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The International Journal of Engineering & Science is aimed at providing a platform for researchers, engineers, scientists, or educators to publish their original research results, to exchange new ideas, to disseminate information in innovative designs, engineering experiences and technological skills. It is also the Journal's objective to promote engineering and technology education. All papers submitted to the Journal will be blind peer-reviewed. Only original articles will be published.

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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: 2319 1805

Ponle E. A1, Olatunde O. B1,2* and Awotunde O. W1

1,

Department Of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Osun StatePolytechnic Iree. P.M.B 301, Nigeria 2, Department Of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

-----------------------------------------------------ABSTRACT----------------------------------------------------This paper presents comparative experimental data on Mechanical Properties of Reinforced Steel produced from scrap and imported Reinforced Steel compared to International standard NO-432. Steel being part of everyday life of an individual, it is incumbent to study its physical properties so as to enable production of reliable steel bars. The Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS), Yield Strength (YS), Breaking Strength (BS) and Hardness of steel bars manufactured from scraps and imported steel bars were investigated. Steel rods samples of 12mm and 16mm diameter were subjected to mechanical properties test using a universal testing machine. UTS, YS, BS and Hardness of the samples were obtained from the stress-strain curve plots obtained from the result data. It was observed that the locally produced steel from scrap were as good as the imported steel rods in terms of UTS, YS AND BS. Both the locally produced steel rod and imported steel rods conform with the standard in terms of yield stress but both have considerably low ultimate tensile stress compared to the standard values. The hardness values also point to the non-uniformity of the steel samples.

KEYWORDS: Reinforced Steel bar, Mechanical Properties, Comparative Study, Scrap and Imported Steel

bars --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Date of Submission: 06 February 2014 Date of Acceptance: 15 February 2014 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

I.

INTRODUCTION

Steel is an essential material for society and sustainable development; needed for people to satisfy their needs and aspirations. Steel is part of peoples everyday lives, in both the developed and developing countries. It is used in providing transportation such as automobiles and railroads, building shelters from small housing to large multi-family dwellings, construction industries, delivering energy such as electricity and natural gas, supplying water with pumps and pipelines. Steel is an iron-based material containing low amounts of carbon and alloying elements that can be made into thousands of compositions with exacting properties to meet a wide range of needs. Steel is truly a versatile material. About twenty-six different elements are used in various proportions and combinations in the manufacture of both carbon and low alloy structural steels. Some are used because they impart specific properties to the steel when they alloy with it (i.e. dissolve in the iron), or when they combine with carbon, wholly or in part, to form compounds known as carbides. Others are used because they are beneficial in ridding the steel of impurities or rendering the impurities harmless. Still another group is used to counteract harmful oxides or gases in the steel (MIT, 1999). However, all finished steel bars for reinforced work are ensured sound, free from cracks, neatly rolled to the dimension and weight as specified. Several studies have being carried out on improving the mechanical properties of steel, (Yeon et al.,2007) did a study on methods to classify defects namely; crack, dark spot and sharp mark, of steel Bar Coil (BIC) with cylindrical shape. Each of these defect was qualified serious, that can harm quality of product relatively. Hence, it is important to detect these defects on the process of production. In their own study (Hamad K.et al., 2011), investigated the hardness variation over the different diameters of the same AISI 4140 bar. Measurements were taken on the two faces of the stock at equally spaced eight sectors and fifteen layers. Statistical and graphical analyses are performed to access the distribution of hardness measurements over the specified area. Hardness value is found to have a slight decrease trend as the diameter is reduced. However, an opposite behaviour is noticed regarding the sequence of the sector indicating a non-uniform distribution over the same area either on the same face or considering the corresponding sector on the other face (cross section) of the same material bar. (Amir and Morteza, 2013), did a study and presented comparative experimental data on the mechanical

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performance of steel and synthetic fibre-reinforced concrete under compression, tensile split and flexure. URW1050 steel fibre and HPP45 synthetic fibre, both with the same concrete design mix, was used to make cube specimens for a compression test, cylinders for a tensile split test and beam specimens for a flexural test. The experimental data demonstrated steel fibre reinforced concrete to be stronger in flexure at early stages, whilst both fibre reinforced concrete types displayed comparatively the same performance in compression, tensile splitting and 28-day flexural strength. In terms of post-crack control HPP45 was found to be preferable. This work is a comparative study of the mechanical properties namely; yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, percentage elongation and hardness, of locally made steel bars from scraps and imported steel bars has compared to the values provided by the International Standard NO-432, (Table 1). Table 1: Various grades of mild steel bars in accordance with standard IS: NO -432.

S/No Types of nominal size of bars Ultimate stress minimum 410 410 370 370 540 540 510 tensile N/mm2 Yield stress N/mm2 Elongation minimum percent

1.

2.

3.

Mild Steel Grade 1 or Grade 60 For bars up to 20mm For bars above 20mm up to 50mm Mild Steel Grade II or Grade 40 For bar up to 20mm For bars above 20mm up to 50mm Medium tensile steel grade 75 For bars up 16mm For bars above 16mm up to 32mm For bars above 32mm up to 50mm

