbreviation of hsi1, L. 15 C.

Second series.

fu4. Primitive.
Fu4. To act against an obstacle. Two divergent rods which one seeks to tie together; Opposition, prohibition, negation. Phonetic series 121

Third series.

ti4. Primitive.
Ti4. A thread that is wound on a spool, having a catch on the top, and a winch at the bottom. Primitive instrument, reel and bobbin. Compare L. 102 B. Chuan-chu, succession of brothers, elder, younger; succession; younger brothers; Phonetic series 304.

Note. tzu3 that Is like See L. 79 G.

ti4, has nothing in common with it, nor with

LESSON 88.
About the partial primitive , and incidentally about ,

First series.

pai2.
sun (L. 143) that just appears. This Pai2. The meaning is represented by a small point (primitive) on the top of the sun. The dawn, when the Eastern sky becomes white . Clear, white, bright, etc. It is the 106th radical. Phonetic series 143.

224

Etymological Lessons. 88. 89. We saw already in the compounds L. 29 C; L. 18 L; L. 60 F, etc. Note the following: Pai2. From cloth, and while. See L 92 B. Phonetic series 386. mien2,

Pai3. One hundred; , One hundred is the unity of hundreds; is phonetic. Other commentators, judging from an as a contracted (L. ancie nt writing, consider 159); hut m ea ning the beginning, the interpretation is the same. It is to be noted that all the great unities of the Chinese numeration, hundred, thousand, myriad, are designated by borrowed characters. See 24 D, 17 X. Phonetic series 233. It is repeated in shih4, abundance, wealth A man with one hundred u n d e r each a r m ;

Second series,

yao4, lao4, a special p a rti a l p r i m i t i v e .

Yao4 It represents a wooden support on which a drum and bells are hung. Therefore is not pai2, a n d is not yao1 (L. 90). The orchestrion of old Yao4, music in general. When read lao4, it means the effect produced by music, pleasure, joy. Phonetic series 815

LESSON 89. ssu1. See the Note, below B. Compare LL. 90, 91, 92. Ssu1. A cocoon. It represents a silkworm that coils Itself up, and shuts itself in its cocoon. By extension, selfish, to care o n l y for one's self, separation, private, particular; It is the conventional 28th radical. The following in the modern writing compound replaced Ssu1. Etymological meaning, my share of grains. By extension, private, personal, partial, selfish; Note also

About the primitive

Etymological Lessons. 89. 90. Ch'uan . To calculate (L. 47 G) one's own advantage (at the others' expense). To embezzle, to assume, to usurp. B Note. The scribes used as an abbreviation for three other primitives (LL. 38 E, 38 H, and 85 E), which makes four in a ll; hence an easy confusion for other intricate between them. Further, the scribes still use arbitra rily characters, in which case is an abbreviation, and not a primitive. Note the following Lei3. To build a wall. L. 149 E. Shen1. Orion. L. 62 G. Gh'i2. A regular assemblage. L. 174.
4

225

LESSON 90.

About

doubled

, and its multiples; incidentally about yao1. Yao1. The lightest thread, as it is obtained by the simultaneous winding of two cocoons. By extension, thread, slender, tender, radical. Note the compounds Ma1, mo1. Vegetable fibre (L. 79 H). It is now used, by convention, as an interrogative particle. Yu4. Young, slender, who has very tendons. Not to be confounded with L. 95 B. Phonetic series 171. slender huan4, false,

First series.

It is the 52th

Hou4. To march (63 A), while stretching a thread behind. The is a radical redundancy added later on. By extension, to follow, behind, posterior, after.

226

Etymological Lessons. 90. Luan4. An embroiled by two hands thread, that is disentangled (L. 34 A) means separation; Confusion, disorder. Note the alteration of the modern character. It forms

Luan4. A synonym of the last; representing the thread that is drawn , is a radical redundancy. Ts'u2. To clear one's self from a to excuse one's self; sin (L. 102 H);

Yin4. A line of posterity, heirs, generation Transmission of the ( L. 65) ancestors' substance, that is divided into branches. The continuous succession, in a family, of one generation after another;

Second series.

doubled. Yu1. It is the m e a n i n g of slender, almost invisible; It forms Yu 1 . The most shady (L. 80); recesses in the hills

reinforced. Very

Chi1. A guard of soldiers on the frontiers (shu4, L 25 D), who are attentive to the least movement, to the smallest event. Hence the derived meanings, to examine into, subtle, hidden, small , a few; Phonetic series 667. are derived from contracted. See L. 92 F, G.

Third series.

quadrupled. In
Chueh2. To cut short a thread, to interrupt, to sunder, to break off, to cease. Four threads cut short, divided by the two ; This ancient character was replaced, when the writing-brush was invented, by chueh2, that is synonym; to cut a thread in pieces. See L. 55 G. It forms

Etymological Lessons. 90.

227

Tuan4. To cut, to break off, to interrupt; From an axe, and to cut, character could not be traced with the writingbrush; it was therefore written chi4 in the modern writing, hence instead of which is graphically wrong. Note the modern junction of the two Chi 4 . It means the contrary of chueh2, because it is chueh2 inverted. Later on, the was added, which was quite useless. To connect as wi th threads; a l i n e of succession;

The ancient

Appendix.

lu3, almost similar to


3

in its ancient form.

Lu . The spinal vertebrae. A primitive character that represents the body of two vertebrae, and the disk that joins them; or rather, two spinal apophysises, with the ligament between them. By extension, tones in music, on account of their succession. Phonetic series 291. It forms Kung1. To bend, to bow one's body , so that the spinal apophysises stand out along the rachis. replaced , the meaning remaining Later on, the same; to bend one's body . By extension, body, person. It forms ch'iung2, to be at bay, exhausted, driven into a corner ( cavern); misery; limits, end. Note. The with in the following characters are probably primitives unconnected

Yung1. An old form of . Moats (two walls or buildings). L. 12 G.

of a

city

Ying1. Encampment, a primitive settlement. In the more ancient form, there are two (several) tents or huts, In the modern form, there are huts with a fence, and two fires, for the kitchen, or to frighten away the wild beasts. By extension, to measure, to scheme, to regulate. Compare 34 B, 126 F.

228

Etymological Lessons. 90. 91. Kung1. A big building. Several rooms under the same roof. This character is used to designate the Imperial private residence, from the Ch'in2 Dynasty. and , it is written and not Now, in LESSON 91.

About two compounds of First series. hsuan .


2

(L. 90),

and'

, that form important series.

Hsuan2. To put (L. 15) the thread in the dye; dyed thread; green colour (later on, the black one, on account of certain Taoist theories). Under the Ch'ing Dynasty, the of was suppressed, because this was the personal name of the Emperor K'ang-hsi. An ancient form was composed of thread (L. 92), and of two points that mean the dyeing; It is the 96th radical. Phonetic means, either green, serins 124. In composition, or a siring (probably because the thread was dyed by big hanks). Note the derivatives Hsien2. The, string of a bow . Stringed instruis altered, as stated above. ments in general. Ch'u4. Hsu4. The fields (L. 149) green, covered with grass; meadows, pastur e-land s where the cattle graze. Hence two meanings, a n d two sounds: cattle; hsu4 to feed. ch'u4 Phonetic series 525. Ch'ien 1 . To h a ul along an ox by a rope represents the traction or the resistance; ;

Phonetic series 600.

Shuai 4 . It represents a net with a frame, such as birds are snared with, and a rope by meaas of which the trap is made to fall. By extension, to draw, to lead, to follow; together (the birds taken); suddenly (the falling of the net). Phonetic series 646.

Etymological Lessons. 91. Second series. ch'uan1.

229

Ch'uan1. Some commentators say that this character and ; it seems unlikely, "lt is a contraction of is an ox led by a ring passed through the nose, says the Glose; why then is this ring marked at the tail? More seemingly, the transversal piece fixed behind the horns represents the yoke or the collar of the ox, and the one trace passing under the animal is the primitive harness; extremity curved to diminish the length. By extension, to attach, to draw, traction, resistance, to master. It forms Chuan1. A writing tablet that was worn attached to the wrist; series 605, that must be distinguished from the series fu1 528.
Hui4. It has two meanings: to let one's self be attracted; kind, compliant: what wins willingly the hearts; benevolence. Phonetic series 689. Yuan2. A long robe with a trail, that hinders and slakens the walk; length, hesitation. Here lost its middle-part a n d is gone through by the cover of . Phonetic series 587. It forms

Phonetic

Huan2. Eyes (L. 158) anxious, and gait hesitating; fear, trouble, strait. The modern form is contracted. Phonetic series 734. See L. 16 L.

T'i4. Traction

interrupted by a

resistance;

Compare L. 91 C. The modern character is a contraction. K'ang-hsi wrongly classified it under . It forms T'i4. Sneezing. A victory won against the obstruction of the nose (or of the mouth, a different writing);

230

Etymological Lessons.

92.

LESSON 92.
About the partial primitive , and its derivatives. See again the whole series, ssu1, LL. 89, 90, 91, 92. The textile matters, chiefly the silk, interested after the Chinese from the remotest a n t i q u i ty ; hence the importance given to these elements in their writing.

First series.

mi4.
Mi4. A strong t h r e a d ; this character (a p ri mit i v e) represents the twisting of several small threads i nt o a big one (L. 90 A). It is the 120th radical of characters relating to textile matters or tissues. We saw t h a t e l e m e n t in L. 40 A ; L. 55 G; L. 17 E; L. 13 H; L. 79 G; L. 67 P; L. 39 0; L. 35 M; etc. Hsi 1 . Drawing out of the thread. Primitively, a hand drawing out threads . Later on, the action of drawing out a t hread. By extension, thread, line, succession, rel atio n, to tie again, to fasten; The compound is used instead now. N o t e the derived f o l l o w i n g radicals Mien2. Fibres raw (L. 88 A), raw floss. It is contracted phouetic in mien2, cotton; and in 2 mien , the cotton plant. These are modern characters. See phonetic series 386. Sun1. A grandson, posterity. The connecting line of the offspring; Phonetic series 569. It is phonetic kun3, big fish. contracted in Yu2. Succession, seq uel, causality, relation; Winding of the effects from a cause; moral threads. The bottom of

Hsien4. Hsuan2. The chief-town of a district, hsien4, where the executions take place, and where are hung, (L. 12 N) heads of the men upside down, the they committed crimes. By beheaded because extension, hsuan2, to bi nd, to suspend, to be suspen, to be in suspense ded. Now, the compound morally, is also used for the simple ia the sense, to hang, to be suspended,

Etymological Lessons. 92.

231

Hsi1. Primitively, the guilty women condemned to spinning and weaving in the official prisons, persons (L. 60), working It is explained thus: (L. 49) the thread (contracted). It seems rather that is a corruption of the , a spinster. This bottom of , and that the primitive composition was punishment having ceased, this character's meaning was altered, and it became an interrogative particle, what? how? why? Phonetic series 533.

Second series.

ssu1.
Ssu1. The silk-threads, that the silk-worms are supposed to spit out; By extension, according to the compound, thread, link, intricacy, etc. Note the following derivatives often contracted: P'ei4. The two reins of a bridle passed in the mouth of the animal that draws a Luan4. Primitively, a hand busy in disentangling threads, the common main stem of which three is contracted into cacy. This action of disentangling any intricate matter, when d one in common, leads to impatience and quarrelli ng, hence the character became later on , increased with ; general meaning, disorder, quarrelling, trouble, discord; Phonetic series 846. Hsien3. Two silk threads exposed to the sunlight , where they become visible; By extension, to be visible, to appear, remarkable, evident, bright. Note the modern contraction at the bottom of the character. Phonetic series 778. It forms Hsien3. A tuft that makes the conspicuous. now used for head car;

Intri-

It is , to appear. The latter is contracted in

Sbih1. A marsh, marshy, wet, humid; water in which the earth appears; is for ; the were suppressed, to give room to

232

Etymological Lessons. 92. 93Tzu1. The velvety appearance made by the herbs and grass on the surface of the earth; the vegetation; tion of into Compare L. 91 B. This character became obsolete in t hat sense, and is now used as a demonstrative particle. Phonetic series 579. Kuan1. To weave. The two (contracted into ) represent the threads of the warp. The down strokes (a primitive) represent the action of the shuttle, that goes through and through, making the woof. Compare L. 84 A. By extension, to join, to fix, transversal, etc. It forms Kuan1. The cross-bar of a gate, to shut u p ;

Contrac-

Lien2. To connect, to join, to link together.

LESSON 93. About the primitive Yun 2 . Clouds. The a n c i e n t form, t hat represents vapours c url i ng a nd rising, is a primitive. The more recent f o r m is composed of ( , L. 2 G ) the skies, a n d of t h e same pr i m i t i v e . P ho netic series 99. Now the m e a n i n g clouds is give n to the following, while means chia-chieh, to speak, to enumerate, etc. Yun2. Clouds; When the humid and warm vapours have reached the colder regions, they are condensed there. Not a bad explanation of the production of clouds. Yin1. Cloudy weather; Actually , there are 14 P . Clouds rolling over the fields; an ancient form of storm, L. 149 F. Compare the old form of L. 73 A, L. 76 G, L. 85 B, etc.

clouds. See L.

Etymological Lessons. 94. LESSON 94. About the important primitive straight, inverted.

233

First scries.

tzu straight.
Tzu3. A new-born child, swathed u p ; it is the reason why the legs are not visible, says the Glose; In an ancient form, the child has hair; disciple; then, a sage, a teacher, because the ancient Emperors, in order to honour them, call them It is the 39th sons. radical of characters mostly relating to children. Phonetic series 33. We saw already in L. 92 B; L. 30 E; L. 39 H; L. 39 I; L. 79 G; etc. Add the follo wing: Tzu4. To bear and nurse; to have children in one's house ; By extension, the compound characters (by opposition to the simple figures), begotten by the process of composition and (see p. 10). The made by t h e ir authors gave birth to the says the Glose. K'ung3. The swallow (L. 9 B) which in China broods in the fissures a n d holes of the rears its Chinese mud houses; sion, a hole, an orifice, an opening. Compare L. 94 B. Fu2. A man who swims . There is , a n d not or , because the legs of the swimmer are concealed by the water, as those of the child are , concealed by its long clothes. It is now written which is a nonsensical compound; Forms yu2, to float, 117 B. Note its dissociation into and , on the both sides of . Li3. A prune, a plum-tree; children are fond of; the tree, the The

By extension,

By exten-

Chi4. Infant; most (contracted) delicate among the children , the youngest, the last. By extension, the last month of each quarter of the year, that ends the season; hence the derived meaning, season.

234

Etymological Lessons.

94.

Pao3. A bird which spreads its wings to cover its nest ; to hatch, to protect It is now written , that is to be distinguished from tai1, a modern invention of the scribes. It forms Pao3. To protect, to feed, to keep safe, a man; Phonetic series 471.

Ju3. The swallow sitting on its nest.

Fu2. A hen-bird covering with her legs her little ones; to hatch. Phonetic series 270. It forms (L. 9 B) See L. 94 A. Now, in general, what is required to rear the offspring of men, or the little ones of animals: to feed, to suckle, etc.

This is another character, containing the elements of fu2 and of pao3. The hen-bird covers her nest , with her legs, a n d her wings. It forms the next two: Pao3. Another way of writing

Pao1. A phonetic compound. Long robes such as the Emperors give; favour, distinction. The scribes altered this character in many fanciful ways, , etc.

Luan2. To bear twins. Formerly, there were two ; then the scribes wrote but one; (L. 92 D) represents the encumbering, the difficulty in the bearing and rearing of twins. Ch'uan1. Many sons. It forms Ch'uan1. A numerous family filling the house; By extension, poverty, misery. See L. 32 G.

Etymological Lessons. 94. Second series. t'u2, which is


2

235

inverted.

T'u . Birth of a child , the head forward, in the most favourable conditions; hence the extended , a thing that goes on meaning fluently; natural, regular, easy, fluent. The hairy form (compare , above A), makes a special group (below F). Note the derivatives Ch'ung1. To feed, to rear a child, from its birth stands, and becomes a man. till when it By extension, to fu lfil, to satiate, to carry out, perfect, etc. See L 29 F. Phonetic series 189. Yu4. To satisfy, to feed a child (or an animal), so fleshy (L. 65), strong, fat. The that it becomes physical breeding. It forms Che4 Education, both phymoral. We know sical and that the rod is the instrument used for the latter. Compare L. 39 H. Phonetic series 665. T'u2. A synonym of , with the hair added; Phonetic series 312. Note the following radical compounds: Liu2. The flowing (natural and easy) of water. There were primitively two , one on each side; the scribes left out one of- them ; Shu1. Birth of a child , the feet (L. 112 C) coming forwards. See (L. 94 E). By extension, unnatural, uneasy; anomaly, difference, distance, etc. Yu4. Rise and growing of plants ( L. 67 P); Hsi1. Sour, vinegar. Wine appear animalculse turns into vinegar. in a vase, in which , the sign that the wine

by his mother

Ch'i4. To push aside, to cast away, to abandon. An. ancient form represents two hands repulsing a newborn. A more recent form represents two hands, armed with a fork or a shovel, that throw away a new-born. An allusion to the Chinese infanticide. This character was used to name Hou-chi, who was cast away Chiang-yuan. See the Shih-Ching, Legge's edition, p. 465.

236

Etymological Lessons. 94. 95.

Third series.

altered.
Chieh2. One-armed person; Here it is the right arm that is taken off. The symmetrical character in which the left arm was taken away, existed formerly; it is now obsolete. Liao3. A child without arms, mutilated; This character, being very easy to write, and of no use, had its

primitive meaning changed into different arbitrary ones. It is now used specially to write the suffix liao3, so frequent in the spoken language. Note the philological definition of the part it plays in that case; ; emission of a sound, in order to knot, to end a sentence.

LESSON 95.
and , joined here together on account of their About two primitives resemblance in the modern writing.

First series.

yu3.
Yu2. To pass from h a n d to hand, to hand down, t.o give, communication, connexion; The character represents the pa l m of two hands, one of them giving, and the other re ceiving. The modern form is not a credit to t he scribes. Compare L, 54 H. Chia-chieh, I, we, myself. Phonetic series 96. It forms Chu1. The shuttle of the weaver; the wood that from one hand to the other. The second passes jou3, below C. form is to be distinguished from Shu1. To give out one's goods to the others (L. 14 C). By extension, to unroll, to expand, at ease. Yu1. An elephant that and forwards, that frolics. Derived meanings, indecision, uncertainty; to frolic; in advance, to prepare. Hsu4. The East and West halls of the Chinese houses, in which traditional instruction was given, and where the transactions took place. These halls were connected with the principal buildings; hence the derived meaning, a series, order, preface to a book in which the subjects are stated in order, etc. passes backwards

Etymological Lessons. 95.

237

Yeh3. In the primitive fiefs established in wild regions, yeh3 was the intermediate zone between the cleared centre, and the forest all around; the zone where cultivation of the soil began. It was in took place that zone, that the communications with the barbarians. Later on, when the clearing of forests was finished, the character became settlements (L. 149 D), where the exchanges are made. Actual meaning, the country, rustic, wild. Compare L. 47 Z. Huan4. Fraud, deceiving, false. It is inverted. To give things differing from those expected, or to give an empty hand, to deceive, to frustrate. The frustration of the beggar's hopes is graphically represented by inverted. The modern abbreviation is absurd. Not to be yu4, L. 90 A. confounded with

Second series.

mao2. Mao2. A kind of halberd, with a very long staff, such as were used on chariots, to hook fighting men. Compare L. 71 F. Chuan-chu, arms, weapons sharp or cutting, a long and slender pole. It is the 110th radical. It forms Ching 1 . The handle of a spear; By extension, to pity, to spare. It represents probably the warrior who surrenders, by offering the handle of his spear. Yu4. To pierce with a (L. 15 C). Phonetic series 720. Jou2. A sharp instrument

slender stem, flexible, elastic, pliant; Phonetic series 455.

Mao4. Trees shooting forth branches, many shoots, luxuriant, to strive. Forms mao4, moral effort, to exert one's self, merit, glory.

238

Etymological Lessons.
4

95. 96.

Wu . To display one's skill in wielding arms. Now , a radical redundancy, to exert ones strength, one's talents, to strife after. Phonetic series 491.

LESSON 96.
About the primitive ts'ai2. Ts'ai2. This character represents the stem of a p l a n t forcing its way above t h e ground. (Compare , L. 79 A, B, F, etc). represents the stem; on the lop, represents its branches; at the bottom, represents the g r o u n d ; By extension, strength of e x p a n s i o n , natural activity, mental capacity, power, talents, endowments or gifts; the substance of a thing.- Phonetic series 30. It forms Ts'ai2. Materials of which things are made From wood and talent, the wood being the first material worked by m en. Ts'ai2. Property, precious things, wealth; the acquired by a man. cowries Ch'ai2. The wolf, au a n i m a l ( , say the Chinese. Ts'ai2. Skilfulness in wielding 71 F); to wound with weapons, to injure; ts'ai2 is also a phonetic. Phonetic series 241. Pi4. To shut a door; Here represents a system of bars to shut the weapons (L. or ) very clever

door. Compare
4

L. 1 H.

Tsai . To exert one's activity on the earth; presence in a place, manifested by one's activity. By extension, to be in or at, to be present, to live, to The following is derived act; from , the being substituted for

Ts'un2. To continue to be , present by one's offspring. By extension, to maintain, to preserve, to


continue.

Etymological Lessons. LESSON 97. About the primitives feng1 and (L. 48), nor with (L. 100). First series. feng1.

97.

239

chieh4. Not to be confounded with

Feng1. Some philologists say that this character is (L. 79 F), that strikes down its tap root; The study of the compounds makes this opinion improbable. is a primitive, representing a leafy bough. By extension, bush, brushwood, hedge. It forms Feng4 At the bottom a band, offering a branch (a symbol for a ny object), while two hands salute respectfully. Now the top part is strangely alte red. To offer, to receive. See L. 47 L. Phonetic
series 354. Feng1. To walk in the brushwoods. By extension, to meet oppositio n; to meet; Phonetic series 269. Now Feng1. A s y n o n y m of the. last; is a radical redundancy. To meet with one, to come across, etc. Phonetic series 608. Pang1. A fief, a country; the central city; represents probably the bushy outskirts. The scribes often write this character

Sub-series. writings.

doubled. The ancient form has different Feng1. Boughs, shoots, vitality, prosperity, abundance. It forms Hui4. A broom. A band that holds a

bundle of branches. See the explanation, and the derivative L. 44 J. Phonetic series 617. 4 Li . A vessel used in sacrificing; (vessel, L. 165), The top has nothing In common with (L. 5i B); it is a cup (L. 38 E), in which is pricked a bunch of green branches for decoration; symbol of plenty. Phonetic series 744.

