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w The lt-lew • l Larous se G as tronomique

Prefaces
by Auguste Eseofrer and Phtl6as Gllbert to the or{gtnal edltion of to

Larousse Gastronomique
Publishers' note note Publishers' Escffier died before the edition o/ Larousse Gastronomique Gastronomique was first edition of Larousse Escoffier died before the first published in great,king IgJg; the of cooks and the cook of of kings' kings, wrote wrote puhlished in 1938; the great 'king of cooks and the cook preface his phitias after readhg the draft of the manusuipt. his reading the first draft of the Philéa.s Gilbert laler later saw saw the the complete work work and and added added a a supplementary supplementary preface. preface. Gilbert

raw raw fish fish and and the the still still pulsating flesh flesh of of animals animais killed kiHed with with the the spear. spear. It is this history that is the subject of Larowse inwhich It is this that is the of Larousse Gastronomtqtrc, Ga.stronomique, in which Prosper Montagn6 has outlined .pages all thousandpages aH the the improvements improvements brought brought to to the the culinary art art from outlined in in some sorne thousand prehlstoric times to the present day. Presented in the form of a dictionary, it sums up all that has "", • .u.",~,","'''''' times to the Presented in the form of a dictionary, it aH that has been achieved by the science of alimentation, and everything in it has been minutely studied and and in it has been studied and been achieved described. described. Those Those who who make make a a profession pr()te~;Slcm of gastronomy will will find find in in this this book book matter matter for for comparison between what used to be the art of good eating and what it is today. Housewives will be particularly between what used to he the art of Housewives win be interested in the evolution of the table through the ages, its refinements modified in each epoch*to a înterested in the evolution of the table the ages, its refinements modified in each a certain extent by the exigencies of reigning fashions. hofessional cooks, both men and women, will the of """F.~J fashions. Professional both men and women, wî11 certain extent be HA~~!-,M~~ of of a a culinary technique founded founded on on the the universally llnIV"""C::~ be able able to to draw draw inspiration from the principles recognized knowledge and authority of the author. The text of the book and the recipes are enlivened are enlivened of the author. The text of the book and the by and legendary .'"'/5,""' .......... tales. by attractive attractive anecdotes anecdotes and tlVhile waiting to read them in print, I went through the While to read them in the innumerable innumerable manuscript pages pages of of this this encyclopedia and I am still under the spell cast by this work. How could it have been completed so this work. How could it have been so cm;ycloptoolla and 1 am still under the rapidly? For For the the author author had had only one one collaborator, albeit albeit an an eminent eminent one, one. who who was was entrusted entrusted with with all aH scientific scientific and and medical medical subjects, and and the the material material was was prepared in in less less than than three three yearsi. years. Iarotuse Gastronomique is a model of exactitude precision and in Larousse Gastronomique is a model of exactitude and in all an that that concerns concerns the the etymology of ofcertain certainwords, the thedefinition definition of ofculinary terms, terms, the theorigin of offoods foods in in everyday use useand and the the many many recipes for each grven dish. dish.
..UJIF.

changes in the order and serving of meals from century to century, to describe comment on the ...., .........b'~'" in the order and of meals from to to describe and comment progress of the French cuisine, is to paint a picture of the many stages through which progress of the French is to a of the which a a nation has evolved since the distant times when, as a weak tribe, men lived in dark caves, eating wild roots, has ev01ved since the distant times when, as a weak tribe, men lived caves, fOOts,

The history of of the the table of a a nation nation is is a a reflection of the the cÏvilization civilization of of that nation. nation. To To show show the The table of reflection of

Symbols ofplenty (phot. and wine, meat and eggs Sym bols of p!enl y bread and wme. meal and cggs (Phal. Nicotasl Nico/as) - -bread

and there are some very attractive Numerous descriptive photographs illustrate illustratecertain certain subjects, subjects, and there are sorne very attractive plates show finished dishes with their reproductions of antique engravings. Magnificent colour show tinished dishes with their col our appropriate garnishes. were well aware of this, had not Such work would would have have been been incomplete, and and the the authors authors were well aware of this, had not Such a a work vineyards. The greatest of these, considerable considerable space spacebeen beenreserved reserved for for the the riches riches of ofour ourfamous famous French French vineyards. The greatest of these, classified, are shown together ~V!,~"'~.""'l in in explicit tables. tables. some gastronomes of great renown of Finally, the biographies of certain certain maitres maîtres de de cuisine cuisine and and sorne gastronomes of great renown gastronomical bibliography mentions a are are for for ever ever immortalized immortalized in in these these pages, pages, and and a a culinary culinary and and gastronomical bibliography mentions a to the bibliophiles. great great number number of of works, some some of of which which are are perhaps perhaps unknown unknown to the bibliophiles. will find that Prosper Montagn6's All AH those those who who make make a a cult cult of of good eating and and good drinking drinking will find that Prosper Montagné's with interest and one that will have a Larousse Larousse Gastronomique Gastronomique isindeed is indeed a a work work that that they they will will consult consult with interest and one that will have a merited and just reward, which I prominent place in And this this will wîll be be the the author's author's merited and just reward, which 1 in their their library. library. And heartily applaud. Auguste Escoffier Auguste Escoffier

read the first draft of the after having formed after opinion he the opinion outlined the his preface, Escoffier outlined In his ln he formed having read the tirst draft of the completed' Being in a and revised later considerably revised was later Thismanuscript Gastronomique. This Lqousse Gastronomique. and in a Larousse manuscript was these final pages that my judgment was of these study of the study on the was on it was he, it position than than he, favourable positîon more favourable more final pages that my was founded because I have been able to see better founded the better is ait all the and is Escoffier and of Escoffier that of with that conforms with it conforms because 1 have been able to see based; it he predicted. what he for myself what Predicted. for prosper Montagnd, realized that he had undertaken a formidable of Prosper friends of I, old otd friends and Escoffier and l, Montagné, reaHzed that he had undertaken a formidable Escoffier understand the importance, but knowing can understand works can of culinary works authors of the authors only the which only of which one of task, one task, the but extensive erudition and his professional his extensive willpower, inflexible will his inflexible and his work and for work his capacity for his power, his erudition and his professional great cooks of our time, we were certain that he place among among great first place the first in the him in which puts him knowledge, which knowledge, cooks of our we were certain that he conclusion' successful a to it bring it to a successful conclusion. would bring would food or who are interested with food do with to do anything to have anything who have those who all those to ail is to it is wrote, it Escoffier wrote, As Escoffier As or who are interested addressed. It is-dare say it-the is addressed. book îs this book that this table, that the table, and the cuisineand the cuisine of the history of in the the history in It is-dare 1 say it-the of Prosper Montagnd. work of the professional work of the apotheosis of apotheosis vade-mecum for everyone' a reliable is-a vade-mecum it already is-a mustbecome-and Gastrinomiquemust Larousse Gastronomique Larousse become--and it for everyone, a reliable what subject connected with the matter what no matter onno and on momentand anymoment atany consulted at to be beconsulted ready to counsellor rcady subject connected with the counsellor table' thetable. ofthe artsof thearts and the sciencesand alimentary sciences alimentary effort may find its reward and perseveringeffort suchaa magnificent and thatsuch heartily that wish heartily Like Escoffier,l Iwish may find its reward Like deserves from any point it which welcome a conceived, it was whom for those of welcome the in in the welcome of those for whom ît was /"1"",,/""'1\,,"'''' a welcome which il deserves from any ofview. of Phil6as Gilbert Philéas Gilbert

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LAROUSSE
GASIil}K(EN@NilHruffiTE MI T
THE ENCYCLOPEDIA EE PE lA OF FO FOOD, WINE \TINE OF
&

THE NEW

& COOKERY OOKERY

7fontagni by Prosper J\!(ontagné

AMERICAN AMERICAN EDITOR, EDITOR: CT{ARLOTTE CHARLOTTE TURGEON TURGEON
PREFACE ROBERT J. COURTTNE PREFACE BY BY ROBERT]. COURTINE

oRrcrNAL ORIGINAL pREFACEs PREFACES By BY AucusrE AUGUSTE EscoFFrER ESCOFFIER AND pmldns PHILÉAS GTLBERT GILBERT
TEXT THE FRENCH TEXT TRANSLATED TRANSLATED FROM THE FRENCH BY MARION MARION HUNTER HUNTER M.I.L. M.LL.

too o 1000

ations 1 Jllustr ncluding Jllustrations Jncluding

7[any Many in Jull '}=ull Color

T YORK CRO\TN INC. CROWN PUBLISHERS, PUBLIS E IN . · NE NEW

Prosper Montagn6 Montagné by Prosper Originally published published under under the the title N ouv e au Lar ou s s e G astronomique Nouveau Larousse Gastronomique
American Charlotte Turgeon American Editor Editor:: Charlotte

Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited Copyright English text The Hamlyn © Copyright Limited 1977 @

CopyrightLibrairieLarousse, © Librairie Larousse, Paris 19. 1960 @ Copyright

All AU rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in
including photocopymechanical, including any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, photocopyretrieval system,without storage and retrieval ing, recording, or by any information system, without inlormation storage permission permission in writing lrorn from the Publisher. Inquiries Inquiries should be addressed to inwriting New York, N.Y. 10016. Crown Publishers, Inc., One Park Avenue, New Publishers,Inc.,
Printed in the U.S.A. Printed U.S.A. Company Limited Published simultaneously Publishing Company simultaneously in Canada Canada by General Publishing
C ongr es s Cataloging C atalo ging in Publication Library of Congress Publication Data Library

Main entry under under title:
gastronomique. Larousse gastronomique. The New Larousse gastronomique. Translation of Nouveau Translation Nouveau Larousse gastronomique. published under Larousse 1961, by under title: title: Larousse Ed. for for 1961, by P. P. Montagné, Montagnd, published Ed. gastronomique. gastronomique. 1. Cookery-Dictionaries-French. 2. Food-Dictionaries1. 2. Food-DictionariesFrench. 3. 3. Cookery, Cookery, French. French. 1. I. Dunbar, Dunbar, Janet. Janet. Il. II. Montagné, Montagnd, Prosper, French. gastronomique. 1 865- 1948. Larousse gastronomique. 1865-1948. TX349.M613 1977 1977 641'.03 641'.O3 77-9905 TX349.M613 0-517-53 137-2 ISBN 0-517-53137-2

Preface
In his preface to first edition of Larousse In to the the first Gas tr onomique Escoffier wrote: wrote : Gastronomique 'The history history of 'The of a nation's table is a reflection of the civilisation the civilisation of of that nation. To To show that nation. show the changes changes in the order and serving of meals from century to century, to describe and comment on the progress of the French cuisine, is is to paint a picture many stages picture of the the many stages through through which which a nation has evolved since the distant times when, as a a weak tribe, men lived in dark caves, eating as wild roots, raw fish and the still pulsating flesh of animals killed animaIs kiUed with the spear. 'It is this history that is the subject 'It of Larousse subjectof Montagn6 has Gastronomique, in which Prosper Montagné pages aH some thousand outlined in sorne thousand pages all the improvements from preart from brought to to the the culinary art ments brought historic times to the historic thé present day. Presented in the of a dictionary, dictionary, it sums up aIl form of all that has been achieved by by the achieved the science science of of alimentation, alimentation, and everything in it it has has been been minutely studied and
described. 'Those 'Those who make a profession of gastronomy
has rediscovered redîscovered endorse them -- the - in order to endorse broad ancient practice, somewhat broad outlines outlines of ancient somewhat forgotten since the beginning forgotten beginning of of this century. It It is essential to incorporate into this work work the lessons essential learnt from a combination from a combination of ancient wisdom and modern research. Legislation, as has modified modified the weH, has as well, the basic nutrition of twentieth-century twentieth-century man, and if if the man, and gourmet can still, with justification, reject certain gourmet progress, he must forms of must nevertheless take forms of progress, note of them. them. Moreover, taking his pleasures of the table where he can find thern, he has to recogrocognise, for for instance, instance, that freezing or freezenise, that deep deep freezing drying (words which w€re were unknown to Prosper Montagn6 and his contemporaries) offer to the Montagné and as well as to appetite as weIl as to the the greed greed of man man many satisfying satisfying solutions. solutions. The laws pertaining to vines have The laws wine and to wine and vines wine scene the wine in France. altered the considerably altered scene in Chefs in general are little Httle interested În in wine, and this is doubtless whyhitherto why hitherto Larotnse Larousse Gastronomique has neglected I ne~~ectea the cellar. My friends and 1 have made a better selection from French wines and those from other countries, countries, bearing bearing in mind the latest rules and regulations. Jean Desmur, who may deserve thetitle'Pic the-title 'Pic de La Mirandole de la la gastronomie', took La Mirandole de took upon duty himself the the dut y of recounting the details of the details gastronomical folklore, domestic history and and gastronomical domestic history date with what and because hecause one must be he up to to date one loves, we Est list the food and wine associations which have have multiplied multiplied since the last war. All this rounds out the original work without AH changing the direction or the balance. This either changing either profound wish. least our profound at is a t least It remains for me to introduce and thank the contributors of this new edîtion: contributors edition: Madeleine Decure, director of the the publication et vins Cuisine el Cuisine vins de France Jean D. Jean D. Arnaboldi, Arnaboldi, chief editor editor of the the publication ca tion Bien Bien Vivre Frangoise d'Athis, general secretary of of the the Revue du vin de France of I'Acad6mie Rabelais Henry Clos-Jouve, ofl'Académie Jean Desmur Robert J. Courtine Courtine Pierre Neuville Neuville

will find find in this book for comparison will in this book matter matter for between what used used to be the art of good eating what it and what it is will be and is today. today. Housewives Housewives will particularly interested interested in in the the evolution of of the table through through the ages, ages, its refinements modified in in each each epoch to a extent by by the a certain certain extent - to reigning fashions. exigencies of of reigning exigencies fashions. Professional Professional cooks, both both men men and women, will be able to draw principles of inspiration from of a a culinary from the the principles technique founded on the universally recognised technique recognÎsed knowledge and authority of of the author. The rest of the book and and the the recipes are are enlivened enlivened by attractive anecdotes anecdotes and legendary legendary tales.' work of Prosper Montagn6 The work Montagné (and of Dr. Gottschalk, who who helped him Gottschalk, him notably with with the historical, scien tific and medical scientific medical material) is an historic work which it 1S is proper to revive today, historic adding new gastronomic while retaining its SLflDD()IDIC treats white style and and balance. Indeed, if if the the history of domestic cooking, which is inseparable inseparable from the domestîc history of the people, hasn't changed and if the great recipes remain remain the same despite despite the great the same tremendous simplification of modern modern cooking, tremendous on the other other hand dietetics is a new science which

Table of of Comparative Comparative Measures Measrrres Table
Note Note Published for throughout the for use use throughout the world, world, this this edition edition of of LAROUSSE Published LAROUSSE GASTRONOMIQUE contains contains American American and and British British equivalents GASTRONOMIQUE equivalents as as well as as original original French French measurements measurements in in aIl all recipes. recipes. Occasionally weIl Occasionally what what appears to to be be a a discrepancy discrepancy in in conversion conversion may may occur. occur. In appears In fact fact this this results results from proportionate proportionate alteration quantities throughout alteration of of quantities throughout that that recipe from recipe in in order to to avoid avoid awkward awkward fractions in measurements. measurements. fractions in order The cups cups and quoted, together and tablespoons tablespoons quoted, together with The with the the French French measures, measures, in this this book book are are American American Standard, standard, which which are in slightly smaller are slightly smaller in in capacity than than British British Standard standard cups cups and capacity and spoons. spoons. The The American American and and Canadian Standard pint measuring Standard -!Canadian measuring cup cup has has a capacity of a capacity of 8 8 fluid fluid * pint ounces; the the British British Standard Standard Imperial pint measuring ounces; Imperial -!measuring cup cup has has a a ] pint e'apacity of 10 fluid of 10 fluid ounces. capacity ounces. The The American American and and Canadian canadian Standard Standard measuring tablespoon tablespoon measures measures i$ fluid measuring fluid ounce; ounce; the the British British Standard Standard tablespoon measures measures 1 tablespoon I fluid fluid ounce. ounce. 3 teaspoons are 3 teaspoons are equal equal to to 1 I tabletablespoon. All measureme measutrmrlttr ts refer refer to to LEVEL LEVEL spoons spoons and and cups. cups.

LIQUID LIQIJID MEASURES MEASTJRES French 1 I litre
1

British British

American American 4i 4| cups cups or 1 quart 2 ounces orlquart2ounces 2 (generous) 2 cups cups (generous) or pint (generous) (generous) or 1 1 pint

li lf pints
pint iI pi nt (generous)
3-4 3-4 ounces

I demilitre (-!1 $ litre)

($ 1 tre ( -il> litre) I decili decilitre

1(scant) cup (seant) * cup

or pint (seant) (scant) or iI pint

WEIGHT WBIGHT French
1

British and and American .035 .035 ounce -1 I ounce ounce 3-!3| ounces 4 ounces ounces (approx.) 8 ounces ounces 8 1 pound pound 1-!I 1| ounces ounces (approx.) 2·21 pounds 2'21

1 I gram
1

28·35 28.35 grams
100 grams

114 14 grams I 226· 78 grams 226'78 500 grams 500 1 kilogram kilogram I

APPROXlMATE EQUTVALENTS EQUIVALENTS FOR FOR BASIC BASIC FOODS FoonS APPROXTMATE
French

British British

American

Almonds, blanched, bJanched, whole whole Almonds, powder Baking powder

150 grams

5| 5t ounces ounces

4.3 4·3 grams
30 grams

I teaspoon 1 (approx.) I ounce 1 ounce
3L 3! ounces

I 1 cup I 1 teaspoon
2] 21 tablespoons
(approx.)