23 23 23 23 20 20 20

Source: International Standard Organization (ISC) No. 432 part 1 II. METHODOLOGY 2.1 Materials The samples used in this study were 12mm and 16mm diameter reinforced steel bars. These samples were obtained from two major sources namely: locally produced steel bars and imported steel bars. This is necessary for comparative investigation and analysis. Two specimens each of 1m length were collected on each of the diameter. The locally produced reinforced steel bars were obtained from three steel industries namely, Ife Iron and Steel (IFSM). Prism Steel rolling mill (PSM), Pheonix Steel Mill (PHSM). The imported steel samples (IM) were obtained from two different companies. A total of sixteen specimens (including imported steel) mechanical properties which includes yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, percentage elongation and hardness were investigated. 2.2 PHYSICAL REQUIREMENT All finished steel bars for reinforced work were neatly rolled to the dimension and weighted as specified and are free from defects. STEEL TESTING 2.3.1ULTIMATE TENSILE STRENGTH: This test helps in determining the maximum stress that a material can withstand while being stretched or pulled before necking, which is when the specimens cross-section starts to significantly contract. 2.3.2 YIELD STRENGTH: Yield strength is the lowest stress that produces a permanent deformation in a material. In some materials, like aluminum alloys, the point of yielding is hard to define. Thus it is usually given as the stress causing 0.2% plastic strain. This is called a 0.2% proof stress. 2.3.3 ELONGATION: The elongation is the increase in length of the gauge length, expressed as a percentage of the original length. In reporting elongation values, give both the percentage increase and the original gauge length.

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2.4 Tensile test results were analyzed using the following equations: Ultimate Tensile Strength, UTS 1 Yield Strength, YS

...2 Breaking Strength, BS 3 2.5 Detailed Procedure of Tensile Test The samples were turned into standard configuration using the lathe machine. Steel are cut into required length of the machine acceptability. An Instron universal Testing Machine at Engineering Materials Development Institute, Ondo Road, Akure was used in this regard. The resulting tension, load, stress and strain were measured, recorded, tabulated and plotted with the help of a control system and its associated software.

20mm

10mm

20mm

10mm

20mm

80mm

Fig 1: A Sample of the Tested Steel 2.6 Detailed Procedure of Hardness Test The correct hardness values are beneficial for material selection and design together with material development for higher performance. Moreover, the hardness values can be used for estimating other related mechanical properties of the materials. The bottom of form shaped specimen was grounded with grinding and polishing machines with application of water in order to view the structure very well in micro hardness testing machine. The specimen was screwed into the machine and viewed through a microscope lens and left for some minute before the reading was taken.

III.

Tables 2-17 shows the results of Tensile test and the stress-strain curve plots, from the stress-strain curves it was observed that all the steel samples have low region of proportionality, hence, the high ultimate tensile stress value with the exception of PSM 16, Figs. 11 and 13, having a high proportionality limit with the least UTS value of 13842 and 13913 respectively. IFSM 12 has the highest yield stress YS values, this is obvious from the pronounced yield point in Figs. 2 and 5. The hardness result on Table 19 has some variation to point to non-uniformity of constituent steel sample, (Hamad et al, 2011). The minimum standard hardness for reinforcing steel bars can be estimated as 13.48HRC (BS4449, 1997). The result shows that PSM 12mm with the highest carbon content of 0.416%C (Ponle et al, 2014) has hardness 290.0HRC while PSM 16mm with the least carbon content has a hardness value of 232.2HRC. The trend of hardness also shows that the higher the carbon content the higher the hardness. Carbon also has negative effect on properties such as reduction in area (as well as total elongation). The trend shows that %E (elongation) decreases as carbon content increases. PSM 12mm has carbon content 0.416%C, PSM 16mm 0.112%C, IFSM 12mm 0.32%C, IFSM 16mm 0.277%C, PHSM 12mm 0.334%C, PHSM 16mm 0.194%XC, IM 12mm 0.377%C, IM 16mm 0.244%C. (Ponle et al., 2014). Increasing the carbon content produces a material with higher strength and lower ductility. It was observed that the locally produced steel from scrap were as good as the imported steel rods in terms of UTS, YS AND BS. Both the locally produced steel rod and imported steel rods conform with the standard in terms of yield stress but both have considerably low ultimate tensile stress compared to the standard values. The hardness values also point to the non-uniformity of the steel samples.

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Table 2: The Resulting Tension, Load, Stress and Strain Result, IFSM 1 12MM

Length (mm) 1 36.71000 Tensile strain at Yield (Zero Slope) (mm/mm) 1 0.11577 True stress at Break (Standard) (MPa) 1 886.52855 Energy at Break (Standard) (J) 193.57452 Extension at Yield (Zero Slope) (mm) 1 4.24984 True stress at Maximum Load (MPa) 1 497.06748 Energy to X-Intercept at Modulus (Emodulus) (J) 0.12402 Final diameter (mm) 2.00000 Extension at Break (standard)(mm) 24.83359

700 600

Maximum load (N) 6040.30751 Tensile strain at Break (Standard) (mm/mm) 0.67648 Tensile extension at Yield (Zero slope) (mm) 4.24984 Load at Yield (Zero Slope) (N) 2505.52241 Tensile extension at Maximum Load (mm) 25.00218 True strain at Yield (Zero Slope) (mm/mm) 0.10954 X Intercept at Modulus (Emodulus) (mm/mm) 0.02542 Final Length (mm) 100.0000

Tensile strain at maximum load (mm/mm) 0.68107 Tensile stress at Yield (Zero Slope) (MPa) 122.65015 Tensile extension at Break (Standard) (mm) 24.83359 Load at Break (Standard) (N0 10802.50591 True strain at Break (Standard) (mm/mm) 0.51670 True stress at Yield (Zero Slope) (MPa) 136.84911 Y-Intercept at Modulus (Emodulus) (MPa) 163.144430 Diameter (mm) 5.10000

Tensile stress of maximum Load (MPa) 295.68469 Tensile Stress at Break (Standard) (MPa) 528.80347 Energy at Yield (Zero Slope) (J) 6.94453 Extension at Maximum Load (mm) 25.000218 True strain at Maximum Load (mm/mm) 0.51943 Modulus (E-modulus) (MPa) 6416.80374 Final area (cm^2)