240

Etymological Lessons. 97. Feng1. Prosperity, plenty. It seems that the ancient character represents the Chinese threshing-floor, at the harvest-time, as it still appears in our days. On the ground levelled, grains are heaped together, the corn-sheaves are ranged... In and all around (L. 165) the modern character, at the bottom, represents boughs, represents a cup; on the top, became . Idea of a symbol of plenty. The cup greatness, of multitude; mou nta ins of grain, say the philologists; is a graphical difference of . Phonetic series 839. It forms Yea4. Prosperity, abundance. Radical redundancy, for is a s y n o n y m of . See L. 38 G. Yen4. The colour, t he appearance, the looking prosperity. Gracious, handsome. See L.28 D. of

It seems rather that

Second series.

chieh4 Chieh 4 . The first m n e m o n i c way invented after the knotted strings; the first writing, or rather the first engraving. Notches c u t in a bamboo lath. By extension, deed, document, record, proof; It forms Ch'i . To c u t a notch w i t h a knife, in a lath that w i l l be used as a record, a d o c u m e n t , or a proof; Phonetic series 181. It forms
4

Ch'i4. The title deeds

of a man; A covenant, an agreement, a bond, a contract, Phonetic series 426. Hsieh2. To measure making a measuring. before contract; land-

Hai4 To injure, to hurt, to damage; to speak, to write, under a shelter, by stealth, against somebody ; series 529.

Phonetic

Etymological Lessons. 97. 98

241

Hsien4. To apply, in one's study, one's heart documents. and one's ten eyes, to the study of By extension, to draw up laws, a constitution, rules, etc. Lei3. A harrow. A piece of wood with dents, says the Glose; form has one dent less. It is the 127th radical of characters pertaining to tillage. Hai4. To be entangled in leng1, above A. litigations. Compare

The modern

Ching1. It has nothing in common, either with ( L . 75 K), or with (L. 73 D). Two brothers (L. 29 D) holding each one their sharing contract ; mutual respect of rights; deference, good understanThe modern form is ding; contracted.

LESSON 98.
About two primitives, and , that are not connected together.

First series.

ch'i4
Ch'i4. Curling vapours rising from the ground and forming clouds above; the ancient form of clouds. (L. 93 A). The scribes often contract this character into , that is now used (chia-chieh for ) in order to mean, to beg. It is the 84th radical. Phonetic series 15. It forms Compare

Ch'i4. Vapour ascending from boiling rice. This character was practically substituted to the last. It plays an important part in Chinese philosophy. Phonetic series 515.

242

Etymological Lessons. 98. 99.

Second series:

tou .
Tou3. A measure of ten ladles or pints; a peck; ladle and ten. The modern forms represent a forms are mutilated. The scribes sometimes write for , e.g. for ; it is a licence. It forms the 68th radical. Phonetic series 84. It forms Liao4. To measure grain with a peck ; Chuan-chu, grain, substance, to calculate. K'o1. To measure corn with a peck; By extension, a class, a rank; gradation, exa mination; Each degree received a fixed quantity of grain. Chia3. A h a n a p of the size of a together. drink peck, in order to The ancient

Sheng1. A measure ot ton handfuls, a pint. The modern forms are arbitrary contractions. Chiaand mean, to rise in office. chieh Cf. above. Phonetic, series 81.

LESSON 99
About the partial primitive , both straight and inverted.

First series.

straight, ch'ien4.
Ch'ien4. To breathe. A man (L. 29) who breathes . This latter element, a synonym of (L. 98 A), says the Glose, somewhat differs graphically from it, therefore is a special partial primitive;

By extension, to get out of breath, to be exhausted, to owe money, deficiency. It is the 76th radical. Phonetic series 44. It forms Ch'ui1. To blow, to puff, to scold;

Ts'u4. Idea of succession two successive breathes, inspiration a n d expiration;

represented by Phonetic series 244.

Etymological Lessons. 99.


4

243

Hsieu . The saliva that flows in the mouth, ; when something good to eat is smelt. To desire, to covet. It forms Hsien4. To covet; an overplus, an excess; The is supposed to be contracted. Tao4 A robber, to plunder; covet the goods of their neighbour; Those who

K'uan3. Primitively, to blow against a malignant , as the pagans still do, in order to influence preserve from it either on'es self or others. By extension, affection, care, etc. The scribes found out many ways of writing this character. The third of them is now classic, the last is unauthorised. Not to be confounded with i2, L. 131 G.

Second series.

inverted,

chi4.

Chi4. To breathe into, to swallow. It is the reverse of , composed also of and of , but inverted; The second ancient form is a mere abbreviation, not to be confounded with tsan1 (L. 26 D). It is the 71th radical. See chi4 (L. 26 M) It forms

Ai 4 . To swallow down in one's heart, to love, to be fond of, kindness, favour. Now this character, joined with , made , that has chia-chieh the same meaning as the radical had before. Primitively it meant, gracious gait;

Phonetic series 721.

244

Etymological Lessons. 100.

LESSON 10O.
About the primitive (L 48) with mao2, both straight and inverted. Not to be. confounded

First series.

straight.
Mao2. Hair, fur, plumage; extension, feathers. It is the 82th radical of characters relating to hair and feathers. Phonetic series 70. It forms Lao3. Old, to grow old, seventy years old. A man whose hair transforms it.self, changes to while. See L. 30 E. Note the contraction of the modern character. It is the 125th radical of a few characters mostly relating to age. Piao3. The o u t e r surface of garments. The first garments were skins worn with the hair outside. See L. 16 K. The modern form is contracted- Phonetic series 389. Ts'ui 4 . from thrice repeated, to denote its fineness. H a i r t h i c k a n d soft, line f u r s ; P h o n e t i c series 712. Second series. inverted , in I3. Wei3. The t ail of animals. From body and t he h a i r at the lower part. In the modern recent instead of . See L. 32 D. form, the, scribes wrote , or contracted, reduced to It is often compressed or to , in the compounds. It forms Sui1. Niao4. Urine. From tail and water. See L. 32 E. The modern form is contracted. Ch'u1. Oppression, vexation, curved. Composed of and , L. 78 E. The modern form is contracted. P honetic series 348. Hsi1. The Thibetan yak. os with a long hairy tail. The tail of t h e y a k was nsed in old China to make military standards. Phonetic series 679. Tai4. To hold by the tail (contracted into , and altered in the modern form). See L. 44 E. It is the 171th radical. It forms (contracted into ) By

Etymological Lessons. 100. 101.

245

Tai4. To wink, to catch with the eyes, says the Glose. This explanation seems im probable. The eye and of eyelashes. character is composed of The covering of the eye-ball by the eyelashes, could not be represented in the elementary design. It forms Huai2. To hide in clothes, to carry in one's L. 16 J. Phonetic series one.'s bosom. 820.

tai4, to hold by Ch'iu2. It is explained like (contracted); to ask, to implore. See L. 45 the tail K. It was a ltered in the modern writing, and wrongly {L 125). Phonetic classified by K'ang-hsi under series 263. Compare lu4, L. 68 F.

LESSON 101.
About two primitives First series. wu4. Wu4. Three pennons attached to a stick; a flag; By extension, 1. Jerky motions, as that of pennons agitated by the wind (L. 52 F); 1. A decree, a prohibitio n, a defence, an order made to soldiers with a flag; 3. Objects laciniated or foliated; sudden rays. K'ang-hsi wrongly classified this primitive under . Phonetic series 90. It forms Hu3. Jerking of the heart , emotion, surprise; and

Wen3, To cut the throat; a knife, and the blood that gushes out from the severed arteries of the neck. Wen3. The lips: mouth H'u1. A small book made from strips of bamboo. strips (of flesh) that close the

Wu4. A thing, a being, an article. An ox ; is a mere phonetic. The oxen were the most valued things in ancient times.

246

Etymological Lessons. 101. 102 Yang2. The sun above the horizon, shooting its rays; light, solar action, etc. Phonetic series 492. Note the following phonetic complexes that form series. T'ang1. Water, infusion, hot decoction; Phonetic series 707. Shang1. To wound with an arrow; (L. 131), In the compounds, reduced to placed on the top of ; the radical is placed on the, left side, instead of , e g etc. Phonetic series 643.

is

Second series.

i4.
I4. It represents a lizard, probably the chameleon. A primitive. On the top, the head; at the bottom, the light feet of the reptile; easy, to change, to transform. P honetic series 365.

By extension, alert,

LESSON

1O2.

About the primitive kan1, a n d I he i m p o r t a nt series derived from it. An appendix will treat about the p r i m i t i v e tsao2.

First series.

kan1,
Kan 1 . It represents a pestle. Compare L. 130. By extension, to grind, to destroy; morally, to oppose, to offend against; blunt arms, offence, injury, etc. It is th e 51th radical of a few unassorted characters. Phonetic series 22. It forms Ch'a2. The pestle in the mortar (L. 139). To pound, to pierce, to drive into or stick in. Phonetic series 421. Han4. The torrid and destroying sun ; drought, dryness. effect of the

Etymological Lessons.
1

102.

247

Keng . To bark the rice by pounding it in a mortar. This was the main daily domestic work among the ancients. Compare L. 47 N. K'ang1. To decorticate rice. Chuan-chu: 1. The chaff detached from the pounded grain, now : 2. The repose that follows this hard work. Phonetic series 6S3. It has nothing in common with L. 44 E. Jung1. Ordinary, common, as decortication of rice, the for every-day use. Phonetic series 621.
T'ang2. The words that accompany the pounding of rice; idle gossip, noisy wrangle. Phonetic series 572. She2. The tongue stretched out of the mouth represents the tongue, and is a partial special Here prim itiv e, that is not derived from kan1, L. 102 A. Compare, L. 55 K, han2, the tongue drawn back into the mouth. Compare the ancient forms given here t. The, tongue held out of the mouth she; 2, The tongue retir ing i n t o the mouth; 3. The tongue enclosed in the month han2. It is the 135th radical. Note the compound t'ien2 (L. 73 B); what is sweet to the tongue; sweet. Note: she2 does not form a phonetic series. The one that is sometimes attributed to it (Cf. Gallery, kuo2 (L 114 C), N 262), belongs to the character contracted by the scribes into , and often into To add to the confusion, t'ien2 forms phonetic complexes in which it is contracted into These compounds may be found in the series 227, derived from kuo2; they may be recognised by their sound ien. Examples:

Tien2, from

contracted.

Huo2, from

248 Second series. I4, ni4.

Etymological Lessons.

102.

I4. This character, says the Glose, is doubled (though incompletely) to mean th at the attack was repeated, because it met with resistance. Hence the derived meanings, to attack., to resist, opposition, It forms obstacle. Now Ch'ih4. To attack a man in his house; to expel, to turn out of the house, to scold, to strike or cuff. Note the modern abbreviation, the only one used now. Phonetic series 112. O4 To resist to somebody, to check him openly with cries and scoldings. The scribes changed into (L. 58 E), and this strange alteration was commonly admitted. See L. 72 F. Phonetic series 470.

Shuo4. The new moon; when the moon being opposite to the sun, refuses to receive its light ; Phonetic series 564. Chueh1. To have hiccup, suffocation, asthma, cough; an obstacle that impedes breathing (L. 99). It forms Ch'ueh2. A steep acclivity (L. 59), the ascension of which puts out of breath. This character lost that meaning, and is now used as a demonstrative pronoun; _ Phonetic series 673. Hsing4. Fortunate, lucky. A man (L. 61 B, opposition, who written ), who gets, over triumphs over resistance; Phonetic series 361. Not to be confounded with nieh4, below G.

Etymological Lessons. 102. Third series. ch'ien2.

249

(L. 102 A) a superior or Ch'ien2. To offend (L. 2 G); offence, fault, crime; In the modern writing, on the top of different compounds is reduced to , that must be distinli4, L. 60 H. By extension, to attack, guished from to face, etc. It forms Ch'ieh4. A guilty woman , or a culprit's daughter enslaved according to the ancient custom; See L. 67 E. Now it means, a concubine, an accessory wife. Phonetic series 331. T'ung2. The counterpart of the last. A boy, a lad tinder 15 years, who became a slave for a great crime committed by his parents. Phonetic series 716. I4 An angry boar
bravery. L. 69 H. See also L. 73 C, and

that assumes
See L. 15 G.

the offensive ;

Fourth series

jen3.
(L. Jen3. This character is composed nearly as 102 D). It is (L. 102 A) increased by one stroke. The idea is that of an offence repeated or aggravated, Derived meanings, relapse, recidivation, obduracy. See nan2, L. 79 G. It forms the two important sub-series nieh4 and hsin1 (below).

Sub-series.

nieh4.

Nieh4. A man (L. 60) who committed a crime; a criminal; Not to be confounded w ith hsing4 (L. 102 D); both are now written in the same way. Not to be. confounded with t'a4 (L. 60 C). Note the derivatives

250

Etymological Lessons. 102. (L. 11 E) a criminal; By extension, to seize, to maintain, etc. Phonetic series 601. Pao4. To repress (L. 55 C) evil-doers; Chih2. To apprehend

By extension, to denounce them, to state, to inform; hence the modern meanings, a report, an announcement, a gazette. I4. To keep a watchful criminals; vigilance; eye (L. 158), over the Phonetic series 738. Yu3. A prison. The inclosure are confined; where criminals

Chou1. To flog (L. 43 D) a criminal till he is bleeding (L. 157). The scribes substituted to , and suppressed the of ; then K'ang-hsi classified this character under Chu2. To convict a criminal , in the Chinese way, by d i n t of rattan strokes (L. 77 B), and of cries (L. 54 E).

Sub-series

hsin1.
Hsin1. Composed of and (ancient form or L. 2 G); to offend one's superior; and the consequence of it, chastisement, pain, bitterness; The ends of the first horizontal lines are generally turned up, the scribes deeming is to be more gracious iu that way. It is the 160th radical. It forms Tsai3. A criminal at the tribunal, judged and chastised; By extension, to govern, to judge, to order the legal tortures, to slaughter. Phonetic series 574. Tsai3 contracted in to is phonetic 3 tzu , Roltlera japonica, a hard wood, instruin ments for torturing were made of.

Etymological Lessons. 102. 251 Pi4. The man who slates about the criminals (L. 55 B ; law, chastisement, etc. The scribes changed Phonetic series 752. Prince, into for the authoritatively

Chen4. The Chinese hazel, wood criminals, because the rods were made of it. It is phonetic in Ch'in1. Those who are seen habitually; one's self, one's kindred; by e xten sion, to love, to embrace; It lost one stroke in the junction. Phonetic series 818. Hsin 1 . To cut (L. 126) s mal l branches ( o f the hazel); shoots of the year; henc e the meaning, recent, fuel, wood cut for the fire, brush-wood. new. Now N i e h 4 . Offence, sin For the phonetic, see L. 86 B. The meaning is probably an offence visible, evident, public. Ts'u2. To rid of an accusation, to clear one's self, to excuse one's self. See L. 90 B.
Hsi1. A contraction of hsi1, yak, L 100 B, now commonly used, e.g. in chih 4 , etc. Tsui 4 . To commit a crime ( L. 159); It appears that some malicious literati substituted thi s character to the of t h e i r enemy, t h e First Emperor Ch'inshih-huang This Emperor not over flattered to be called the first si n n e r ", o rdered by an I m p e r i a l decree that in future sin should be written , the a n c i e n t character becoming This p r i m i t i v e l y meant a net taboe; (L. 39 C); (L 170) being phoneti c.

impeaching each other; It forms interesting compounds in which the radical is inserted between the two series 786.

Pien4. Two criminals

etc. Phonetic

252 Appendix. The primitive

Etymological Lessons. 102. tsao2.

Tsao2. This character is unconnected with the preceding ones, , etc. !t is a primitive representing t he successive division and sub-division of a tree's Hence, arborisabranches, the boughs, the twigs; tion, emanation, multitude, faggot, collection. It forms Ych4. A tr ee crowned w i t h its foliage. The moral foliage, the deeds of a m a n , the affairs upon which he exerts his activity, a nd what the acquires by his doings, viz. merits, goods, titles, etc. P'u2. To g'ather with one's order to make with t h e m a faggot. Phonetic series 700. The compound forms an unimportant sub-series. Ts'ung1. To gather bushes . A bushy place, crowded; a collection, to collect. See L. 146 F. Tui4 To confront, to compare, and, by extension, to correspond to; measure to the luxuriant vegetation of apply a the mouths, viz. to the t esti monies of men, to see whether t hey agree or not. Compare the composition (L 73 C). To recall to his officials that one of mouth's testimony, but must no t rely on every o nl y on the testimony of the sages, which alone Wendeserves to be examined, the Emperor into , ti of the first Han4 changed by decree. thus making the modern character, which was contracted by the scribes. Chih3. Delicate leaves , embroidered linen , is contracted ; See L, 35 G. It is the 204th radical. Tsao2. To chisel, by delicate cuts, with a chisel, designes of leaves and branches in metal, so that be reproduced. C his elling in general. Compare (L. to pound grain, to grind. 81 A) upon hands twigs , in

To

Etymological Lessons. 103. LESSON 1O3. About the primitive First series. yang2.

253

and its multiples. Yang2. A sheep seen from behind; the horns, the head, the feet and the tail of a sheep. The tail is often curtailed, to make room for a phonetic; Idea of sweetness, of peace, of harmony. It is the 123th radical. Phonetic series 248. It forms Ch'iang1. From men a n d sheep. Nomadic shepherds living in the Western steppes; the Thibetans.

Mei3. A man gentle, good;

resembling to the

lamb, sweet,

Kao1. A lamb that begins to walk. The feet being already represented in , th ere is a radical redundancy. By extension, the little ones of different animals. Chiang 1 . The clan (see L. 79 F) of the Shen-nung; is phonetic. Emperor Yang3 To nourish (L. 26 M ) ; Phonetic series 814. is phonetic.

Yang4. The unceasing flow of water. See L, 125 D; is phonetic. By extension, uniformity, model, tediousness. Phouetic series 659. Hsien1. Composed of fish and sheep, the two kinds of flesh that were eaten fresh by the ancients, while they cured the other meats. By extension, fresh (neither salted, nor dried, nor smoked). Phonetic series 832.

254

Etymological Lessons. 103. and Keng1. A thick broth, soup. Composed of , a modern abbreviation invented by the scribes. Prim itively, a lamb stewed on a caldron; on both sides, the vapour that rises. See li1, L. 87 B. See again L. 60 0; L. 44 B; and L. 71 Q; L. 73 D. See also L. 16 C, that is unconnected with sheep, a flock of sheep. By extenShan1. Three sion, the rank odour of sheep or goats. It forms the following. Ch'an3. A sheep-fold; (L. 32 G) By extension, crowd, press.

Second series.

kuai1. Kuai1. Horns of the ram. It is without the feet; It figures in different compounds, as a symbol; see L. 35 M, 54 G. The modern scribes often change it into Kuai1. Ramified (twice L. 18, d i v i s i o n ) ram's horns ; odd, singular; The modern character is a bsurd. It forms the two phonetic compounds Huan1. A big owl, th e Grand-duke, with feather-horns, egrets; Forms the three following characters owl, (L. 139) is phonetic. Chiu4. A sort of It now means, chia-chieh, old, worn out, formerly. Huai2. Huo1. To seize ( a n owl) with the hand. Phonetic series 782. Kuan4. The heron, a screeming bird an egret . Phonetic series 841. with

Etymological Lessons. 103. 104.

255

Kui2. A demon that wanders through the mountains. It is said to have horns. This is a false interpretation resulting from the ill-formed modern character. See the ancient form: a face of demon, two arms, a belly, a tail, and two feet (L. 27 I, note 1).

Chi4 and Man2. See L. 35 M, L. 54 G.

Ya1. A fork, crooked. Now, appellative of girls, yat'ou, on account of their two tufts of hair. Some interpreters consider as an abbreviation of the a tree whose branches are ancient character forked. It is the reason why it is given here.

LESSON 104.

About the primitive

pan1. Pan1. A sort of fork, or shovel, which it represents; It was altered in different ways by the modern scribes. It forms Tan1. To assault a man with cries and a fork. See L. 72 E. Phonetic series 705. Ch'i4. To repulse, to expulse. Two hands with shovel, casting a child away. See L. 94 G. a Note the modern alteration. Feu4. The modern character is totally distorted. The top is not , but (L. 123) Ordure, filth. Two hands removing with a shovel the dung of animals;

256

Etymological Lessons. 104. 105. Pi2. This character represents two ancient instruments: 1. A shovel u p o n which was ottered the meat at the e n d of the sacrifice, hence the derived meaning, to end, which is still used in o u r days; 2. A

racket with a net, resembling the butterflies net, to catch small animals. This character has those two meanings in very ancient texts. Phonetic series 640. Kou4.Some consider this characteras being composed of two . one being straight, the other inverted, while the stroke at the bottom was suppressed for simplification's sake. This explanation seems to be far fetched. Kou4 is a primitive, whose straight and crossed lines represent g r aphi cally the timbers in the framework of a house, as they interlock a n d cross each other; hence the idea of a net-work, an ordering, a combination. This notion is hinted in the compounds, , etc. Phonetic series 546.

LESSON 105
About the primitive ko . Ko2. The raw skin of a flayed sheep, as it is stretched out. To skin. The fork in the middle is or a sheep, contracted (L 103); the two horizon tal l ines mean that the skin is stretched out, two hands or scrapers working it. The second ancient character is alrea dy contracted; By extension, to skin an officer, to degrade h i m from office wit h a line or a confiscation. It is the 177th radical. It forms Pa4. Leather drenched by the stretches out when it is drawn. It forms Pa4. Lengthening of the moon , in the first fortnight of the month; growing, prosperity. This character was used to designate the feudal princes iu ancient times; doable idea of growing in glory, and of glory borrowed by them from the Emperor, as the moon borrows its light from the sun. Phonetic series 355. Chi1. Trammels. Leather to t r a m m e l a horse . In the primitive form, the leather was not represented; represented the trammel p u t to the feet of the horse, and the peg to tie it up. The leather was added later on. Then was suppressed. rain, that

Etymological Lessons. LESSON 106.