Breadcrumbs, dry Breadcrumbs,

"
Butter

,,

fresh fresh

90 grams 45 grams
15 grams 125 grams 500 grams 500 grams

r+ 1t ounc€s ounces

I 1 cup I 1 cup
I 1 tablespoon tablespoon 1- cup *
2 cups
I pound 1 (generous) (generous) (scant) I 1 cup (seant)

1 ounce ounce {

4 ounces I 1 pound (generous) (generous)

Cheese Cheese

), "

(grated Parmesan) Parmesan)

100 grams 85 grams 10 l0 grams 3-4 grams
1

I pound 1 (generous) (generous) (scant) 4 ounces (seant)
3 ounces

Coffee, medium ground

I 1 cup
I tablespoon 1 tablespoon I teaspoon 1

--

(cornflour) Cornstarch (cornflour)
Cream of tartar

Fish Flour (unsifted, ail all purpose)

500 grams
1

t ounce $ ounce ounce l $ ounce I pound 1
(generous) (generous) I -ft 1 ft ounces 2$ 2~ ounces 4f ounces 4! I pound 1 (generous) (generous) I ounce 1 (generous) (generous) 2$ 2! ounces 4| ounces 41

I pound 1 (generous) (generous)

35 grams 70 grams grams 142 142 grams 500 grams 32 grams
60 grams 128 grams 128

t * cup t cup * I cup 1 t
cup

3| cups 3t

,, " ,, "

(sifted, ail all purpose)

t * cup

(sifted cake (sifted cake and and pastry flour)

I cup 1

30 grams 60 grams 120 120 grams 500 grams 500 grams 6 medium size leaves 150 grams 150 500 grams
grams 226 226 grams
15 grams 15

I ounce 1 2 ounces 4 ounces
I pound 1 (generous) (generous) 1 pound (generous) (generous) I ounce 1
5$ ounces 51

Fruit (fresh)

t cup * 1* cup I cup 1 I pound 1
(generous) (generous) 2 cups

,, "

(dried)

Gelatine (leaf sheets)

2 tablespoons

,, "
Meats

(granulated) (granulated)

I cup 1
1 pound 1 (generous) (generous) I cup 1

,, (diced) " Mustard (dry)

1 pound (generous) (generous) 8 ounces 8
t I ounce

2 tablespoons

French French Pepper (whole (whole white) white) Pepper grams 30 grams 30 grams 30 grams 30 grams 30 grams 30 grams 12 grams 12 grams 200 grams 200 grams l0 grams 10 grams 160 grams 160 grams 500 grams 500 grams 240 grams 240 grams 15 grams 15 grams 2| grams 2t grams 15 grams 15 grams 5 grams 5 grams 15 grams 15 grams 60 grams 60 grams 240 grams 240 grams 34 grams 34 grams 68 grams 68 140 grams 140 grams 35 grams 35

British British
ounce 1I ounce (generous) (generous) I ounce ounce 1 (generous) (generous) I ounce ounce 1 (generous) (generous)

American American

3ftablespoons tablespoons 3i

,, ,, "
"

(whole black) (who le black)
(powdered) (powdered)

4|tablespoons tablespoons 4t
tablespoons 44tablespoons tablespoon 1 tablespoon 1 cup cup 1 tablespoon tablespoon 1 cup cup 3 cups cups

(seeded) Raisins (seeded) Raisins

"

,,

(seedless) (seedless)

lounce $ ounce 6$ ounces ounces 61 ounce l$ ounce 5$ ounces ounces 51 pound I pound 1
8 ounces ***t 8
ounce tI ounce

Rice Rice Salt Salt

1 cup cup 1 I tablespoon tablespoon 1 I teaspoon teaspoon 2 2 tablespoons tablespoons 1 I teaspoon teaspoon 1 I tablespoon tablespoon !* cup cup 1 I cup cup !* cup cup tt cup cup 1 I cup cup !* cup cup tl cup cup 1 I cup cup 1 I tablespoon tablespoon t* cup cup 1 cup I cup 1 pound I pound (generous) (generous) 2 2 cups cups

(ground) Spices (ground) Spices
(fine granulated) granulated) Sugar (fine Sugar

ounce -Px $ ounce ounce tI ounce
ounce tI ounce 2 ounces 2 ounces 8 8 ounces ounces 1 I ounce ounce (generous) (generous) 2, 2f ounces ounces 4~ 4$ ounces ounces 1 I ounce ounce (generous) (generous) 2; 2f ounces ounces 14; 4f ounces i$ ounce ounce 2i 2$ ounces 5t 5$ ounces ounce l$ ounce

"

,,

(powdered)

,, " ,, "

(confectioner's or icing)

(brown)

70 grams 140 grams 10 l0 grams 80 grams 160 grams 500 grams 500 grams

Vegetables (fresh)

"

(dried: Ientils lentils or split
peas) peas)

1 I pound (generous) (generous) 1 I pound (generous) (generous)

H
ABAISSE - A tenu pastry-making to describe ABAISSE-A term used in French French pastry-making (or sheet) a piece sheet) of pastry. It is also used to a piece (or of rolled-out pastry. It is also used alayer describe a layer of sponge cake or biscuit. ofsponge
a handful may be or, better still, a be substituted for the sage or, handful of an orange. orange. Bay leaves are rosemary boiled boiled with the skin with the skin of an (le Minagier good.' (le fourteenth century) Ménagier de Paris, fourteenth also good.'

c,{trrsrre -- Fourth Fourth stomach of the the rumiABOMASUM. CAILLETTE (solid rennet) its extract, nants. Dried Dried caillette rennet) or or its extract, liquid nants. caillette (solid in the the cheese-making cheese-making used in rennet (obtained by by infusion) is used coagulating milk. industry for coagulating Arddche and and La is also also the the name name given in Caillette in the the Ardèche Caillette is a mixture of minced Dr6me to a a large large sausage stuffed with a Drôme pig's liver leaves. Iiver and chard Ieaves.
ABONDANCE ABONDANCE - Wine diluted with water. the drink drink which which in in days This ironically describes This word word ironically describes the gone go ne by used used to be served in schools or colleges, where wine deprecattenu is used, deprecatwas scarce and and water abundant. The term ingly, of watered-down wine.
An abaisse of pastry

Herb-flavoured wine. The The ancients ancients used ABROTONITE ABROTONITE - Herb-f1avoured mugwort called abrotanum abrotanum in this wine of mugwort to macerate a sort of flavour. to enhance its f1avour.

(Hunger-killer) A substantial substantial dish dish served ABAT-FAIM (Hunger-killer) - A early in the meal.

ABATTE (Beater) A popular corruption corruption of the ABATTE the French -A (to beat). word battre battre (to An abatte is is a a rather rather thick, word beat). An thick, broad, double-edged knife used flattening meal. meat. double-edged used for f1attening grown in plant grown ABEL-MUSK. AMBRETTE ,c,Mnnnrrr ABEL-MUSK. An aromatic aromatic plant - An very strong, must have a a very musty Martinique, the the seeds of which y which have smell. In India these seeds are mixed with coffee to give it a smel!. these seeds heighten its stimulating properties. and to heighten special aroma, and ambergris-scented variety Ambrette is also the name of an ambergris-scented of pear.
TABLE. ABLUTIONS ABLUTIoNs DE DE TABLE rABLE ABLUTIONS, TABLE. - The custom rinse their of passing bowls of water to to guests at at table, to to rinse meal, or after eating fingers at the end of eating certain dishes dishes with of a rneal, back to earliest earliest antiquity. It was a common the fingers, goes back practice with practice with the the ancient ancient Egyptians, Egyptians, the the Greeks Greeks and and the Romans, who hands before the meal Romans, who not only washed their hands but also between the courses. common to ail all ancient people, is explained 'This practice, cornmon by the fact that in those days food was taken taken with the fingers. (usually scented poured the servant poured A servant the contents of a a vesse! vessel (usually A water) over the fingers fingers of the guest. In other circumstances, circumstances, (Vie privie simply hands were sim ply washed in a basin.' (Vie privée des anciens, by Louis Nicolas Menard) Menard) pouR UNE UNE EAU Recipe for for finger-bowl finger-bowl water. water. RECETTE FscETrE POUR Recipe D'ABLUTToN 'Boil a a handful handful of sage in water. Pour off the D'ABLUTION - 'Boil marjoram resulting liquid and cool until tepid. Camomile or marjoram

ABSINTH. ABSINTHE ABSTNTHE made by by macerating and ABSINTH. - Liqueur made (Artemisia absinthium) distilling thc thc leaves leaves of wormwood wormwood (Artemisia distilling plants (fennel, Chinese then adding adding other aromatic aromatic plants Chinese anise, then hyssop, etc.). Absinth (colloquially known as la verte) was the apéritif ap6ritif in Absinth the 1914 war. vogue before the vn D'ABSINTHE Absinth wine. VIN D'ABsINTHE infusion of of Absinth - Wine spiced by infusion wormwood leaves. leaves. wormwood

Wormwood Wormwood a. Branch a. b. Inflorescence b. c. Flower Flower c.

v

ABSORPTION
ABSORPTION ABSORPTION (Whinsical (Whimsical gastronomy) gastronomy)This was was the meal - This offered in l'École in bygone times times to to the the senior senior students of I'Ecole polytechniqrc arrivais. 'Enough 'Enough is bbsorbed absorbed there polytechnique by the new arrivals. to justify justify the name of of the ceremony.' ceremony.' (Lor6dan (Lorédan Larchey) Larchey) ABSTINENCE ABSTINENCE - Days Days of of abstinence abstinence are those on which one should should abstain abstain from from eating eating meat, meat, although although one one is is not obliged to fast. Meat abstinence abstinence does not prevent one from fast. Meat Iiving nonnal life. In fact, fact, the total exclusion of living a perfectly perfectly normal certain foods and condiments condiments is indispensable in a number number of of dietary dietary regimes. A few days' fasting is also prescribed for those who have over-indulged over-indulged at table.

ACETO-IX)LCE ACETO-DOLCE ('Sour*weet') ('Sour-sweet') - An An Italian commercial product of a mixture of vegetables and fruit, first product consisting of pickled Muscat pickled in in vinegar, vinegar, then then preserved preserved in in a a syrup syrup of Muscat grape must, must, honey and mustard. It is is usually served as as an hors-d' œuvre. hors-d'euvre.
ACETOMEL. ACETOMEL. AcfroMELACÉTOMEL - Sour-sweet of honey Sour-sweet syrup made of and vinegar used in the preservation of of fruit. Quinces, Quinces, pears and grapes thus preserved of aceto-dolce, aceto-dolce, i.e. preserved take the name of sour-sweet sour-sweet fruit.

ACETONE. ACETONE. AcfroNE ACÉTONE

ABUTILON - There are more than sixty sixt y varieties of this plant the world. world. An An edible edible species species plant scattered scattered throughout the
grows in Brazil. known Abuti/on esculentum esculentum grows Brazil. The The Brazilians Brazilians known as as Abutilon benças de deos and cook cook its flowers with meat. meat. call it bengas In ln Europe, abutilon abutilon is cultivated cul tiva ted as a garden garden plant for the beauty its flowers, ofits flowers, but only only rarely rarely for use as food. In some sorne beauty of countries, particularly particularly in Asia and and in the the West West Indies, its leaves manner of sorrel sorrel or leaves are are cooked cooked and and eaten in the the manner spinach. In India the the natives are very fond fond of the the species species known as Abutilon Abutilon indicam. indicum.

- A colourless, inflammable inflammable liquid liquid with an acrid burning burning taste and a quince-like quince-like smell. Acetone appears in the body when the process cif of decomposition decomposition of fatty matter is is deficient deficient and and particularly particularly when when the the diet diet is lacking in carbohydrates (sugar). This frequently frequently arises in severe of diabetes and starvation. starvation. severe cases ofdiabetes

ACACIA-Acacia ACACIA - Acacia blossoms blossoms are are used used for making making fritters and a home-made liqueur. liqueur. Acacia blocsom FRITTERS. blossom fritters - See FRITTERS.
Acacia Hqueuror liqueur or ratafia ratafia - See LIQUEUR. LIQUEUR.

ACAI\THUS ACANTHUS @rank-ursine). (Brank-ursine). lcaNrHn ACANTHE - This This most decoradecorative plant plant is commonly commonly found in southern France where its elegant, denticulated denticulated leaves leaves are are eaten, eaten, when when young, young, as as a salad. It has emollient emollient qualities. qualities.
ACARNE ACARNE - Name Name given giveil to the European fish fish commonly commonly known known as sea bream. bream. ACAVUS. AcAvE ACAVE - A variety of snail common in French French vineyards and gardens. gardens. ACCOLADE, ACCOLADE, ININ - A A manner manner of of arranging arranging pieces pieces of of the same same nature nature - meat, meat, poultry, poultry, fish fish - back back to to back on one dish. This This method of presentation presentation was was much much in vogue vogue in in the olden olden days. method of

Chickens Chickens served served en accolade

ACELIIYE ACELINE - French French name name for for a a European European fish fish a a little resembling is quite good good and and it it is is prepared prepared resembling the the perch. perch. Its Its flesh flesh is like like perch perch (q.v.). (q.v.).
ACET ABULUM. lcfrl.rur.E ACÉTABULE - The ancient Romans used ACETABULUM. the word acetabulum to describe describe the the vessel vessel that held the word acetabulum
vinegar. vinegar. It lt was was also also used used as a measure measure in medicine. medicine.

ACHARD - This word, derived from from the the Persian Persian ACHAR. AcHARD ACHAR. word atchar, atchar, describes describes a a strongly spiced spiced pickle pickle (usually (usually word saffron-coloured) saffron-coloured) made from from fruit, fruit, or vegetables, vegetables, or or very young, tender buds of of palm cabbage (palmetto) (palmetto) or bamboo bamboo sprouts. It is highly regarded throughout the Indian ArchiArchipelago, pelago, in Mauritius, and R6union Réunion Island. Island. Lemm ACHARDS DE DE crrRoNs CITR9NS Lemon achar (Creole cookery). cookery). AcHARDS Choose thin-skinned thin-skinned lemons lem ons and quarter quarter them. Extrait Extract the C6oose juice, juice, discard the pips, and macerate macerate the lemons in layers layers of kitchen kitchen salt. Remove the lemons from the salt and soak them in cold water several times. times. Boil in water for 24 hours, changing the water fresh fresh water water until the the lemons lemons become become soft. soft. Strain Strain offthe off the water. marinate in the following Dry the lemons and put them to marinate sauce: Pound a a large large onion, onion, a a pimento, pimento, and and a a large large piece of Pound grnger ginger to a fine fine paste paste in a mortar. mortar. (Ginger, (Ginger, as well weil as allspice, aUspice, Bourbon Bourbon saffron and Indian curry powder powder can be bought bought in of Bourbon Bourbon delicatessen shops.) shops.) Add vinegar vinegar and a teaspoon teaspoon of delicatessen best quality olive oil to ensure ensure saffron. Blend with sufficient best completely that the lemons, when packed into jars, will be completely covered. covered. ACHARDS DE DE pALMrsrEs PALMISTES Palmetto achar achar (Creole (Creole cookery). AcHARDS Palnetto Palmettos Palmettos (palm cabbage) cabbage) can can be be bought bought in in delicatessen delicatessen shops. Remove carefully from the can, can, discard discard the the oil in shops. olive which they were packed, and dress with good quality olive oil. ACHARDS os DE rfcuMts LÉGUMES Vegetable achar achar (Creole cookery). AcHARDS Vegetable seeds and and pulp pulp from from I 1 or 2 cucumbers, and Remove the seeds Cut cucumbers, cucumbers, pimentos, the insides insides from from 2 2 large large pimentos. Cut the about several carrots carrots and French beans into into thin strips about and several (11 inches) long. Mix with florets of of cauliflower and 4 cm. (l| roughly chopped cabbage cabbage leaves. leaves. roughly hours. Drain Drain thoroughly, Macerate these these vegetables vegetables for 36 hours. Macerate Lemon dry, and season season with sauce sauce described described in the recipe recipe for Lemon dry, achar above. preserve the achar, spoon into glass preserving preserving jars, jars, To preserve coyer completely completely with good good quality olive oil, and and seal the cover jars jars hermetically. hermetically.

AClllLLEA (Milfoil). .lcrtnr6r ACHILLÉE - Plant, Plant, of which which one ACHILLEA

Achillea ptarmica, ptarmica, which which grows in woods, is edible. edible. species, Achillea Its tender young young leaves leaves are added added to salads. salads. Its
ACIDE - A chemical hydrogen hydrogen compound recognisrecognisAcIDE of causing causing litmus solution to turn red. red. by its its property pro pert y of able by

ACETIC ACETIC ACID. ACID. lcfnqun ACÉTIQUE - The acid which which forms forms the the basis basis of of vinegar. vinegar. It It is is used used in in cooking sugar sugar in confectionery. confectionery.

ACID.