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Table 3: The Resulting Tension, Load, Stress and Strain Result, IFSM 1 16MM

Length (mm) 1 36.71000 Tensile strain at Yield (Zero Slope) (mm/mm) 0.45855 True stress at Break (Standard) (MPa) 772.58442 Energy at Break (Standard) (J) 175.05795 Extension at Yield (Zero Slope) (mm) 8.99984 True stress at Maximum Load (MPa) 495.0210 Energy to X-Intercept at Modulus (E-modulus) (J) 1 0.11135 Final diameter (mm) 2.00000 Extension at Break (standard)(mm) 28.75031 Maximum load (N) 5509.74123 Tensile strain at Break (Standard) (mm/mm) 0.57206 Tensile extension at Yield (Zero slope) (mm) 16.83343 Load at Yield (Zero Slope) (N) 12144.74961 Tensile extension at Maximum Load (mm) 28.87453 True strain at Yield (Zero Slope) (mm/mm) 0.21926 X Intercept at Modulus (E-modulus) (mm/mm) 0.03062 Final Length (mm) 100.0000 Tensile strain at maximum load (mm/mm) 0.57474 Tensile stress at Yield (Zero Slope) (MPa) 594.50885 Tensile extension at Break (Standard) (mm) 21.00031 Load at Break (Standard) (N0 10039.38615 True strain at Break (Standard) (mm/mm) 0.57839 True stress at Yield (Zero Slope) (MPa) 397.27176 Y-Intercept at Modulus (Emodulus) (MPa) -178.20988 Diameter (mm) 5.10000 Tensile stress of maximum Load (MPa) 269.71243 Tensile Stress at Break (Standard) (MPa) 491.44727 Energy at Yield (Zero Slope) (J) 127.21014 Extension at Maximum Load (mm) 21.09875 True strain at Maximum Load (mm/mm) 0.58029 Modulus (E-modulus) (MPa) 5820.45364 Final area (cm^2)

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200 100 0 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 Tensile strain (mm/mm) 0.5 0.6

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Table 4: The Resulting Tension, Load, Stress and Strain Result, IFSM 2 12MM

Length (mm) 1 36.71000 Tensile strain at Yield (Zero Slope) (mm/mm) 0.64469 True stress at Break (Standard) (MPa) 886.87912 Energy at Break (Standard) (J) 217.56250 Extension at Yield (Zero Slope) (mm) 16.83343 True stress at Maximum Load (MPa) 424.72726 Energy to X-Intercept at Modulus (E-modulus) (J) 1 --Final diameter (mm) 2.00000 Extension at Break (standard)(mm) 21.00031 Maximum load (N) 5849.31336 Tensile strain at Break (Standard) (mm/mm) 0.78544 Tensile extension at Yield (Zero slope) (mm) 23.66672 Load at Yield (Zero Slope) (N) 12439.35078 Tensile extension at Maximum Load (mm) 21.09875 True strain at Yield (Zero Slope) (mm/mm) 0.37744 X Intercept at Modulus (E-modulus) (mm/mm) -0.00460 Final Length (mm) 100.0000 Tensile strain at maximum load (mm/mm) 0.78939 Tensile stress at Yield (Zero Slope) (MPa) 608.93018 Tensile extension at Break (Standard) (mm) 28.83343 Load at Break (Standard) (N0 10181.60954 True strain at Break (Standard) (mm/mm) 0.45239 True stress at Yield (Zero Slope) (MPa) 867.12194 Y-Intercept at Modulus (Emodulus) (MPa) 10.55044 Diameter (mm) 5.10000 Tensile stress of maximum Load (MPa) 286.33514 Tensile Stress at Break (Standard) (MPa) 498.40939 Energy at Yield (Zero Slope) (J) 156.40611 Extension at Maximum Load (mm) 28.97843 True strain at Maximum Load (mm/mm) 0.45409 Modulus (E-modulus) (MPa) 2292.56725 Final area (cm^2)

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Table 5: The Resulting Tension, Load, Stress and Strain Result, IFSM 2 16MM

Length (mm) 1 36.71000 Tensile strain at Yield (Zero Slope) (mm/mm) 0.50623 True stress at Break (Standard) (MPa) 807.94591 Energy at Break (Standard) (J) 182.31182 Extension at Yield (Zero Slope) (mm) 23.66672 True stress at Maximum Load (MPa) 512.36468 Energy to X-Intercept at Modulus (E-modulus) (J) 1 0.09499 Final diameter (mm) 2.00000 Extension at Break (standard)(mm) 28.83343

700 600

Maximum load (N) 6008.61050 Tensile strain at Break (Standard) (mm/mm) 0.61746 Tensile extension at Yield (Zero slope) (mm) 18.58359 Load at Yield (Zero Slope) (N) 12415.41803 Tensile extension at Maximum Load (mm) 28.97843 True strain at Yield (Zero Slope) (mm/mm) 0.49755 X Intercept at Modulus (E-modulus) (mm/mm) 0.02074 Final Length (mm) 100.0000

Tensile strain at maximum load (mm/mm) 0.61987 Tensile stress at Yield (Zero Slope) (MPa) 607.75861 Tensile extension at Break (Standard) (mm) 22.66687 Load at Break (Standard) (N0 10204.21460 True strain at Break (Standard) (mm/mm) 0.57966 True stress at Yield (Zero Slope) (MPa) 1001.50376 Y-Intercept at Modulus (Emodulus) (MPa) -38.02723 Diameter (mm) 5.10000