106.

257

About several representations of animals or other beings, primitives either complete or partial, gathered here on account of their resemblance. First series. swelling on both sides, in Ku3. A man (L 29) whose because he makes an effort; sides are swollen,

Mien 3 . A man (L. 25) whose sides are swollen, whose legs are propped; to wake an effort to get some good or to avoid some evil ;
Phonetic series 295. Tou1. A k in d of helmet with appendixes on both mao4 sides to cover the cheeks; a helmet, a cowl; (L. 29 C) represents a man, head a n d Iegs; By extension, to cover, to envelop. Phonetic series 651. Second series. t'u4, a hare or rabbit. T'u1 It represents a hare when it is squatting, with its t a i l perked up ; Yuan l . A h a r e u n d e r a covert , w hen ce it is u n a b l e to r u n . Derived meaning s, to i n j u r e , to ill-use w i t h o u t cause, griev an ce, oppression, the hare being an inoffensive a n i m a l ; See L. 34 H. Mien3. The female of the hare, to bear, by allusion to the fecundity of the doe-hare. I 4 . A hare that runs away, live like a hare, to lead an idle and licentious life; the hare being looked upon in China as the type of profligacy, and very ill-reputed. By extension, It forms

By extension, to

Third series.

ch'ao4. Ch'ao4. It represents some animal resembling the hare; combined with (L 106 B), forms Ch'an2. The n u m e r o u s tribe oi the rodents. Phonetic series 828. This character,

258

Etymological Lessons. 106. 107.

Fourth series.

huan1.
Huan1. A sort of antelope; the lop, the horns (L. 103 C); represents the head; at the bottom there are paws and a tail, which is often omitted in the modern character. This was wrongly classified by K'ang-hsi unde r vegetals. It forms K'uan1. Large, spacious, ample in the physical sense; broad-mindedness, indulgence in the moral sense. This idea may come from the width of the paddocks reserved for the breeding of these animals. On

LESSON 1O7.
About two primitives and
1

, much a l i k e in t h e ancient writing. Hsin 1 . It represents the heart; On the top, the pericardium opened; in the middle, the organ ; at the bottom, a summary delineation of the aorta The extended meanings are very numerous. There are modern abbreviations as here joined. It is the 61th radical of characters relating to the feelings. Phonetic series 61. Many derivatives from were already explained, e.g. 4 4 2 o , wu , L. 82 H; ning , L. 36 C; chi2, 4 2 L 19 D. nien , L. 14 N; te , L. 10 O; ssu1, 2 L. 40 A; etc. Let us recall here that pi (L. 18 G), has nothing in common with Note the following multiple: Jui3. The heart now w r itte n of the flowers; It is

First series.

hsin .

Second series.

yeh*.
Yeh3. H represents an ancient utensil, either a funnel or a rhyton; series 37. Note: The scribes introduced the most regrettable Phonetic

confusion between the derivatives of , and those of (L. 108). The Shuo-wen ascribes to : and to etc. The cause of the confusion was that was and is still sometimes written The was placed where it was not required, and omitted where it was required; then the dictionaries set down all those errors of orthography.

Etymological Lessons. 108. LESSON 108.

259

About the primitives

and To1. A snake (See L. 110) that stands on its tail, distends its neck a n d darts its tongue out; See L. 107 B, often written , and sometimes note. Phonetic series 165 and 126. In the ancient writing, the head of the two following is alike. Kui 1 . A tortoise, which is described by the Glose as an animal having its flesh inside and its bones outside; The character represents the head, the claws, the shel l and the tail A more ancient character represented the tortoise-shell ornamented w i t h stripes, and a summary delineation of the head and of the tail. It is the 213th radical, it forms Chiu 1 . A contest (L. 11 I) settled by divination. tortoise-shell was formerly A singed used for that pur pose. See L. 56. Min 3 . The soft turtle. The character was then applied to mean a tadpole; the head, the gills, and a tail (L. 79 I). It is the 205th radical. Phonetic series 749. Luan2. A primitive representing the ovaries and the oviduct of the female, the testicles and cords of the male. Kuan1. Another primitive, and not an abbreviation o f l u a n 3 . l t represents the shuttle, that passes and repasses, inserting the transversal thread of the woof between the longitudinal threads of the warp. See L. 92 G.

It is

260

Etymological Lessons. 109.

LESSON 109.
About the prmitive ; about and its important series.

First series.

chung1.
Chung1. The centre. Chung4. To hit the centre, to attain. It represents a square target, pierced in its centre by an arrow. Later on, the target was contracted by the scribes and changed into a form somewhat like (L 72); but the primitive form is still maintained in the series . To represent, in a design without perspective, the perforation of the target, the two extremities of the arrow were marked with a sign, or the extremity that passed through was curved; these are mere graphic tricks; Phonetic series 52. Different compounds of were explained elsewhere,

N;

L. 16 E; L. 67 L. 73 E; etc. Compare

L. 153. See also

and

L. 43 M. N.

Second series.

yung4 a n d its derivatives. Yung4. This character primitively represented the bronze ex-voto offered to the Ancestors, placed in the temple as a memorial for their offspring. Afterwards it was given the shape of a bronze tripod The vessel was used for the offerings to the Manes, hence chuanchu to use, usage. The offerings brought blessing, hence chuan-chu aptitude, efficacity, utility, etc. It is the 101th radical of a lew incongruous characters. Chou1. aptitude (the old form L. 19 E) extending to every thing, general, univ ersal; hence the derived meanings, propagation, universality; totality; The scribes arbitrarily changed into . Phonetic series 342 Fu3. Aptitude for founding and governing a family (L 43 G), the manhood. Then a definitive appellation was taken by men. Hence the extended meaning, I, myself. Phonetic series 271. It forms

Etymological Lessons.

109. 110.

261

Fu1. The h a n d (for L. 45 B) of a grown up man. Derived meanings, action, amplitude. The modern scribes imagined to write , and this faulty fu 1 , to wri ting became classical in the character spread out, to promulge. Phouetic series 528. It forms P'u3. A wide expanse of water. By extension, large, general, universal, etc. Phonetic series 753. See L. 55 K; L 102 B; L. 54 G; etc.

LESSON 110.

About the primitive

, and its derivatives. Hui 1 . A l l k i n d of crawling animals, snakes, worms, etc. Compare L. 108 A. It is the 142th radical. See L. 43 1, and L. 21 B. Note further Ch'iang2. A bow (L. 87 A) that shoots its arrow above several acres of land (L. 3 C), a strong bow. By extension, s tron g, good. This character being difficult to write, was replaced by , a name of the same sound which represents an in sect , Elater the snapping beetle, that unbends like a bow when it fell on its back; represents the insect, its head, which was arbitrarily changed into by the scribes. Phouetic series 668.

K'un 1 . Insects that are numerous at certain times of the year ( t w o to intimate the great number); e.g. shih1, formerly fly, and now louce; locusts; wen2, mosquitoes; li3, book-worms; 2 ts'an , silk-worms; etc.

chung1.

262

Etymological Lessons.
2

110. 111

Ch'ung . An ancient term for all crawling and swarming animals, insects, etc. It is found in Ku3. Chronic diseases, t h e etiology of which escapes the Chinese, as tuberculosis, syphilis, etc. Some suppose that. worms corrode the interior of the body; Others expl ain that these diseases are caused by the venom of animals, swallowed with food and d r i n k Hence the dreadful fear of the Chinese for the urine of the gecko (a lizard found in all the houses); also for rain-water that has f i l t e r ed through a roof, because it is supposed to be soiled by the venom of scorpions that live there; etc. This etymology seems to be the right one, because it explains belter the word vessel; poison of the worms taken with food; Moreover, there are who say that the magicians make a poison slow and sure, by grinding in a vessel different sorts of venimous worms. This seems to be rather a legend.

LESSON

111.

About the primitive

, and its compounds. K'ui4. It represents an ancient recipient, either a basket or a bag. abbreviation. It forms

Note the modern

K'ui 4 . Not mean, or cheap; a whole basket of cowries; The ancient form is unexplaiIt appears in the ancient character L. ned, 44 G. It is perhaps an abbreviation of the last Phonetic series 693.

baskets, in order to Ch'iea3. To carry soil in erect a wall, a dike, as it is still done in China (L. 86 B). It is phonetic in Ch'ien3. To commission, to depute. Phonetic series 773.

Etymological Lessons. 112.

263

LESSON 112.

About the primitive First series,

, and its important derivatives

chih3, its compounds and multiples. Chih 2 A coarse representation of a Toot, or of the footprint; on the left side, the heels; on the right side, the toes; on the top, the ankle; Derived meanings, to march (the feet moving); to halt, to stop (the feet being still), etc. It is the 77th radical. Phonetic series 46. We saw the derivatives L. 44 F; L. 44 K; L. 66 D. Add the following: Ch'i4. A man rising on his heels;

Ts'u3. To t ur n one one's heels ( L. 26). Now chia-chieh used as a demonstrative pronoun, this. Phonetic series 242. Ch'en2. A firm (L. 63 D); Yen2. A gait gait, by posing well the foot It forms firm an steady (L. 7 ) ; Phonetic series 4 17. Not to be confounded below I.

with the derivatives of

quadrupled, two being straight, a n d two inverted (altered in the modern writing), forms Shih4. Rough, rugged. An irregular surface, that obliges to many steps in different directions. The modern contractions , now replace the ancient form difficult to write.

264

Etymological Lessons. 112.

Second series. tsu 4 .and increased with a symbol

shu2, both being composed of

the foot,

Tsu4. A foot at rest. By extension, feet in general. The stillness is represented by the closed . Compare below C. It is the 157th radical (two modern forms). Phonetic series 310. Shu2. Foot in motion, to turn. The motion is represented by the open . Compare above B.
The

reading p'i3, in the sense of rolled up piece, is a modern chuan-chu. It is the 103th radical (two modern forms). It forms Shu1. Birth , the feet coming first. Different extended meanings. See L. 94 F. Hsuan2. To turn on one's heels; phonetic. Phonetic series 614. Ch'u 3 . A
Hsu1. Gravy 448. Tan4. The ball extension, egg.

(L, 117) is

woody land;
;

is phonetic.

is phonetic. Phonetic series

rolle d by the

dung-beetle. By

Third series.

tsou3.
Tsou3. To march. A man who bends (L. 61 B) to walk quickly and with hasty strides; to go, to travel, to sail; 156th radical of characters relating to modes of going.

H is the

Etymological Lessons. 112.

265

Fourth series.

cho .
Cho4. To go step by step. It is composed of and (L. 63 A), say some philologists. It seems more are three footprints. Not to be probable that (L. 63 D). It is the 162th confounded with radical of a large group of characters relating to chin4, to advance, t'ui4 to movements, e.g. move back, etc. Note: In some modern characters, the scribes divide

is placed on the is placed on right side, underneath the phonetic; the left side. K'ang-hsi the 60th radical. classified those characters under Examples: T'u2. To go; Ts'ung2. To follow; Hsi3. To move one's abode. Phonetic series 611.

Fifth series.
inverted is not used alone, but forms, when straight, two important series. In combined with the first, G, th e two forms are superposed, a nd (not to be confounded with inverted is now written , nor with , L. 18 H, M). In the second, H, the two forms placed in juxtaposition are now writte n Pu4. A step, to take a step, to march; character represents the succession in the steps (compare L. 63 C). By extension, the planets, stars that move. H forms She4. To step over. Hence in water, to ford, to wade The

Pin 2 . A man (L. 160) who wades throogh water; uneasiness. In the ancient character, was introduced between the two , to gain room, In the modern character, was suppressed. Phonetic series 825.

266

Etymological Lessons: 112. step by step an Chih4. To ascend (L 86); chih1, merit, to promote. acclivity It forms

Jupiter, that presided over Sui4 The planet the wars. See L. 71 P. Phonetic series 760. Po4. Two in contrary directions; idea of two feet; or of separation, divergence, letting loose. It is the 105th radical. Note the derivatives P'o2. To stamp with the two It is now a part of feet, to trample.

Fa1. To shoot an arrow, and, by extension, any expansion, any manifestation of a latent energy. The m o d e r n form (to trample with a bow) is a nonsense. In the ancient primitive character, there was an arrow, instead of ; shooting of the arrow by the bow. Phonetic series 675. Teng1. To ascend upon a pedestal, firstly with one foot, then with the other. By extension, to ascend, to go up, in general. Phonetic series 708. Kui3. The nicely disposed grass, on which the Ancients poured the libations offered to the Manes; see Graphics, page 362. This character, not easily written, plus , was replaced, in the days of Li-ssu, by probably the primitive form of fa1 (above). The modern form has been arbitrarily mutilated by the scribes. Now chia-chieh a cyclical character. Phonetic series 458.

Sixth series. cheng4. A special series is reserved for this compound of , on account of its important derivatives. Cheng4. To be arrived and to stop at the line, at the limit, where one had to reach, without going astray; straight, regular. Phonetic series 107. It forms

By extension, correct,

Etymological Lessons. 112.


Ting4. Order in the house, and, consequently, tranquillity, peace; By extension, fixed, certain, decided. Phonetic series 400.

267

Shih4. What was

controlled at sun's light; The Glose compares this etymology with the etymology of chih3, L. 10 K. Extended meanings, truthfulness, reality, existence. Phonetic series 476 Wai1. Deflected from the perpendicular, aslant; what correct . This character is a modern one. is not Fa2. It is t urned to the left. The inversion means that one did not reach the line , the point where one had to reach; a defect, to he in want of, exhausted. The modern character is a fanciful abbreviation that has nothing in common with chih1 (L. 79 B). Phonetic series 54. Mien4. This character is considered by some philologists as a derivative of . This is a mistake. It is a primitive, representing a woman sitting; is the girdle; on the left, the seat; on the right, an apron that hides the fore and lower part of the body. By extension, to conceal, to hide, retreat, confinement, screened, out of view. Phonetic series 71, It forms Ch'en2. From and . See L. 30 B. in a house, the home, a

Min1. The retreat dwelling. It forms

Pin1. A present offered to a man received in By ex tension, a guest. one's house The scribes arbitrarily altered the primitive character to the two forms here joined. Phonetic series .787.

268

Etymological Lessons. 113. 114.

LESSON 113.
About the primitive Chang3, to grow. Ch'ang2, long. The primitive form indicates locks of hair so long that they must be tied by a hand a nd a brooch (the fork on the right); Later on, was added, which made the composition of analogous to the one of (L. 30 E); manhood, when the hair is long By ex tension, long in time or distance. The modern form is an arbitrary contraction. It is the 163th radical. Phonetic series 323. It forms Pao1. Long locks (L. 62);

It is the 190th radical. Ssu4, To expand to the utmost unrestrained. See L. 169. , to exhibit,

T'ao4. A modern character. To suit what is of the same height and length. Assortment, to unite, etc.

LESSON 114.
About the two primitives and Shih4. A floating plant, without roots, that famifles and grows, like the nymphaeaceae so common in China, Euryale ferox and others, that spring up from a grain, float first, then fix themselves and acquire in a short time a prodigious development. By extension, development, multiplication; a wandering hord of the primitive times, a clan, a family It is the 83th radical Phonetic series 82. It forms Ti3. A development of the last. The floating plant sprouls to the bottom of water, to be fixed and rooted there. By extension, bottom, foundation, to sink down; It forms

Phonetic series 163.

Etymological Lessons. 114. 115.

269

Hun1. Dusk, twilight; when the sun has plunged below the horizon. The of was suppressed; Phonetic series 364. The form is a wrong one. Kuo2. A development of ti (above B), the root boring in the bottom. It is phonetically contracted ( being suppressed) in Kuo2. To put or to hold in one's mouth; Note the modern abbreviations, specially the last one, that is written in such a way that the compounds of kuo2 cannot be distinguished from those of she2. See note L.102 C. Phonetic series 227.

Min2.The people, the mass, the common multitude. Some philologists consider this character as a mu3 (mother, L. 67 0), with sprouts that represent the m u l t i p l i c a t i o n ; people, t h e sons of w o m e n . It is highly probable that this interpretation is erroneous . Min2 is a primitive, a creeping plant with sprouts, that is proliferous (second ancient character, third ancient form, and the modern on e, are arbitrary abbreviations. is therefore a character resembling , and not a derivative from it. Phonetic series 137.

) The

LESSON 115. About the three primitives First series ching3. Ching3. Primitively, it was designed to represent eight square lots of fields, divided among eight families, reserving the middle square for public use, and digging a well in it. The well is represented by a dot; Suc h was the custom in antiquity. See Textes Historiques, p. 25. The system was abolished, and the character is now used to mean, a well. Phonetic series 49. It is phonetic in

270

Etymological Lessons. 115. Hsing 2 . Legal punish me nt ( which was arbitrarily written by the scribes . See below B. Phonetic series 204.

a sword, L. 52),

Second series.

ch'ien2.
Ch'ien1. It represents two scales poised ; Even, level, line, row, agreement. Note the modern arb itrary contraction which, reducing to four the six stroke s of this important phonetic, is the cause, for studen ts of Chinese, of many fruitless researches in the dic tionaries. Phonetic series 184. See above A. It forms. Ping 1 . Two men who march side by side; together, harmony, with, etc. ; The remark made for the last is to he made here also, the modern contracted form counting six strokes, instead of eight. Phonetic series 390. K'ai1. It has nothing in common with . It is a representative character. Two hands take away ; to open. It is the the bar t h a t closes a door reverse of shuan1, to shut, that was ex plained L. 1 H;

Third series.

tan1.
Tan1. Cinnabar. It has nothing in common with The crucible or stove of the alchimists, with cinnabar in it. See L. 4 C. Phonetic series 83. It forms

Ch'ing1. Light green; the colour of the sprouting plants (L. 79 F); Note that the cinnabar is red. It seems rather curious that the two complementary colours, green and red, are here confounded

Etymological Lessons. 116. 117.

271

(daltonism?). An author explains seriously that the green plants, when burnt, give a red fire It is the 174th radical. Phonetic series 337. is still found in t'ung2, scarlet red; and in LESSON 116. About the primitive Jan3. The hair just growing on the. b o d y ; inverted and doubled. It might be considered as See L. 100, second series. The scribes now write (nothing in common with L. 35 J). Phonetic series 128. It is phonetic in Na4, na3. A ancient city and State in the West, perhaps Tibet, whose inhabitants wore furs; The scribes strangely altered . This character lost its primitive meaning and is now used as a demonstrative pronoun in the modern spoken language. Phonetic series 232. So1. Clothes made of furs or straw, against rain. It was explained, L. 16 D. LESSON 117. About the two primitives and , that resemble each other in the modern writing, but that elymologically have nolhing in common. First series fang1. Fang1. It is supposed to represent two boats lashed together, so that they make a ferry-boat, a pontoon, a square barge; It seems rather difficult to see this representation in the character. The ancient forms represent the four regions of the space with two dimensions, the earthly surface. By extension, square, regular, correct, a ru le, etc. It forms the 70th radical. But, with the e xception of two or three of them, all the characters classified under this fictitious radica l, belong to the p rimitive , below, B, that is unconnected with . Phonetic series 56. chart1, a red banner (L. 117).

272

Etymological Lessons. 117. P'ang2. The space with three dimensions; the limits space, indicated by on the top, and two of that side li nes. The ancient forms, as usually, aie more expressive than the modern ones. By extension, border, side, lateral. Phonetic series 556.

Fang4. To lead , in the open space (steppe, pasture-land), a drove; to feed. Compare L. 43 D. By extension, to let go, to loosen, to open out, to lay down, etc. It forms Yao1. To shine; 766 Nao2. From series 638. and . See L. 78 E. Phonetic

emit

light; Phonetic series

Yen1, has nothing in common with

. See L. 34 K.

Second series

yen.
Yen3. First, long overhanging brandies. Later, the mangrove, shooting, from its branches, roots that go down and imp lan t themselves in the ground (right side; lianse, the jungle. Idea of a being, hanging, waving, covering, with many stalks, etc. This character is unconnected with . Note its successive alterations. It forms nearly all the characters attributed to the 70th radical . Note the following compounds: Hsuan2. To revolve, to move in an orbit, to do a thing in tarn. Composed of foot (L. 112 C), and motion. Phonetic series 614.

Etymological Lessons.

117.

273 , fifty, says the Glose;

Tsu2. A handle of arrows

means the numerous slicks; By extension, a multitude of beings of the same kind , a family which traces its descent from one ancestor, kindred relatives who are like a sheaf of individuals; series 654. Shih1. To pour out at repeated times .probably something to drink; to bestow, to diffuse, generosity; L. 107. Yu2. Contraction of ; the waving motions of (L. 94 A ) ; to float, to swim. the swimmer Phonetic series 500. Lu3. A campment. Men encamping under the branches of trees. By extension, men temporarily stay ing in a place that is not their ordinary abode, soldiers, merchants, travellers, emigrants, exiles. Yu 2 . It has certainly nothing in common with It is probably not an arbitrary contraction of wu1 (L. 138 D) It seems to be a modern sign, inv ente d to be used as a particle expressing the rela tion that exists between two terms of a proposition. It represents graphically the connection, (left side) between two distinct terms. Phonetic series 419.

Phonetic

Sub-series kan4. A sub-series is reserved for this derivative of , ou account of its important compounds. Kan4. The solar rays penetrating into the jungle, draws up the yapours of the ground which, till then, were checked (L. 1 I ) ; The bottom of is suppressed, to give room to Idea of evaporation, of a fog lifting up. Phonetic series 543. It forms Ch'ien2. A radical redundancy of the last, representing the vapours sent up. The proper room of the vapours, says the Glose, is upwards; they en-

274

Etymological Lessons. 117. 118. deavour to rise u p ; hence the meaning, cloudy firmament ( a n d not light blue of the skies), heaven.

This character is sometimes used for kan1, dry. It is a licence. In that sense, the character is to be used, in which (L. 102) means the-drying of the dampness. Kan4. A rod very long: by extension, power, capacity. The second form is more recent, and commonly used. It is an absurd phonetic redundancy, the radical being suppressed;

Han4. To fly very pencil, in Academy of old. Note: In the three following,

high. Chia-chieh, for Han-lin, the Chinese

was suppressed in the- modern form.


1

Chao . The rise of the sun a n d of the mist on sea, seen from a boat; dawn. By extension, the Imperial courts, so called because they were held in early morning. In this sense, they pronounced ch'ao2. Hence, the Imperial court, a dynasty, etc. Phonetic series 664. Han2. A bascule water. Chl3. A lance ( L. 31 G, lo and fro) to raise

very

long.