ACETIFICATION. ACETIFICATION. AcfTIFrcArroN ACÉTIFICATION - The chemical chemical reaction reaction by a a yeast yeast (Mycoderma (Mycoderma aceti). aceti). Aided Aided by by various various caused by caused
industrial VINEGAR), it it transforms transforms wine wine industrial processes processes (see (see VINEGAR), alcohol other alcoholic alcoholic liquid) liquid) into into acetic acetic acid. acid. alcohol (or (or other ACETIMETER.,c,cfnMirns ACETIMETER. ACÉTIMÈTRE - Instrument Instrument for for assessing assessing the the of concentration concentration of of vinegar. vinegar. degree of degree
2

used in cooking are vinegar, The acids most commonly used lemon juice juice and verjuice. lemon ACIDIFIERS (Bilible). (Edible). ACIDIFIANTSACIDIFIANTS - Foods Foods that that build build up an ACIDIFIERS of acid in the the system, system, leading leading to acidification of the excess of body fluids. fluids. body Acid-tasting fruits are not not necessarily necessarily acidifiers; nor nor do Acid-tasting

ACROAMA
the acid taste; lemons, for the latter latter necessarily necessarily possess possess an an acid taste; lemons, example, are not acidifiers. Meat pasta and bread bread Meat, game, sea fish, offal, cereals, flour, pasta are fish, eggs, eggs, butter, butter, are powerful acidifiers; acidifiers; ham, freshwater fish, fats, shoots, Brussels hop shoots, Brussels sprouts, fats, chocolate, chocolate, asparagus, asparagus, hop artichokes, onions, onions, chestnuts, chestnuts, peanuts, walnuts, walnuts, hazelnuts and almonds less seriously so. ACIDIFY.
AcTDTFIER ACIDIFIER - To add add acid acid (lemon juice, vinegar or verjuice) to a culinary preparation. preparation.

types are GLAND - Fruit tree. Sorne ACORN. cLAND Fruit of the ttre oak oak tree. Some types and were were eaten by certain Asian peoples before they edible and :rcorns discovered discovered cereals. In sorne some countries, such as Spain, acorns roasted. Acorn flour (which unlike chicory chicory are eaten raw or roasted. for coffee. has is used as a a substitute substitute for used as has costive properties) properties) is roasted acorns of the For this purpose the roasted the ballota oak are most commonly commonly used. used.

-

ACIDITY. lcIorrf ACIDITÉ - Acid taste. It exists naturally in certain vegetables and fruit and disappears disappears or diminishes as a result of a'blanching' a 'blanching' operation operation (see BLANCHING). BLANCHING). Nowadays, Nowadays, the the acidity acidity of a a liquid liquid is is measured measured in in pH units; these range from zero, for pure acid (such as as hydrochloric chloric acid), acid), to to 7, 7, which indicates indicates a a completely completely neutral neutral substance. The The scale scale continues above above 7 to indicate indicate degrees degrees of
alkalinity alkalinity (opposite of acidity). acidity). The acidity of certain Tbe acidity scale shows shows the the degree of aeidity foods. foods.
14
Sodium

A small small shellfish with a BARNACLE. slrlNn BALANE - A ACORN BARNACLE. ail seas, attached to conical irregular shell which is found in all rocks. rocks. It It is is also also commonly called called acorn acorn shell shell and and turban prepared like crab shell.Itsflesh shell. Its fiesh is quite delicate delicate and is prepared crab (q.v.).

Acorn barnacles barnacles stuck to a piece piece of of shell

t3 13
12
Sodium cyanide

1- Caffeine
11 10
Sodium carbonate

Phenol Ammonia

0 -J-

i;t
::.::::>

«1-

~~r

«0 Cf)

-J-I

8. Bicarbonate ~~c:~~~:;te of soda ~
of soda Soawater

ARTERIAl BlOOD 1.1...

NEUTRALITY NEUTRALITY

u::>
«-J

-1-

c~1
o
Cf)

:: };~:~.::~OD ~)
i ~ 5
Hydrogen

peroxide

\ \ o \ { ~ s
l{l
~ o q.

-.j

5

SWEAT Zinc chloride Zincchloride

.4 ~ .4

';1

Beer Bgel

4

Lacticacid Lactic acid Orange iuice juice 0range Wine Grape iuice iuice Grapo Lomonjuice Lemon iuice GASTRfC JUIGE JUICE GASIBIC Acaticacid acid Acstic Pi cric scid acid Picric

ACQUEITE - An old, spirituous ACQUETTE very aromatic aromatic liquor, spirituous and very much prized in Italy and throughout the south of of France. Its appearance resembles that of Danziger Goldwasser (Danzig (Danzig appearance eau de de ure). vie). There There are are two two varieties: varieties: silver eau silver acquelle acquette (in d'oro). Italian aqua bianca), bianca), and gold acquelle Italian acquette (aqua doro). Silver acquette is made as follows: cinnamon g. (8 oz.) 225 s. Ceylon cinnamon Cloyes 25 s. g. (L (1 oz.) Cloves Nutmeg (1 oz.) Nutmeg 25 g. (l 20 litres (4| (4t gallons, 5t 85° alcohol 85" 20litres 5] gallons) Steep these various ingredients in the alcoholfor alcohol for 24 hours, Steep these then distil distil without without rectifying; rectifying; you you will will obtain 20 litres then obtain 20 (4| (41 gallons, gallons, 5f 51 gallons) gallons) liqueur. liqueur. Dissolve 25 25 kg. kg. (55 (55 lb.) (2t gallons, 3 gallons) water and add the sugar in III I litres (2| of the distillation. distillation. Leave Leave to rest for syrup obtained as as a a result result of syrup crushed silver silver leaf leaf into each the time time required, required, filter filter and put a crushed the each bottle. bottle. go Id acquette take: To prepare gold cinnamon g. (8 oz.) 225 s. Ceylon cinnamon 15 s. g. (l (t oz.) Cl oveS Cloves g. G (3 oz.) Angelica roots Angelica 75 e. Crete Daucus of Crete 75 g. (3 oz:) Fresh lemon (peel of) 40 s. g. (r| (lJ oz.) a0 Fresh (4t gallons, 5| 5t gallons) 85° alcohol 20 litres (4| 85'alcohol 20litres Proceed as as for preparing silver acquette, with just one Proceed crushed gold leaf into each bottle. bottle. difference, that you put a crushed ACRIDOPHAGE - One who feeds feeds on locusts. This food ACRIDOPHAGE but it is epicures of Europe, but may seem extraordinary to the epicures quite acceptable acceptable to African gastronomes. gastronomes. It appears appears that that the of locusts locusts resembles, if if somewhat somewhat remotely, remotely, that of of raw tas te of taste shrimps. ACROAMA - A A Greek Greek word, word, adopted adopted by by the the Romans, meaning 'that 'that to which which one one listens', listens', further further extended to meaning pays attention'. mean 'that to which one pays To better entertair entertah their guests, guests, the the patricians made a To habit of of summoning summoning musicians, poets, actors (who enacted, enacted, habit licentious scenes), scenes), men and women dancers, dancers, at times, very licentious jugglers, even gladiators gladiators and jugglers, acrobats, tumblers, tumblers, dwarfs dwarfs and even savage beasts beasts to perform perform while while the meal was in progress. progress. savage acroama meant not only these these To the Romans this word acroama types of entertainment, entertainment, but but also also the the performers performers various types themselves. themselves. acroama continued continued through the cenThe custom of the auoaftro but was renamed renamed entremets entremets ('between courses'). courses'). These turies but common with what what today today describes describes entremets had nothing nothing in common entremets 3

Hydrochloric acid Hydrochloric

Acidity scale scale Acidity

ACIDLTLATE. ACIDULA TE. acnurnn ACIDULER - To render render a dish dish slightly acid, sour or piquant piquant by by the addition of of lemon, vinegar, etc. ACIDLJLATED. ACIDULATED. acnulE ACIDULÉ - Term Term which which is is only used used to describe describe mineral minerai waters waters charged charged with with carbonic carbonic acid. acid. ACON ACON - An An implement implement used by by French mussel mussel farmers to gather gather the the mussels mussels from from the the mussel mussel beds beds in the the cove coye of Aiguillon, near near La Rochelle. Aiguillon, of this this tool tool dates dates back back to antiquity. It It is is mentioned mentioned The use use of The in Charlemagne's Capitularies.

ACTINIA ACTINIA
a course course of of vegetables vegetables or or a a sweet sweet course course served served towards towards the the a end of a meal. meal Acroama, of a Acroama,and the'spectacular entremets'that and the 'spectacular entremets' that end succeeded it, it, were were enacted all through enacted ail through the the meal. meal. succeeded

(Ser anemone). ACTINIA (Sea anemone). ACTINIE lcnNm -- Although Although actiniae actiniae ACfINIA (stinging) animais, are urticating urticating (stinging) animals, they they are are used as food used as food in in are certain localities. localities. The The inhabitants inhabitants of of southern southern coasts coasts of of certain France relish relish a a species species of of actinia actinia which which they they cali call rastègne rasftgne and and France maintain that that their their taste taste resembles resembles that that of of crabs. crabs. maintain Actiniae have have to to be be thoroughly thoroughly beaten beaten before before cooking cooking to to Actiniae tenderise them. them. They They can can then then be be fried, fried, made made into into fritters, fritters, tenderise omelettes, etc. etc. omelettes,
ADOC -- Name Name sometimes given to sometimes given to sour sour milk. milk. ADOC ADLTLTERATION. FALSIFICATION FALsrFrcArroN -- A A deliberate deliberate lowering lowering ADULTERATION. quality of of the the quaJity foodstuffs for purpose of foodstuffs for the the pur gain. of illicit illicit gain. of pose of

juices, remove panjuices, Strain the the pan removeexcess fatand excessfat andreduce reduce to tothe Strain the desired consistency. consistency. desired Place the the agami agami on on aaserving serving dish dishsurrounded surroundedby Place bythe the garnishes. Coat with the sauce. Coat with thesauce. garnishes.

(Iove feast) AGAPE(Love feast)-- This Thiswas wasthe AGAPE ofthe themeal the name nameof which mealwhich the early early Christians Christians held held together together in the inchurch, church, in inmemory memory of of the Last Last Supper. Supper. The The Council the Council of of Carthage abolished the Carthage abolished the agapes in in A.D. a.o.397 put an 397in n order agapes order to toput anend endto tothe thecalumnies calumniesof of which they theywere which were the theobject. object. The meals meals held held by The earlyChristians by the theearly Christians in inthe thecatacombs catacombs in in memory of memory of the the martyrs martyrs were were also also called calledagapes. agapes. This word word nowadays nowadays is This used to isused todefine define an an important importantfamily family meal. meal.
(Bengal isinglass) AGAR-AGAR productobtained isinglass) -- A AGAR-AGAR (Bengal A product obtained from from various various seaweeds, seaweeds, known known also also as as Japanese Japanese moss, moss,Ceylon Ceylon moss. MOSS. Agar-agar Agar-agar is is collected collected in in the the form form of crinkly, whitish, of thin, thin, crinkly, whitish, transparent transparent strips. strips. It It swells swells slightly slightly in in cold coldwater water and and conconsiderably siderably so so in in boiling boiling water, water, in in which which it it finally finally dissolves. dissolves. A A jelly can fairly fairly stiff stiff jelly can be be obtained obtained from from it, it, which which is is used in usedin bacteriology. bacteriology. Its Its neutral neutral taste taste makes makes it it suitable suitable for for use incooking usein cookingand and jellies. confectionery, confectionery, and and fot for making making jellies. It It is is by regurgitating seaweed by regurgitating seaweed of of this that the salanthis type type that the salangane (Chinese swalIow) gane (Chinese prized by swallow) builds builds its its nest, nest, so so much much prized by the me of'bird's the Chinese Chinese under under the the na name of 'bird's nest', nest', for for which whichfactoryfactorymade passed-off in made agar-agar agar-agar is is often often passed-off in the West. the West. Agar-agar toms Agar-agar always always contains contains the the carapaces carapaces of of dia diatoms (microscopic (microscopic unicellular unicellular algae) algae) easiJy easily identifiable identifiable under under the the microscope. microscope. This possible the This factor factor makes makes possible rapid detection the rapid detection of any fraudulent the product. fraudulent use product. ofany use of ofthe

/SGINETIA. JEGINETIE .EcrNErrE -- The The type genus of plant, type genus A:GINETIA. of this this plant, Eginetia indica, indica, is is indigenous indigenous to to the the East East Indies. Indies. The /Eginetia The natives natives of the coast coast of of Malabar Malabar cali call it it tsiem-cumulu tsiem-cumulu and of and blend it with with blend it nutmeg and and sugar (chewingsugar to to form form an an excellent excellent mascatory nutmeg mascatory (chewinggum) used used for for strengthening strengthening the gum) the teeth teeth and and combating combating bad bad breath.
OF RHODES. RHODES. AEGIS mcn DE DE RHODES RHoDEs -- One AEGIS OF One of of the the seven seven great masters masters of of ancient ancient Greek (third century Greek cuisine cuisine (third great century B.C.). B.c.). in the the art art of of cooking cooking fish. He excelled in fish. Word used AFFINAGE used in in the the French French cheese cheese industry industry to to - Word process of describe the the process of ripening ripening or describe or maturing maturing cheese cheese in in temperature'controlled tempera ture-controlJed cellars. cellars.

AFFRIANDER French cuJinary AFFRIANDER culinary term term which which means means to to - French tempt; to pleasant appearance tempt; to attract attract by by the pleasant appearance of of a a dish. dish.
AFTER-TASTE. ,mn$nr-co0r -- Taste AFfER-T ASTE. ARRIÈRE-GOÛT Taste that that returns returns to to the the mouth after ingestion of certain foods mouth foods and and beverages. beverages.
the the Guiana agami agami is is typicaJ. typical. Its Its flesh flesh has appreciable merit. has appreciable merit. The The agami agami is is used used in in cookery cookery mainly mainly in in South South America, America, boiled boild in consommé consomm6 or braised with rice. pleasant flavour Its flesh has has a pleasant flavour but is is rather dry, dry, although although less so so in the domesticated domesticated bird.

AGAMI (Trumpeter) of the wader wader family family of of which which - A bird of

AGARIC AGARIC -- A A family family of of fungi fungi with with a a compact compact cap cap and and radiatradiating gills, that grows profusely profusely in places, ing gilIs, that grows in damp damp and and shaded shaded places, and and is is also also found found in in fields, fields, on on tree tree trunks, trunks, in in caves caves and and on on decayed decayed wood. wood. There There are are about about 2000 known species 2000 known speciesof of agarics quite a agarics and and quite a large large number number of are edible. of them them are edible. The The poisonous poisonous species genus called species are are chiefly found among chiefly found among the the genus called Amanita. Amanita. Among Among the the edible edible agarics agarics are are the the following: following: Edible grown in Edible agaric agaric or or cultivated cultivated mushrooms, mushrooms, grown in the the quarries quarries around around Paris Paris -- the the c1assic classic type mushroom. This This type of of mushroom. is is often described under often described term champignon champignon without without any any under the the tenn other qualification. other qualification.

Agami Agami

àh la chilienne chilienne - Choose Choose as Agami tr as tender an an agami agami as as posc1ean it. it. Prepare Prepare a singe and clean sible. Pluck, draw, singe a garnish of of rice cooked in fat stock with with pimentos. Bard Bard it put to it and and put to braising pan with with the the usual usual accompaniments accompaniments of braise in a braising of vegetables and and spices, spices, and some sorne dry dry white white wine. wine. vegetables medium-sized braise in in veal veal jelly jelly stock stock 12 Separately, braise 12 medium-sized onions stuffed stuffed with with a a salpicon salpicon (q.v.) (q.v.) of of sweet pimentos onions sweet pimentos blended with with a a few few tablespoons of of reduced reduced velouté velouti (q.v.). Prepare also also 450 450 g. g. (l (lIb.) Okra in in tomato tomato sauce sauce (sec, (see OKRA). Prepare lb.) Okra OKRA). As soon soon as as the the agami agami is is cooked, cooked, remove rem ove from the braising braising As from the Glaze it it in in the the oven. oyen. pan. Glaze pan.
4

A agaric which underside of the cap A type ofagaric which has type of has very very distinctive distinctive ridges ridges on on the the underside ofthe cap

AILLADE AILLADE
Royalagaric, agaric,agaric agaricodorain odorainor or St. St.George's George'sagaric agaricand andthe the Royal cultivatedagaric agaricare arealso also found found in inthe theParis Parisregion' region. cultivated Among the the poisonous poisonous species species are are Amanita Amanita phalloides phalloides Among (death cap) cap) and and Amanita Amanita vernn verna (glll) (gill)(see (seeMUSHROOMS). MUSHROOMS) . (death Toprepare prepareedible edibleagarics, agarics, saute sautéin inaa shallow shallowpan panin inoil oil or or To butter ; dress dress with with herbs, herbs, Creon Cream sauce sauce (see (see SAUCE), SAUCE), ri à /a la butter; provençale, d à la la bordelarse bordelaise (see (see GARNISHES). GARNISHES). They They can can provmgale, also be be used used as as a a garnish garnish for for a a large large number number of ofdishes. dishes. also
(I~ f,ints, pints, generous generous quart) quart) verjuice, verjuice, tt litre litre (scant (scant pint, pint, 1tfi Z*hipO 2* cups)waier waterand and 150 150g. g.(5 (5oz., oz.,! cup)brown brown or orgranulated granulated I cup)