Tensile stress of maximum Load (MPa) 294.13306 Tensile Stress at Break (Standard) (MPa) 499.51596 Energy at Yield (Zero Slope) (J) 134.16316 Extension at Maximum Load (mm) 22.75531 True strain at Maximum Load (mm/mm) 0.58187 Modulus (E-modulus) (MPa) 1833.63876 Final area (cm^2)

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Tensile stress (Mpa)

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200 100 0 -100 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 Tensile strain (mm/mm)

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Table 6: The Resulting Tension, Load, Stress and Strain Result, PHSM 1 12MM

Length (mm) 1 36.71000 Tensile strain at Yield (Zero Slope) (mm/mm) 0.49033 True stress at Break (Standard) (MPa) 761.79614 Energy at Break (Standard) (J) 178.53721 Extension at Yield (Zero Slope) (mm) 18.58359 True stress at Maximum Load (MPa) 476.45636 Energy to X-Intercept at Modulus (E-modulus) (J) 1 0.11352 Final diameter (mm) 2.00000 Extension at Break (standard)(mm) 22.66687 Maximum load (N) 5669.26338 Tensile strain at Break (Standard) (mm/mm) 0.61746 Tensile extension at Yield (Zero slope) (mm) 18.00015 Load at Yield (Zero Slope) (N) 12109.92634 Tensile extension at Maximum Load (mm) 22.75531 True strain at Yield (Zero Slope) (mm/mm) 0.40961 X Intercept at Modulus (E-modulus) (mm/mm) 0.02856 Final Length (mm) 100.0000 Tensile strain at maximum load (mm/mm) 0.62130 Tensile stress at Yield (Zero Slope) (MPa) 592.80420 Tensile extension at Break (Standard) (mm) 22.66687 Load at Break (Standard) (N0 9621.35121 True strain at Break (Standard) (mm/mm) 0.48086 True stress at Yield (Zero Slope) (MPa) 915.42238 Y-Intercept at Modulus (Emodulus) (MPa) -197.74364 Diameter (mm) 5.10000 Tensile stress of maximum Load (MPa) 277.52136 Tensile Stress at Break (Standard) (MPa) 470.98367 Energy at Yield (Zero Slope) (J) 125.56505 Extension at Maximum Load (mm) 22.80781 True strain at Maximum Load (mm/mm) 0.48234 Modulus (E-modulus) (MPa) 6923.11401 Final area (cm^2)

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Table 7: The Resulting Tension, Load, Stress and Strain Result, PHSM 1 16MM

Length (mm) 1 36.71000 Tensile strain at Yield (Zero Slope) (mm/mm) 0.59021 True stress at Break (Standard) (MPa) 791.63922 Energy at Break (Standard) (J) 157.76609 Extension at Yield (Zero Slope) (mm) 18.00015 True stress at Maximum Load (MPa) 449.94451 Energy to X-Intercept at Modulus (E-modulus) (J) 1 0.11734 Final diameter (mm) 2.00000 Extension at Break (standard)(mm) 22.66687 Maximum load (N) 5783.65251 Tensile strain at Break (Standard) (mm/mm) 0.68102 Tensile extension at Yield (Zero slope) (mm) 21.66656 Load at Yield (Zero Slope) (N) 10913.02261 Tensile extension at Maximum Load (mm) 22.80781 True strain at Yield (Zero Slope) (mm/mm) 0.39900 X Intercept at Modulus (E-modulus) (mm/mm) 0.03173 Final Length (mm) 100.0000 Tensile strain at maximum load (mm/mm) 0.68539 Tensile stress at Yield (Zero Slope) (MPa) 534.21344 Tensile extension at Break (Standard) (mm) 25.00031 Load at Break (Standard) (N0 9620.20159 True strain at Break (Standard) (mm/mm) 0.48086 True stress at Yield (Zero Slope) (MPa) 883.47614 Y-Intercept at Modulus (Emodulus) (MPa) -214.32712 Diameter (mm) 5.10000 Tensile stress of maximum Load (MPa) 283.12091 Tensile Stress at Break (Standard) (MPa) 470.92740 Energy at Yield (Zero Slope) (J) 122.34304 Extension at Maximum Load (mm) 25.16078 True strain at Maximum Load (mm/mm) 0.48323 Modulus (E-modulus) (MPa) 6754.49371 Final area (cm^2)

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Table 8: The Resulting Tension, Load, Stress and Strain Result, PHSM 2 12MM

Length (mm) 1 36.71000 Tensile strain at Yield (Zero Slope) (mm/mm) 0.49487 True stress at Break (Standard) (MPa) 712.15744 Energy at Break (Standard) (J) 195.15682 Extension at Yield (Zero Slope) (mm) 21.66656 True stress at Maximum Load (MPa) 477.17003 Energy to X-Intercept at Modulus (E-modulus) (J) 1 0.03551 Final diameter (mm) 2.00000 Extension at Break (standard)(mm) 25.00031 Maximum load (N) 5049.82434 Tensile strain at Break (Standard) (mm/mm) 0.65150 Tensile extension at Yield (Zero slope) (mm) 18.16656 Load at Yield (Zero Slope) (N) 12330.48812 Tensile extension at Maximum Load (mm) 25.16078 True strain at Yield (Zero Slope) (mm/mm) 0.46387 X Intercept at Modulus (E-modulus) (mm/mm) 0.02269 Final Length (mm) 100.0000 Tensile strain at maximum load (mm/mm) 0.65534 Tensile stress at Yield (Zero Slope) (MPa) 603.60114 Tensile extension at Break (Standard) (mm) 23.91672 Load at Break (Standard) (N0 8808.99951 True strain at Break (Standard) (mm/mm) 0.51940 True stress at Yield (Zero Slope) (MPa) 849.51088 Y-Intercept at Modulus (Emodulus) (MPa) -18.70665 Diameter (mm) 5.10000 Tensile stress of maximum Load (MPa) 247.19862 Tensile Stress at Break (Standard) (MPa) 431.21747 Energy at Yield (Zero Slope) (J) 130.21247 Extension at Maximum Load (mm) 24.05765 True strain at Maximum Load (mm/mm) 0.52200 Modulus (E-modulus) (MPa) 824.47758 Final area (cm^2)