LESSON 118

About the primitives and First series. kua3.

Kua3. A skeleton, skull and bones without flesh, roughly shaped. By extension, to strip the flesh off, to bone, to disarticulate, article, broken, etc. See below B, . It forms

Etymological Lessons. 118.

275

Kua3. A defect in the conformation of the bones of the mouth ; a wry mouth with a palatal fissure. Phonetic series 457. It forms Kuo4, from (L 112 F), to go through. Phonetic series 742. with flesh around. Compare , whose composition is analogous, and which was explained L. 65 C. It is the 188th radical. Phonetic series 547. Ling4. It is borrowed as a symbol for arithmetic. The modern sound and shape are conventional. The primive form represented a bone extracted from the skeleton, a fraction, a remainder, a surplus ; It forms Pieh . To divide, to
2

Ku2. Bones

distinguish, difference. Composed of and of a knife.

Second series.

tai3. Tai3. A primitive; bones fallen to pieces; what remains definitively of a man's skeleton. The fourth ancient form, relatively modern, is composed of body, and of two strokes cut up by a third, to represent the disjunction of the body's elements. By extension, death, misfortune, evil, bad, to break to pieces, to shatter, to grind, fragments, dust. It is the 78th radical. It forms Sso3. To die; dissolution of man. See L. 26 H, and its a derivative tsang4, to bury, to put a coffin i nto the ground, L 78 G. See also LL. 12 F and 52 D. Ts'an2. To reduce into fragments, into dust. Phonetic series 308. It forms Ts'an4. Rice pounded , fine white oat-meal. By extension, a meal, a feast, whiteness, purity.

276

Etymological Lessons. 118. 119. Note. The two preceding and top of a compound, are written the following compound: , placed on the or , and form

Hsun4. A deep ravine (L. 18); represents the erosion of the rocks or of the loess by waters; Forms by subseye (L. 158) to the of : tituting Jui4.Brightness a n d quickness of visual perception, and, by extension, of intellectual perception; shrewd, profound. The eye penetrating to the very bottom of the deep hollow; Ho4. An artificial ravine, dug by men; a pit, a canal. Compare above hsun4. Now Ho1. A ditch, a canal; redundancy. , L. 81, is a radical

LESSON 119.
About the primitive and its multiples.
4

First series.

mu .
Mu4. It represents a tree, . On the top, the branches; at the bottom, the roots; in the middle, the trunk. By extension, wood. It is the 75th radical of characters relating to trees. It forms K'un4. Weariness, exhaustion that forces to stop tree. The modern on the way, to sleep u n d e r a form represents the same idea, b u t not so clearly; a camping (L. 74) under a tree . Phonetic series 286

Hsiu1. To stop, to cease to march; under a tree; Compare with the man preceding; the idea is the same. By extension, to cease in general, in particular to cease to live with a wife, to repudiate her. Phonetic series 205.

Etymological Lessons. 119.


1

277

Cha . A thin wooden tablet, anciently used for writing , for information (L. 9 A). Phonetic series 101. Ch'i1. Varnish, a substance that falls in drops from the branches and the trunk of a tree; The drops are a primitive. Phonetic series 598. Nai4. Omens derived from trees. Compare L. 119 M. This character lost its primitive meaning and is now used as an interjection, alas I The second modern form was invented by the scribes. See L. 99 D, the first form. Chi2. Three birds (a great number) roosting on a tree. By extension, an assembly, a meeting, a market or fair; The scribes contracted the old character. It forms Tsa2. Garments made with variegated pieces stitched together; By extension, particoloured, streaked; a mixture of colours or ingredients. The scribe: placed the of under , then contracted the two elements. Compare L. 16 M.

Nieh4. To shoot into the black of the target, It is explained that is the support, and the black of the target or bull's eye; because the black is to the target what the nose ( L. 159) is to the face, the central point. By extension, rules of shooting; then, rule, law, in general. Hsing1. The tree that produces apricots; represents the fruits hanging from the tree. The inverted character Tai1, stupid, is modern. It is equivalent to

278

Etymological Lessons. 119. Hsien2. From Threshold. wood, and door;

Jan3. To dye, to tinge. The dipping in the infusion of wood of Gardenia tinctoria or Rubia cordifolia, must be repeated nine times, says the Glose; See L. 23 A. Hsiao1. A bird of prey prospecting, on the top of a tree ; the head alone appears, the feet are not shaped. The head of a criminal exposed on the top of a slake. Li3. A plum-tree. The tree , the children are fond of ; Not to be confounded with chi4 (L. 94 A). Mei2. A stalk or stick Mu4. To wash in general. the hair; in wood ; one of, each;

is phonetic. To cleanse

Yao4, music. Lao4, joy. Here represents the frame on which the instruments are hung. See L. 88 C.

Second series. Multiples of


Lin2. A forest, a clump of trees. Two to indicate many trees together, Not to be confounded with p'ai4, L. 79 H. Phonetic series 377. Chin4. Bad omens derived from trees. Compare L. 119 F. By extension, to prohibit, to warn against, to forbid. Phonetic series 727. Ch'u3. A country planted with trees; (L.112 C) is phonetic. Various chia-chieh. Phonetic series 730. on fire , in order either Fen2. To set a forest to drive out the wild beasts or to prepare a clearing. Hence, to burn, in general.

Fan4. The soughing of the wind through trees; is phonetic. In the Hindu-Chinese literature, this character is used to designate

Brahma.

Etymological Lessons. 119.120. Lan2. Greediness; a woman's is phonetic. Fan2. A fence. See L. 39 L. Mao4. A bushy forest. See L. 95 C. Wu2. Clearing. See L. 10 I. Shen 1 . A great number of trees, and by extension, a great number in general. Yu4. A park planted with trees. Now vice, says the Glose;

279

LESSON 120. About some compounds of (L. 119), that form important series.
Pen3. T r u n k, stump of a t ha t denotes the earth; Phonetic series 147. Mo4. The top, the highest end, extremity. Phonetic series 138. tree with its branches superposed; The actual meanings of this character, in the cycle a n d as a negation, are chia-chieh. Phonetic series 167. It forms Wei4. A t a l l tree, across the l i n e

branches of a tree

Chih4. To cut a big tree with a sharp instrument, an axe or an adze. The ancient form shows the notches. By extension, to work the wood, tc make, to form, etc. The modern character is corrupt. Li2. A composition analogous to t he preceding one. To cot down a big tree; represents its falling. Phonetic series 627.

280

Etymological Lessons. 120.


Chu1. Trees whose h e a r t is reddish, as cedar, th uj a, ; in the middle etc. By extension, red. A tree represents a cutting in the wood; Phonetic series 188.

Lei3. A harrow. A wood with prongs. The modern form lost one of the prongs. See L. 97 G. It is the 127th radical

Kuo2. The f r u i t of a tree, represented by on the top of ; fruits in general. Phonetic series 373.

Ch'ao2.A nest on a tree. See L. 12 O. On the tree a nest, a n d on the nest, the feathers of the hatching bird. Phonetic series 594.

Ts'u 4 . Thorns. A thorny tree; P h o n e t i c series 243. It forms the i m p o r t a n t following compounds and multiples: Ts'u4. Primitively, torture; thorn and knife. It is n o w used for . Not to be confounded with la2, below 1. Chai2. To chastise, to punish. A thorny rod and a fine in money . Note the contraction of into in the mod ern form. Phonetic series 590.

Chi4. Thorny shrubs in general. The represents the great number of thorns.

duplicated

Tsao3. From thorn duplicated, referring to its abundance of thorns; the jujube tree, very common in China.

Etymological Lessons. 120.

281

Ti4. The Emperor, the man who rules over the Empire. The ancient character represents a man, clad in long robes (compare the ancient form of L. 24 Q) and designated by , an old form of , superior. Then the scribes added two arms. Then Li-ssu changed the bottom into . Lastly the scribes contracted the character. Compare the series , p. 9; tbe evolution is the same. Phonetic series 478. It forms
Ti4. To control oue's mouth , to hold one's tongue. Phonetic series 650, u n d e r its modern contracted form To be distinguished from shang1, L. 15 D.

Shu 4 . To encompass (L. 74) a tree , here taken to mean a n y object; to tie; to knot. Phonetic series 303. It forms Sou4. To cough. A tight breath that becomes loose. Phonetic series 647. Sung 3 . Reserve with fear. To

stand before a su perior, as being bound

with fear.

Ch'ih 4 . Government. A rod a tie, the coercitive and legislative power.

and

La2. To cut the tie that binds; to cut, in general. Phonetic series 469. It forms Lai4. To solve a difficulty by giving money; to bribe in a competition, or to buy in protection. Tbe is placed on the top of Phonetic series 821,

282

Etymological Lessons. 120. Chien3. To partake a bundle, in order to pick and cull. Phonetic series 429. It forms Lan2. A bar shutting a is phonetic. Phodoor; netic series 833. This compound (case, bag), increased with , was explained L. 75 A, with its derivatives.

Tung1. The sun appearing at the horizon. To show that it is on a l evel with the horizon, it is represented shi nin g under the top of the trees that are at the h ori zon. Compare L. 88, a n d L. 143 B; whence light rises. Phonetic series 405. It forms Ts'ao2. Judges. There were two, in the ancient t ribunals, sitting on the Eastern side (the place of honour), and deciding (L. 73 A) the cases. The modern contraction is an ar bitrary one;

By extension, the East

Chung4. Composed, as ting 2 (L. 81 D), of man and of earth; contracted is phonetic. The man on the top, tries to rise, from the earth at the bottom, an object in the. middle, which is represented by the phonetic. Hence the idea, heavy, weight. This interpretation is certainly erroneous. The ancient characters represent round or flat weights piled up on a kind of support. Phonetic series 437. It forms the two following: T'ung2. A slave boy; the counterpart of a slave girl (L.102 E). Composed of acrime, (contracted) grave, committed by the parents, and for which their children were reduced to slavery; Those slaves were forced to live unmarried; hence the extended meanings, a bachelor, a spinster, a virgin. Phonetic series 716.

Etymological Lessons.

120. 121.

283

Liang2. The weight (contracted), (contract ed) special to some object. Weight, measure, in general. See L. 75 F.

LESSON 121.
About the primitive Ho2. Grain, corn, crops. The character represents the plant (resembling L. 1 1 0 ) , ended on the top by a pendent ripe ear; uniformity, concord, the grains growing, waving, ripening together; It is the 1 1 5 t h radical of characters relating to grains and their uses. See L. 53 B; L. 52 F ; [,. 98 B etc. Note the following compounds : Ch'un1 A granary; the bundles of corn being enclosed; 351 Ch'iu 1 . The season when the i. e. whitened, ripe; Phonetic series 433. S u 1 . To glean chia-chieh Chih 4 . Grain Young, delicate; still young and tender, is phonetic ears, is phonetic. grain is burned, The autumn. Phonetic series

Derived idea of

The modern sense, to revive, to rise from the dead, is

Ho2 Tune of mouths, formerly of pipes. Harmony, u n i o n ;

musical

Wei3. The lot of woman who mast yield ; By extension, to suffer, to serve. There are different derived meanings. Phonetic series 409.

T'u1. Bald. When the head of a mowed down field.


Nien2. The year's harvest, the contraction.

man is like a

thousand

stalks.

A year (L. 24 D). The modern chararcter is an absurd

284

Etymological Lessons. 121. Shu3. The panicled millet , whose put in water and fermented, produces spirits; It is the 202th radical. It forms Hsiang 1 . The sweet odour of millet when it ferments. Sweet smell, or sweet to the taste. See L. 73 B. The modern character is astrangecontraction. It is the 186th radical. Ping3. A bundle ot corn held by a hand. To uphold, to seize, to grasp in the hand. See L. 44 I. It forms Chien1. Two bundles in the hand. Union, together. See L. 44 L. Phonetic series 519. It forms Lien2. The angled joint of the roof and of the walls of a house; a corner, a joint. Phonetic series 745. Li4. Many ears ripening together; crops; It is phonetic in

Li4 annual cycle, growing and ripening of the crops. It forms Li4. A (L 112 A) stop in the turn, the end of a period past; to pass, a term ; contracted into by the scribes. Phonetic series822. Li4. The (L. 143) solar terms, calendar, time. This character was used for the personal name of the Emperor Ch'ien-lung, and consequently was no longer employ ed for common use. It was superseded by inverted, a pendent ear, to bow the head, is found only in the following compound: Chi1. To bow the head in order to examine. The compound on the right side seems to be an error of the scribes for (L. 30 E) The meaning should be then, to shake the bead, like old men. Often .

Etymological Lessons. 122. LESSON 122 About the primitive , straight and bent down.

285

First series.

mi3 straight.
Mi3. Grains of different plants. The character represents four grains, that are separated by the thrashing; .See L. 68 D; L. 23 G, L. 78 E; L. 102 B; L. 41 E; L. 32 E; L 54 D; L. 87 B; L. 160 C; L. 81 A; etc. T'iao4 To sell ( to being out) grain . In these two

Ti3. To buy ( to bring in) grain (L. 62 G is plionetic. characters,

Second series.

mi3 bent down.


Mi3. Grains. It forms Wei4 The stomach which incloses This viscer being fleshy, later on (L. 65); then the scribes contracted the food was added into

This series is unconnected with L. 41 D (grains of salt, an analogous figure). Phonetic series 489. Shih3. Vegetables that went through the stomach; excreta, dung. This character is now written (see L. 32 E). Ch'ang4. Grains fermenting in a rase, and spoon to take the liquor out. It was explained L. a 26 C. It is the 192th radical.

286

Etymological Lessons. 123.

LESSON 123.
About the primitive Pien4. The steps of a wild beast . The strokes represent the print of the claws, and the points the p r i n t of t h e soft parts. The examination of the trail indicating the kind of an ima l, hence the extended meaning, to discriminate, to p art , to sort out. The means dung excreta giving the same indica tion , L. 122. in (L. 104 A). It is unconnected with It is the 165th radical. It forms Hsi2. To get a perfect knowledge , by a thorough investigation ; to comprehend in al l particulars. Chuan3. To choose, to pick and cull with the hands. The modern character is a contraction. See L. 47 K, and below F. Phonetic series 191. Fan1. The tracks of a wild beast, print of the claws and the sole of the foot; Phonetic series 676. It forms Shen3. To e xam ine, to search, to get knowledge by study. To investigate in one's house . _ Phonetic series 811. by an investigation, an Shih4. To clear up enquiry. (L..102 G); By extension, to part from an accusation, to let out from confinement, etc. Nao4. The dark corners of a house, in which one discerns the things only by groping; . By extension, mysterious, obscure. Phonetic series 750.

Yueh4. A particle, a kind of (L. 58 E), that comes before the explanation of an obscure matter. Often changed into K'ang-hsi wrongly classified it under the radical

interjection

Etymological Lessons. 124.125 LESSON 124


About the primitive Shu2. Beans. The primitive is thought to represent the plant; two husks pending;.'; It forms Shu2. The collecting of beans. This character is obsolete in that sense, a n d is now used chia-chieh to designate a father's younger brother, an uncle of the same surname (vulgo shou2). Phonetic series 393. Ch'i1. It represents the m o w i n g of beans, with a crooked sickle. It is now used chia-chieh to mean the kindred. The idea may come from the boughs of creeping plants. Phonetic series 597. LESSON 125 About different forms of the primitive explained. . The p r i m i t i v e

287

is incidentally

First series.

shui3.
Shui3. Water. The central stroke represents a brook, a rivulet, The four small strokes represent the whirls of water. See. L. 12 A. Note the modern contracted forms. It is the 85th radical of characters relating to water and streams. Different derivatives were already explained; e.g. L. 17 B, L. 18 M, L. 94 0, L. 47 0, L. 50 B, etc. Note the following. Ta2. Babbling words flowing like L. 73 A. Phonetic series 895. water. See

Yen3. Water that advances (L. 63 C), that spreads out; overflowing, inundation; It forms ch'ien1, a fault, an excess, licentiousness; scandalous behaviour.

288

Etymological Lessons. 125.

Fa1. Rule, law. By extension, model, pattern, means. This character is a modern one. a n d its explanation is too far reached: to make the morals smooth, as water is, by extirpating The ancient character was composed of vices; to adapt (L. 14 A) to righteousness (L. 112 I).

Second series.

yn3.
Yu3. Rain. According to some, th e four points represent the drops, upper l i n e the skies, an d the clouds. Others e x p l a i n as it was said in th e L. 1 B. Others still explain: the sky, the regular falling ( L 35 H) of drops ( t h e f ou r points are a special primitive). An ancient form simply represented a shower of rain. It is the 173th radical. It forms Lou4. Rain soaking t h r o u g h a roof (L. 32 G);

D ro p p in g .

Third series.

that is

bent down, in Yuan1. A whirlpool, a gulf, an abyss The ancient character represented water in a circle i.e. whirling. A more recent form rep resen ts the water bouncing between two banks. Now , a graphical redundancy. It forms Su4. Deferential fear of an official. Modern form, to write (L. 54 D) a report to a superior, as if one would be on the b r in k of an abyss , that is, with fear; This idea commonly occurs in the classics; An ancient form meant, to apply one's heart in writing reports and in administering Phonetic series 757.

Etymological Lessons. 125.


4

289

I . It represents a vase, so full of water, that it overflows. This circumstance is represented by the fact that is over the vase and is hent down, thus expressing its overflowing. By extension, addition, profit, excess, overplus; Phonetic series 539.

Fourth series.

and
Yang3. The unceasing flow of water veins in the earth, meaning, duration, perpetuity, but not eternity. Graphically, this character is a variant of ; the slender threads are substituted to the whirls. Phonetic series 173. It forms Yang4. It has the same meaning as ; is phonetic. By extension, uniformity, model, pattern, wearisomeness. See L. 103 A. Phonetic series 659.
P'ai4. Graphically, it is inverted. The idea is analogou s; ramification of a stream; Phonetic series 234. It forms Mai 4 . The blood running pulse. The second form, from is more recent. in the veins, the flesh and streams,

Abstracted

Ch'uan2. A spring gushing o ut from the ground, and flowing in rills. A special primitive. In the middle, the gush that bubbles up from the earth; on the top, the water expanding; on the sides, the flowing. The modern character is an arbitrary confection; water pure. It forms. Yuan2. Any origin; a source. In the ancient form, there were three springs gushing out from a cliff. The scribes contracted it ftrst, then altered this character in such a way that became . See L. 59 C. Phonetic series 388.

290

Etymological Lessons. 126.

LESSON 126.

About the primitive First series. huo3.


Huo3. Fire. Ascending flames; It forms the 86th radical of a large group of characters relating to heat. Note the modern contracted form that is used in combination, at the bottom of the compounds. See the compounds already explained, L. 65 G, L. 74 P, L. 121 C, L. 46 I, L. 59 G, L. 12 I, L. 119 O, etc. Note the following: Chih 4 . To roast flesh;

To cauterise, a moxa. roasted bird. Singed, shrunk, dried Chiao1. A up; melancholy, sadness. Phonetic series 669. Fan3. Pain in the head the caused by heat; Morally, heal in head, nervousness, disgust. See L. 160 C. (L. 75 D) is phonetic.

P'eng1. To roast;

Second series. contracted in the modern writing. The ancient forms are like those of the first series. See L. 24 J, L. 32 B, L. 50 O, L. 47 J, L. 41 A, etc. Note the following: Shen1. The Chinese hearth, a small hole (L. 37) under the caldron, in which the hand stirs the fire Hence the derived meanings, deep, profound, abstruse, etc. Note deep water; to explore, to fathom. The scribes arbitrarily omitted the upper dot of , and combined and into

Sou3. An old man. A man who reached the age in his house; when he most make fire Compare it with the last character, and see how the ancient form was fancifully altered by the scribes. Phonetic series 567.

Etymological Lessons. 126.


4

291

Ch'ih . The human fire (L. 60 N), the face turning red and crimson on being angry. By extension, natural carnation, red colour, etc. It is the 155th radical. See nan3, L. 43 J. Note she4, amnesty, pardon; the primitive sense was to strike the make him ashamed, without ulterior culprit and punishment. It forms che1, bite or sting of venimous insects, that inflames the skin. Doubled Ho4. Intense blushing, shame and fear.

C Third series. The same dots that are used as an abbreviation of , are also used, specially in recent characters relating to animals, to represent: 1. The tail, e.g. fish (L. 142); swallow (L. 141). 2. The feet, e. g. horse (L 137); bird ( L . 138); monkey ( L. 49 H); lamb (L. 103 A), etc. See L. 136 B, C. 3. is also used as an abbreviation of more intricate forms, e.g. L. 10 I; L. 92 E; an arbitrary abbreviation of L. 45 J, etc.

Fourth series.

doubled,

yen 2 , Yen2. A rising (lame, fire, that blazes; Phonetic series 416. It forms the important compounds :

Hei2 The soot let by the fire around the bole through which the smoke escapes. Black colour. See L. 40 D. It is the 203th radical. Phonetic series 678. Hsun1. Smoke, fumigation. A black smoke rising from the fire. See L. 40 D. Phonetic series 781.

292

Etymological Lessons. 126. Lin2. An ignis fatuus; flatmes t ha t are seen hovering. (See L. 31 E). They rise, says the Glose, . on old battlefields and proceed from t he blood of men a n d horses ; The scribes arbitrarily contracted into . Phonetic series 696.

Shun4. The Chinese convolvulus, that creeps and covers the ground with its bloomi ng r eddish flowers. The scribes strangely altered this character. The phon etic ( L. 31 E) was added later on;
Name of a famous

ancient monarch who reigned about B. C 2042. Phonetic series 703.

Liao 3 . Sacrifice offered to Heaven, on the threshingfloor, after the harvest; ancient forms represent the threshing-floor, the grains, the strow The more recent form represents the straw and the grains offered as a gift (L 75 D) to be b u r n t ; b u r n t offering of firstlings. Phonetic series 695.

The

Fifth series.
Yen2. Many lamps. Compare forms. Y i n g 2 The light of many lamps in a room (L. 34 H) This character forms a large group of compounds in which the at the bottom gives room to the radical. Phonetic series 585. Note Lao2. To toil at the lamp's light, during night; to fag at, to exert one's self in an extraordinary manner; to labour; Phonetic series 694. (above D). It

Etymological Lessons. 127.