Ingredients. Ingredients. 150 150 g. g. (5 (5 oz., oz., I1cup) cup) sweet sweet almonds' almonds, I1litre litre

sugar. sugar. -Method

AGATHON - Poet, Poet, born born in in Athens, Athens, and and not not in in Samos, Samos, as as AGATHON certain authors authors maintain. main tain. certain sumptuous repasts repasts gave gave rise rise to to a a great great deal deaJ of ofjesting jesting His sumptuous His on the the part part of of Aristophanes Aristophanes and and other other dramatists. dramatists. Some Sorne on Banquet was was composed composed at at his his table. table. people claim claim that that Plato's Plato's Banquet people of South South American American plants plants belonging beJonging to to AGA VE -A A genus genus of AGAVE Agavaceae - a a native native of of Mexico. Mexico. In In Cuba Cuba and and the family family Agavaceae the Mexico its its pulp pulp is is fermented fennented to to make make an an alcoholic alcoholic beverage beverage Mexico pulque. called pulque. called AGNOLOTTI. Agnoloffi Agnolotti ià la la pi6montaise piémontaise (Italian (ltalian cookery) cookery)AGNOLOTTI. Prepare a a noodle noodle paste paste in in the the following following manner: manner: put put 450 450 g. g. Prepare (I lb., lb., 4 4 cups) cups) flour flour in in a a circle circle or or 'fountain' 'fountain' on on a a table. table. In In the the (l middle of of this tbis circle circle put put 4 4 egg egg yolks, yolks, 20 20 g. g. (a (a generous generous tabletablemiddle of salt salt and I 1 dl. dl. (6 (6 tablespoons, tablespoons, scant scant spoon) butter, butter, a a pinch pinch of spoon) t cup) cup) water. water. * Knead for l0 10 minutes minutes but but avoid avoid giving giving too too much much body body to to Knead the paste. paste. Allow Allow to to rest rest for l0 10 minutes. the out the the paste paste with a a rolling-pin rolling-pin as as thinly thinly as possible. possible. Roll out Roll Place walnut-sized walnut-sized pieces pieces of of forcemeat (see FORCEMEAT, FORCEMEAT, Place Beefforcemeat) forcemeat) along it in a horizontal line, spacing them Beef 5 cm. cm. (2 inches) from from the the edge edge of the the paste paste and and 5 cm. cm. (2 (2 inches) 5 inches) from from each each other. other. inches) Fold the overIapping over this row of edge of the paste over Fold overlapping edge agnolotti. Press down heap of forcemeat, to each heap around each down around agnolotti. Press make the paste stick the agnolotti with a agnolotti with Cut out out the well. Cut stick weil. the paste make crescent-shaped, pastry-cutter, thus thus obtaining fluted-edged pastry-cutter, crescent-shaped, fluted-edged little little turnovers. turnovers. Poach l0 minutes, minutes, allowing for 10 water for in boiling boiling water them in Poach them à- pints, 2 quart) water. generous quart) (lf pints, generous per litre litre (1 salt per 2 teaspoons teaspoons salt Drain, dish.. place in in a a dish Drain, and and place Make from the left over over from beef left the braised braised beef from the a sauce sauca from Make a forcemeat. with the cheese with grated Pannesan Parmesan cheese and grated Serve this and forcemeat. Serve agnolotti agnolotti.. AGONE is Italy it it is In Italy (Smarh graerlis). graerlis). AGON AcoN -- ln D'ISTRIA (Smaris AGOIYE D'ISTRIA known the has much much the it has indeed it and indeed of sardina sardina and name of the name known under under the same All the the sardine. Ali the sardine. size to to the in size is similar similar in and is flavour and same flavour recipes Like (q.v.) can to it. it. Like applied to be applied can he given for sardines (q.v.) for sardines recipes given . sardines, salted. be salted can be sardines, agone agone can AGORANOME Greece. in ancient ancient Greece. of markets markets in Inspector of AGORANOME -- Inspector He for responsible for produce and was responsible and was price of of produce the price He controlled controlled the the The markets. The to its its markets. laws relating relating to the laws of the the implementation implementation of agoranome the of the aedile of to the the aedile Greeks corresponds corresponds to of the the Greeks agoraiome of Romans. Romans. AGOU small-grain resembles small-grain sd8'o resembles negroes' sago or negroes' AGOU -- Agou Agou or millet. yellow with aa yellow colour with brownish-grey colour grain is isof of brownish-grey Thisgrain millet. This spot made rice. Flour Flour made likerice. It is iscooked cooked like stem.It thestem. it joins the spot where where itjoins from porridge. cakesand andporridge. makecakes to make it is is used used to from it AGOUTI (where Brazil(where found in inBrazil hare found sizeof the size ofaahare Rodent the AGOUTI -- Rodent il and Republic, and Dominican Republic, theDominican Guiana, the calledcotia), cotia), Guiana, it is iscalled generally in livein canlive The agouti agouti can Indies.The WestIndies. theWest generallythroughout throughoutthe Europe cold. protected from from the thecold. ifit itis isprotected Europeif The israther rather theflavour flavouris goodto though the toeat, eat,even eventhough fleshis isgood The flesh strong. (seePORK, pig(see Piglet). PORK, Piglet). preparedlike likesucking suckingpig Itis isprepared strong. It AGRAS more tobe bemore beverage;to icedbeverage; anAigerian Algerianiced isan Agrasis AGRAS- - Agras precise, and almondsand arealmonds ingredientsare graniti.Its Itsmain main ingredients precise,aagranité. verjuice. verjuice.

preparation' Method of of preparation. Blanch Blanch the the almonds almonds after after having having scalded scalded them them with with boiling boilingwater. water. Pound Pound them them in inaamortar mortaras as ofthe thewater' water. finely as aspossible, possible, moistening moisteningthem them with with a a little littleof finely When thiy theyform When fonn aapaste, paste,dilute dilutewith with the the rest restof ofthe the water waterand and verjuice putunder under a a press press verjuice and and strain strain through through a a napkin, napkin, then th en put

to It dl' dl. (t (! pint, pint, !f cup) cup) white white vinegar vinegar to lxtract extract all ail the the liquid. liquid . l+ combined with with I1litre litre (lf (là- pints, pints, generous generous quart) quart) water water may may combined he substituted substituted for for the the verjuice verjuice and and water. water. be Sweeten the the liquid Iiquid with with the the brown brown sugar' sugar, or' or, if if this this is is not not Sweeten available, available, granuhted granulated sugar, sugar, and and strain strain through through a a napkin napkin once once again, again, but but this this time time without without pressing. pressing. Stand in an an ice ice bucket, bucket, surrounded surrounded by by a a mixmixStand this this mixture mixture in ture of of crushed cru shed ice ice and and sea sea salt salt (coarse (coarse salt), salt), allowing allowing l0 10 per per ture of salt, salt, and and leave leave to to chill' chilI. Loosen Loosen the the parts parts which which get get cent of cent stuck stuck to to the the sides sides of of the the ice ice bucket bucket about about every every 15 J 5 minutes' minutes. When When the the whole whole mixture mixture acquires acquires a a granulated granulated texture, texture, serve serve it in sherbet sherbet glasses, glasses, adding adding half ha If a a coffeespoon coffeespoon of of kirsch kirsch to to each each glass. glass. AGUAXIMA of Brazilian Brazilian pepper pepper not not very very difdifAGUAXIMA - A A species species of ferent from ordinary ordinary PePPer. pepper. A fruit AGLJNCAIB.lcuNclriAGUNCATE. AGUNCATÉ-A fruit grown grown in in Peru,calledpalta Peru, calledpalta in Lima. Lima. It It is is shaped shaped like like a a calabash calabash (gourd), (gourd), is is green green in in colour colour and has has a varniJhed varnished appearance. appearance. Its Its skin skin comes cornes away away from from the flesh easily when the fruit fruit is ripe. ripe. This This flesh, flesh, somewhat somewhat in common common with insipid, is eatCn eaten with salt. It It has something in with (q'v.). of avocado the flesh of avocado Pear pear (g .v.).
medica) (French name for Citr~ Citnrs medica) CDDRE (French AIGRE DE AIGRE DE CÈDRE Dame for Grasse around Grasse in Provence, Provence, around cultivated of a citron tree cultiva Fruit of ted in It Italy. It in Italy. Genoa in near Genoa and near Remo and at San San Remo Nice, also also at and Nice, and drink. summer drink. makes a very refreshing summer cut slice cut thin slice a thin means a An aiguillette aiguillette means AIGUILLETTE - An game. poultry and winged game. and winged the breast of poultry on the lengthways on describe to describe be used used to only he should only speaking, the word should Slrictly speaking, Strictly thin to thin referring to when used wh often used it is is often fowl, but it slices of fowl, thin slices en referring tbin into aiguillettes' aiguillettes'.. 'cut a beef into of beef fillet of a fillet e.g., 'cut meat, e.g., slices of of meat, slices (see BEEF). BEEF). rump (see top rump the top describe the used to to descrihe is a/so also used Aiguillette is Aiguillette

Agouti Agouti

which France,which ofFrance, southof inthe thesouth usedin Definition used AILLADE - - Definition AILLADE (Languedoc or Provence) orProvence) district (Languedoc thedistrict tothe according to applies,according applies, garlic allgarlic areaH butare somewhat but differsomewhat preparationswhich which differ topreparations to based. based. (q-v.)' garlicvinaigrette vinaigrette (q.v.), ofgarlic sortof santce,aasort ailladesauce, Firstly,ail/ade Firstly, garnishes' othergarnishes. andother chivesand shallots, chives includingshallots, sometimesincluding sometimes

5

AIOLI AÏOLI
Aillade sauce sauceis isserved served with withco cold meatand potatoes andfish, fish, with withpotatoes Aillade Id meat generally, with and, generally, with ail alldishes dishes served servedàdla lavinaigrelle. vinaigrette. and, Secondly, bread bread àd l'aillade, I'aillade,aa slice slice of of toasted toasted bread, bread, Secondly, thoroughly rubbed rubbed with garlic and with garlic andsprinkled sprinkled with with olive olive oil. oil. thoroughly provengal aillade This provençal aillade is isthe the equivalent equivalent of the Languedocian of the Languedocian This (garlic-rubbed chapon (garlic-rubbed bread). bread). chapon Certain authors authors also also mention mention other other regional regional preparations preparations Certain known under under the the name name of of aillade. aillade. Among Among these theseare: ari: known Aillade albigeoise albigeoise which which is is nothing nothing more more than than an an aïoli atoli Aillade (q.v.). Aillade d la la toulousaine toulousaine which which is isalso also an anaïoli atoliwithblanched with blanched pounded walnuts and pounded walnuts added. added. and these preparations preparations are are very very appetising but but something something Ali these -All of an acquired acquired taste, taste, garlic being being their outstanding outstanding characcharacof an teristic. Tbey They are are excellent for for seasoning seasoning salads. salads. teristic. AIOLIoT IILLOLI -- Peel Peel4 pound and pound AÏOLI or AILLOU 4 large cloves of garlic, and to a paste in a fine fine paste in a a mortar mortar with I egg yolk. Season Season with with aa to pinch of of salt, salt, and and continue continue to pound, adding 21to pound, (scant 2| dl. dl. (scant generous cup) cup) olive olive oil oil little little by by little, little, as ] pint, generous as for ior mayonmayonnaise. Stir Stir this this mixture mixture vigorously. vigorously. When When finished, finished, it it should should have the the appearance appearance of of a a thick thick smooth smooth m'lyolnn.ais;e. mayonnaise. have Aioli is is served served mainly mainly with with boiled boiled fish, fish, hot or or cold, cold, but but Afoli can also also be be served served with with cold cold meal, meat, or or used used as as a a seasoning seasoning for for can salads and and cooked cooked vegetables. vegetables. salads Garnishod aïoli. aio[. AÏOLI .liou GARNI cARNr -- This This dish, dish, very popular in Garnish.ed Provence, is is composed of of a a variety of of inl~re:dilmt.s, ingredients, such as Provence, boiled cod, cod, snails cooked cooked in in salt water, water, fennel, onions onions boiled stuck withcloves, with cloves, boiled boiled carrots, carrots, french french beans, beans, artichokes artichokes stuck cooked in in salt salt water, water, unskinned potatoes, bard-boiled unskinned potatoes, hard-boiled eggs, eggs, cooked etc. Small Small octopi, boiJed boiled in in salted salted water with herbs, herbs, are are somesomeetc. times added. All these are arranged on a a large dish and and served served with aïoli. aioli. with The preparation of of this this dish, says J. B. Reboul, one J. B. one of the the The maitres provengale, demands a cuisine provençale, great deal a great deal of of maitres de la cuisine artistic arrangement. arrangement. Not Not ail all the ingredients whicb which we we have artistic enumerated, however, are absolutely essential. There is is no no enumerated, however, are set rule point. One on this this point. One should proceed proceed according to to one's set rule on tastes and the tas tes and the means means at one's disposal. Aidi la grecqrre i la kind of vinaigrette sauce sauce which which is Aïoli il A kind -A prepared combine pounded walnuts, prepared as as follows: combine walnuts, almonds and and soaked in in and hazelnuts hazelnuts with fresh fresh breadcrumbs sieved and milk, pounded garlic. garlic. Blend BJend with oil, vinegar and lemon milk, and and pounded juice. juice. Serve Serve with with fried fried and boiled boiled fish.

Albatross Albatross

ALBUIERA @') - Definition applying to various kinds of ALBUFÉRA dishes chiefly chieflyCh,naictenStxj characterised by the sauce which goes with dishes them. them. Theterm term d'AlbuJéra d'Albufdra was probably first was probably first used usedeither either by by _The Car6me or or by by his his successor successor Plumerey, Plumerey,so Carême sothe the recipefor for Duckling à dla lad'AlbuJéra d'Albufirais almost certainly Duckling is almost certainly the authenticone. one. It differs differs slightly slightly from from the themodem modern version. It version. Marshal Suchet Suchet was was made made Duke Duke of Marshal ofAlbuféra Albuf6rain in1812 l812 after after the victories victories of of Oropéza, Orop6za, M Murviedro urviedro and the and Valencia Valenciain in Spain. The lake lake of of Albuféra (See DUCK. Albuf6ra is is near near Valencia. The Valencia. (See cHrcKEN.) CHICKEN.)

ALBUMEN -- A A constituent constituent of ALBUMEN of seeds seeds containing containing food food reserves for plant in for the the plant reserves in germination. Albumen Albumen is issometimes sometimes farinaceous, as as in in cerealssuch such as asmaize, farinaceous, maize, barley, barley, corn corn and and rye; sometimes sometimes oily oily or or fleshy fleshy as rye; as in in coconut palm and coconut palm and in in black black poppy. In In certain palms it certain palms it acquires poppy. acquires the the hardness hardness of of ivory. ivory. The albumen albumen contained contained in The in coconuts coconuts is is in in the the fonn form of of an an layer surrounding outer layer surrounding the outer the inner inner cavity that that contains contains the the liquid commonly commonly known known as liquid ut milk. as cocon coconut

grain or Section of Section a grain corn showing ofa ofcorn showing albumen the albumen the

AISY left over from the AISY - Name Name given given to the (soured) (soured) whey !eft scalding scalding of of milk milk used used in in the production prod uction of Gruytre. This whey whey is is used used to to make cheeses cbeeses of an an inferior quality called serai.The serai. The aisy aisy is is stored stored in barrels and added to daily &s more whey whey becomes becomes available. ALARIA of seaweed of which five five species are ALARIA - A A genus genus of found in the the seas seas ofnorthern of northern Europe. Europe. found in One One variety, variety, known known as as badderlocks badderIocks in in Scotland Scotland and murlins murlins in in Ireland, Ireland, flourishes flourishes along along the the Atlantic Atlantic coast coast of of the British British Isles. Isles. It It is is eaten eaten in Scotland, in lreland, Ireland, and in the Faroe Faroe Islands. Islands.. Only Only the the slightly sligbtly sweet central central cartilaginous cartilaginous vein is consumed. consumed. vein is

ALBACORE ALBACORE (Yellowfin (YeLlowfin tura) tuBa) - A A large large species of tunny tunny (tuna) (tu na) fish. fish. This This is is also also the the Portuguese Portuguese word word for for the the swordswordfish fish (q.v.). (q.v.).

ALBARELLE of edible edible fungi fungi which which grows grows on on ALBARELLE - A A genus of
chestnut chestnut trees trees and and white poplars. poplars.

Many types of grain are are used for for their their albumen albumen in in domestic domestic economy, in medicine and economy, and in in the the arts. cereals provide provide arts. Thus Thus cereals us with with flour; us flour; the the coffee coffee shrub shrub wüh with an an alkaloid known known as as caffeine; the the black poppy with black poppy poppyseed oil, with poppyseed oil, used used almost almost unlve:rSélllv universally as as a food. The The seeds a food. seeds of certain species of of waterwaterlilies, very pleasant to the palate, lilies, palate, are much much used in Cbina and China and Vietnam as as food. The kernels of a species grows species of pine that grows in in Provence Provence and and Italy contain contain an an oily, oily, delicately flavoured albumen, which makes them much valued valued in in confectionery, confectionery, particularly in the manufacture manufacture of sugared pine nuts. nuts. Several Several species species of of palm tree provide provide both edible oil and and oil for lighting. Linseed Linseed oil oil cornes ing. comes from the seeds seeds of flax. species of A species of dwarf dwarf palm, found produces a found in Peru, produces a large cabezo de fruit which the natives call call cana or cabezo de negro. negro, When is green, the tbe albumen'of albumen· of its its seeds the fruit is the seeds is is a a pleasanttasting liquid which, when fermented, yields a a wine that that is is mu ch appreciated by the the Peruvians. The fruit, when wh en ripe, much The fruit, ripe, be put put to the the same same uses uses as ivory; becomes very hard and can be as ivory; in fact fact it il is is exported under under the the name name of of raw raw ivory or vegetable in or vegetable ivory. When When burned, burned, the the product product obtained obtained compares compares ivory. obtained from from eleelefavourably with ivory black, which is obtained phants' teeth teeth and and tusks. phants'
ALBUMINE - Viscous whitish matter matter with with a a ALBUMTNE whitish - Viscous slightly salty salty taste. taste. An example is is white white of of egg, egg, which which conconslightly 59 per per cent cent of ofits i18 total total weight weight (see (see EGGS). EGGS). tains albumin albumin up up to to 59 tains A}bumin is is also also found in ln blood blood serum, serum, in in milk milk and and in in Albumin of dried dried vegetables. It It is is for for plants, particularly in in the the seeds seeds of plants, this reason reason that that the water water in in which which peas, peas, beans and and lentils lentils this

ALBATROSS. ALBATROSS. lrs.{rnm ALBATROS - Sea Sea bird bird with with very tough tough flesh. flesh. That That ofthe of the young young bird bird is is eaten, eaten, nevertheless, nevertheless, and is is prepared prepared like like Wild Wild &tck duck (see (see DUCK). DUCK). ALBIGEOISE ALBIGEOISE-- Garnish Garnish for for large large and and small small cuts cuts of ofmeat. meat. It It consists consists of ofstuffed stuffed tomatoes tomatoes and and potato potato croquettes. croquettes.
6

ALBUMIN. ALBUMIN.