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R54-AC ... 1

200 100 0 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7

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Table 9: The Resulting Tension, Load, Stress and Strain Result, PHSM 2 16MM

Length (mm) 1 36.71000 Tensile strain at Yield (Zero Slope) (mm/mm) 0.74684 True stress at Break (Standard) (MPa) 807.41065 Energy at Break (Standard) (J) 225.32959 Extension at Yield (Zero Slope) (mm) 18.16656 True stress at Maximum Load (MPa) 409.19858 Energy to X-Intercept at Modulus (E-modulus) (J) 1 0.09429 Final diameter (mm) 2.00000 Extension at Break (standard)(mm) 23.91672 Maximum load (N) 5265.53467 Tensile strain at Break (Standard) (mm/mm) 0.89441 Tensile extension at Yield (Zero slope) (mm) 27.41656 Load at Yield (Zero Slope) (N) 11497.01774 Tensile extension at Maximum Load (mm) 24.05765 True strain at Yield (Zero Slope) (mm/mm) 0.40204 X Intercept at Modulus (E-modulus) (mm/mm) 0.02132 Final Length (mm) 100.0000 Tensile strain at maximum load (mm/mm) 0.89705 Tensile stress at Yield (Zero Slope) (MPa) 562.80115 Tensile extension at Break (Standard) (mm) 32.83374 Load at Break (Standard) (N0 8706.64865 True strain at Break (Standard) (mm/mm) 0.50169 True stress at Yield (Zero Slope) (MPa) 902.30326 Y-Intercept at Modulus (Emodulus) (MPa) -147.39958 Diameter (mm) 5.10000 Tensile stress of maximum Load (MPa) 257.75806 Tensile Stress at Break (Standard) (MPa) 426.20721 Energy at Yield (Zero Slope) (J) 167.03114 Extension at Maximum Load (mm) 32.93062 True strain at Maximum Load (mm/mm) 0.50401 Modulus (E-modulus) (MPa) 6915.02609 Final area (cm^2)

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Table 10: The Resulting Tension, Load, Stress and Strain Result, PSM 1 12MM

Length (mm) 1 36.71000 Tensile strain at Yield (Zero Slope) (mm/mm) 0.66286 True stress at Break (Standard) (MPa) 978.24936 Energy at Break (Standard) (J) 208.27452 Extension at Yield (Zero Slope) (mm) 27.41656 True stress at Maximum Load (MPa) 488.97932 Energy to X-Intercept at Modulus (E-modulus) (J) 1 0.10867 Final diameter (mm) 2.00000 Extension at Break (standard)(mm) 32.83374 Maximum load (N) 6496.87797 Tensile strain at Break (Standard) (mm/mm) 0.77636 Tensile extension at Yield (Zero slope) (mm) 24.33344 Load at Yield (Zero Slope) (N) 13399.55181 Tensile extension at Maximum Load (mm) 32.93062 True strain at Yield (Zero Slope) (mm/mm) 0.55781 X Intercept at Modulus (E-modulus) (mm/mm) 0.02494 Final Length (mm) 100.0000 Tensile strain at maximum load (mm/mm) 0.77932 Tensile stress at Yield (Zero Slope) (MPa) 655.93384 Tensile extension at Break (Standard) (mm) 28.50031 Load at Break (Standard) (N0 11249.88124 True strain at Break (Standard) (mm/mm) 0.63891 True stress at Yield (Zero Slope) (MPa) 983.1245 Y-Intercept at Modulus (Emodulus) (MPa) -45.84925 Diameter (mm) 5.10000 Tensile stress of maximum Load (MPa) 318.03467 Tensile Stress at Break (Standard) (MPa) 550.70337 Energy at Yield (Zero Slope) (J) 155.07971 Extension at Maximum Load (mm) 28.60890 True strain at Maximum Load (mm/mm) 0.64030 Modulus (E-modulus) (MPa) 1838.62057 Final area (cm^2)

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Table 11: The Resulting Tension, Load, Stress and Strain Result, PSM 1 16MM

Length (mm) 1 36.95000 Tensile strain at Yield (Zero Slope) (mm/mm) 0.84575 True stress at Break (Standard) (MPa) 718.06622 Energy at Break (Standard) (J) 241.91676 Extension at Yield (Zero Slope) (mm) 24.33343 True stress at Maximum Load (MPa) 565.88604 Energy to X-Intercept at Modulus (E-modulus) (J) 1 0.11613 Final diameter (mm) 2.00000 Extension at Break (standard)(mm) 28.50031 Maximum load (N) 4349.16727 Tensile strain at Break (Standard) (mm/mm) 0.99459 Tensile extension at Yield (Zero slope) (mm) 31.25031 Load at Yield (Zero Slope) (N) 9951.00513 Tensile extension at Maximum Load (mm) 28.60890 True strain at Yield (Zero Slope) (mm/mm) 0.50854 X Intercept at Modulus (E-modulus) (mm/mm) 0.02500 Final Length (mm) 100.0000 Tensile strain at maximum load (mm/mm) 0.99775 Tensile stress at Yield (Zero Slope) (MPa) 487.12085 Tensile extension at Break (Standard) (mm) 36.75015 Load at Break (Standard) (N0 7354.29078 True strain at Break (Standard) (mm/mm) 0.57457 True stress at Yield (Zero Slope) (MPa) 1090.72337 Y-Intercept at Modulus (Emodulus) (MPa) -20.30759 Diameter (mm) 5.10000 Tensile stress of maximum Load (MPa) 212.90012 Tensile Stress at Break (Standard) (MPa) 360.00668 Energy at Yield (Zero Slope) (J) 191.02350 Extension at Maximum Load (mm) 36.86703 True strain at Maximum Load (mm/mm) 0.57623 Modulus (E-modulus) (MPa) 812.40540 Final area (cm^2)