293

LESSON 127.
About the two primitives and , two halves of a tree (L. 119) cut in the sense of its l en gth. It is queer enough that, in composition, means, thin, feeble; means, thick, strong. while

First series.

p'ien4.
P'ien 4 . The right h a l f of a tree, a piece of wood; bit, thin, feeble; radical.

It is the 91th

Second series.

ch'iang2.
Ch'iang 2 . The left h a l f of a tree, a piece of wood ; a bed, a wooden st a l l ; thick, strong; It is the 90th radical. Pho netic series 41. It forms

C h u a n g 4 . A stout , or t h e man who man , men an d th ings of the feigns to be so. It forms country. Note the analogous characters: a woman who gives herself airs, disguise; a dog that blusters, to feign; to subduce strong enemies by arms; the humble subjection of a minister (L. 82 E). Etc. Phonetics series 265. C h i a n g 4 . A strong to command. hand that rules; a general,

Chiang4. To place meat u p o n a stall The scribes blended this character w it h t h e last. Phonetic series 599. These characters show the successive development of the preceding: I. St all and meat; 2 Stall, meat and salt; 3. St all, meat a n d p r i n e (L. 41 G )

294

Etymological Lessons. 127. 128. Chi2. To lie on a bed ( note the successive contractions ). Derived me anings, to be sick, sickness ; urgent, pressing, as in a grave sickness ; The scribes arbitrarily added a dot on the top. It is the 104th radical of a group of characters relating to diseases. Note: Joined to , forms a k ind of compound radical, u n d e r which a phonetic is inserted. In the ancient forms, is complete; in the modern ones, the horizontal line was suppressed. For instance: Wu4. To awake; is phonetic. The sleeping man is lying in his house Ch'in3 . To sleep; Mei4. To sleep; M i 3 . Drowsy;

is phonetic. is phonetic. is phonetic. Etc.

Third series.

and

joined.
A prop. It is found in Ting3. A tripod or an u r n . The third foot does not appear, on account of the perspective. is not the eye (L. 158), but it represents the vase. The tripods and urns played an important part in the Chinese antiquity. See Graphics page 361. It is the 206th radical.

LESSON 128.
About the primitve

Chin1. An axe, a hatchet; character is supposed to represent the instrument, It means also a Chinese pound, the ancient weights

The

Etymological Lessons. 128.

295

having, like moneys, the form of a hatchet's iron or o a hanger. It is the 69th radical. Phonetic series 48. Different derivatives of were already explained; e.g. L. 47 D; L. 51 A; L. 48 D; L. 60 E. Add the following:
Hsin1. A laughter delightness. (L.99) by jerks ; joy,

Chan3. To cut in two, to sunder. Composed of chariot, and of axe, It is a souvenir of the a nc i e n t char iots with scythes, says the Glose. More probably the whirling of an axe brandished. Phonetic series 591. Hsi1. To split Phonetic series 357. Ssu1. To s p l i t wood with an axe; (L. 70 C) represents, says the Glose, the basket in which the splinters are gathered. modern use of this character as a demonstrative pronoun, is chia-chieh . Phonetic series 704. Sho3. C h o p p i n g of a door ( L, 129 ). By extension, a place, a spot, a building; a relative pronoun. wood , to divide;

The

Two axes. This character is obsolete. It is found in the price of a thing. By Chih4. To fix or settle extension, value, quality, substance, matter. Phonetic series 799. Ch'ih4. To expel. It has nothing in common with . It is an arbitrary abbreviation. See its etymology, L. 102 D. Phonetic series 112.

296

Etymological Lessons,

129.

LESSON 129.
A b o u t the prim itive First series. hu4, and its compounds. Hu4. One leaf of a door, the half of the character men2 (below C); a shutter; It represents the thing. By extension, house, family. It is the 63th radical. Phonetic series 63. See L. 62 I; L. 128 A; L. 156 D; etc. It forms Li4. A dog surprised, that crouches under the door to get out . By extension, wicked, to lose face;

Phonetic series 375. Ku4. A sort of bird : is phonetic. The modern meanings, to rent, to hire, are chia-chieh, says the, Glose. It may be t h a t represented a sign-board placed in front of bouses to let. Phonetic series 692. Hu4. Name of an ancient town and principality; is phonetic. Phonetic series 616. Ch'i3. To open a ; to open. door, so t h a t it is f u l l y opened It forms

Ch'i3. The teaching of the master, with his rod, opens the mind of the disciple. To explain, to make clear, to instruct. Phonetic series 329, in which is replaced by a radical O4. Misfortune, distress. The character represents the slipping in through a narrow door; The modern form completely altered the old one, in which there is neither , nor . Phonetic series 75. Chien1. Shoulder. It is unconnected with special primitive, explained in the L. 65 F. . It is a

Etymological Lessons. 139. inverted is now obsolete. Bat in combination with the straight form, it makes the three following important series, C, D, E.

297

Second series.

men2. Men*. Two leaves of a door, face to face;


It is the 169th radical of characters relating to entrances. Phonetic series 381. Note a few compounds: men4, sad, melancholy, a heart before a shut up 2 door; wen , an ear at the door, to hearken; wen4, a mouth at the door, to inquire of or about; shan3, to slip aside, in a door, to let another pass; shuan1, to bar a door; k'ai1, to unbar a door; hsien2, the moonlight streaming in through a chink in a door, interstice; ch'uang2, a horse crossing a door, impetuosity. Min 3 . To condole (L. 61 F) w i th the mourners at the front door; houses being very s mall, the visitors are received at the door, when ther e is not a t'ing1, a reception hall. By extension, compassion, pity.

The Chinese

Third series.

mao.
Mao2. Two leaves of a door opened; The modern form is a strange alteration. The compounds of this series, and those of the following and others, were all mingled. See ch'ing2, L. 55 A. Phonetic series 136. It forms Mao3. The constellation of the Pleiades; is phonetic. for

Mao*. Business; From cowries, money; is phonetic. Note. ch'ing2 (L. 26 M) Is unconnected with 3 mao , as well as with lin3, (L. 129 E).

298 Fourth series.

Etymological Lessons. 129. 130. yn3. Yu3. A closed door. The closing is represented by the that joins the two leaves together (compare above D). The modern abbreviation is quite incorrect; It forms the following: Liu2. To stop, to sojourn in a place to deposit, to let; is phonetic; series 551. (L. 149): Phonetic

Liu3. The willow ; is phonetic. The modern scribes write . and t heir mistake was registrated by the
Liu2 Composed of to cut, a n d A ver y c o m m o n f a m i l y name. a phonetic.

LESSON 130.

A b o u t the two primitives First series. wu3.

and

Wu3. It represents a pestle; L. 57, and L. 102. Phonetic offend. Compare series 89. See and , to pound, L. 47 N. Note the following compounds: Wu3. Stiff in holding one's opinions, obstinate; Here represents the action of offending, of shocking; is phonetic. The second form is a modern one. Hsieh4. To stop in the exercice of an office (LL. 112 and 55), To lay down the seal, on account of fault. By extension, to lay aside, to unload, e.g. a a cart. It forms

To hit, to

Etymological Lessons. 130.

299

Yu4. The art of driving, and, by extension, of ruling over men. The modern character is an absurd phonetic compound; to march. is phonetic. The ancient character meant, to have the hand over a horse;

Second series.

fao3.
Fao3. Earthenware vessels in general; A vessel with a cover. It is the 121th radical. It forms Tao2. A furnace for burning earthenware; Phonetic series 396. pottery or

Yao2 An earthenware vessel for cooking or keeping meat. Phonetic series 583.

Pao3. Precious, valuable, noble, respected. To have jade , earthenware , cowries , in one's own house ; such were the precious things among the ancients, The secondand t hird forms are modern contractions. See page 364 Yu4. The offering of a vessel full of fragrant wine ( L. 26 C); represents the decorations of this vessel (L. 62); is probably used to keep apart the numerous elements of this compound. It forms

Yu4. Thicket, brushwood. The preceding is phonetic; (L. 119 L) instead of th e radical is changed, By extension, obstruction, hindrance. The second form is a modern arbitrary contraction.

300

Etymological Lessons.

131.

LESSON 131.
About the primitive Shih3.An arrow; the point; at the bottom, the feathers, An ancient form represents an arrow fixed in a man's body (L. 32). Abstract meaning, an ac tion that came to its end, appointed, determined, irrevocable, as when the arrow is fixed in the target. See LL. 18 G, an d 85 E. See also L. 59 H, L. 101 B, L. 165 A. It is the 111t h radical. Note the following compounds: sickness, as if one had been Chi2. A sudden dart Hence the two notions, sickness, struck by a suddenness. On the top,

I4. A quiver, a case

(L. 10 B ) for It forms

arrows;

quiver, in order I1. To take out an arrow from the shoot (L. 22 D). Phonetic series 618. It forms to

I1. Medicine as it was practiced by the wizards of old. To sent arrows against the evil influences that caused the sickness sick elixirs to revive them, She4. To shoot an

, and to give to the

arrow against

somebody; In

a more recent form, used for the hand, was substituted to . to the detriment of the meaning. Phonetic series 560. Chih1. The knowledge that makes a man able to opinion upon a subject, with the rapidity givean arrow hitting the marks; and precision of an Phonetic series 334.

Etymological Lessons. 131, 132.

301

Kui1. Rule, to rule, right, straight, as it ought to he. to something, in order to make it To have. the eye straight as an arrow ; and of in the ancient great resemblance of writing, gave birth to the false character , which became usual. Phonetic series 624.

The

I2, Doubt, to doubt. The modern signification is the opposite of the ancient signification of this character, w h i ch was confounded by the scribes with the next: To miss the mark. an arrow that goes astray; hesitation, doubt, uncertainty; While primitively meant, to hit the arrow that slops in the target; certim a r k ; an is a phonetic added later tude, a settled matter. on. The modern character is an ill-formed contraction. Phonetic series 783. Note that has nothing in common with . See L. 99 I).

LESSON 132 About the primitive N i u 2 . An o x , a cow, a b u l l . The o r i g i n a l c ha racter represents the a n i m a l seen from b e h i n d ; the head, etc. It is the the. horns, two legs a n d the t a i l ; 93th radical of characters relating to bovine animals. the sheep, L. 103. See again to bellow, Compare a pa d d oc k for oxen, L. 17 F; to graze, L. 85 E; to dr i v e by the halter, L. 91 C; the L. 43 D; an ox cut up, a half of it, L 18 D; yak, L. 100 A; etc. Note the derivatives M u 3 and P'in 3 . A b u l l a n d a cow; and are t h e two halves of (L. 27 G ) . representing the pair. Now, by extension, male and female of animals in general. L. 26 I.

302

Etymological Lessons. i32. 133. Kao4. To impeach, to indict; to do. with the mouth, what is done by the, ox with its horns; to gore: By e x t e n si o n , to tell of, to advi se of , etc. P h o n e t i c series 282. It is p h o n e t i c in Tsao4. Pri mitive sense, to arrive at, to reach, extension, to construct, to build, to create;

C The ox was the most v a l u a b l e t h i n g among the goods of the ancients, hence the two following characters: Wu4. A thing, matter, substance; the beings, Because, says t h e Glose, the of things phonetic. C h i e n 4 . A n , one. The idea is represented by a representative of t h e two nobler categories, a man a n d an ox ; ox is the largest is

LESSON 13.
About the two primitives and Pu2. It represents a bird that rises, flapping the wings, straight towards the skies; Compare L. 11 A, B. It is now used, chia-chieh, as an adverb of negation ; Phonetic series 79. It forms P'ei4 It represents a wast open space; a bird hovering between heaven and earth; Great, vast, unequalled. Phonetic series 146. Fao . Adverb of negation; the mouth saying This character is a modern no: is taken in its chia-chieh meaning. one, for Phonetic series 268. It forms T'ou4. To cut a speaker short by interrupting him in his speech, as a dot, a denegation , or that puff that is used in China to express one's contempt; Note the modern contraction, that is to be distinguished from (L. 73 E). See also , L. 47 H. Phonetic series 401.
3

First series.

pu2.

Etymological Lessons. Second series. chih4.

133.

303

Chih4. It represents a bird that, bending up its wings, darts down straight towards the earth. By eitension, to go to, to arrive, to reach, etc. It is the 133th radical. Phonetic series 186. It forms

Chih 4 . To go, to send, to make a person go or do, etc; See L. 3t C. It forms chih4, fine, delicate. Tao4. To arrive at, to reach; phonetic. Forms tao3, to fall over, to prostrate; a disjunctive particle, but, on the contrary. Wu1. A house, a room in a house. The place where one rests when he has got to. See L. 32 G, where this character was fully explained. Phonetic series 490. T'ai 2 . A high open terrace, a turret upon which birds alight. See L. 75 B. Phonetic, series 790.

is

Shih 4 . A place of rest, a house, a dwelling. Its composition is analogous to that of above; the shelter where one stops and rests;

Chin4. To increase, to grow, to flourish. The sun that appears on the. horizon, and birds that alight in order to peck. When the s u n has appeared, at daylight, all go to their business, each one gains his ends, says the Book of Mutations;

The modern form is a contraction. Do n o t confound another abbreviation , with p'u3, L. 60 L. Phonetic series 521.

304

Etymological Lessons.

134.

LESSON 134
About the primitive Ch'uan 3 . The character represents a dog; According to tradition, Confucius found the representation a very faithful one; This induces to believe that the dogs, in the times of the philosopher, were strange animals. It is the 94th radical. See again L. 25 E; L. 65 G; L. 37 B; L. 72 C; L. 72 A; L. 78 G; L. 23 I. Add to these: Ch'ou 4 . A dog following the scent of a track with its (L. 159) nose; By extension, a bad smell, stench, putridity. Phonetic series 523. Chueh 2 . A dog that stands up in the grass, to look all around Ti 2 . From dog and N. W. regions. A race of dogs, says t h e Glose; The fire indicates the havoc they wrought. The g e n u i n e e x p l a n a t i o n is; nomads whose bivouacs ( camp-fires), were watched by fierce dogs. Hsien 4 . To offer in worship to the deceased ancestors , the cooked flesh of a fat dog; dog, caldron, This was the utmost of filial piety, the most palatable of a l l offerings. General meaning, to present, to offer. Compare L. 66 G. Pa2. A dog led in a leash, by a string to a leg, according to the Chinese way; tied up fire. Barbarians of the

Phonetic series 142. Yin2. Two dogs that bite each other;

Etymological Lessons. 134. 135. Yu . A litigation, a suit, each other, senting the two suitors, who revile By who accuse each other; extension, a tribunal, a prison, a jail. Ssu1. Judge. It represents the same idea. The judge between the two suitors. Yu2. A
4

305 Two dogs repre-

setter which sents the game, folds its ears; Compare L. 134 A. By extension, amazement, surprise, singular, extraordinary, There are different chia-chieh. K'ang-hsi erroneously classified this character under the 43lh radical . Phonetic series 95. It is found in the following (modern form; while in the ancient character, there was , above A ).

Mang2. A

shaggy

dog;

Phonetic series "293.

LESSON

135.

About the primitive Hu1. This character represents the tiger's strips: It is the 141th radical. See again L. 58 L), L. 69 D, L. 27 H, L. 40 A, etc. Note the following compounds: Hu3. The tiger, the king of wild beasts says the Glose. It represents the tigers skin, and its hind-legs on which it stands up like a man when leaping; Phonetic series 362 It forms piao1, striped as a tiger's skin; See also below G. Lo3. To seize, to capture; To seize ; is phonetic. a n d to b i n d

L. 153,

306

Etymological Lessons. 135. 136. Lu2. It is d e r i v e d from L. 150; is phonetic. A vessel is a radical vessel. In the more recent form, redundancy. There are different chia-chieh. Phonetic series 823. Hsi4. An ancient earthenware vase in form of a tiger; L..165 It forms hsi4, comedy, game. K'ui1. A bird not well determined; is phonetic. It is phonetic in K'ui1. To injure, to wrong, as by a pernicious breath; a grievance, a deficiency; (L. 58 E). Ti1. A tiger in its cavern. Compare H. Phonetic, series 573. L. 23

Yao. Cruel, wild. A tiger which scratches a m a n . The tiger's feet were replaced by its claws. The disappeared from the modern character; It forms yao4, malaria, a p e r n i c i o u s fever.

LESSON 136.
About the two primitives and

First series.

lu4.
Lu4. Antelope, gazelle, deer. On the top, the horns; at th e bottom, the feet (L. 27 I, note 1); in the middle, the body; is the 198th radical. Phonetic series 633. It forms Piao1. Roe. From ; (L. 50 0), contracted into , is phonetic. Phonetic series 810. Ch'ing4. To congratulate. To go (L. 31 C) and present to somebody, on a festive day, a deer's wishes. This fur was the gift skin with hearty commonly offered in ancient times;

It

Etymological Lessons. 136. 137. 138.

307

Yu . A h in d ; 132 A and 26 I. Li4. See L. 163.

denotes the female; compare

LL.

raised by a band of stags. Ch'en2. The dust There is now but one stag Dust in general.

Second series.

ssu4.
. Ssu4. It represents an a n i m a l , either a buffalo or a yak ; The philologists consider this character as being composed of the two preceding primitives, A and B, contracted. The head of a lu4, and the tail of a ssu4. Probably the elk. In the modern form, the head of the lu4, was replaced by a small stroke, which is a common way of doing. Chai3.

LESSON 137.

About the primitive Ma3. It represents the head, mane, legs a n d tail of a It is the 187th radical. horse; Phonetic series 552. Different compounds of this L. 129 C; p r i m i t i v e were explained elsewhere, e.g. L. 17 E, etc.

LESSON 138. About the primitive Niao3. It represents a bird with a long tail (compare L. 168); L. 22 B; L. 21 C. 196th radical. - See again ming2, singing of birds . Etc. Note

It is the

308

Etymological Lessons. 138. A contracted form of the last, w i t h o u t feet, in the next two: Tao3. Island. The tops of mo u n t a i n s , rocks that sea-birds live. emerge f r o m the sea, on which the in the ancient form, is not contracted. Note that

Hsiao1. A bird of prey waiting on the top of a


tree. See L 119 K. The head alone is seen; the legs are concealed in the foliages; hence the contraction.

A n o t h er contracted form, without head, in the following characters:

Yeh2. A magpie. A special head (compare L. 139 B). It is phonetic, in B,

L. 29

arrange the objects in By

Hsieh3. To set in order, to a house; extension

to set one's ideas in order, by writing; to write, to com pose;


Yen1. The pheasant A special head, that is not (L, 112 I), Now, chia-chieh, an interrogative particle Phonetic series 660.

Wu1. A crow, a raven, black; niao3, o n l y in this, that the stroke in the middle which represents the eyes, is omitted. Perhaps because there is no contrast, between the black eyes of the raven a n d its black feathers. The second character, yu2, is said, by some philologists, to be an arbitrary contraction of the first. This interpretation is not well founded. Yu2 is a relatively modern character, i n v e n t e d to be used as a particle denoting the relation t h a t exists between the terms of a proposition; its use is a merely grammatical one. It represents graphically the connexion (left side) between terms. Anyhow, is unconnected with L. 117 C. Photwo distinct netic series 582. Phonetic series 419.

It differs f r o m

Etymological Lessons. 139. 140. LESSON 139.

309

About the primitive

, and incidentally about Chiu 4 . This character re.presents a mortar; The first ones, says the Glose, were holes made in the earth; hence the meanings, pit, large hole, in the compounds. Later on, the mortar was made first of wood, then later of metal. It is the 134th radical. L. 47 N, L. 102 A, etc. Note: See Hsien 4 . A snare, a trap. A man pit; B. Phonetic series 360. who falls in a See L. 28.

Yao3. To draw up with the mortar; To draw up, to empty out. of a Phonetic series 584. represents the head of certain animals, e.g. 29 B; L. 138 C; a n d L.

hand, the contents

Shu3. Rat, rodents in general; The head, the stiff whiskers, and the tail. The ancient character represented the animal. It is ts'uan4, a rat in its the 208th radical. It forms bole, to hide. See L. 37 C. Lieh4. It was explained L. 40 B; it is another head and stiffy hair. , with

LESSON
About the primitive

14O

Lung2. The dragon When it ascends to heaven a n d flies, it rains; when it hides in the wells, there is a drought. Vapours and clouds personified. The ancient form is a representation sufficiently recognisable. The modern form is explained thus; on the right, (L. 11 A) contracted, the wings; on the left, at the

310

Etymological Lessons. 140. 141. 142.

bottom, (L 65 A) the body; on the top, is t h o n g h t to be (L. 120 K) contracted, used as a phonetic; The last derivation seems to be an artificial interpretation of a conventional abbreviation. It is the 212th radical. Phonetic series 824. The characters of this series, the sound of hsi2, for instance, come from an ancient series which is quite different, as in , that was contracted by the scribes into

LESSON 141.
About the primitive Yen4. It represents the swallow; the head, the body, two wings expanded, the tail. Phonetic series 827.

LESSON 142.
About the two p r i m i t i v e s , First series. yu2. Yu2. Fish. The first ancient character furnishes a faithful likeness. The two others are composed of a sharp head, a scaly body, a n d a tail. See L. 17 K. It is the 195th radical of characters relating to names and parts of fishes It forms and

Lu3. Stupid, b l u n t ; (L. 159, contracted into the nose of a fish , without scent, series 809.

) Phonetic

Chi4. To cut open proper name.

a fish

. It forms

chi4, a

Yu4. To fish There were, in the ancient form, two fishes denoting many, in the water. Hsien1. The result of a fishing, many fishes.

Etymological Lessons. 142. 143. Second series, chiao .


3

311

Chiao3. Horn.It is (the second ancient form), the tail being left out, because, says the Glose, the horns have much resemblance with the lanceolated fishes. Or rather, it is simply a special primitive, that represents a striate horn. It is the 148th radical. It forms Tsui3. Egret ( h o r n ) of a heron and other birds; (the sound was 3 changed), It is phonetic in tsui . bill, mouth. Hu 2 . Chinese measure, holding ten pecks(L.98 B); is phonetic (the sound being altered ). Chieh3. To divide, made from the horn untie; to bodkin of an ox, and used to Phonetic series 725.

undo, to solve. A

Heng2. This character is of a recent formation. A big piece of wood, a yoke fixed to the horns of oxen ; is phonetic. A transversal piece, as a beam, etc. LESSON 143 About the primitive Jih 4 . It represents the sun; radical of characters relating to the sun and limes. Many compounds of this primitive were explained elsewhere. See L. 73 A, L. 114 B , L 78 G, L. 17 J, L. 60 L, L. 133 C, L 92 E, L. 120 K, L. 112 I, L. 42 C, L. 47 P, L. 47 S, L. 34 G, etc. Note the following:
above a line, i.e. the horizon; The morning, the dawn. See L, 76 D. Phonetic series 162 Yao3. Darkness. The sun trees, setting below the Tan4. The sun

It is the 72th

312

Etymological Lessons. 143. Kao3. The sun shining over trees, (L. 120 K) is between both. Therefore for the progressive rising of the sun, we have the. fine series Lastly Hao4. The sun p o u r i n g down its rays u p o n met; the sun at its he i g h t The form , the s un in the skies, is of a relatively modern form atio n . Compare L. 00 F.