ALCAZAR ALCAZAR
Albumin is are cooled. Albumin are cooked cooked becomes becomes viscous viscous when when cooJed.
soluble in water in its raw state but coagulates a temperacoagulates at a and then becomes insoluble. ture of 78-80°e. 78-80'C. (172-176"F.) (l72-l76°F.) and Albumin in the form of of a a thin yellowish transparent sediment can be obtained by evaporating the white of egg egg at at a the white (122"F.). temperature of about 50°e. 50'C. (l22°F.). Albumin is used in the confectionery confectionery industry as as a a substitute for white of egg in the manufacture manufacture of certain kinds of of liquorice, Montélimar Montelimar whisked pastes pastes such as marshmallow, whisked marshmallow, liquorice, nougat and various meringue products. as an It is also an egg egg substitute in in the the manufacture manufacture of of also used used as cheap biscuits and almond paste. Before use it has has to be disId water. cold solved in about seven times its weight of co Albumin in the form of beaten whites of egg is used in the clearing of of wine. in and brown them them in onions and pimentos and Method. Slice Slice the onions Method. garlic. Sprinkle stir, with flour, flour, stir, Sprinkle with slightly crushed crushed garlic. butter. Add slightly (which has has been meat (which been and add add the the meat lightly, and to brown brown lightly, allow to Add the the egg egg and and and seasoning. seasoning. Add minced), breadcrumbs, and minced), water, a little of of the stock stock or or boiling boiling water, well. Moisten with a blend weil. quarter of an hour. hour. for a a quarter of an and leave leave to to sim simmer and mer for pastry into a a pastry still hot, hot, into mixture, while while still Put this this forecemeat forecemeat mixture, Put saucepan ring. Hold Hold the the bag bag over over a a saucepan forcing-bag fitted fitted with a a ring. small slices slices of of the the squeeze; cut cut off off small stock and and squeeze; of boiling boiling stock of quenelles the bag. bag. Sim Simmer these quenelles of the sausage as it it cornes comes out out of mer these sausage,as pan. lid off leaving the the lid off the the pan. in the boiling stock stock leaving in in butter, butter, and and add add them them soften them them in Chop the the tomatoes, tomatoes, soften Chop just before served. it is is served. to the the soup soup just before it to

ALBUMINOIDS. ALBUMINOïDES -- Substances ALBUMINOIDS.,c,rnuMNoioEs Substances possessing properties akin albumin (coagulable by by heat), akin to to those those of albumin proteinic substances. also called nitrogenous, quaternary or proteinic They exist in animal or vegeveg€all living organisms, organisms, whether animal in ail
table. Chemical analysis same four four basic basic elements: elements: analysis reveals the same carbon, hydrogen, oxygen in varyoxygen and and nitrogen nitrogen associated in ing quantities with other elements. Albuminoids constitute of ttre essential elements elements of constitute one one of the our the only only our diet. diet. Of all the the substances we we generally eat, eat, the Of aU ones lacking in albuminoids albuminoids are those which have undergone undergone an industrial purifying process su ch as sugar. such as oil oil and and sugar. ln In dietetics, dietetics, an an increased increased ration ration of of albuminoids albuminoids is is ococcasionally prescribed (in cases of malnutrition, etc.) but more casionally prescribed more frequently the is reduced albuminoids in the the diet diet is the amount of albuminoids prowhen, for for example, the kidneys fail fail to to eliminate eliminate waste procxample, the ducts transform them. ducts or the liver is unable to transform Without going to reproducing specialist specialist Without going to the the extent extent of of reproducing tables possible to divide albuminoid or or tables of of analyses, analyses, it it is is possible to divide nitrogenous food food into four categories: categories: Very po or in (less than green vegepoor in albumins albumins (less than 1 cent): green I per cent): tables, pulpy fruit, potatoes, rice, tables, pulpy fruit, potatoes, rice, cream, cream, butter, butter, honey, sugar, oils. Poor (up (up to green cabspinach, artichokes, green cabto 6 6 per cent): cent): spinach, bages, Brussels uts, green peas, cocoa, green peas, cocoa, chestnuts, Biussels sprouts, bages, sprouts, chestn chocolate. Rich (6 to per cent): Rich (6 cereals, noodles, to 12 12 per cent): bread, bread, Bours, flours, cereals, eggs. eggs. Very (I2 to per cent): hazelVery rich rich (12 cent): walnuts, walnuts, almonds, almonds, hazelto 30 30 per nuts, peas, lentils, dried peas, lentils, various meats, nuts, various meats, fish, fish, dried dried beans, beans, dried beans, peas, cheeses. beans, chick peas, cheeses.

Alcarazza Alcarazza

(Water cooler). ALCARRAZA The French French cooler). ALCARAZAS ALcARAZAS -- The ALCARRAZA (Water have the Spanish, Spanish, who who in in turn turn from the have borrowed borrowed this this word word from (pitcher). In borrowed it alkourraz (pitcher). In Egypt, Egypt, it from from the the Arabic Arabic alkourraz 'the alcarraza the has become the French French become the this has is called bardak; this called bardak; alcarraza is probably barclague balasse. Bardak Bardak is is a a Turkish Turkish word word probably bardague and and balasse. stemming bara, meaning meaning to to cool, cool, and and root bara, stemming from from the the Arabic Arabic root (meaning, like from like alcarraza, a frorn which barradn (meaning, alcarraza, a is derived which is derived barrada vessel vessel for liquids) and and the the Spanish word albarrada. albarrada. for cooling cooling liquids) Spanish word jugs of These porous, unglazed various shapes shapes are are filled filled These porous, unglazed jugs of various with shade in in a a draught. The water water with water water and and hung hung in in the the shade draught. The jug and oozes pores of The of the the jug and evaporates. evaporates. The through the the pores oozes through hotter air, the the hotter the the outside temperature and and the the drier drier the the air, outside temperature quicker quicker the heat necessary necessary for for evaporation evaporation the evaporation. evaporation. The The heat jug, which is frorn the liquid inside inside the the jug, which is is thus thus is extracted extracted from the liquid cooled. eooled.
paste ALCAZAR (Pâtisserie) - Line Lining paste with Lining Line a a sponge tin with sponge tin ALCAZAR(PSfisserie)(see (see DOUGH). with 2 2 tabletableand spread spread with Prick the the bottom bottom and DOUGH). Prick jam. Fil spoons 1 three-quarters (3 tablespoons) Fill of apricot jam. three-quarters of spoons (3 tablespoons) apricot the following mixture: the tin tin with with the the following mixture: g oz., Ingredients. g. (4 icing sugar, I cup) sugar, 4 4 egg egg whites, 125 g. oz., 1 cup) icing whites, Ingredients. 125 60 (2 oz., (2 oz., g. (2 gtound almonds, almonds, 60 60 g. oz., t cup) Bour, flour, cup) ground ffi g. oz., t I cup) e.Q I cup) 25 g. (l 2 tablespoons) melted butter, kirsch. 25 g. oz., 2 tablespoons) melted butter, kirsch. Q oz., Method whites preparation. Beat and the the egg egg wrutes Beat the the sugar sugar and Method of of preparation. en add over .over gentle ground gentle heat a firm firm meringue, meringue, th then add ground heat to to obtain obtain a almonds, half aa finally, melted melted butter butter mixed mixed with with half almonds, Bour flour and, and, finally, wine kirsch. Spread glass of a buttered and Boured floured baking baking wine glass ofkirsch. Spread on on a buttered and sheet. (350'F., Gas Bake in sheet. Bake in the the {)ven at 180°e. 180"C. (350°F., Mark 4) 4) for for Gas Mark 'oven at 50 minutes and and turn out onto onto aa wire wire tray. tray. 50 to to 60 6O minutes tum out Fit pipe, and piping-bag with a ftuted and fill fill with with unFit a a cloth cloth piping-bag with a fluted pipe, uncooked (l lb.) g. (l paste in proportion of in the 450 g. lb.) to to cooked almond almond paste the proportion of 450 450 (l lb.) (see (see ALMOND, paste 1). g. (lIb.) 450 g. 1). Pipe a latticelatticeALMOND, Almond Almond paste Pipe a work pastry, then pipe a in aa hot work over a border. Place in hot oyen oven over the the pastry, then pipe border. Place to our the jam paste. Coyer with thick thick apricot to col colour almond paste. apricot jam the almond Cover with and a pistachio each lozenge. put half pistachio nut lozenge. in the and put halfa nut in the centre centre of ofeach As paste border As an an alternative an almond almond paste apricot alternative to to an border use use apricot jam jam sprinkled sprinkled with chopped roasted roasted almonds. almonds. with chopped

ALBUNDIGAS - The (Mexican cookery) ALBUNDIGAS (M~xican cookery) The originof origin of albundigas appears to In Mexico Mexico it it to be be Spanish Spanish or or Mexican. In is is almost a a national national dish. Combine (l lb.) g. (l Ib.) finely finely choppedfillet Combine 450 450 g. chopped fillet of of beef beef and and 100 (a oz.) g. (4 100 g. oz.) fairly coarsely coarsely chopped chopped fat fat bacon. Season with with bacon. Season salt and pepper. Add a garlic and pepper.Add little crushed and a a teaspoon of of a little crushed garlic chopped parsley, and into thickish chopped parsley, and bind with an an egg. egg. Shape Shape into cakes. an ovenproof dish and and cakes. Fry in clarified butter. Put Put into ovenproof dish into an coyer for 20 20 minutes. sauce. Cook the oyen oven for minutes. in the cover with with tomato tomato sauce. Cook in Serve (see RICE). Rice à criole (see Serve with Rice d la la créole RICE). Albundigas Albundigas can frorn a a mixture mixture of of veal veal and and can also also be be made made from pork. The me : The Mexicans also also have have a a soup soup called called by this na name: by this Ingredients. (5f pints, pints, 6t pints) light light stock Ingredients. For For 3 litres (st stock or or 3 litres 6| pints) water, take 225 g. (8 oz.) g. (8 pork, veal veal or 5 mediummediumtake225 oz.) fiUet fillet of of pork, or beef, beef, 5 sized 4 green peeled and garlic,4 green pimentos, pimentos, 3 and sized onions, 3 peeled onions, a a clove clove of of garlic, deseeded (2 oz., g. (2 2 tablespoons tablespootts oz., t deseeded tomatoes, 50 g. cup) butter, butter, 2 tomatoes, 50 I cup) (3 (3 tablespoons) amount of of sieved flour, the sieved the same tablespoons) wheat wheat ftour, same amount breadcrumbs, or, better better still, still, or thyme, thyme, or, breadcrumbs, I teaspoon teaspoon coriander coriander or marjoram, I I egg and 1 egg and a more more delicate delicate Bavour, flavour, 1 marjoram, which which has has a tablespoon tablespoon salt. salt.

t

7

ALCOHOL ALCOHOL
ALCOHOL. ALCOOL ALcooL - - Liquid Liquid obtained obtained by by distilling distilling ferferALCOHOL. mented liquors. liquors. mented In chemistry, chemistry, ail all organic substances composed organic substances composed of of carbon, carbon, ln hydrogen and and oxygen, oxygen, capable capable of of being being combined combined into into an an hydrogen acid to to form form an an ether, ether, are are defined defined as as alcohol. alcohol. We We shall shall deal deal acid only with with ethyl ethyl alcohol alcohol or or wine wine alcohol, alcohol, also alsocalled called wine wine only spirit. It It is principal product product of is the the principal of the the fermentation fermentation of of sweet sweet spirit. liquids formed formed by by the the double double decomposition decomposition of ofglucose under liquids glucose under yeast. This the action action of of yeast. This microscopic microscopic vegetable vegetable cell cell reproreprothe duces itself itself by glucose into by splitting splitting glucose into carbonic carbonic acid acid and and duces palatable and alcohol and and a a few few palatable and sweet-smelling sweet-smelling by-products. by-products. alcohol (See BEER, BEER, WINE.) WINE.) (See
mentco-ordination, co-ordination, congestion congestion of of the theface, face,overpowering overpowering ment drowsiness; Third Third degree: degree.'Loss Lossof of mobility, mobility, sensitiveness sensitiveness drowsiness; and will. will. and 2. Aeute Acuteintoxication intoxication -- Early Earlysymptoms symptoms the 2. thesame same as asin in period of inebriety, but the period but the ofexcitation excitation is isvery veryshort, short, resulting inebriety, resulting quickly in insomnolence, somnolence, which which can can develop developinto quickly into aacoma coma and and evendeath death through through cerebral pulmonarycongestion. cerebral or or pulmonary even congestion. 3. Chronie Chronic alcobolism alcoholism -- Repeated Repeated abuse abuseof of alcoholic alcoholic 3. produces Jesions liquids produces lesions of (gastritis), of of the the stomach stomach (gastritis), liquids of the the liver (cirrhosis), of (nephritis), and of the the kidneys kidneys (nephritis), and of ofthe the nervous liver(cirrhosis), nervous (delirium, neuritis). system (delirium, neuritis). system

Microscopic cells cells inducing inducing Microscopie alcoholic fermentation fermentation alcoholic

produced by Alcohol is juices is produced by fermenting fermenting natural natural sweet sweet juices Alcohol (grapes, apples, apples, sugar sugar cane, cane, beetroot, beetroot, etc.) etc.) or or amyloide amyloide (grapes, musts, which which have have been preliminary fermentasubjected been su to preliminary musts, bjected to tion which which transforms transforms the the starch glucose. Wort starch into into glucose. Wort of of tion (beer), potatoes, cereals (beer), potatoes, etc. etc. are are used. cereals The distillation distillation of these musts musts and produces spirits of these and worts produces The (q.v.); the the concentration concentration and and rectification rectification of of these these spirits (q.v.); produces industrial alcohols. alcohols. produces industrial per cent Absolute 100 per cent alcohol alcohol is product; it is is a a laboratory laboratory product; Absolute 100 a which boils 78.3'C. Because of of its its high a caustic caustic liquid, liquid, which boils at at 78·3°C. water absorption potentiality potentiality it it must must be be treated with with great water absorption caution. caution. (medicinal) 95' Officinal a colourless, mobile, Officinal (medicinal) 95° alcohol alcohol is is a non-residual and a pleasant odour odour and non-residual liquid, liquid, volatile, volatile, with with a a pleasant burning 79.9"C.It burning taste; taste; it it boils boils at at 79·9°C. It can be be mixed mixed with with water water in all ail proportions, proportions, with with contraction contraction (that (that is is to to say, say, the the total volume of the the mixture mixture is is lower lower than that of of the components) components) volume of and and with with emission emission of of heat. heat. 85' 85° alcohol alcohol is is commonly commonly called called 'three-six' 'three-six' (trois-six) (trois-six) because because three three parts parts of of this this alcohol, alcohol, mixed mixed with with an an equal quantity quantity of of pure pure water, water, produce produce six parts of of ordinary eaueaude-vie. de-vie. Alcohol Alcohol possesses possesses antiseptic antiseptic properties; properties; it it is a diffusible diffusible stimulant stimulant which which has has numerous numerous uses uses in in therapeutics. therapeutics. In ln its its chemical chemical composition composition alcohol alcohol approaches sugars sugars (l (1 molecule molecule of of glucose glucose is is split, split, by by fermentation, fermentation, into into 2 2 molecules molecules of of alcohol). alcohol). It It possesses possesses definite but but moderate moderate alimentary alimentary properties, properties, because because it it decomposes decomposes too too quickly quickly in the the organism, organism, and and the the energy energy released released can can only only be be used used to to a a small small degree, degree, mainly mainly because because it it becomes becomes a a toxic toxic substance substance when when taken taken in in large large doses doses (see (see ALCOHOLISM). ALCOHOLISM).