1

Tensile stress (Mpa)

R54-AC ... 1

200 100 0 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

Fig 11: STRESS-STRAIN CURVE FOR PSM 1 16MM

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Table 12: The Resulting Tension, Load, Stress and Strain Result, PSM 2 12MM

Length (mm) Maximum load (N) Tensile strain at maximum load (mm/mm) 0.88675 Tensile stress at Yield (Zero Slope) (MPa) 33.74331 Tensile extension at Break (Standard) (mm) 32.41703 Load at Break (Standard) (N0 11456.54842 True strain at Break (Standard) (mm/mm) 0.69044 True stress at Yield (Zero Slope) (MPa) 899.10125 Y-Intercept at Modulus (Emodulus) (MPa) 3.57849 Diameter (mm) 5.10000 Tensile stress of maximum Load (MPa) 312.57520 Tensile Stress at Break (Standard) (MPa) 560.82007 Energy at Yield (Zero Slope) (J) 0.15048 Extension at Maximum Load (mm) 32.55249 True strain at Maximum Load (mm/mm) 0.69202 Modulus (E-modulus) (MPa) 2999.98245 Final area (cm^2)

36.71000 Tensile strain at Yield (Zero Slope) (mm/mm) 0.30405 True stress at Break (Standard) (MPa)

6385.35023 Tensile strain at Break (Standard) (mm/mm) 0.88306 Tensile extension at Yield (Zero slope) (mm) 1.24984 Load at Yield (Zero Slope) (N) 689.31528 Tensile extension at Maximum Load (mm) 36.86703 True strain at Yield (Zero Slope) (mm/mm) 0.61288 X Intercept at Modulus (E-modulus) (mm/mm) -0.00119 Final Length (mm) 100.0000

1056.05626 Energy at Break (Standard) (J) 201.61466 Extension at Yield (Zero Slope) (mm) 31.25031 True stress at Maximum Load (MPa) 425.32214 Energy to X-Intercept at Modulus (E-modulus) (J)

1

700

600

200 100 0 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.4 Tensile strain (mm/mm) 0.3 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

Legend ... 1

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Table 13: The Resulting Tension, Load, Stress and Strain Result, PSM 2 16MM

Length (mm) 1 36.71000 Tensile strain at Yield (Zero Slope) (mm/mm) 0.67421 True stress at Break (Standard) (MPa) 1 689.10719 Energy at Break (Standard) (J) 184.46139 Extension at Yield (Zero Slope) (mm) 1.24984 True stress at Maximum Load (MPa) 589.75037 Energy to X-Intercept at Modulus (E-modulus) (J) 1 6.33387 Final diameter (mm) 2.00000 Extension at Break (standard)(mm) 32.41703 Maximum load (N) 4371.61140 Tensile strain at Break (Standard) (mm/mm) 0.80588 Tensile extension at Yield (Zero slope) (mm) 24.75031 Load at Yield (Zero Slope) (N) 9728.13591 Tensile extension at Maximum Load (mm) 32.55249 True strain at Yield (Zero Slope) (mm/mm) 0.03348 X Intercept at Modulus (E-modulus) (mm/mm) 0.30754 Final Length (mm) 100.0000 Tensile strain at maximum load (mm/mm) 0.81007 Tensile stress at Yield (Zero Slope) (MPa) 476.21097 Tensile extension at Break (Standard) (mm) 29.58375 Load at Break (Standard) (N0 7795.22806 True strain at Break (Standard) (mm/mm) 0.63290 True stress at Yield (Zero Slope) (MPa) 34.89215 Y-Intercept at Modulus (Emodulus) (MPa) -566.11841 Diameter (mm) 5.10000 Tensile stress of maximum Load (MPa) 213.99879 Tensile Stress at Break (Standard) (MPa) 381.59143 Energy at Yield (Zero Slope) (J) 139.97517 Extension at Maximum Load (mm) 29.73750 True strain at Maximum Load (mm/mm) 0.63485 Modulus (E-modulus) (MPa) 1840.77702 Final area (cm^2)

500

Tensile stress (Mpa)

400 300

R54-AC ... 1

200 100 0 -100 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 09 Tensile strain (mm/mm)

Fig 13: STRESS-STRAIN CURVE FOR PSM 2 16MM

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Table 14: The Resulting Tension, Load, Stress and Strain Result, IM 1 12MM

Length (mm) 1 36.71000 Tensile strain at Yield (Zero Slope) (mm/mm) 0.16798 True stress at Break (Standard) (MPa) 1 831.06262 Energy at Break (Standard) (J) 154.04035 Extension at Yield (Zero Slope) (mm) 24.75031 True stress at Maximum Load (MPa) 387.35179 Energy to X-Intercept at Modulus (E-modulus) (J) 1 0.13559 Final diameter (mm) 2.00000 Extension at Break (standard)(mm) 29.58375

800 700 600

Maximum load (N) 6183.83996 Tensile strain at Break (Standard) (mm/mm) 0.65152 Tensile extension at Yield (Zero slope) (mm) 6.16656 Load at Yield (Zero Slope) (N) 1058.83703 Tensile extension at Maximum Load (mm) 29.73750 True strain at Yield (Zero Slope) (mm/mm) 0.51534 X Intercept at Modulus (E-modulus) (mm/mm) 0.03620 Final Length (mm) 100.0000