Tsao3. The morning, early. Compare above C. Here the guiding-mark is (L 152, contracted into ) a helmet, the height of a man with a h e l m e t ; It is phonetic in Ts'ao3. P r i mi ti v e l y a p la n t that was used to dye in black. In that sense, the character in now written or , arbitrary forms whose actual pronunciation is tsao4; while became the generic name for herbaceous plants, as is the n a m e for ligneous plants.

Cho1. High, elevated. It is unconn ected with t h e last. It represents a k i n d of mast surmounted with a ball a n d a pendant, a decoration the Chinese are very fond of. Phonetic series 339. Ching1. Luster, brightness. by the three heavenly lights, sun moon stars; See LL 62 C a n d 76 F. Note the following: Tieh3. Development of the character , which was explained L 64 F. To dispose, to set objects in represent three objects a n d are order. The three. mere symbols (L. 149 F, note). By extension, to redouble, to pile up, to fold up. The scribes first changed into , a n d then invented the modern character which was later on abbreviated in a strange way. What is produced

Etymological lessons. 144 145. 146. LESSON 144.


About the primitive

313

, which formed the character Ch'ou2. It represents the ploughing. To trace


furrows in the fields;

Curved lines, to lessen the figure. Now

. It forms.

Chou2. To ask, in the Chinese way, by turning and returning one's speach. This character is now , which is a cause of confusion. also written Chou2. Another, but unauthorised, variant of the last. to . Hence the The modern scribes substituted modern forms of the following. Shou4. Longevity, long life. On the top, old, the radical contracted (L. 100 A). At the bottom, the preceding, as phonetic. The scribes altered this character in different ways. Phonetic series 788.

LESSON 145
About the primitive Wa3. Tile. The Chinese roofs are made of rows alternatively convex and concave, the curved tiles c overing each o t h e r at the side, a n d being jointed together with lime. Hence the form of the character: a tile gets hooked with another; between both, the lime. By extension, a general n a m e for earthenware, pottery, etc. It. is the 98th radical of a few characters relating to earthenware.

LESSON 146
About the primitive Erh3. The ear. I ntended to represent the pavilion of t h e ear. It forms the 128th radical of a n a t u r a l group of characters relating to hearing. Phonetic series 194. Diffe rent compounds were explained elsewhere, e.g. . L. 10 O; L 81 H. Add the foll owin g:

314

Etymological Lessons. 146.


Ta . Great or
1

ears

hanging like a hog's

s p a n i e l ' s ; hangling, dangling. This is a modern character Ch'ih1. From ear and heart, because the ear reddens when a person is ashamed; to feel shame, to

blush, to redden.
Wen2 To learn any news by hearing at the door. To hear, to learn, to smell. Keng3. To feel fire in the ardour, generosity. Compare L. 1 2 6 A.

ears, agitation

Che1. lt is supposed To represent long flapping ears, by the addition of an appendix. Ch'i 1 To asperse, to blame one, which is done by whispers in the Phonetic series 425 J u n g 2 The luxuriant growth of
g i v e n as an a b b r e v i a t i o n of a phonetic.

ears;

plants.

is

Yeh2. A final particle. It is said to he an arbitrary contraction of (L. 1 4 7 B). Phonetic series 4 1 4 .

Ch'u3. To lay hold on, to take, to seize. A hand that holds an ear; In composition, to gather, to combine. Phonetic series . 349. It forms

Chu 4 . To g at h er; ned L. 27 K. Ts'ung1. Collection, to join; L. 102 I.

It was explai-

See

Tsui4 To scrape together; See L. 34 J. Phonetic series 711.

Etymological Lessons
4

146. 147.

315

Nieh . Composed of three ears, s h o wi n g one ear coming close to two ears; to whisper, to plot, to conspire; Phonetic series 842

H The following character is added as an appendix, because its modern contracted form is like , though it has nothing in common w i t h it .
Kan 3 . To dare, h o l d , i n t r e p i d . . . On t h e l e f t , t h e b e a r (I.. 27 J) whose paws were suppre ssed to g i v e room. The modern scribes altered t h i s p r i m i t i v e . On t h e r ight, a h a n d t h a t w h i p s a n d provokes t h e hear. P h o n e t i c series 622. It forms yen3, to a t t a c k a b e a r in its cavern, w h i c h operation does not go w i t h o u t On cries a n d ho wlin gs. Hence Yen2. Derived m ea nin g, a severe i n j u n c t i o n of a superior made, in t h e Chinese w a y , w i t h great cries. Phonetic series 858.

LESSON 147.

About the primit ive Ya2. The canine teeth, hooks. The character re presents their m u t u a l j o i n t i n g ,
C o m p a r e LL. 54 F a n d 145 A. It is t h e 9 2 t h r a d i c a l . Phonetic series 91. Different compounds of th is p r i m i t i v e were e x p l a i n e d elsewhere, e g. L. 37 D. Note

Hsieh2 . N a m e of an a nc ie nt city l y i n g in the East is phonetic Now it means, i m p u r e , of Shantung; , a soiled depraved, vicious (chia-chieh for y e h 2 (L. 146 E) used as g a r m e n t ) . The c h a r a c t e r a particle, is given as a modern difference of

316

Etymological Lessons. 148. 149. LESSON 148.

About the primitive Shen l . The p ri m i t i v e m e a n i n g is, conception ( still means, to he p r e g n a n t ) . The character represents a h u m a n body (L. 25), with a big belly (a p a rt i a l primitive ), a n d a log moving forward to keep the equilibrium; a person, a body's l i f e duration . It is the 158th radical of characters relating to the shapes of the body. Different compounds were ex plaine d; e.g. L. 90 F; etc. L. 131 D; I 1 . It is To t u r n r o u n d . It forms
Yin 1 . The a n c i e n t dancers a n d pa ntom im e s, who made their evolutions brandishing banners or featherbody in a l l directions; brooms, a nd t u r n i n g their By extension, m o t i o n , a c t i v i t y , h i g h spir its , zeal. In t h i s sense, t h e modern compound is n o w c o m m o n l y used.

By extension, the body,

inverted;

LESSON 149. About the primitive T'ien2. Field, country. It represents a furrowed field ; This character being simple and easy to write, is often used, as a symbol, for a n y object. It forms the 102th radical of characters relating mostly to fields and land. Phonetic series 161 We saw the comL. 91 B; L. 36 E; L. 60 E; L.53 pounds L. l71. But is substituted to a n o t h e r C; L. 104 A ; L 123 D; L. 10 A ; character in L 150. Miao2 Sprouts, vegetation fields; series 464.. at the surface of the Phonetic

fields, Chi2. A man who goes and sees his who w or k s t h e m ; co n se qu e nt ly, t h e growing of t h e p lants; chi2, corn, agriculture.

It forms

Etymological Lessons. 149.

317

Li 3 . Composed of field and combined ; The smallest hamlet, eight families cultivating a ching 3 (L 115). By extension, the side of a ching3. the Chinese mile, now u s u a l l y measuring 1894 to En glish , or a b o ut 600 metres. It is the 166th radical. Phonetic series 287. It forms Ch'an 2 . The distinct g r o u n d on w h i c h each f a m i l y in t h e h a m l e t erected its dwelling : A shop, a s t a l l , an estate. Ph onetic series 795. Chiang 1 . Fields separated one from another. It was later on replaced by Chiang1. P a r t i t i o n represented by t h r e e lines, That ; a li mit, a b o u n d a r y ; divide two fields This character is now replaced by , in which is a redundancy, a n d represents the l a n d -m e a s u ri n g compass. Phonetic series 724. Lei 2 . The fields, the country. Phonetic series 803. It f o r m s Lei2. R a i n y clouds above the fields storm, t h u n d e r . Phonetic series 743. (L. 93);

Note: is o ft e n used as a symbol, to mean a h e a p , an ord e r i n g of things. L. 72 L. For i n sta n c e in Compare Lei3. To b u i l d , by p i l i n g up pises.

Lei3. To j o i n in a series, to bi n d objects. The m o d e r n f o r m Phonetic series 626.

together many is a contraction.

Tieh 2 . To f o l d u p . It sh o uld be w ri tt e n . See L 143 G. The scribes imagined, for rapidity's sake, to replace th e and piled up, by or . For i n s t a n c e :

318

Etymological Lessons. 150. 151 152.

LESSON 150.
About the primitive Tzu1. It represents a vase, e a r t h e n w a r e , p o t t e r y ; It has n ot hi n g in common e i t h e r w i t h (L 119), (L. 12 E) The m oder n character is a or w i t h f a n c i f u l form i n ve nte d by t h e scribes. Not to he confounded with tzu1, an u nc u lti v a ted field, e x p l a i n e d L 12 I. P h o ne t ic series 406. It occurs, as a radical, in a few compounds in which the modern scribes, and K'ang-hsi, always write . For instance: Lu2. A vessel. See L. 135 D.

LESSON 151.
About the p r i m i t i v e Yu2. It represents t h e g e r m i n a t i o n of a f r u i t - s t o n e , of a large grain; r e p r e s e n t s t h e g r a i n , on t h e t o p of w h i c h the. germ is c o m i n g u p ; By extension, beginning, principle, o ri g i n , starling p oi n t, cause, to produce, etc. yu2 Phonetic series 170. See its r a di ca l c o m p o u n d s 2 (L. 55 K ) , and, p'in (L 58 C).

LESSON 152
About the primitive Chia3. P r i m i t i v e sense, a h e l m e t . The character represents a h el m e t u po n t w o strokes f i g u r i n g a t a ll man, Later on, by extension, f u l l a r m o u r ; lastly, any hard coverings, us the carapace of turtles, the scales on crocodiles, etc. Different chia-chieh, the first of the ten stems in the cycle, etc. Phonetic, series 109. See , the sun risen to the height of a man wearing a helmet, L. 143 E. Compare the ancient form of L. 125 F. It forms Jung2. Defensive. arms and offensive weapons. See L. 71 O. Phonetic series 217.

Etymological Lessons. 152. 153.

319

Pi1. A d r i nki ng wase held with the left hand. Chuan-chu, vulgar. See L. 46 E, where this character was f u ll y explained. Here representing the vase, is properly a special primitive that happens to resemble to chia3, above A. Phonetic series 388.

LESSON 153

About the two primitives

and Kuan4. To pierce, to string, to tie together different objects. The primitive represents two objects (separated by the vortical line), two cowries strung together, says the Glose (the horizontal line);
It forms

Kuan4. Long string string, to lie. Hence experience.

of cowries . To pierce, to kuan4, usage, custom,

Shih 2 Primitive meaning, to have strings of cash in one's house, to be really rich, and not in appearance only. Hence the. actual chuan-chu meaning, true, the same inside as it is outside, massive, homogeneous, etc. Lo3. To capture; to tie strongly; represents the ferocity in capturing, and is also a phonetic. A captive. See L. 135 C. Not to be confounded with L. 53 C.

Ch'uan4. To string. The character is like , above mouth) strung on a vertical A. Two objects (not L 109 A. It forms rod. Compare Huan 4 . A f f l i c t io n ; a of troubles. heart pierced, a series

320

Etymological Lessons. 154. 155. 156.

LESSON 154.
About the primitive , written by the modern writers
4

or otherwise. It is

Tseng . It represents the cover of the, Chinese caidron, used to stew bread etc. Now found in Ts'uan4 Chinese hearth. On the top, the cover and its supports; then the masonry holding the caldron; at the bottom, the hands pulling wood in the fire; contracted in the following: Hsin 4 . P r i mi t i v e l y , to sacrifice to the hearth; Later on, bloody sacrifice, ;.BK IV, Sect. VI, par I I ; BK. XVIII, Li-Chi contracted. In the Sect. IV, par. 33. On the top the offering, Al the bottom middle phonetic. In order to shorten it, the scribes imagined

It is found

Cf. the

LESSON 155.
About the primitive Ko2. It represents a three-legged caldron See page 386 It is the 193th radical. Phonetic series 545. Sec li1, L. 87 B; keng1, L. 103 A; 4 hsien , L. 134 A; etc.

LESSON 156.
About the two primitives and Ch'ai2. It represents an ancient book, written on laths of bamboo, lied together, imagined the modern form , which was wrongly classified by K'ang-hsi u n d e . Phonetic series 103. It forms

First series.

ch'ai3.
The scribes

Etymological Lessons. 156.

321

Shan1. To correct and expurge, which was done by erasing with a knife what displeased in a book;, It is from this character contracted, that are derived the compounds ended in an, in the series Tien3. The canonical books, Confucian Canonics, Their excellence is graphically represented by the stand, out fact that they are placed high on a of respect; scribes kept something of the ancient form. Phonetic series 398. Pien3. An inscription hung over a door;

The modern

By tension, flat, those inscriptions being written upon a tablet. Phonetic series 473. Lun2. To gather texts to develop them. See L 14 G. Phonetic series 380. Yao4. A collection of pipes , the holes of which are put in a straight line on the top. See L. 14 H. It is the 214th radical. Phonetic series 835. Ssu4 To assert before judges one's titles to a succession. To succeed, heir, etc. ancient character simply represented son, legal.

The

Second series

k'uai3.
K'uai3 It represents the plaiting of a mat, by interlacing the rushes. It forms K'uai3. The hand plaits a mat with straw. into A family name. The modern scribes changed ; not to be confounded with L 64 I

322

Etymological Lessons. 157. 158. LESSON 157

About the primitive Min 3 . It represents a vessel, porringer, plate; - I t i s the 108th radical of characters mostly relating to dishes. It is phonetic (min, ming, meng) in the following: Meng4. The eldest series 382. son. The first. Phonetic

Wen1. To feed a prisoner (L. 25 B); benevolence, ch arit y; scribes i n v e n t e d th e second form. Phonetic series L. 169 D; I, 135 D; L. 5 0. See. elsewhere, 125 C; L 19 B; L 38 G; L. 50 B; L. 110 D, etc. Hsueh3. A vase f u l l of blood. Blood. See L. L. 82 F. - It is the 143th radical of a 1 J. It forms few chnracters relating to blood, under which K'ang-bsi (L. 27 K). Phonetic series 208. wrongly c lassified LESSON 158 About the primitive

The

Mu4. The h u m a n eye, socket w i t h the two eyelids a n d the p u p i l ; then the p u p i l was suppressed; lastly the character was placed straight in order to give room. It is the 109th radical of characters relating to the eye and vision.

Firstly the

See L; See See L. 118 D; L. 37 F ; L. 26 L; etc. L. 16 L; L. 27 K; L. 54 1, and L. 176.

L. 48 C;

L. 7 A;

L. 34 J;

and

L. 10 K .

L. 10 O ;

L. 97 F;

L. 34 J, etc.

Etymological Lessons. 158

323

First series.

straight.
Hsiang 1 . To examine, to inspect; primitive meaning may have been, to watch from behind a tree , or to open the eye in the woods , in order not to be surprised by a foe or a wild The abstract m e a ni n g beast; of reciprocity, that gives to this character such an extended use, is said to come from a kind of pun, and being both pronounced the two elements mu4. Phonetic series 445. It forms Shuang 1 . Hoar-frost; Phonetic series 834. , The

Chien4. To look. An

eye above, a

man;

It is the 147th radical of characters relating to sight. Phonetic series 259. Note the compounds: Mi4 To look for something which is not It is often contracted into Te3. To apprehend, to take seen . Compare L. 45 E. seen

something which is

Hsing 3 To examine carefully, to try to understand; Two explanations of this compound are is said to be given. I. In the first ancient form, eye may see the eyebrows frowning so that the distinctly, in which case, would be hut a variant ot ( L. 7 A) 2. The second ancient form gives, to narrow the palpebral slit, to see better. Compare , L. 18 M. By extension Sheng3, a by a governor. Province, the territory supervised Tun4. A shield, to shield. To cover one's self totally, the eye observing the assailant through a cross-shaped flssure; Phonetic series 489.

324 Second series.

Etymological Lessons. 158. bent.


Mu4. The eyes divergent (L. 103 G) that look in different directions; squint, confused view ; IN the following derivatives, bent in order to give room. In the whole series, the modern scribes write instead of Mieh4. The guardians of the frontiers (L. 71 N) looking in all directions, so that their eyes become heavy from fatigue (L. 90 D). Phonetic series 808. Meng4. Dimness of the view. On the top at the to r u b one's eyes. It bottom, forms th e compound Meng4. The radical was substituted to the of the last. Dream, to dream; the confused visions seen during and dim night.

is

Compare

Third series.

doubled, the two eyes.


Chu4. To open large a n d timid eyes, to regard with reverent awe, apprehensive, fearful. Fear, circumspection. In the second form, more recent, the heart was added to express the interior feelings. This character is now commonly written Ch'u2. Vigilance of the birds, that must always watch for their life's preservation ; fear. Phonetic series 838. It forms Kuo4. The v a i n endeavours of hand by a bird to escape the which it wasseized; by extension,

to snap up, to catch;

Ph

netic series 851.

Etymological Lessons. 159. LESSON 159. About the two primitives and

325

First series

tzu .
Tzu4. It is t h o u g h t to resemble the nose; Extended meanings: 1. Self, I, my own, personally; behaviour, to act, action; the nose being the projecting part, and in some way the, characteristic of the individual.. 2. Starting point, the origin, beginning, evolution; the nose being, according to the Chinese embryology, the starting point of the bodily evolution. The, successive alterations of this character are the cause why it may be confounded with the primitives L. 88, and LL. 143 and 73. It is the 132th radical. See L.40 C; L. 134 A; L. 119H; See L. 83 C; L. 2 7 I ; L.112 A; etc. Add the following: L. 34 K. L.60 L;

Hsi1. To breathe. According to the Chinese theory, the ch'i4. of the heart is breathed out, while 4 the ch'i f r o m outside goes to the heart, through the nose; series 534. Hsi 2 . The first ( contracted ) attempts to fly , made by a young bird; extension, to repeat the same act, to practice. Phonetic series 610:

Phonetic

By

Second series.

che3.
Che3. This character, an important grammatical partide, was invented to represent a connexion and a succession between the members of a text. It represents clearly enough what it means. On the top, two crossed branches represent the members that came first; represents the point where one stands, the starling point for what follows; on the right, a descending line, the continuation of the. discourse; By extension, phrase, speech, document. Compare L. 138 D. Phonetic series 422. It forms

326

Etymological Lessons. 159. 160. Chu 1 . It is used, like the primitive, to separate the phrases, and to express their mutual relations; Chia-chieh, all, whole, far Shu3. To gather ( L. 39 C, a n e t) documents ; to govern; a p u b l i c office. Phonetic series 789. Ch'e1. To brag. A m a n who spreads sentences. By extension, prodigality, excess of all kind. This is a modern character. A radical redundancy, over . Two sounds and two meanings Chu4, to expose, to manifest, to clear up. Chao2, a particle used to indicate the moods an d relations. It Is often contracted into Shu1. To write, a writing, a book. A writing-brush t h a t writes sentences. The scribes altered in a strange way. LESSON 160.

About the primitive

, with its developments Shou3. The head; the nose, ancient form, L. 159. It forms Ka4. A very long spear to a i m at the massed enemies (L. 71 ). heads of Compare with

Shou3. The head. It is the p r i m i t i v e with the hair (L. 12). It forms the 185th radical Inverted, it becomes Hsiao1. The head of a criminal, hung up. The hair is hanging down. The upper part is altered. See L. 12 N, and L. 92 B.

Tao3. To go ahead . A road, principle, doctrine. To lead, to go. The progress of a speech, to speak. Compare L, 169 B lu4 and chien4.

Etymological Lessons. 160.


4

327

Mien . The face. A primitive indicating the front of the head, the face; The second modern form is an unauthorised abbreviation. It forms the 176th radical. Phonetic series 466. Yeh4. A man, head u p o n a body (L 29). The meaning is often restricted to the head; It is the 181 th radical. Different compounds were explained elsewhere, e.g. L. 126 A; L. 62 B; L. 82 A; etc. Note also Tien1. The top of the head; (L. 10 L) Taoist the fontanel, that the soul of the contemplative goes out of the body, to rove about. Phonetic series 848. Yu1. To suffer from the head and from the heart; sadness, melancholy. It is phonetic in Yu1. To go with troubles; sadness, melancholy. See how the scribes altered the bottom of Phonetic series 816. Shun4. To swim in a stream, the head forwards; to follow the. current; docile, compliant, agreeable; Lei4. A species, a sort, a k i n d ; heads of vegetals and animals, capita specierum. Hsia 4 . A man who walks , his hands hanging down. It is the thing done by the countrymen in s u m m e r time when, the works being over, the plants grow by themselves; hence the extended m e a n i n g , summer. The modern character is a contraction. This character was the first appellative of the Chinese nation. On the; ancient bronzes, it is written (L. 112 B) station, (L. 14 A) gathering of (L. 40 D) huts. Sedentary state after the erratic period. Kua3. Separation of the persons living in the same house, of married persons; a widow, a person, left alone, solitary; the regal We, Ourself. By extension, partaking of goods, diminution, little. It is through

328

Etymological Lessons. 161. LESSON 161

About the primitive Pei4. A cowrie, a small shell used for money in China in early feudal times. They were current together with the coppers invented later on, till under Cb'in Dynasty (3d Century B C.); then the cowries the were left out;

The character represents the shell, and its propulsive apparatus. It is the 154th radical of characters relating to values and trade. Phonetic series 298.Many compounds (of this primitive, were explained elsewhere. Let us recall E; L. 153 A; L120 H; L. 1 1 1 B; L. 130 D; L. 14 M; etc. Note one's the following: Pai4. Ruin; to ruin; to break, to crush own fortune, or another's; L. 52

Yuan 2 . A cowrie in general. Compare 586.

round

Round

L. 65 E. Phonetic scries

Chia3 Ku3. To buy. To cover object with its value in cowries,

(L 41 C) an

Mai3. To buy. To wrap up with its value in series 697. cowries.