AIfi -- English English beer, lightly hopped beer, lightly hopped and and slightly stightly bitter. ALE bitter. It It is is used in in cooking cooking for for making making various various cheese cheese dishes, used dishes, notably notably (q.v.). for Welsh Welsh rarebit rarebit (q.v.). for Ale is is obtained obtained by by rapid rapid fermentation fermentation and Ale and acquires acquires strength on on maturing; maturing; fermented fermented small small beer, strength beer, on on the the other other hand, has has only only aa short life. Stout short life. porter are Stout and and porter hand, are brewed brewed from from grain; ale roasted grain; ale is grain in from grain is made made from in its its natural roasted natural state. state. It used used to to be be a a tradition tradition in in wealthy It wealthy English English families families to to celebrate the birth birth of of aa son son by by filling filling one celebra te the one or or more more barrels barrels of of ale, specially specially brewed brewed for for the the occasion. occasion. The ale, The barrels barrels were were hermetically sealed sealed and and not not opened opened until hermetically until the the son son and and heir heir reached his his majority. majority. On On this this memorable reached memorable day day -- called called the the 'coming of of age' age'friends, tenants tenants and and servants 'coming - friends, servants were invited were invited great repast, to a a great repast, which which concluded concluded with passing round to with the the passing round of of the splendid splendid twenty-one-year-old twenty-one-year-old ale. the ale. posset Ale posset (lf pints, Heat 1 pints, generous I litre litre (I~ generous quart) Ale quart) ale ale with with - Heat a little pinch ofpowdered little sugar, sugar, a of powdered gingerand ginger and grated q pinch grated nutmeg. a nutmeg. (l| pints, Boil 1 pints, generous I litre litre (l~ generous quart) quart) unskimmed milk Boil milk and and mix it, it, while while still still boiling, boiling, with mix with the the ale. ale. Toast and and ale ale An English Toast English beverage which which used used to to be be - An served in in win winter, after the the dinner, dinner, at served ter, after at the the same same time time as as the the cheese. Method. Bring (lf pints, generous quart) old Bring 1 I litre (li Method. ale, to to old ale, which a a coffeespoon coffeespoon of ginger has which has been added, to been added, to the the boil. jug with Pour it, it, whilst whilst almost almost boiling, into a boiling, into Pour a jug with a a metal metal lid lid containing a thick slice slice of bread toasted on both sides. containing sides. Leave the ale to to stand stand for a a short time before serving.
ALECTRYON large tree A large ALECTRYON tree of of which which the the best-known - A found in New Zealand. species is found Zealand. Its red red berries, berries, much Its prized for much prized pleasant acid for their their pleasant acid flavour, are usd used in the manufacture manufacture of refreshing beverages. beverages. An excellent oil is extracted from its seeds (and exported).

ALEMBIC. ALEMBIC.

ALAMBTc ALAMBIC

comprises comprises a cucurbit, or tinned copper boiler, with or withouta out a bain-marue, bain-marie, surmounted by bya with a serpentine, a cap with serpentine, i.e., a tin, or tinned copper, spiral coil coilleading leading from it.

-

Apparatus used for Apparatus used for distilling. distilling. It

Old·fashioned alembic alembic Old-fashioned

distinct forms: distinct forms: l. 1. Inebriety Inebriety - Occurring Occurring when wh en alcohol alcohol reaches reaches a a certain certain degree, degree, variable variable with with individuals, individuals, manifesting manifesting itself itself in in the the following manner: First First degree.. degree: Sensation Sensation of of well-being, well-being, following manner: stimulation stimulation of of the the intellectual intellectual faculties facuIties and and the the imagination, imagination, slight slight swelling swelling of of the the face; face; Second Second degree: degree: Mental Mental inincoherence, diminution of of muscular muscular strength, strength, lack lack of of movemovecoherence, diminution
8

ALCOHOLISM. ALCOHOLISM. arcoolrsME ALCOOLISME - Intoxication Intoxication produced produced by by the of liquids liquids containing containing alcohol. alcohol. There There are are three three the abuse abuse of

ALGERIA ALGERIA
Theliquidtobedistilledisputdirectlyintotheboiler(in The liquid to be distilled is put directly into the boiler (in the,bain' ofof top on oror alembic), a il naked-flame ofof thqcase naked-flame alembic), on top the hainthe case
The heated' is is then alembic The it.il. part ofof thatforms marie marie that forms part The alembic then heated. The pass into These vapours' alcoholic heatieleases the ofof a"tioo action the heat relcases alcoholic vapours. These pass into and il;;.t,tn. the serpentine(*tti"tt (whichisÎscooled cooledby byflowing flowingwater)' water), and heat the tota was method Charente tiaditional The condense. The traditional Charente method was heat the obtained' first "ond.rrr.. The fires. wood directly over alembics over wood fires. The firs!liquid liquid obtained, alembics through it it passing by redistilled be toto brouillis le /e brouil/is had he redistilled by passing through -rn.rik - -hud more. once alembic the the alembic once more. in the incorporatedbeen have improvements of AA number number of improvements havc been incorporated in the oh-fashionedalembictoenablealcoholtobeobtainedatthe old-fashioned alembic to enable alcohol to he oblained at the of the nrtt and to to ensure ensure continuous continuous feeding feeding of the first attempt, and "tt.-pt, apparatus. apparatus. . Traditionalists Tradîtionaiisisinsist, insist, however, however, that thatthese theseimprovements tt""" 'boiler taste' taste' and and yield inferior inferior have onfy only increased increased the the 'boiler
re~iUlts. results.

as distilIn In industry, industry, more morecomplicated complicated apparatus, apparatus, such such as distilling lingtowers towerswith with rectifiers, rectifiers,etc., etc., are areused' used.

ALGAE.ALGuE_Plantswhichliveinwater.Thenutritive ALGAE. ALGUE - Plants which live in water. The nutritive m919 n"tu. value of of algae is is indubitable, indubitable, and and has has generally generally been been more the 1914 ;;G".ly proved proved than than that that of of fungi' fungi. During During the 1914

war, wu, these theS<.: ptants were were used used as as fodder fodder for for horses' horses. value of Recent Recent iesearch research has has confirmed confirmed the the dietetic dietetic value of it seems concerned' is human-beings feeding As far far as as feeding human heings is concerned, it scems atgae- As North use ih"at certain certain small small pririitive primitive tribes tribes in in the the extreme extreme North use scarce' algae nourishment when when food food is is scarce. algae as as emergency emergency nourishment. Scotland' in eaten are algae of varietiei or algae are eaten in Scotland. Several varietÎes S&"tat are used are are highly es-teemed esteemed in in the the Far Far East East and and are used as a Sasis for a large number numher of of widely widely marketed marketed foodstuffs' foodstuffs. that the (sea tangle) is from from ce.tain certain laminaria laminaria species species (sea tangle) that the It is are several there are kombus, for kombu, Japanese kombu, or or kombu.s, for there se veral called' so calle<!. SC2IW(:eO-o;asc:Q seiweed-based dishes so until thoroughly hours until1hl'.r"""nh for hours vinegar for in vinegar The algae are soaked in the leaves is of 1 skin of The skin air' The open air. the open in the and dried in saturatei and saturated, he leaves under' white the and knife, sharp a using off, strredaed itren then shredded off, a sharp knife, and the white underinto a crushed into and crushed then.dried is then ..."p"d. ThiJpulp fying pulp lying pulp Îs dried and a iltp scraped. according to geometrical.shapes small geometrical into small ot eut into powder, shapes according to io*?it, or essence' "ui anchovy essence, like anchovy rather like condiment, rather A condiment, iequirements. A fragments from fragments made from is made Japanese, is the Japanese, with the popular with u"iu.w very popular sauce' soy sauce. in soy boiled in pulp, boiled same pulp, this same of this of vegefish' vegewith fish, cooked with iscooked algae Îs these algae pirt of of these central part The central The made beverage made A beverage flavour' A tlieir flavour. enhance thcir to enhance soups to andsoups tables and tables is added to Kombu is rea. Kombu like tea. drunk like isdrunk kombu is prf"".isid kombu ir"_ pulverised from added to cut into often is It rice' for condiment a as used as a condiment for rice. ft is often eut stews^and and used into stews or thus'or consumed either and fire,and either consumed thus, byaa tire, a.i"O by unadried and water' boilingwater. inboiling momentsin fewmoments foraafew soakingititfor aftersoaking which they onewhich algae'one ofalgae, varietyof anothervariety eatanother Japanese eat TheJapanese The they dried in are these washed, being After artificially. Arter cultivate artificially. washed, these are dried in pieces' and used smallpieces, ".rtiGt" intosmall rou'rt"d, crumbledinto lightlyroasled, sun,Iightly thesun, and used the sauces. andsauces. souPs flavoursoups toflavour and to kantus'.a is in Japanis kantus, usedin oftenused productortcn algaeproduct Anotheralgae Another a halfshiny' white' of form in the g"Utitt" & oigi"" rottof glue or gelatine in the form of sort shiny, halfused like tapioca for Kantusisis flakes'Kan/us or shavlngs ;;;;.p"t.* ""'''''1 ...'''' . . ''' shavings or fiakes. used like tapioca for sauces'. and soups preparing jellies,soups and sauces. in the great faith '^irg"""iidietetics have Dieticianshave dietetics^_ great faith in the - Dîelicians inlong has man fact, in And, algae. of value nlllnl!''''''lll value of algae. And, in fact, man has long indiet' his in ""tiiTioour algae of varieties certain cluded cluded certain varieties of algae in his diet. recognise the first the were who Japanese the was ft It was the Japanese who were the first toto recognise the systemltic-ally' them exploit and algae uatue Oieltic ofoi algae and tato exploit them systematically. dietetic value bays in the cultivated porphyry genuslre the iea atga" ofof the porphyry are cultivated in the bays Red have beds algae of thousands Hirostrimi. and of i"r.-v" and Hiroshima. of have (lbeds to 2 vards) I to ocean' the edge trt" sprung up ono" the edge ofof the ocean, 1 to 22 m.m' to 2 yards) particular no presents cultivationpresents no particular surface.Gro*Cultivation below the surface. t-he y"at' through right continues harvest the and proUf"rn problem and the harvest continues right through the year. wayl.in variety wide a in algae consume Japanese The Japanese consume algae in a wide variety of9f ways: in The dishes' The various preparation the r"6;,ln-tui"at, soups, in salads, in in the preparation ofof various dishes. The heat' and a fierce over hardened tttinty, tii""O on"" u.. algae are often sliced thinly, hardened over a tierce heat, and

species-of chopped. This makes them easier to use' Various chopped.are This makes them easier to use. Various kombu' of manufacture the in base a as used iurniiuti" laminaria used asvegetable a base infor the manufacture or mixed with rice soup as a used it thenare ;hi;h which is then used as a vegetable for or mixed wiili rice for example' seasoned with soy sauce. bther species, kanten seasoned with soy sauce. Olher for example, are used inpdtisserie and confectionery' interest are în pâtisserie and \"VJlU'-·"'''Vlll..' algae are not simply a culinary expedient' and Butused in the But algae are not simply culinary expedient, andinterest countries; Eastern to aFar confine-d not in1t.*"i, food in themof is the not experts, confinedthey to Far Eastern a countries; the valuable in constitute opinioo opinion of the experts, they constitute a valuable food resource for the future. resouree the future. that chlorella, microscopic freshwater way this ir in for ft which, is in lhis way that ch/orella, microscopie rreshwaler themreproduce conditions, favourable undei aljae which, under favourable conditions, themsave our planet one day reproduce rapidity, may astonishing r.iu.t *ittt planet with astonisrung save our to write: E. and A. N".g.te have good reason itorn fu*ioe. proved from famine. E. and A.of liboratory animals reason write: :L;;;;;;laifeeding has to 'Experimental feedîng of and energy animaIs proved chlorellae. value of has thJ food any doubt GVirO lipic and the food and value of chlorellae. beyond any doubt are rich in proteinic, that chlorellae iii""pp"r.nt It is that chlorellae areacceleraled cultivation will and and that substances, vitaminised It is vlt:amml:sed substances., and that will supplement' important-nutritional an with man provide provide man with an important nutritional supplement. H is with that cultivation traditional of replacing ; qr;iion replacing Iraditional eultivation with that not a question in the exploitation in useful maylome lattir but the of but the tter may come in zones'' usefuJ in the exploitation or semi-arid inlaarid of so-lar'energy globe energy in arid or semi-arid zones.' This meani that the underprivileged peoples of thc Trus means their that the underprivileged of elements the globe and trace quota of vitamins peoples receive could receive their quota of vitamins and trace elements "o"n which at present they entirely lack' which at present they entirely Jack.

ii

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ALGERIA.lrcfnn_Algeriaisanessentiallyagricultural

ALGER lA. ALGÉRŒ - Aigeria is anwhere essentially cultivation cerealagrîeultural iell region in the i.p.cially t*n,r', while country, especially in the Tell region where cereal eultivation plains'

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d.il*

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ti,.

"ifr"

oredominates. Pasture lands extind to the high are landsunsuitable ex tend to the hîgh plains, while agriculture for and land irr"-rnou"tuinsPasture mountains and land unsuitable for agriculture are considerable of therefore, a country, is It forest. with granaries' covered wi th forest. 1t îs a country, therefore, of considera ble "ont..O resources. In ancient times it was one of Rome's one of Rome's resources. In ancient was barley' oats' wheat, cereal: of form il every times Atgeria has Algeria has etc. \theat form cereal: valued wheat, for the manuoats, especially is of .iff"t, -uirE, a produces maize, millet, etc. is valued for the manuit since products, semolina pasta and of i;;tut; of does facture pasta andswelling semolina since it of cooking' the process in products, while p".tt *fti.tt, pasta whieh, while swellîng in the process of not lose its shaPe. ---ine not lose its shape. vineyards, work ofthc French colonists, are atgerian The Aigerian vineyards, work the French are are gradually They colonists, Algiers' andof Oian around situated riainly around Oran and of Mascara' are gradua!ly situated mainly Mostaganem The wines Oi-ini.f,i"g in number. diminisbing in number. The wines time of the and M6d6a are among the best known' Since the V.D.Q.S. and Médéa are among the best known. Since time of the classified been have they administratio-n ri.n"r, and have French administration they been c!assified content V.D.Q.S. high alcohol of have (q.v.). They are generally of (q.v.). r.".pirflu"alities, are generally of high alcoho\ and have the providence thelrcontent mate. wtrictr good a."t"rs-who specialise which them the dessert grapes of Early blending. in make iin. wîne specialise in blending. Barly are exported in June. are Plums, exported in June. and almonds are other equally early greengages as almonds are other equally early Plums, greengages fruits such Algerian the specifically theie areand Then fruits. dried fruits. Then there are the specifically such as two are The last fruits and figs' Algerian dates o.*nl.q tangerines, dates andquantities' figs. The last twoproportion are dried o.ranges, tangerines., A large considerable uiia &pottdin manuthe in and exported in considerable quantities. A large proportion locally are used tangerines g"t and irut oiitt" of the oranges and tangerines are used locally in the manufacture of liqueurs. faclure of liqueurs. farming produces excellent quality potatoes' Vegetable producespeas' excellent Vegetable farming carrots, melons' wa!e-rtomatoes, artichokes, beani in tomatoes, peas, carrots, waterbeans, artichokes, olives are cultivated (eggplints)' and aubergines m' 900 and aubergines (eggplants). Olives are cultivated in melons up to regions higher aliw in and regions itt. tittot"t the littoral regions and in a fewRefineries higher regions - upon to the 900 spot m. situated altitude. re-eg in 3000 iover3000 golde.n' (over in altitude. Refineries situated fruity' on the easy-fl9wing, quality-oil, very good produce a feet) of the oiL easy-tlowing, fruit y, and crustaceans coasts furnish all ihe'fish The a The coas(s . fish and crustaceans of the those to similar very mer de as/rzdts well as Mediterranean, Mediterranean, as weil asfruits de mer very similar to those ofProvence' on the coast found found on the coast Provence. feed on the pasture lands of the livestock of of ft"rds iuig. cattle, ofare livestock on the landsas of the Large herds many sheep as pasture ten times about feed There interiolr. for There arewhy about teo times asmany many more sheep recipes. as cattle, interior. explains so are there *tti.ft are so Algerian more recipes foras which there such animals' ndigenous -utton than for beif. a gastroIndigenous animais, such as camels and gazelles' appear on the menu more as in an appear on the menu more as a gastronomical curiosity than inyttring else, and are treated exceptional manner. anything else, and are treated in an exceptional manner. cooking is not so very different from that of Algerian cooking is not 50 very different from that of