Tensile strain at maximum load (mm/mm) 0.65400 Tensile stress at Yield (Zero Slope) (MPa) 51.83211 Tensile extension at Break (Standard) (mm) 23.91734 Load at Break (Standard) (N0 10279.68600 True strain at Break (Standard) (mm/mm) 0.59105 True stress at Yield (Zero Slope) (MPa) 797.2776 Y-Intercept at Modulus (Emodulus) (MPa) -144.32005 Diameter (mm) 5.10000

Tensile stress of maximum Load (MPa) 302.71088 Tensile Stress at Break (Standard) (MPa) 503.21042 Energy at Yield (Zero Slope) (J) 3.18832 Extension at Maximum Load (mm) 24.00828 True strain at Maximum Load (mm/mm) 0.59336 Modulus (E-modulus) (MPa) 3158.15983 Final area (cm^2)

500

400 300

Legend ... 1

200 100 0 -100 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 Tensile strain (mm/mm)

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Table 15: The Resulting Tension, Load, Stress and Strain Result, IM 1 16MM

Length (mm) 1 36.71000 Tensile strain at Yield (Zero Slope) (mm/mm) 0.30873 True stress at Break (Standard) (MPa) 671.40469 Energy at Break (Standard) (J) 134.55216 Extension at Yield (Zero Slope) (mm) 6.16656 True stress at Maximum Load (MPa) 500.68327 Energy to X-Intercept at Modulus (E-modulus) (J) 1 0.00056 Final diameter (mm) 2.00000 Extension at Break (standard)(mm) 23.91734 Maximum load (N) 5235.08303 Tensile strain at Break (Standard) (mm/mm) 0.44721 Tensile extension at Yield (Zero slope) (mm) 11.33344 Load at Yield (Zero Slope) (N) 13369.46487 Tensile extension at Maximum Load (mm) 24.00828 True strain at Yield (Zero Slope) (mm/mm) 0.15528 X Intercept at Modulus (E-modulus) (mm/mm) 0.00885 Final Length (mm) 100.0000 Tensile strain at maximum load (mm/mm) 0.45160 Tensile stress at Yield (Zero Slope) (MPa) 654.46106 Tensile extension at Break (Standard) (mm) 16.41718 Load at Break (Standard) (N0 9477.24655 True strain at Break (Standard) (mm/mm) 0.50170 True stress at Yield (Zero Slope) (MPa) 60.53889 Y-Intercept at Modulus (Emodulus) (MPa) -7.23596 Diameter (mm) 5.10000 Tensile stress of maximum Load (MPa) 256.26740 Tensile Stress at Break (Standard) (MPa) 463.92947 Energy at Yield (Zero Slope) (J) 73.31585 Extension at Maximum Load (mm) 16.57828 True strain at Maximum Load (mm/mm) 0.50320 Modulus (E-modulus) (MPa) 817.75169 Final area (cm^2)

R54-AC ... 1

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Table 16: The Resulting Tension, Load, Stress and Strain Result, IM 2 12MM

Length (mm) 1 36.71000 Tensile strain at Yield (Zero Slope) (mm/mm) 0.33822 True stress at Break (Standard) (MPa) 708.88989 Energy at Break (Standard) (J) 159.92241 Extension at Yield (Zero Slope) (mm) 11.33344 True stress at Maximum Load (MPa) 371.99804 Energy to X-Intercept at Modulus (E-modulus) (J) 1 0.52616 Final diameter (mm) 2.00000 Extension at Break (standard)(mm) 16.41718 Maximum load (N) 5700.51596 Tensile strain at Break (Standard) (mm/mm) 0.47672 Tensile extension at Yield (Zero slope) (mm) 12.41609 Load at Yield (Zero Slope) (N) 13936.48088 Tensile extension at Maximum Load (mm) 16.57828 True strain at Yield (Zero Slope) (mm/mm) 0.26906 X Intercept at Modulus (E-modulus) (mm/mm) 0.10427 Final Length (mm) 100.0000 Tensile strain at maximum load (mm/mm) 0.48029 Tensile stress at Yield (Zero Slope) (MPa) 682.21759 Tensile extension at Break (Standard) (mm) 17.50031 Load at Break (Standard) (N0 9806.44301 True strain at Break (Standard) (mm/mm) 0.36964 True stress at Yield (Zero Slope) (MPa) 856.51204 Y-Intercept at Modulus (Emodulus) (MPa) -729.50134 Diameter (mm) 5.10000 Tensile stress of maximum Load (MPa) 279.05124 Tensile Stress at Break (Standard) (MPa) 480.04425 Energy at Yield (Zero Slope) (J) 95.72039 Extension at Maximum Load (mm) 17.63156 True strain at Maximum Load (mm/mm) 0.37267 Modulus (E-modulus) (MPa) 6996.20514 Final area (cm^2)

7 00 6 00 5 00

Legend ... 1

4 00 3 00

2 00

1 00

0

0 .0

0 .1

0 .2

0 .3

0 .5

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Table 17: The Resulting Tension, Load, Stress and Strain Result, IM 2 16MM