(L. 39 C) an object Phonetic

Fu4. The self-sufficiency of a wealthy See L. 28 C.

man

Ying1. Cowries strung. A primitive form of the following: Ying 1 . A necklace made with of women in ancient limes; cowries, ornament By extension, an infant, a babe, a suckling, still hanging to its mother's neck. Phonetic series 836.

Etymological Lessons. 162 163 164. LESSON 162. About the primitive

329

Kua 1 . It represents cucurbilaceous plants as cucumber, melon, etc; represent the tendrils of melons; in the middle, a fruit hanging; It is the 97th radical of characters relating to the parts and sorts of gourds, etc. Phonetic series. Wa1. Hollow, to dig. From phonetic. (L 37); Is

The exterior strokes

LESSON 163.

About the primitve Li4. A primitive, representing two pendants; hence the general notion of assortment, decoration, elegant, graceful, ornamented, etc. It forms only the following compound: Li 4 Antelopes, that live in droves (idea of assortment); It is now used chia-chieh, instead of the primitive, to mean, elegant, graceful, bright. Phonetic series 844.
LESSON 164.

About the two primitives

and Erh2. Two explanations of this character are given: 1. It represents the radicles of a plant spreading L. 15 A; L. 79 B. in the ground. Compare The ground is represented by ; ( ) is the part growing out of the ground; is the p a r t of the plant under the ground; 2. It represents the beard h a n g i n g from the c h i n , u n d e r the mouth (compare L. 41 B); The second interpretation seems to be the

First series

erh .

330

Etymological Lessons. 164.

true one. The first came from the fact that the old shape of is like the bottom part of (below B). As to the use of as a particle of transition, it is derived from the notion of hanging from the chin. Compare L. 72 A. It is the 126th radical. Phonetic series 193. It forms Juan3. The beard of a man ; hair long, slender, not stiff. By extension, soft, weak. Phonetic series 456. Shua3. A modern character. To play, as the Chinese beards, others dressed actors do, some with false like women. Nai4 To take patience, to restrain one's self, by playing with one's beard. This character is relatively modern.

Second series.

chuan1. Chuan1. It represents a p l a n t that develops itself above and under the. ground; By extension, stalks a n d roots. Sec above A. Phonetic series 434. The compounds of this series ended in uai, come from the following contracted: Ch'uai3 To measure with the span how high a plant grew up . To feel, to estimate. Wei1. A man striking a plant (contracted into ), to take away the fibres; to strip, to peel; fibres, thin, slender, imperceptible; It forms Wei1. To walk slowly , stealthily, to composition, it is used in the sense of . It forms Cheng1. To explain with (L. 81 D) the assurance threads of an affair. To testify, to give testimony. Phonetic series 796.
Hui1 . Slender thread

Etymological lessons. 164 165


4

331

Tuan . The left part of this character is an abbrevistraightened and deforation of , the top alone med being kept; on the right, (L. 22 D). To strike in order to reduce into fibres, as above C; Phonetic series 485. Hsu1. The rain necessary that the small plants strike root. Here the top of was suppressed, the bottom remaining. By extension, necessary, indispensable. Phonetic series 779.

LESSON 165

About the primitives

and
4

First series

tou .
Tou4 It represents a dish in w hich meat was served In the ancient form, t h e up; upper did not exist, and a dot indicated the contents of t h e vessel. It is the 151th radical of characters relating to vessels. Phonetic series 307. See the L 97 B; L. 135 E, etc. B u t compounds, L. 112 H, have another origin. It forms L. 38 G, and T'ou2. The head. From L. 160 C; is phonetic. standing solidly

Shu4 Vertical, straight. A vase (L 82 E) upright.

Tuan3. Short The character was made by comparison, says the Glose. To mean long, the hair (L. 11 3) was chosen as an emblem; to mean short, the two smallest utensils of the ancients were chosen, an arrow, and the vase tou4,

Second series.

chou1.
Chou1. A partial primitive. The bottom is not , the vase above A; hut it depicts the, ancient d r u m , with its skin, and the right hand straightened that strikes. By extension, music, feast, joy. It forms

332

Etymological Lessons. 165. 166. P'eng2. The so und of the d r u m ; the strokes, or the isolated sounds ; represents

Phonetic series 799. Hsi3. Joy; singing and music. There is no feast without these; see L. 88 C. Phonetic series 680. Chia1. Good, excellent, delicious; music; is phonetic (L. 53 D). a baud of

Ku3. A drum beaten by a hand holding a drumstick (L 43 D); a radical redundancy. The modern scribes often write instead of ; It is the 207th radical. Chu1. A composition analogous to t hat of (L. 45 B) beating a drum, hand phonetic in the two following: Shu4. A tree Ch'u2. Cookery; Phonetic series 800. Ch'i3. It has nothing in common with L. 164 C. Compare L 165 B. It is a n o t h e r drum t hat made the pair, a n d which was beaten w ith the left hand. This meaning is now obsolete. The character is used as an interrogative particle. Phonetic series 514. tai1, stupefied, the effect of the music Note dogs. upon ;a It is

LESSON 166.
Chih4 A primitive. It represents a feline, a head with wiskers, paws, backbone. Feline beasts, that are characterised by their back long and supple, by their undulating gait, e g. the cat, says the Glose. Compare L. 69; L. 137; L. 136. It the characters is the 153th radical of characters relating to feline beasts.

Etymological Lessons. 167. LESSON 167. About the primitive

333

Ch'e1. Chu1. The ancient carriage The character is straight, to give room; the axle; wheels; the body of the carriage; It means in composition, to roll along, to revolve, to crush, etc. It is the I59th radical of a large group of characters relating to vehicles. See L. 128 A; L. 59 I; L. 60 M; L. 92 D. Note the following: Lien2. Carriages in file connexion, succession; Phonetic series 630. Ghun1. A with chariots; an army. See L. 54 A. Abstract notion of

the two

legion

of 4000 soldiers, By extension,

Phonetic series 438.

K u i 4 . The extremity of the axle, that projects outwards in a l l Chinese chariots. This extremity was formerly provided with a stopper to hold the wheel, now replaced by a peg; forms Chi1. To jostle and strike with the end of the axles, as the Chinese cars often do; Phonetic series 723. Note: In the modern writing, wrong writing passed current. Ya4. To crush, to grind; (L. 9 A). the action of a wheel became ; this

It

Hung1. R u m b l i n g , roaring, as the noise of m a n y chariots.

334

Etymological Lessons. 168 LESSON 168

About the primitive Chni 1 . It represents a b i r d w i t h a short tail (compare L. 138 ); radical. Phonetic series 344. See L. 126 A; L 60 E; L. 39 D; L. 62 G; L. 12 G; L 87 C; L 15 C; L 34 F ; L. 18 N; L 103 C; L. 72 .J; L. 158 G; L. 119 G; etc. Note the f o l l o w i n g : Shun3. A falcon perch. held captive on the fist or on a It is the 172lh

Shun 3 . A large river in Central China, mu ch birds of passage. It is phonetic in frequented by Hui 4 . Formerly, a piece of f u r n i t u r e ( L. 51 A). Now, chia-chieh for , t u r n i n g , confluence, a check, etc. It forms k'uai3, to carry on the arm. Chun 3 . Fixed, certain, to agree. This character is unconnected with . Possibly an ancient target ; is a contraction.

Wei2. To answer yes, to express one's assent; is phonetic; It is phonetic in Sui1. Formerly the name of an insect. Now a conjunction, Though. Wei2. To consider, to think on, care, sorrow; It is phonetic in Li2. At first it meant a net , a snare. It is now used to mean, care, sorrow, misfortune; while used chia-chieh as an adverb, or a conjunction.

is

Ts'ui1. Very high, Phonetic series 655.

Etymological Lessons. 168. 169.


Chin . A band holding one bird, not the pair. Hence the meaning, single, by itself; L. 103 C. Shuang1 Two birds a pair, doubled; in the h a n d ; a couple,
4

335
Compare

Ho3. The rain surprising birds, and forcing The modern character them to seek shelter; is a contraction. Phonetic series 819. Ch'ou 2 . Words exchanged belween two parlies, altercation and its consequence, hatred, enmity. The following character was formerly com posed in the same way. Shou4. To sell. Formerly the mouth, and two the buyer and the seller. All kn o w the i mpor t an ce of th e mouth in the Chinese markets. The m o d e r n character is a contraction. Y e n 4 . The w i l d goose; the birds d w e l l i n g on crags, and which f l y in the, form of (a sharp angle): N o t to be confounded w i t h Ying 1 . The falcon, now It is e xp lained thus: the tame bird that serves to men; In the ancient character, there was (L. 127 C), quick, sudden. It is the general name of birds of prey, eagles, cormorans, etc. Phonetic series 767. It forms Ying 1 . Ying4. To answer, to correspond, to do what one feels is right a n d ought to be, etc. phonetic;

is

LESSON 169.

About the derivatives of

(L. 44 D). Nieh 4 . A hand writing See L. 44 D. It forms upon a surface.

336

Etymological Lessons. 169. Yu4. To trace lines , to write. See L. 44 D. It is the 129th radical. It forms Pel 3 . A writing-brush, whose, handle is made of bamboo. I4 To exert one's self, to practise, as it must be done (an old to learn how to write and how to shoot form, L. 131 A ) . Ssu4 To expound long , to display, indiscreet. See L. 113 B. Chao4. To place one's self near the order to write. It is obsolete. It forms Chao4. To push the window (the shutter) at dawning, in order to write. By extension, to begin, to undertake. Compare ch'i3, L. 129 A. Lu4. A written regulation for the march ( L 63 A); a statute, a fixed law, an ordinance, tone; window in

Chien 4 . The composition is like the preceding's. To write regulations for the going on; to establish, to found, to determine, etc. Phonetic series 430. Shu 1 . To write sentences ; a text, a book. See L. 159 A. The modern character is a wrongly-formed contraction.

march (L 63D), for

writing-brush a Hua 4 . To trace with the subject; to paint, to draw See L. 149 A. The scribes frame to , from which they added a first suppressed one side, then two other sides; there remains a at the bottom of the modern character. of time, during which it is Chou4. The limits clear enough to write; the day, the space between two nights; Compare the composition of the preceding.

Etymological Lessons. 169. 170.


1

337

Chin . A writing-brush that traces lines. This character soon became obsolete, because it made It forms, contracted into a double use with the following phonetic compounds.

Chin1. A ford,
Chin4. Ashes that remain from a fire. Hence.

Chin4. Ashes that remain in a brazier, when the contracted became ; fire is out; By extension, ended, finished (the ashes being the final result of the combustion ), an action that went to its term, consummation, exhaustion. Phonetic series 774.

LESSON 17O.
About the two primitives and Fei4. A special primitive with two sides, opposite each other. Abstract notion of opposition, contradiction, negation, wrong; no, not so; Compare L . 2 7 G; a nd L. 127 D. It is the 175th radical. Phonetic series 353. Note the compound K'ao4. Primitively it meant to rebuke the wrongs of others; it now means, to lean against, to rely on. The meaning was changed, says the Glose; It does not say why. See L. 132 B.

Chiu3. It represents the famous garlic with its growing leaves; It is the 179th radical. It is found in Ch'ien1. Wild garlic, L. 27 15. Phonetic series 829. Hsieh4. Shallot, pounded, it makes a precious condiment. See L. 118 C. The modern form is a contraction; was suppressed. See the phonetic,

From

; when it is

338

Etymological Lessons.

171. 172. 173.

LESSON 171.
About the derivatives of Huang2. Yellow. The h u e of loess. Composed of (L. 149), and of an old form of (L. 24 J), that are mingled together; See L. 24 L It is the 201th radical. Phonetic series 688. It forms Kuang 3 . A large hall; is phonetic. By extension, great, vast, wide,. Phonetic series 802. Chin 3 . Yellow (contracted) earth clay potter's earth. The modern form is a contraction that passed current; Phonetic series 602. It forms Han4 Clay dried in the sun. Contracted into , it forms the; phonetic, series 609. Note the following sub-series: Nan2. The slate in which arc the birds, when the earth is dried and barren; famine, misery, difficulty of living. Phonetic series 847. ,

LESSON 172.
About the partial primitive Yin2. Behaviour, gait, ritual politeness; In a house, a man (a special primitive, stiff bearing, on the top, a cap) pays salutations with both hands. The modern character is a contraction. Phonetic series 661.

LESSON 173.
About the partial primitive Ch'ing4. On th e right side, the well-known compound, to strike. On the left, a primitive that represents a sonorous silex, hanging from a frame; See Textes Historiques, p. 82. Now Compare L. 83 B. Phonetic series 604.

Etymological Lessons. 174. 175 176.

339

LESSON 174. About the primitive Ch'i2. A whole, regular and perfect, harmony. The idea comes from the even height of ears in a cornfield; this character, an intention of representing the perspective. The. down stroke , says the Glose, represents the. fore-ground; the upper stroke represents the back-ground. The ears are ascending w h e n going towards the hack-ground. Three ears represent a multitude. It is Ihe 210th radical. Phonetic scries 771. Note the modern contraction. It forms Chai1, abstinence; from a n d . In this characare mingled ter, the two horizontal strokes of together with those of , The m e a n i n g is, to r u l e one's self, so that one may be fit to receive the warnings of heaven. LESSON 175. About the partial primitive Ch'ih3. The teeth. The ancient character was a mere primitive, representing the teeth appearing in an open m o u t h . In the more modern character, the phonetic was added to the mouth with its two ranges of teeth; 211th radical. LESSON 176.

There is, in

It is the

About the partial primitive Chiao2. A vase for sacrifices, f u l l of aromatic wine (L. 26 C), held by a hand. The upper part is a cover. In the middle, the vessel, whose right desCompare L. 46 cending stroke has made room for E. The modern form is an arbitrary contraction ; Phonetic series 837.

340

Etymological Lessons. 177.

LESSON 177.
About two modern primitives, invented u n d e r the Ka3. Convex. T'ang Dynasty. Wa1. Concave.

These characters do not require any explanation.

INDEX OF ALL THE USUAL GROUPS


analysed above
arranged according to the number of strokes. The figures given refer to the Lessons, and the letters to the paragraphs.

7B 1 1A 4A 6A 6B 6C 7A 8A 8B 9A 9B 10 A 11 D 12 A

2
2A 10 B

18 A 19 A

26 B 29 A 30

20 A D 2'2 A 12 D 23 A 13A 24 A 15 25 A A 38 B 33 A 34 A 34 H

342 38 H kung 85 E i 89 A ssu 39 A

Usual Groups. 2, 3 strokes.

58 I 59 A 86 A fu 74 C i 94 H

24 E 24 H 26 A 29 K 30 A

52 A 54 H 54 H 58 E 58 E 59 E 59 I 60 A G 61 A 61 C 62 A 63 A 63 B 63 D 64 A

72 A 74 A 77 A 78 A 79 B 80 A 81 A 82 A 84 A chi 85 A ssu 85 A i 87 A 90 A 90 A 94 H 96 A 98 A 102 A 103 D

39 B
43 B 46 B 3A 51 A 5A 52 A 5B 52 A 10 E 52 A 10 E 53 A 11 B 54 A 12 E 54 F 12 E 55 14 A H 55 B K 55 K 56 A 17 F chung 18 H

31 A 31 B 31 C 31 D 32 A 33 B 34 I 35 A chin 35 H lian g 36 A 44 A

67 A 45 B 68 A 45 H 68 A 47 B 70 B

21 A 24 C

Usual Groups. 3, 4 strokes. 34 3

107 B 112 F 125 A 134 A

22 D 24 H

39 A 39 G 42 A 42 A 43 C 43 D 43 E 43 G 43 O 53 P 44 B 44 C 45 I 47 B 48 Y 48 II 48 A

52 B

73 A 76 1 78 B 79 A 35 B fu 79 B shi h 79 G fei 79 C 79 G 79 H 81 D t'irig 82 C jen 79 D wang 83 A yu 83 C wang 83 D chu 85 E 87 A 93 A

54 E 55 B L 55 C 55 H 58 D 59 E 59 11 60 C 60 J 61 B 61 C 61 E 61 F 64 G yueh 65 A ju

24 N

4
3D
10 G
11 E

25 G 26 D 26 E
26 C

12 I
13 B

27 A
27 1

13 I) 14 K 15 C 18 B 18 C 18 F
18 M

28 H 29 E 29 H 30 D 32 F
33 B

34 E 34 J 34 K

67 K 19 B 19 D 49 A 68 A 49 A 94 E

344

Usual Groups. 4, 5 strokes.

95 A 95 B 97 A 97 C 98 A 98 B 98 B 99 A 99 E 100 A 101 A 107 A 109 A 112 A 112 E 112 K 112 L 114 A 115 A

115 D 116 A 117 A 118C 119 A 125 A 126 A 126 A 127 A 127 B 128 A 129 A 129 A 130 A 132 A 133 A 134 A 134 C 143 A 147 A

24 D

38 F 38 H 40 E 41 A 42 A 43 H 43 J 43 M 45 C 45 J 46 B 46 G 47 H 48 B 49 I 50 C 52 C 53 D 54 B

5
3D 10 F 10 G 10 G 14 I 14 I 15 B 16 A 17 F 18 D 18 E 18 G 18 O 18 O 19 C

24 F 24 0 25 B 25 I 26 F 27 G 27 II 27 H 28 E 28 H 29 D 29 J 30 C 32 B 32 C 34 B 35 C 37 A 38 C

Usual Groups. 5, 6 strokes. 34 5

55 A ch'ing 55 D 55 K 56 B 56 F 57 I! 58 B 58 D 58 F 58 I 59 D 59 F 50 G 60 F 60 H 60 K 62 C chenn 62 C shan 64 D

67 0 71 B 71 D 71 L 71 M 72 A 73 B 76 G 78 A 78 E 79 C. 79 F 79 I 81 A
82 D

87 D 88 A 90 A 91 A 94 B 95 C 102 I) 102 F 103 C 108 A 108 A 108 E 109 B 111 A 112 C 112 C 112 H 112 I

116 A 118 B 118 C 118 D 119 D 120 A 120 B 120 C 121 A 125 A 125 I) 127 C 129 A 129 D inao 129 E yu 129 E yu 131 A 133 A 134 A 143 B

145 A

149 A 151 A 152 A 153 A 154 A 156 A 156 A 157 A 158 A 158 A 162 A 169 A 177 177

83 A 79 D wang 83 D chu 85 B 85 E

6
2E
10 C

11 F

346 11 G 12 F 12 J 12 J 12 L 12 M 14 B 15 B
16 A 17 B

Usual Groups. 6 strokes. 26 I 26 K 26 K 26 L 26 M 27 K 28 D 29 F 30 C 30 E 30 E 31 B 31 E 31 F 33 B 22 C 34 I 22 C 34 I 24 C 34 J 24 I 36 E 24 J 37 E 25 D 49 E 64 E 77 B 47 V 64 B 77 B 47 K 63 C 76 H 47 J 62 E 76 A 46 I 61 D 72 B 38 D 38 D 38 F 39 C 40 A 40 C 40 D 41 B 41 C 41 D 43 N 43 Q 44 C 45 D 46 H 49 I 50 F 50 G 51 A 51 B 52 D 53 B 53 E 54 E 56 D 58 G 59 H 60 B 60 D 60 I 65 C 65 D 66 A 67 B 67 D 67 0 67 I 69 K 70 A 71 C 71 G 71 H 71 M 71 O 71 P

17 G 65 A 18 I

Usual Groups. 6, 7 strokes.