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9

ALGERIA
ALGERIA
Tunisia and Morocco. All three come under the heading of Arab cuisine. Tunisia and Morocco. Ali three come under the heading of Spices abound: absinth, verbena, basil, citron, gum Arab cuisine. resin, mint, sesame, pimentos, abound: absinth, verbena, basil, citron, gum *itf, resin, Spices etc. Dishes are flavouiJ ,r, el-hanout, a blend mint, sesame, pimentos, etc. Dishes are flavoured with ras of-twenty-seven different spices inseparably linked of twenty-seven different spices inseparel-hanoul, a blend with the feast oi Atd-et-Kibir. cuisine of Aid-el-Kébir. ablyArab Iinked with the feastcookery'. or 6tent cursrNE ARABE _ This type of food is simple CUlSINE ARABE - This Arab cuisine or 'tent and cookery'. healthyj the milk, oit, semotioa, .iJi d?r:1 vegetables, of food is simple andhealthy; the milk, oil, semolina, pasta products, condiments and meats go wrucn dates, vegetables, pasta products, and produce meats lnto its composition are condiments all excellent and easilygo digestible which into its composition are ail excellent and produce dishes. The easily digestible method dishes. of slaughter.used by the Arabs, consisting of seygringthe The methodneck, of slaughter used by the th. Arabs, of the.windpipe jugutar;;;r;; two consisting without the "nd h-fting severing neck, the windpipe and the two ii cimprete,-is the knife offuntil severance particularly without lifting knife off until severance tothe be recommended. n,ol1"t,,.,,I!1lrlv to eat be recommended. The Arabs only the flesh of animals; the blood is for_ bidden. Theeat the flesh ofwhich animais; the the blood is forKoran lays down foods e*U, permitted Theto Koran down which foodsanimals, the Arabs are bidden. eat. "* includes aquatic il; _This poultry and pennitted to all eat. includes ail birds, except "iithe birds aquatic of prey_animais, day or nocturnal poultry and ail birds, except birds o""n, of prey day or nocturnal animals, - all livestock cimels, ,h".p,'"t..,-*iin-t-fr" - exception ail livestock animais, camels, of pig and wild boar. oxen, sheep, etc., with the exception of pig and wild boar. The lawgiver advises his faithfur: 'Do not eat . The in a crouching 'Do not eat in a crouchhisas faithful: or lawgiver huddled advises position, this position inclines on. to .ut too or ing huddled as this inclinesas one to eat much, but sit at the table in position Juch a manner to appear always too much, but to get at the table in su ch a manner as to appear ready up., always ready to get up.' Arabs generally drink only once, after a meal, when a communal Arabs generally drink only once, after a meal, a vessel (guerba), containing spring watei when o, _if{ makes the round communal vessel (guerba), containing spring water or milk, of those participatiig in the meal. The the person makes round of thoseshourd participating in the into meal. drinking not bieathe the bowr The drinking not breathe into the bowl liquid; heshould must remove it from ni, fip, U"for. ::i9iTi"g.,he co:nUllln:mg thebreathe liquid; again. be must remove it from his before oegmrung to Then he may resume drinkine. A be~~mrurlg to breathe Then he cup of coffee and a pipe of tobacco coffee a meal of the "i*"y" """.i"J.'l'rr". true and Arab. of the true Arab. Coffee, a Moslem beverage, is the inseparable companion Coffee, a Moslem beverage, is the inseparable companion 9f tglu:l (they constitute the two great pt"urur.r'oi it of tobacco constitute the two great pleasures of the rt- is (they very rich in tonic substanr"r uno trt.irior. " ,{rab)' u..y rich in toniethe substances and therefore very Arab). It is beneficial in very a country where summer temperature varies beneficiaJ in a where the summer temperature varies between 25'C. and 50"C. (77"F. and 122.F.). between 25°C. and The tea hour and is a ritual. There is mint tea, absinth and sage teaThe teawith hour is a ri tuaI. basil and is mint tea, laced marjoram, ambergri, 1un uro_"ti. tea lacedserved with with ambergris basil balls and ambergris lnruslon mounted in silver is the infusion served ambergris balls mounted ultimate refinement) ultimate refinement). Arabs drink no wine; the Koran forbids it. Arabs drink no wine; the Koran forbids it. One of the authors of the commentaries to the Koran, Sidi One of the authors the commentaries the Koran, Sidi Dylaleddine, thinks, of prophet however, that theto *rrt Dylaleddine, thinks, however, that the Prophet simply wanted to forbid excessive wine drinking, and that *in, i, wanted toprovided forbid excessive drinking, permitted one doeswine not get arunk. and that wine is pennitted one doessaid: not .Eat drunk. Another, provided one better, and drink, but with-going going better, and drink, but without Another, excess, for Godone loves not him who commits excess., .When out excess, for God loves not him who commits excess.' Arrb gastronomical customs _ the food is-s"rueO,, Arab gastronomieal customs 'When the food is served,' EJ SV.aut6,.'help yourself from around tfre eage ofifrl :?f El qrsn, Syauté, 'help yourself from around the edge teavrng the middle, as the blessing of heavenof the leaving the middle, as the blessing of heaven will will descend upon it.' descend upon of. it.' hospitality. are rigorously observed by the .,1|11-11*,.. The laws bo~;pitalit:y by the rvroslems. lt a of stranger, be he we]l or poorly dressed, upp"urc If a stranger, or of Moslems. at the entrane to a tent, or at the door a t ou*",'unO'urt, at the entrance the to a master tent, or of at the house, asks for hospitality, the door household i_;;;;i; for hospitality, the master of the household immediately answers: 'Be welcome,, and bids him enter, indicatinj and which bids him enter, indicatinga a answers: 'Becarpet welcome,' o1 the nla99 or mat covers the floor. Im_ place on the carpet or mat which covers the tloor. Immediately, the visit is treated as a festive occasion mediately, the avisit as a festive occasionand andthe the guTt is offered cup is oftreated coffee or tea and whatever there is iseat. offered a cup of coffee or tea and whatever there is guest ready to to eaL _H_ospitality is the duty of every good Moslem. of every good Moslem. When a Moslem family offers ybriro.rln esselmenor some you sorne messe/men or sorne y.baa1-el garroussa (cakes in thi fo.m oi tapering fingers or of tapering fingers or sebaas-el aarroussa in the fonn biscuits shaped like small hands) it is-; ,ig' tt-"t t;;;;; biscuits shaped like smaU hands) it is a sign that you are welcome. welcome. The pattern ofthe hand seen on the cakes, on the tents. on the tents, on The pattern of the hand seen on the cakes, on
the walls, windows and doors of Moslem houses, issymbol a symbol the walls, windows and doors of Moslem hou ses, is a of power and has an historical significance. of power and has an historical significance. Moses, having changed his rod into a serp€nt, showed cbanged his rod into a serpent, showed hishis ,Moses, having Pharaoh, bear witness po*.r.-fn. 114^tl hand to Pharaoh, as as if if to to bear witness to to hishis power. Tbe faithful th's adopted the symbol of the hand of Moses faithful thus adopted the symbol of the hand of Moses as as a a protection from the evil eye. protection from the evil rigid period of fasting, the Ramadan, prescribed of the Ramadan, is is pre:scrlbf:d A y1ry .-A ror a,, Mosrems during alr daylight hours of the.n^ti.. month hours of the month of Ramadan, which is the ninth-month of the fvfonammeOan month of the Mohammedan year. year. The word Ramadan comes from a verb meaning rain, The word Ramadan cornes from a verb meaning toto rain, because washes away the sins of the flesh and .t.""nr", washes away the sins of the flesh and cleanses the because it it lt. heart of its impurities. heart of its .rn.nllf·,tll'<;: The period of fasting was laid down by Mohammed, _ The during second year oithe Hegira, to sanciify by,;Eious during the second year observance the memory of what-happened toit. fi;f;; observance the when he ate the forbidden fruit. Ad'am, banished when he ate the fruit. fro. tfr" Garden of Fden, cried bitterly, but his iepentance Garden of Eden, cried bitterly, but his repentance was not was not by God until thirty days after iri,fall, fall,when lccgltedby God untÏl thirty accepted days al' ter his *h;;rus il; body had been cleansed of the impurities with body had been c1eansed of the impurities with wruch whichhis his disobedienoe had tainted him, and posterity wasthus disobedience had tainted him, and posterity was thusconcon. demned to a consecutive fast of thiriy days year. demned to a consecutive fast of thirty aa year. During themonth month ofRamadan Ramadanthe the-Moslems must must of abstain the abstain ^ from drinkand andtobacco tobaccol'rom fromsunrise sunriseto tosunset. sunset. l'rom food,drink NorthAfrica, Africa,where Islam is isthe predominatingreliyhergIslam thepredominating In North .In reli_ gion, burst of artilery fire announces to the faithfu]that gion, aaburst of artillery fire announces to the faithful th;t Ramadan has commenced. During the ensuing Ramadan has commenced. During the ensuing thirty tfrirtydays auy,a single cannon shot fired firedeach each evening at " atsunset sunset signaIs single cannon shot signalsthe the "u"iing end offasting for that day. end of fasting for that day. Ramadan ends ends with with pantagruelian feasts, feasts,called Ramadan ia-e/called A Aid-etKibir, which which somewhat somewhat ."r".ibl, the the Christian Christian Christmas Kébir, Christmas dinner. Moslems who cannot cannot celebrate celebrate this this feast feast at dinner. Moslems who at home home gather together in Moorish caf6s. gather together in Moorish cafés. Culingry specialities specialities of of Nortb North AfricaAfrica _ Culinary Adssida. Flour Flour boiled boiled in in water, water, then then mixed mixed with Aâssida. with butter. butter. Basco-utou. Spanish Spanish loaf loaf made made of of egg yolks, flour egg yolks, BascoulOu. flour and and orange blossoms. blossoms. orange Bissar. Drid beans cooked in water and and oil Bissar. Dried beans cooked in water oil until until they they form a a sort eaten hot hot or or cold. form sort ofjelly; eaten head a brisk fire to remove Bouzel/ouf he ad singed on a remove ,,Bgulellou!..Sheep's au with oil, ail hatrs; hairs; boiled, boiled, then seasoned witb oil, vinegar, vinegar, salt, pepper pepper and and garlic. garlic. Breyes beylicales. beylicales. Little Little squares of of cooked semolina semolina mixed .Bleyes with pistachio almonds. with pistachio nuts, nuts, walnutJ walnuts and almonds. Brik.Eggs Brik. Eggs in in puffpastry puff pastry fried fried in in oil. oil. Cacao. Cacao. Little Little reddi*-brgy reddish-brown lozenges lozenges made made from from sugar, sugar, pistachio pistachio nuts, nuts, almonds almonds and and lemon lemon essence. "i"o"". Chekchuka. A dish Chekchuka. A dish made made of of sweet sweet or or strong strong peppers, peppers, tomatoes, tomatoes, baby baby marrows marrows _(zucchini) (zucchini) or or auU"rglnir-ffi aubergines (eggplants), plan ts),-cut cut in in pieces pieces and and fried fried in in olive olive oit oil *ttiguiit with garlic u?"0 and onion, and onion, the the whole wholeeither eithermixed mixed with with beaten beaten eggs, eggs, or or not, not, and cooked cookedfor for aa few few minutes minuteson on aa slow slow fire. fire. Cherb-a-bel-fnft. Green Greencorn corn soup. soup. Djendjelem. A whitish, whitish, soft soft_pastl, made made of ofsugar, sugar, ginger, ginger, starch and andaapinch pinchof ofpepper. pepper.It is isbought boughtready--madi. ready-made. of rice, chopped chopped meat meat Dolma. Highly Highly seasoned seasoned mixture mixture oirice, lolrya. and andonions. onionsyrapped wrappedin incabbage cabbageleaves, leaves,covered coveredwith withwater water and andcooked cookedin inaacasserole casserolewith-fire with firebelow belowand andabove. above.simii;; Similar to Turkishdolma. dolma. toTurkish Douara. Douara.Boiled Boiledpluck pluckand andtripe tripeseasoned seasonedwith withcumin cuminand and

sprces.

Guizada. A A kind kindof ofscalloped scallUIPOO little liUlecookie cookiemade madefrom from semolina and eggs, baked in the oven. oven. and semolina Homse. and coated with honey. friedand Homse.Little balls of phste friod coated with honey. Kabab. Mutton cut cut into squares, braised Kabab. Mutton braised io in butter, seasoned with salt and pepper an-d served seasoned with salt and pepper served liberally garnished liberally with sliced onions and parsley. and parsley. with sliced onions Kefta.Chopped and spiced mutton, Kefta. Chopped and spiced mutton, shaped into rissoles shaped into rissoles

f"tC g";iJ;;

l010

ALIMENT ALIMENT
and grilled grilled over over a a wood wood fire. fire. and mutton cooked cooked in in oil oil and and fat fat and and thus th us prepreKhali'. Dried Dried mutton Khali'. served. served. LianL Lamb stew stew with with chick chick peas, peas, seasoned seasoned with with wild wild Liani. Lamb parsley. parsley. Pastry lozenges lozenges stuffed shlffed with with dates. dates. Makrouda. Pastry Makrouda. M'darbel. Mixture Mixture of of fried fried baby baby marrows marrows (zucchini) (zucchini) and and M'darbel. !ittle pieces of of beef beef fried fried in in oil oil seasoned seasoned with with hot hot pimento pimento and and little a dash ofvinegar. of vinegar. a Chickenfricassée with with chick chick peas. peas. Mekechter. Chicken/ricassie Mekechter. Merga. Strongly Strongly spiced spiced stock stock made made of of mutton'or mutton'or chicken, chicken, Merga. or both, both, which which the the Arabs Arabs drink drink only only when when it it is is very very cold or or in or of illness. cases ofillness. cases Cake made made from from milk, milk, semolina, semolina, pistachio pistachio nuts, nuts, M'habia. Cake M'habia. walnuts and and pine nuts. nuts. walnuts pasta and tomatoes. M'hamsa. Soup with with pasta M'hamsa. Mokh. Sheep's brain and and tongue, seasoned with garlic, Mokh. parsley. cayenne pepper and wild parsley. cayenne made from from chopped chopped sheep's sheep's pluck Osbane. Forcemeat made Osbane. and meat, mixed mixed with rice, rice, seasoned seasoned with red red pepper and and stuffing sheep's intestines. intestines. spices. Used for stuffing J'{II'Y1-lJer-lelrTGSS A stew made of of gazelle meat and Saharan Saharan Rim-bel-terfa,rs. truffles (Saharan dish). trufres Mixture of chopped mutton and onions seasoned seasoned Sferia. Mixture with salt, salt, pepper and and cumin. These These are are shaped into !iule little with fried in butter. butter. balls, dipped in egg and fried Tadjin helou. Very delicate stew made of mutton or beef, quinces. veÉ~et,lbl(!s in and a a few few quinees. or raisins and vegetables in season, season, prunes or covered with pie pastry and and cooked in the oyen. oven. This is covered Terbia-bel-hebar. Macédoine of vegetables served with a with a Terbia-bel-hebar. Macidoine (little bustard or field duck). roast bustard (!iule Tleitli. Macaroni garnished with chopped chopped meat and baked Macaroni garnished eggs. eggs. Tomina. in an an earthenware Tomina. Coarse cooked in Coarse semolina semolina cooked and boiling honey. casserole and plunged into butter and petals, rose petaIs, Yubbo. Cake made from honey, olive oil, rose ftour flour and dandelions. Other much-valued palm milk; Other specialities include lagni, lagni, much-valued leben, and kéfir k6fir made from cow's, cow's, leben, which is nothing but whey; whey ; and goat's goat's or rahatloucoum, sahleb, sahleb, chreyba, rahatloucoum, or sbeep's sheep's milk; chreyba, rogagues, messelmen, dates, etc. makroutes, stuffed stufed dates, etc. messelmen, makroutes, (in its And forms), several forms), its several list tadjins (in And when we add to to this list we add (see méchoui its various accompaniments (see michoui and and couscous couscous with its COUSCOUS) Israeli and Israeli of Tunisian and delicacies of and the the delicacies COUSCOUS) and cuisine, need not not cookery need African regional cookery we realise realise that that African cuisine, we fear more sophisticated metropolitan with more fear comparison comparison with cusine. cusine.
garnish, ALGÉRIENNE (A L') a garnish, is the the name name of of a L') -- This This is ALGfRIENNE (À aplpl!c:able tomatoes principally to of small tomatoes to meaL meat. It It consists consists ofsmall applicable nnnf',r.",II" potato croquettes, or sweet potato croquettes, or accompanied by by sweet braiSed in oil acc;onlpamHX1 in butter. butter. sweet potatoes cooked in This This rago,fit ragoût is is a country country dish dish called called alicot alicot rn in dialect. dialect. The The etymological etymological root root is is retained retained in in all aU its its various various forms: forms: ali, a/i, wings; wings; cait, cuit, cooked.

root alt to cause to to grow. grow. The The Celtic root ait means means nourishment. nourishment. The The word word 'aliment' 'aliment' indicates indicates an an object, object, while while the the word word

ALIMENTALIMENT - Derived Derived from from the the Latin Latin word word alere:to alere: to nourish, nourish,

ALICA were very Romans were which the the Romans of porridge of of which A sort ALICA -- A sort of fond. (hard or wheat, what durum wheat, spelt (hard or durum It was wils prepared with spelt fond. It today a sort sort of of clay clay mixed with with a known as wheat) mixed as German German wheat) today is is known (creta) (creta\ found hill of of Naples on on the the hill and Naples Pozzuoli and found between between Pozzuoli Leucogee Alica. (Pliny). A from Alica. was also also made made from A drink drink was Leucogee (Phny). It sesterces to to 20,000 sesterces rent of of 20,000 a rent said that Augustus paid a It is is said that Augustus the (Creta in n to this this clay. clay. (Creta Neapolitans for for the the exclusive right to the Neapolitans Latin ans both 'clay' and and 'chalk'.) Latin me means both 'clay' ALICANTE (vtN D') A very very well-known well-known o') -- A WINE. ALICANTE ALIcANTE (VIN ALICANTE WINE. dessert province of This is is Alicante. This of Alicante. wine from from the the Spanish Spanish province dessert wine also variety of of red red given in the midi midi of of France France to to aa variety also the the name name given n the grape (known, too, as Grenache). grape (known, Grenache). too, as ALICUIT (principgiblets (princip(Languedoc cookery) of giblets Ragofrt of cookery) -- Ragoût ALICUIT (Languedoc ally prepared as gszzards and as described described in in the the wings) prepared ally turkey and wings) turkey gizzards recipe (see GIBLETS). giblets bonne-femme bonne-femme (see GIBLETS). recipefor for Turkey Turkey giblets
Il ll