Length (mm) 1 36.71000 Tensile strain at Yield (Zero Slope) (mm/mm) 0.24516 True stress at Break (Standard) (MPa) 1 837.85795 Energy at Break (Standard) (J) 236.99644 Extension at Yield (Zero Slope) (mm) 12.41609 True stress at Maximum Load (MPa) 413.07760 Energy to X-Intercept at Modulus (E-modulus) (J) 1 0.82165 Final diameter (mm) 2.00000 Extension at Break (standard)(mm) 17.50031 Maximum load (N) 5660.25563 Tensile strain at Break (Standard) (mm/mm) 0.78317 Tensile extension at Yield (Zero slope) (mm) 8.99984 Load at Yield (Zero Slope) (N) 6517.67328 Tensile extension at Maximum Load (mm) 17.63156 True strain at Yield (Zero Slope) (mm/mm) 0.29134 X Intercept at Modulus (E-modulus) (mm/mm) 0.05474 Final Length (mm) 100.0000 Tensile strain at maximum load (mm/mm) 0.78556 Tensile stress at Yield (Zero Slope) (MPa) 319.05264 Tensile extension at Break (Standard) (mm) 28.75031 Load at Break (Standard) (N0 9598.57926 True strain at Break (Standard) (mm/mm) 0.38982 True stress at Yield (Zero Slope) (MPa) 912.95783 Y-Intercept at Modulus (Emodulus) (MPa) -196.02203 Diameter (mm) 5.10000 Tensile stress of maximum Load (MPa) 277.08041 Tensile Stress at Break (Standard) (MPa) 469.86893 Energy at Yield (Zero Slope) (J) 28.70213 Extension at Maximum Load (mm) 28.27453 True strain at Maximum Load (mm/mm) 0.39224 Modulus (E-modulus) (MPa) 3580.72205 Final area (cm^2)

1

700 600

500

Tensile stress (Mpa)

400 300

200 100 0 -100 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 Tensile strain (mm/mm) 0.8

R54-AC ... 1

Fig 17: STRESS-STRAIN CURVE FOR IM 2 16MM Summary of test results are presented below;

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Table 18: Summary of Test Result for UTS, YS and BS 12mm/1st Reading (N/cm2) (N/cm2) UTS = 19224 Yield = 39743 Break/s = 34381 UTS = 18043 Yield = 38542 Break/s = 30622 UTS = 20678 Yield = 42647 Break/s = 35805 UTS = 19681 Yield = 33699 Break/s = 32717 UTS = 34000 Yield = 22500 Elongation= 20% 2nd Reading 18617 39591 31952 16072 39244 28036 20328 21939 36463 18143 44355 31211 34000 22500 20% 16mm/1st Reading (N/cm2) 2nd Reading 2 (N/cm ) 17536 19124 38653 39514 31952 32477 18408 16759 34733 36591 30618 27711 13842 13913 31671 30962 23406 24809 16662 18015 42551 20744 30163 30549 42000 42000 28000 28000 20% 20%

IFSM

PHSM

PSM

IM

STANDARD

Table 19: HARDNESS RESULTS Sample IFMS 16mm IFMS 12mm IM 16mm IM 16mm PHSM 16mm PHSM 12mm PSM 16mm PSM 12mm 1st Reading (HRC) 242.8 284.7 301.7 295.5 269.7 256.3 229.5 290.5 2nd Reading (HRC) 247.6 289.7 300.9 300.5 267.4 258.6 234.6 288.7 3rd Reading (HRC) 240.6 288.6 294.5 298.0 272.1 260.0 232.5 290.8 Average (HRC) 243.6 287.6 299.0 298.0 269.7 258.3 232.2 290.0

IV.

CONCLUSIONS

Based on the mechanical properties experimental data obtained for the locally made steel and the imported steel rods. The following conclusions can be drawn: [1] The Nigerian locally made steel rods from recycled scraps showed the same mechanical properties as those of the imported steel rods. [2] The locally made steel and the imported steel rods showed stress values and hardness which are in conformity with the international standards; however their ultimate tensile stress steel is below the international standards. [3] The variation in the hardness of the steel rods can be rationalized based on the non-uniformity in the microstructure of the steel rods [4] Generally, there is need for proper time to time assessment of manufactured steel rod mechanical properties before any product is used for construction purposes to avoid the problem that may arise due to inconsistency.

REFERENCES

[1] Amir M. Alani, Morteza Aboutalebi, (2013). Mechanical Properties of Fibre Reinforced Concrete - A Comparative Experimental Study. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology. International Journal of Civil Science and Engineering. Vol. 7. No. 9. Pp 197-202 Anthony Nkem Ede. (2010), Building Collapse in Nigeria, International Journal for Civil and Environmental Vol. 10 No. 0632. British Standard, BS 449. (1997): Reinforcement bar, Jentagu Venture, www. Jentaguventure.com Hamad K. Al-Khalid, Ayman M. Alaskari and Samy E. Oraby, (2011). Hardness Variations as Affected by Bar Diameter of AISI 4140 Steel. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology. Vol. 51. Pp. 03-29 MIT Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, (1999). Design of Steel Structures. Pp 1-2

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[6] [7] NIS 117 1992, (1992), Specification for steel bars for reinforcement of concrete. Nigerian Industrial Standards Organization of Nigeria (SON) Abuja, Nigeria. Ponle E. A, Olatunde O. B and Fatukasi S. O, (2014). Investigation on the Chemical Analysis of Reinforcing Steel Rods Produced From Recycled Scraps. Accepted by Journal of Chemical and Process Engineering Research, ISSN (Paper) 2224-7467. Unpublished. Sittichai K., Santirat N., and Sompong., P, (2012). A Study of Gas Metal Arc Welding Affecting Mechanical Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steel AISI 304. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology. Vol. 61, Pp. 01-23 Yeon Tak Kim, Jong Pil Yun, Boyeul Seo, Youngsu Park, and Sang Woo Kim. (2007), A Classification Algorithm for Steel Bar in Coil using Wavelet Transform. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology. Vol. 9, Pp. 09-23.

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