347

78 B 78 F 79 B 79 B 79 D

99 B 102 C 114 C 102 D 102 E 103 A

120 E 120 H 122 A 122 B 124 A 125 E

7
2C 11 F 11 G

18 M 20 E 23 B 25 F 60 H 26 L 26 M 27 D 27 E 27 F chia 27 I 28 J 148 29 C

81 B

12 C 12 F 12 H 13 B sha n 14 C
14 L

106 A 82 C 110 82 E A 85 C
111 A

130 C
133 B 135 A 138 C 138 C 139 E 143 E 146 A 147 B 148 B 157 D 159 A 164 A

85 E 112 A
85 V

114 C 86 B 114 C 87 B 115 A 88 B 115 B 90


115 B

29 D 14 Q 29 E 15 C 29 H 16 B 30 B 17 C 30 E 17 F 32 F 17 H ch iao 18 E 34 I

D 116 B 92 A 117 B 96 118 A D 118 C 96

348 35 F 35 I 35 M 38 F 39 A 39 H 40 D 41 A 41 D 41 G 42 B 44 C 44 L 45 G 45 J 45 K 47 D 47 E 47 F 49 C 49 1 50 A 52 F 53 C 55 K 55 K 58 C 60 G 60 N 61 A 64 F 65 E 67 F 67 H 67 L 67 P 69 A 71 Q 73 C

Usual Groups. 7 strokes. 74 C 75 A 75 D 75 F 75 G 75 K 79 B 79 D 79 D 79 G 81 A 81 F 8t H 82 G 84 A 85 C 85 E 87 E 89 A 90 92 B 94 B 94 F 95 A 97 A 97 H 99 C 100 B 100 B 102 A 102 H 104 A 106 A 108 D 109 D 112 A 112 B 112 D 112 E 112G
112 L 113 A

114 C 118B 118C 118 D 119 B 119 I 119 I 121 G 123 A 127 B 129 A 131 C 132 B 133 A 134 A 134 C 135 B 142 B

Usual Groups. 7, 8 strokes. 34 9 146 B 149 A 149 D 153 B 156 B 156 H 158 C 160 A 161 A 165 A 166 A 167 A 13 E 13 F 14 C 14 G 14 1 14 N 14 P 14 T 16 K 16 M 16 M 17 I 43 R 44 E 44 F 44 G 44 H 44 1 44 K 45 C 45 E 46 E 47 G 47 K 47 L 47 W 49 B 49 D 49 E 50 E 50 G 52 F

28 I

54 C 54 D 55 E 59 H 55 K 56 E 58 I 59 B 60 C 60 I 60 M 64 D 64 F 64 1 65 C 65 F 65 G 66 C 67 E

29 B 31 F 32 A 32 C
34 I

35 E 35 I 36 B 36 E 36 E 38 C 38 D 39 C 39 C
39 J 40 C

8
2D 10 C 10 K 11 C 12 K 13 C

17 J 18 C 18 G
20 C

21 D 24 F 27 B

41 B
42 C

43 D

350 69 G
70 C 71 J

Usual Groups. 8, 9 strokes. 82 A 82 E 82 F


82 H 103 C 106 B 109 C 112 A 112 I

124 B 125 A 125 B 125 B


126 A 126 B 126 D 1 27 II

143 C 14 3 C 143 D 143 F 146 E 146 F 150 A 156 C 157 B 163 A 168 A 170 A

71 K 71 R 73 A 73 A 74 C 75 C 75 DEH 76 B 78 E 78 G 79 B 79 F 79 H 79 K 79 K

83 B 86 A 86 A 86 C 88 A 91 K 94 B 94 E 99 F 100 B
101 A

113 A 114 B 115 B 115 D 117 A 117 C 119 F 1I9 L I20 C 120

128 A 128 A
128 A 128 B

129 A 129 C 131 E 133 A 133 A 133

101 C 102 B 102 D 102 G 103 A

9
1H

2F 7A 11 A

Usual Groups. 9 strokes. 35 1 13 E 13 E 13 I 14 F 14 F


16 C 17 G

26D 26 M 26 M 27 I 29 H 31 B 31 B 31 G
32 G 34 J

40 C 41 A 41 D 41 E 41 G 43 I 45 G 46 D 40 G 46 I 47 M
47 P

55 H 56 C 59 H 59 H 60 H 60 K 60 L 60 O 61 F 66 D 67 H 67 J 68 K 68 F 69 F 71 P 71 P
72 K

73 B 73 B 73 D 73 E 75 A 75 B 75 C 75 D 75 D 75 E 75 G 75 I 76 H 78 A 78 F 79 E 79 F 79 G 81 A 81A

17 H 18 M
19 B

19 D 20 F 21 B 23 D 23 E

34 J cho u 65 B chou 35 K 37 B

48 C 48 E 49 F

24 37 D B 37 F 24 F 38 D 24 M 38 G 24

50 G 50 N 52 E 54 E

352 83 C 85 D 90 A 90 C 90 D 94 B 94 D 95 C 95 C 97 D 101 B
102 A

Usual Groups. 9, 10 strokes. 112 C 112 G 112 H 112 H 112 I 117 B 117 B
118 A

130 B 131 G 133 B 143 D 146 C 149 B 156 D 157 C 158 B 158 D 158 E 158 F 159 B 160 A 160 A 160 B 160 C 161 E 164 A

164 B 164 D 165 B 167 C 169 B 169 B 169 D 170 B

16 D 16 D 76 E 16 F 16 L 17 D 18 C 18 E 18 K

119 F 120 H 190 I 120 K 121 C 122 C

10
10 L 11 1
12 G

18 L 21 B 24 K 25 M 25C 26 C 26 M 27 I 27 J 30 B 30 E

12 J 13 H 13 I 13 I 14 B 14 C

102 C 122
102 C

C 102 D 125 A 102 D 125 C 103 A 125 E 103 A 129 D

Usual Groups. 10 strokes. 35 3 31 C 31 E 31 E 34 F 47 N 47 O 47 T 47 V 49 G 34 I 50 H 34 I 50 I 34 J 52 G 37 G 53 E 38 G 54 G


40 C 71 P

62 D 65 D 66 B 68 G 68 I 69 B 69 C 69 G

62 B 86 B 86 B 87 C 90 F 90 G 91 B 92 B 92 C 92 F 97 E 98 A 100 C 102 B 102 D 102 I) 102 H 102 II 102 H 102 I

103 A 104 B 106 B 109 D 111 C 112 G 112 H 113 B 117 A 117 B 117 I) 118 A 119 H 121 I. 125 C 126 B 126 F 129 E
130 C

34
G

72 C 75 B 75 D 78 D 79 B 79 B 79 G 79 J 81 G 82 A

54 G 41 D 55 H 41 E 55 K 43 Q 58 I 44 I 59 C 45 G 59 H 45 I 59 I
45 J

60 F
46 C

60 L

131 B

354

Usual Groups. 10, 11 strokes.

131 D 133 C 134 A 135 G 135 H 137 A


138 B

162 B 164 C 165 E 167 D


168 G

24 M 24 Q 26 J 26 M 26 M 26 M

39 O 40 A 40 B 40 D 41 B 41 D 44 B 44 J 44 J
44 K

60 E 61 F 62 C 62 F 65 II 67 N 68 H 69 E 69 E 69 F

11
10 D 12 O 13 C 14 M 14 O

26 N
27 A 27 H 27 K 29 H 31 B

138 D
139 A 143 E 146 D 148 B

31 F 32 B 32 B 34 J 35 F 35 M 36 E 39 H

149 C 155 A 157 C 158 G 159 A 159 B 160

45 J
46 D

15 D
16 F

47 N 47 R 50

17 E 18 L 18 N

Usual Groups. 11, 12 strokes. 35 5 78 E 78 G 78 G 79 H 79 K 81 G 81 H 82 I 91 C 91 D 91 F 92 G 95 A 96 C 97 D 99 D 101 B 102 B 102 B 102 G 103 A 104 A 106A 106 D 110 B 112 E 117 B 117 B 117 D 119 E 120 C 120 H 120 H 120 K 123 B 124 C 125 B 126 A 127 B 128 A 129 A 129 A 131 C 131 F 132 B 130 A 136 B 138 A 138 C 142 A 142 B 146 H 149 F 153 B 159 A 167 B 168 F 169 C 171 B 171 B 172 A 173 A 36 C 36 E 36 F

12
10 H 10 I 10 O 13 C 13 F 14 O 15 C 17 E 23 F 23 G 26 D 26 M

38 G 38 G 39 L 40 D 40 D 41 B 41 E 41 G 42 C
43 J

45 F 46 D 47 C 47 U 49 H 55 G

356 60 F 60 L 62 B 62 H 64 C 64 H 65 G 65 G 69 I 71 D 71 I
72 E

Usual Groups. 12, 13 strokes. 75 G 75 I 78 G 79 H 79 H


81 C

97 D 99 D
100 A 100 B 101 B 102 D 102 D 102 G 102 I 103 C 107 A 110 B 110 C 111 B 112 H 112 H 115 C 117 D 118

120 H 120 H 120 H 120 K 121 I 121 L 123 D 126 A 126 D 126 D 126 E 126 F 126 F 128 A 129 A 129 C

146 F 153 A 159 B 161 D 104 B 165 B 165 B 165 D 168 K


169 C 171 A

82 A 82 B 82 D 82 H 83 C 87 C 90 B 90 D
91 G

13
12 G 14 D 14 E 16 G 16 L 22 B

72 M 73 D 73 E 75 B 75 C 75 C 75 E

129 D
130 B 138 C 143 G

92 D 93 B

Usual Groups. 13, 14 strokes.


68 C 69 D 69 F 71 P 71 Q 72 L 99 F 102 G 102 H 102 H 102 I 108 C 109 D 117 A 117 D 118 C 119 M 119 N 121 E 121 K 122 C 123 F 123 F 125 C 126 A 126 C 127 D 135 C 135 E 136 C 139 B 14 2 B 142 B 149 E 149 F

357
17 E 17 E 18 N 21 C 23 F 27 K 31 E 34 I

23 E 23 H 27 E 31 B 36 E 39 I 42 C

73 E 74 B
75 A 76 C

46 D 47 F 50 D 50 M 50 Q 52 E 54 G 54 H 54 I
59 H

35 L 36 C 40 C 40 D 47 0 49 G 62 G 65 G 68 E

76 D 76 E 78 F 81 A 81 H 81 H 92 E 95 C 97 B 99 D

159 B 161 C
164 C

165 C
167 D 168 K

60 L 60 O

14
3E 16 H

69 J 75 B 75 B

358 76 F 78 G 82 E 82 F 92 E 97 I 102 H 102 J


103 C

Usual Groups. 14, 15, 16 strokes.

13 1 D
134 B 135 F 144 B 144 B 156 H 158 F 159 B 160 A 161 F 164 E 165 B

23 H 23 I 26 M 27 J 34 D 34 K 34 K 36 E 37 F
40 A 47 B

88 C 90 E
90 E

165 D 169 D 171 A 175 A

91 I
92 R 103 A 121 M 123 D

16
16 J

17 E 39 I 50 B 50 J 50 K 72 H 72 M 79 H 86 B 92 B 92 E 97 F 102 H

128 B 129 E 136 A 136 A 138 C 142 A 149 D 149 F 153 A 158 F 160 C 164 C

111 C
112 A 112 L 112 L 117 D 118 D 118 D 120 G 126 B 126 F

47 S 47 X 47 Z

15
100 11 C 14 O

52 F 60 M 67 N 75 E 75 J

Usual Groups. 16-30 strokes. 112 G 120 I 121 D 121 L 135 D 140 A
141 A 142 B

359 79 H 92 D 103 A 160 C 160 C 163 B 171 B 105 B 149 F 176 A 10 O 72 H 92 D 94 C 143 G

71 Q 72 K 82 F 86 13 90 G 92 B 103 A
104 A

86B 97 B 102 H 103 B 108 B 110 D 119 G 146G 158 H 168 G 176 A

158 F 159 B 168 H 177 B

105 B 106 C 118 D 158 B 161 F

20
36 E 39 I 73 D

105 C 110 D 23 G 72 K
73 E 10

19
34 K 34 K

130 D 134 A 158 G

17
14 H 16 I 27 B 47 U 50 I 62 C

164 C

23 F 72 E

18
12 G 15 C 34 C 72 J

35 M

39 D
68 D 72 G

21 &
54 I 79 I 82 F

130 E 130 E 194 B 154 B

Appendix.

361

OLD GRAPHIES.
Whensoever the ancient Chinese noblemen had been favoured by their princes, or had experienced some kind of success or luck, they used to cast a bronze vase, in memoriam. Symbols and Characters relating the fact, were moulded on the interior side of the vase, which was placed in the ancestral temple of the family, and served henceforth as a ritual vessel, when oblations and libations were offered to the Manes. 0 the exterior side of the vase, the two eyes of the Ancestor, were figured, looking at his sons and grandsons with benevolence. We are indebted to these old bronze vases, for all the old Graphies we possess. Ancient Chinese epigraphy on stone, is non-existent. Many fac-similes of vases and inscriptions are to be found in the 4th French edition of this work, Caracteres Chinois, pages 361-452. In this English edition, the matter has been presented in a summary w a y.

Now take good notice of one thing, which uses to baffle novices in Chinese epigraphy. In all modern books, the engravers have replaced the old obsolete symbols which are not characters, by conuentional current characters chosen because of their form, without reference to their meaning. To translate those signs, offering would cause laughable blunders. For instance, instead of the symbol father, because the old character of meat, they engrave the modern character father resembled the symbol offering. In the place of the poured libation, they put a . For the obsolete a distaff-load of textile fibres presented to the Manes, they put a . And so on. Remember this, when reading the modern transcriptions of the following old Graphies, which have all been photographed from rare Chinese epigraphic repertories, such as etc.

362

Old Graphies. First part. Symbols.

The most frequent of a l l Symbols, is a right h a n d offering , which is neither a flame, nor incense, b u t the smell of the offered meat, ascending towards the Ancestors. Almost every time, beneath this symbol of offering meal, there is a sort of tear, symbol of the poured down libation of wine. Instead of the falling wine, they sometimes figure the splash of the wine having fallen on naked soil. This figure is rare, because it was ritual custom to pour the libation on grass, spread out or tied into a bundle, w hi c h was b u rne d a f t e r the ceremony was over. There are many figures of this bundle of grass, sometimes graphically reduced to a , or , or anything else.

Old Graphies. First part. Symbols.

363

Ordinarily the son offering to his father (and ancestors) is represented in an ethereal shape, which figures his being raptured and transported mentally in the presence of his Ancestors, by his filial love and desire to please them. Sometimes arms and legs of the son are figured. The grandsons able to stand upright, are figured beneath the son (their father) holding up their hands in prayer. The grandsons too young to stand upright, crawl between the legs of their father, oftentimes resembling frogs. Sometimes the grandson is figured like the son, but holding a skein of yarn, symbol of the succession of generations.

A added to the figure of a son or grandson, does not mean two. It is a sign of plurality meaning All of them, as many as there are.

364

Old Graphies. First part. Symbols.

Sometimes the son does not offer the smell of the cooked meat, but the raw meat cut in slices, which are exposed on the shelves of a dresser. A libation of wine is poured, as usual.

Besides the smell of meat and the libation of wine, three things are presented at almost all solemn offerings. These are . a box containing jade, cowries and pottery. 1 an amphora of wine, presented by two hands, with a ladle, 2 a distaff-load of textile fibres, with 2 or A hauds spinning. 3 The idea is very clear The Ancients offered to their deceased Ancestors, all the things without which the living could not be; viz. valuables, money, vases, stuff for clothes, wine. Analyse the three figures above...

Old Graphies. First part. Symbols.

365

cowries, current money of old China, are offered strung up, often In The great quantities, as much as a man can carry with a pole. In some texts, the strings of cowries are figured in a compendious conventional form.

The offering of raw flesh is eventually figured by the l i v i n g a ni ma l , and the flint knife or the prehistoric axe indicative of the killing of it. When the animal is not figured, the mere knife in the hand of the son, denotes that he has killed an animal to be offered.

366

Old Graphies. First part Symbols.

Sometimes the offering of raw meat is figured by the skinned hide of the victim fastened on a stake, accompanied by libations, etc.

The presence of the Ancestor to whom the offering is made, is ordinarily figured the heel of his foot; see Lesson 112 A. In modern Chinese, to say in presenby before the heels of. Now we are able to interprete the ce of, is whole of the following two inscriptions... ( Left) In presence of my Ancestors, I offer raw meat, a libation, wine and tow... (Right) In presence of my Ancestors, 1 the son holding the flint knife, offer raw meat, libations, precious things, wine and tow.

Old Graphies. First part. Symbols.

367

Sometimes the offering is presented to a footprint, or to foot-prints of the deceased Ancestor. Now-a-days, as of old, the Chinese try to discern the foot-prints of the departed, on planks strewn over with sand or ashes. See above four figures showing the worship of foot-prints, In the first and second, there is one; in the third, there are two of them. In the fourth, the Ancestor has walked all around the offering, sniffing its smell. In the fifth, the legs of the Ancestor are visible. The frame which encloses three of these Graphies, will be explained on page 368.

In some very rare cases, the Ancestor is figured standing, and the offering is presented to him directly. See above.

368

Old Graphies. First part. Symbols.

Sometimes the presence of the Ancestor is figured by his two eyes looking with benevolence at the offerings. As has been said on page 361, the benevolent eyes of the Ancestor are figured on the outer side of all ancient sacrificial vessels, staring at the offerers. Sometimes the two eyes are replaced by one triangle, symbolising sight in abstracto.

The temple of the deceased Ancestor, or rather the sacred niche from whence his transcendent influence is supposed to emanate, is figured by a frame, square or rectangular, often with inward curved angles.

Old Graphies. First part. Symbols.

369

Ordinarily the temple, and the presence of the Ancestor in the temple, are figured, either by a balustrade separating the nave from the sanctuary; or by the inlet to the sanctuary, a narrow pass between two or four pillars. All the supplicants, sons and grandsons, are standing in front of this entrance, the spot where the offerings are presented. Hereby an excellent figure of the balustrade. In the sanctuary, the eyes of the Ancestor stare at the hide of the slahghtered victim, expanded on two slakes. In front of the entrance, raw meat and libation, as usual.

370

Old Graphies. First part. Symbols.

Some times, in a fit of rapture, the offering son is spiritually transported beyond the balustrade and the pillars, into the sanctuary, unto the very presence of the Ancestor. See above, on the left, the best figure Antiquity has bequeathed to us. It dates from the 2d dynasty (circa B.C. 1500), and shows a raptured son kneeling in presence of his standing father... In the two other figures, the raptured son carries cowries or meat (knife).

In some very rare but most precious figures, the deceased Ancestor is represented diving, head, foremost, from heavens above, towards the hand of his offering son.

Old Graphies. First part. Symbols.

371

Sometimes the Ancestor is figured by a ghostlike silhouette, with a single eye, often surmounted by a triangle. I call your attention to the second line of the text reproduced beneath on the right, in which you have firstly a foolprint of the Ancestor, secondly his ghostly shade.

372

Old Graphies. First part. Symbols.

Now we are able to understand all the Graphies on top of this page, and others on the following pages... Presentation of a new-born child, To the sight of his Ancestor. Presentation of a new-born b tbe. the fontanelle of whose skull is not yetclosed, in the temple, with a libation Presentation of twins, with offerings a n d libation. Presentation to the Ancestor, is his temple, of a pair of twins, brother and sister, with offerings. In the presence of the Ancestor, after libation, offering of jade wine and tow, by the son, a grandson having recently been born.

Old Graphies. First part. Symbols.

373

Offering of a banner. In the. second figure, the banner is offered, with a libation, to thank for the apparition of a foot-print of the Ancestor, in the temple.

Presentation of a new carriage... with offering of bleeding flesh on a stake, in the first figure., with the ordinary offerings, in the second figure.

Bunches of wheat are offered, to thank for the harvest.

374

Old Graphies. First part. Symbols.

To announce to the Ancestors, the fabrication or a how and arrows, launching of a bark, building of a dwelling-house.

Offering to the mountains... to the clouds. Invitation to the dragon to make the clouds burst and rain pour down.

Old Graphies. Second part. Texts.

375

This bronze plate, dating probably from the 20th century B.C., is the oldest specimen known of Chinese writing. It is not properly a text, b u t the enumeration of all kinds of animals killed in a great hunting. The document reveals... 1 t h a t the shape of the primitive characters differed greatly from t h a t of their derivatives... 2 that the principle of composition of characters, was always the same, from the beginning.

376

Old Graphies. Second part. Texts.

On the day i-ssu, in presence of the deceased grandfather, the widowed grand mother (chief of the family) has offered, with wine etc., this bronze tripod, to last ten thousand years. Hoping that innumerable sons and grandsons will enjoy it for ever.

In the eighth month, on the first auspicious day which was i-mao, the duke committed solemnly to the standard-bearers the new standards. This tripod was cast to commemorate the fact, and was presented before the tablet of the Ancestor of the clan, with the usual offerings... sons and grandsons worshipping in front of the sanctuary.

Old Graphies. Second part. Texts.

377

On the d a y keng-shen, the new emperor Wuting went to the eastern gale of the city, to salute the rising sun. On the evening of the same day, he ordered minister Hu to deliver five man-loads of cowries, to be presented with the ordinary offerings, as a token of gratitude for the prints of feet and h a n d s of the deceased emperor Hsiao-i, which had been noticed in the ancestral temple, five time, d u r i n g the 16 months of mourning. This vase was cast and placed in the sanctuary, to commemorate the fact. B.C. 1273.

378

Old Oraphies. Second part. Texts.

The emperor being about to wage war against the marquis of Hsu, the duke of Chou requested me Ch'in (the official conjurer) to anaematise the rebels. So I Ch'in made with my hand the comminatory gestures, and pronounced with my mouth the imprecatory words. Therefore the emperor gave me hundred ingots of copper ( o f six ounces each) as a reward. I Ch'in have employed the imperial gift, to make this vase, which I present to my Ancestors, with the ordinary offerings, in memoriam.

Old Graphies. Second part Texts.

379

In the 9th month, the moon being f u ll, on the day chia-hsu, the, emperor having worshipped at the ancestral temple, sat down in the h a l l in which the archives were kept. The Grand-Director Nan-chuang having introduced U-chuan of Lu, the emperor ordered first the attendant registrar to lake his tablets into his hands, and then dictated his wi ll, as follows: U-chuan, I invest thee with the charge of inspector of Hu-fang. Having thus been honoured and favoured by the Son of Heaven, I, their grandson U-chuan, have cast this u r n , to gladden my glorious Ancestors. I hope it w i l l be the jewel of my descendants, for ever. 9th century B.C.

380

Old Graphies. Second part. Texts.

During the .3th year of his reign (probably B C 768), in the 3th month, the moon beginning to wane, on the day hsin-yn, the emperor staying at the new Chu, the chief of the Literati. During the banquet, palace in the capital, feasted as he was in high spirits, the emperor proclaimed: I give master Chu ten strings of cowries. . Chu fell on his knees and thanked. Having thus been honoured and rewarded by the Son of Heaven. I Chu offer this anaphora with a basin, to the flrst Ancestor of ray race, and place them in the ancestral temple, to be the hereditary treasure of my descendants.

Old Graphies. Second part. Texts.

381

During the fifth month (B.C. 675), on the auspicious day ting-hai, the emperor being at the capital Chou, received the spoils sent by count Pien and others, after h a v in g defeated the rebels south of the river Huai. There was some fine copper among the spoils. The emperor ordered it to be melted and cast, into the form of th is tripod, to be a jewel of his sons a n d grandsons for ever.

382

Old Graphies. Second part. Texts.

The emperor having received the prime mandate, the great gift of Heaven (imperial rank and dignity), on ascending the throne (B.C. 571) offers this precious basin, to the Spirits of heaven and earth, hoping they will prevent internal wars... To last during ten thousands of generations, for ever [Take notice of the fifth character in the first line, the anthropomorphic figure of Heaven.]

Old Graphies. Second part. Texts.

383

In the year chia yu (B.C. 567), the eighth month, on the day ping-yin, after purification, the emperor went to the temple, performed the rites, and offered this basin to propitiate the perspicacions Spirits. May the Spirits (of heaven and earth), knowing the virtue of the emperor, give him peaceful days during ten thousand years, and conserve him his imperial mandate for ever.

384

Old Graphies. Second part. Texts.

1 Chui belonging to the imperial clan, remember often with veneration and compassion, my Ancestors who died in battle for the service of the emperor. The Son of Heaven having bestowed great liberalities on me, 1 have cast in bronze and offer now to them this vase tun, as a token of my filial piety. May they bestow on me long life and durable prosperity... Made by me Chui, after the decease of emperor Ling (B.C. 545), to be the jewel of my family. [Note thrice the anthropomorphic figure of Heaven. ]

Old Graphies. Second part. Texts.

385

This is a fragment of a long document contemporary with Confucius, which I quote to show the shape of the characters in which the Confucian Canonies were first written. After having witnessed those clumsy figures, I suppose you will be rather lenient with the blunders committed by their interprelers. [See 4th French edition, pages 442-449.]