'nourishment' 'nourishment' indicates indicates an an action, action, although although the the latter latter is is often employed as a synonym of 'aliment'. 'aliment'. Any Any substance substance which upon entering the the body is is capable of supplying supplying it it with materials materials for for growth or or repair repair and and with fuel for its energy energy requirements is an aliment. aliment. Simple aliments aliments are are those that the organism consumes consumes and absorbs hc,..... }.", without ",;t!"... "t first submitting them them to to modification modification;; water, (see which is of of considerable considerable alimentary importance (see which is in this substances WATER), WATER), and sea salt are about the only :ou ILJ:>L,alllvC;:O in category. must begin we must To study study the To the aliments aliments we begin by selecting the genuinely alible of each each one one and proceed to alible elements elements of elementary consider as eleme:nUlry examine examine them individually. Today we consider (that is of carbon, is substances of aliments, ternary substances (that substances are always hydrogen hyd rogen and oxygen). These ternary su bstances are the carbomineral elements, elements, namely the associated with with other mineraI (also called zirrocalled nitrofats and and quaternary substances (also hydrates, fats gmous substances nitrogen combines combines witb with the substances because because nitrogen genous are and oxygen). oxygen). Quaternary substances are carbon, hydrogen and carbon, (formerly called proteids or proteins (formerly To these called albuminoids). albuminoids). To (simple, ternary and quaterand quaterthree broad classes of aliments (simple, and vitamins. mineral substances substances and add minerai nary) we must add and sugars. sugars. starches and Carbohydrates are represented by the starches animal tissues, tissues, quantities present in in sorne some animal small quantities from small Apart from the digestive action of of the The action all of of vegetable origin. The these are ail glucose which by is absorbed by which is ferments transforms them into glucose fennents glycogen or or liver into into glycogen the liver by the then condensed condensed by the blood, blood, then the the little by little little to to meet the down Ettle is broken down starch. This This is animal starch. animal decomposition of this this decomposition The final final stage stage of requirements. The body's requirements. illnesses the the proyields water and In certain certain illnesses acid. In and carbonic carbonic acid. products and intermediary intermediary pn.)UUl,;lS is arrested arrested and cess of of decomposition decomposition is cess quantity of of (acids) which When the the quantity the blood. blood. When remain in in the which remain form (acids) fonn a a level level as as a too high a glucose circulating reaches too in the the blood blood reaches circulating in glucose part of it is eliminated of il eliminated transformation, part result of of inadequate inadequate transformation, result is Such is (which normally any). Such not con contain does not normally does in the the urine urine (which in tain any). in diabetes. diabetes. case in the the case fats. These These carbohydrates into into fats. can transform transform carbohydrates The body body can The interchangeable. to an an extent extent interchangeable. two aliments aliments are are therefore therefore to two glycerine of glyeerine fatty bodies are esters: esters: compounds compounds of or fatty bodies are The fats fats or The present in are present in both both fatty bodies fatty acids. acids. Alimentary Alimentary fatty bodies are and fatty and ferments kingdoms. The The digestive digestive ferments and vegetable vegetable kingdoms. the animal animal and the themselves to to which then then reconstitute reconstitute themselves decompose the the fats, which decompose and laid dOWll down in in the the tissues tissues and fats. The fat fat is is th then form organic fats. en laid form body and is is utilised utilised by by the the body in the cellular tissue, tissue, and the cellular especially in \.<"k-''''''''''Y is not not the fat fat thus thus laid laid in' idreserve needs. When When the according to to its its needs. according reserve is quantity by in the the the body, it accumula accumulates by the body, it used in in sufficient sufficient quantity used tes in results in in obesity. obesity. and tissues tissues and and results organs and partially replaced in in the the diet diet by carbocarboFats may be be partially diet the diet are not not absolute equivalents equivalents and the hydrates, but these these are hydrates, fats minimum of of 70 70g. oz.) fats must contain contain aa minimum adult must of an an adult of QLoz.) S. (21 it must must insummer but it may he decreased in sr,rmmer but daily. This This amount amount may be decreased daily. (l oz.) g.(l (1* perday, oz.) which 25 25g. g. (1 day, of of which a0 g. oz.) per never fall fall below below 40 never t oz.) animal fat. fat. should beanimal should be part of of certain certain organs, and forms aa normal normal part fat forms Although Although fat too, are are constitutive constitutive elements of although although carbohydrates, carbohydrates, too, is principal function twoelements elements is function ofthese of these two theprincipal certain certain tissues, tissues, the is that the the body body is provide energy. to them them that It is is thanks thanks to to to provide energy. It capable physical exertion maintaining its its,,,,,,,,,,,",r,,_ temperaand of of maintaining exertion and capable of of physical as,",V'''U'''''Ll combustives, therefore, mainly as are considered, considered, therefore, ture. Theyare ture. in ..u ..'",t,,nf aliments, theoxygen oxygenin it is is through the aliments, since since it respiratory or as r"<: iseffected. bustion is effected. the air thattbis this corn combustion

ALIMENT ALIMENT
Theoretically, fats fats decompose decompose into into carbonic carbonic acid acid and and Theoretically, (like the water (Iike the carbohydrates); carbohydrates); but in certain but in certain illnesses illnesses this this water decomposition stops stops at at one one of of several several intermediate intermediate stages stages decomposition and the the resulting resulting excess exc€ss of of fatty fatty acids acids found found in in the the blood blood and constitutes one one of of the the factors factors of of acidosis. acidosis. constitutes The albuminoids albuminoidsQtroteinic quaternary substances) or quaLernary substances\ concon(proteinic or The tain carbon, carbon, hydrogen, hydrogen, oxygen principal elements, oxygen as as their their principal elements, tain and a a fourth fourth -- rutrogen. nitrogen. Their Their chemical chemical composition composition is is and (see ALBUMINOIDS). extremely complex complex (see ALBUMINOIDS). Under Under the the extremely influenoe of digestive elements of digestive elements they they are are subjected subjected to to a a series series influence of modifications modifications which production of which terminate terminate in in the the production of of albumins; these these are are used used in in the constitution constitution of of our our tissues. tissues. albumins; organism uses partly as the albuminoids The organism uses the albuminoids partly as energy energy The principally to factors, but growth and but principally to aid aid growth and in in the the reparation factors, of our our tissues. tissues. of Unlike carbohydrates carbohydrates and fats, fats, albuminoids albuminoids do do not underUnlike go total total deeomposition; decomposition; in in eight cases cases out of of ten ten this stops at at go theurea stage, the remainder being eliminated in the the form form of of the urea stage, various nitrogenous nitrogenous substances, sorne some ofwhich of which have still still not not various been determined. determined. been (the great Deficiencies of great transformer of the the liver liver (the transformer of nitronitroDeficiencies genous substances) or (the great great eliminators or of of the the kidneys kidnep (the eliminators genous of the proteins, or the same) cause cause proteins, products of disintegraor their their products of tion, to accumulate accumulate in in the blood and a serious disorder called called tion, (of which azotaemia results results (of which uraemia is is a a modification). modification). ln In azotaemio instances, the other instances, the urine is found found to to contain contain substances it it other not ta ougbt not to contain contain such such as as aminic acids or even albumins ought (ahuminuria'1. (albuminuria). group alsa albuminoid group The albuminoid also comprises related subcomprises closely related The known as as proteidae which are are albumins combined stances known proteidae which with a a carbohydrate carbohydrate to form a a paranucleine with to fOTm paranuc/eine (paranucleoQtaranucleoproteides). proteides). 'albuminoids' are Finally, classod as as 'albuminoids' are non-proteic non-proteic nitronitroFinally, classed genous substances gelatine, keratin, substances like like ge1atine, genous keratin, etc. Minerals,too, are indispensable Minerais, too, are indispensable elements of of our alimenta(sea salt) tion. Sodium chloride chloride (sea mineral used alone tion. Sodium salt) is is the only minerai in state; the occur as of various elements of in its its natural natural state; the others oceur as elements various (probably the compounds only form fonn in which they they are compounds (probably the only in which assimilable) combined with albuminoids, carbohydrates carbohydrates assimilable) with the albuminoids, and and fats fats of of our our natural natural foods. We know the tbe approximate approximate needs needs of of the organism organism as as regards regards We know certain daily in certain chemical chemical substances substances that tbat are are eliminated eliminated daily ponderable The excreLa, excreta, for example, remove ponderable quantities. quantities. The for example, from 4-75 body each day on average average 7 g. g. soda, soda, 4· 75 g. g. potasfrom the the body sium, sium, 1.25 1·25 g. g. calcium, calcium, 1.63 1·63 g. g. phosphorus, phosphorus, 0.5 0·5 g. g. magnesia, magnesia, quantity of 0.05 0·05 g. g. iron, Iron, 0.05 0-05 g. g. sulphur, sulphur, as as well weil as as a a small quantity of chloride chloride and and traces traces of of manganese, manganese, bromine, bromine, iodine, silica and and fluorine. fluorine. Other Other elements elements enter enter into into alimentation alimentation in imponderable say that Imponderable quantity, quantity, which which does does not not mean mean to to say their their r6le rôle is is insignificant; insignificant; in in fact fact there is is a probability probability that we we may may find nnd among among these these imponderables împonderables an explanation expia na Lion for for the part vitamins vitamins play play in in the the diet. diel. For For example, example, recent recent the part research that vitamins vitamins act as as coenzymes coenzymes (or (or research has has revealed revealed that codiastases) codiastases) and and are are therefore therefore involved involved in in the the degradation degradation or or resynthesis resynthesis of of the the various various nutriments. nutriments. Remineralisation Remineralisation experiments have been been carried carried out with witb animals. That is is to to say, say, the the principal principal minerals minerais have have been been animais. That removed from their their alimentation alimentation and replaced replaced by complex complex removed from mineral minerai mixtures. mixtures. These These experiments experiments invariably invariably failed when chemically chemically pure pure salts salts were were used; used; positive positive results results were obob· tained tained using using less-well-purified less-well-purified salts, which which shows the the important portant r6le rôle impurities impurities (i.e., (i.e., the the imponderable im ponderable traces traces of of certain certain elements) elements) play play in in the tbe diet. Most Most of of the the chemists chemists who who have have analysed analysed the the aliments aliments have have determined detcrmined their their total total mineralisation mineralisation by by reducing reducing them them to to the the form of ash. ash. This This calls calls for for complicated complicated calculations calcuJations and and form of gives gives far far from from accurate accurate results results when when the the final final figure figure is i5 applied applied to to fresh fresh foods, foods, such such as as those those we we consume consume daily. daily. This This is explained explained not not only only by diversity of by the the diversity the methods of the methods ememis (in the ployed, but but also also (in animal) by the animal) by the the differences differences arising arising ployed, from the the race, race, feeding feeding and and cuts cuts considered; considered; in in the the vegetable. vegetable, from the variety, variety, the the soil soil in in which which it has been been cultivated, it has cultivated, the the the part analysed. fertiliser used, analysed. used; the the part fertiliser M. R. R. Berg Berg has has calculated calculated the the figures figures for for cabbages cabbages in in the the M. table. accompanying table. CABBAGES GATHERED GATHERED CADDAGES in March March in Decemba December in in

potassium Oxide of of potassium Oxide
of sodium sodium Oxide of
lime Oxide of lime

0.5067 0·5067

0.6748 0·6748
0.0640 0·0640 0.1596 0·1596

iron of iron Oxide of
anhydride Phosphoric anhydride

0.0330 0.1730 0·1730 0.22t6 0·2216 0.5833 0·5833
0·0330
0.5833 0·5833 0.6550 0·6550

0.2870 0·2870
0.0287 0·0287 0.2569 0·2569 0.4445 0·4445

Sulphuric anhydride Chlorine

cent of offresh substances fresh substances Per cent is made of the Figures vary according to whether analysis is leaves, the the interior leaves leaves or or the the buds buds of the the vegevegeexterior leavcs, table. Basic Basic elements predominate in in the exterior, exterior, whereas interior leaves and, in particular, the the buds, are distinctly the interior acid. ratio and the ratio and proportion of Cooking procedures modify the mineral salts primarily by dissolving the alkaline elements, minerai pieoe of so that that if if a a piece of beef in which the acid elements the acid elements presa in which dominate is boiled an an alkaline alkaline stock can can be obtained. effect of cooking is even more more marked with vegetables. The elTeet of cooking Blanching (prerequisite in in the manufacture of tinned food) reduces the mineral minerai content of vegetables and destroys destroys the minerals. Prolonged boiling has an even more damagbasic mineraIs. ing effect. The effects are less iog elTect. effecls of other methods of cooking cook.ing are Jess drastic since sine thejuices the juices released by the the vegetable vegetable are usually usually consumed consumed with it. iL

TOTAL IN: COOKING /N: TOTAL MINERAL MINERAL TOSS LOSS DURING DUR/NG COOK/NG
Water per cent cent

Water

Oil per cent cent
30.59 30·59 31.33 31·33

Fat Fat per cent cent
20.91 20·91

Butter Butter

per cent cenl
19.65 19·65

49.95 Carrots Carrots 49·95 Potatoes 66.74 66·74 Potatoes 66'67 Onions Onions 66·67 Carrots 52.05 52·05 Carrots Potatoes 57.61 57·61 Potatoes Onions 66'67 Onions 66·67

52'38 52·38
60

42.85 42·85

47.25 47·25
23.97 23·97

53.M 53·44

LOSS OF POTASSIUM SALTS
14.38 14·38

22.60 22·60

20-46 20-46
13.33 13·33

l11·51 l.5l 19.16 19·16

tt.97 11·97
26.67 26·67

Some have shown shown how how the the total total loss loss of Sorne experiments have minerals minerais and and potassium salts varies according aceording to 10 different dilTerent cooking cooking procedures. procedures. Artificial Artificial aliments aUments - Natural foods that that have have been been prepared industrially are not not included included under under this heading heading (they pared industrially will with later). later). Here Here we we are referring to aliments aliments will be dealt with that that have have been been chemically treated treated in order to make them more more digestible digestible or or more more easily easily assimilated: assimilated: there there are are many many of them. them. Among Among the the nitrogenous rutrogenous substances substances are are purified purified albumins, albumins, legumin, legumin, albumoses albumoses and and peptones. peptones. All AU these these proproducts can can be be prescribed prescribed therapeutically therapeutically but but their their prolonged prolonged use use inevitably inevi ta bly leads leads to to disorders; disorders; they they have have never ne ver succeeded succeeded in supplementing natural natural foods foods in in the the adult diet. diet. As As far as as in supplementing children those children are are concerned, co ncerned , modified modified artificial artificial foods foods are are those most most frequently frequently used, used, dextrined dextrined and and malted malted flours, flours, etc. etc.

-

l2 12

ALIMENT
Chemical aliments - We We must must not not forget forget that that even even if if albuminoids, albuminoids, carbohydrates carbohydrates and fatty fany bodies are elements elements of our alimentation, alimentation, they they are are not not aliments. Aliments have have a (apart from traditional traditional form form and and are are borrowed borrowed (apart from a a few minerals) mineraIs) from the animal or vegetable kingdoms; the three three are merely constituents of aliments aliments (along elements listed listed are elements with a few indigestible with a few indigestible substances such such as as cellulose). The presence of of cell ulose besides besides providing bulk has been been proved cellulose after after exhaustive research research to ta be be indispensable indispensable in in the the accomplishment complishment of phenomena. of digestive phenomena. An aliment contains, or Complete aliment that that contains, or is Complete aliment aliment - An reputed to contain, alimentary substances in the containn the various alimentary right only practically complete right proportions. proportions. Milk Milk is is the the only food (as far as babies are concerned) and even it is deficient in Vitamin C. Some of the &onomy aliments - Sorne the substances we occasionEconomy aliments ally describe in this way have, like Iike cocoa and chocolate, real tea, coffee, act food value; others, such food value; such as as tea, coffee, coca-cola, only act through the nervous excitation excitation they provoke. It is arguable whether or not the ingestion of these these substances can increase the energy output stances output ofa diet, but they can, appease, the sensaunder certain conditions, conditions, calm or falsely appease, tion of hunger and and impart a feeling of well-being. Nuhitive Nutritive value of certain elements - Bearing in in mind the various elements in the the normal importance normal diet importance of the various elements in of the (albumins, carbohydrates, fats, etc.) an aliment will be more nourishing the more fatty fa Ity bod ies it contains, for these are nourishing the bodies richest, riches t, volume for volume, in calories. calories. The mutual mu tuaI substitution tables tables of various groups of aliments (see below) give sorne some indication of the relative values of certain aliments of vegetable origin. We Wc have of of animal and vegetable Randoin, MM. Legallic, Causerets and to thank Mme. Lucie Randoin, Duch€ne for them. G. Duchêoe G. as basic Meat, milk, milk, butter and and bread have have been Meat, been taken taken as elements in in these The compilers compilers have these substitution substitution tables. tables. The clements

-

6. Beverages: Beverages: 6. (a) (b) (c) (c) (d)
water fruit juices juices alcoholic drinks alcoholic aromatic aromatic drinks.

aliments than to tive tive to to the the weight weight of aliments to their their volume. volume. The the total diet (beverages excluded) ranges weight of the total diet rauges from weight g. for a little 1500 1800 g. 1500 to to 1800 for a a man, man, a Iittle less less for for a a woman; the
weight becomes excessive excessive above above 2500 g.

stomach is more sensiWeight aliments - Normally Weigbt of ofaUments NormaUy the stomach

-

must not The The average weight weight of a a meal meal must not exceed 800 800 to
1000 g. for a man and 600 to 800 g. for a woman. Generally Generally a feeling of saliety satiety occurs occurs before these these limits are reached. reached.

MUTUAL SUBSTITUTION OF ANIMAL FOODS MUTUAL SUBSTITUTION FOODS
replaced as as a a source 100 can be source of 100 G. G. MEAT (net weight) wcight) can be replaced protein by: g. olfal 100 g. offal or variety meats 100 g. fish (net weight) 2| 2-t eggs t litre milk or the equivalent in milk derivatives (see table I below)

OF DAIRY MUTUAL SUBSTITUTION DAIRY FOODS MUTUAL S(]BSTITUTION OF
replaced by: MILK can be replaced ! * LITRE MILK
120 g. unsweetened concentrated milk 80 g. sweetened concentrated milk 30 g. powdered milk 125 g. curdled milk (cream cheese) yoghurt (about 250 g.) 2 small cartons yoghurl 4 petits petjf5 .slli.sses (about 120 g.) szisses (about I demisel 1 demi-sel (about 60 g.) 40-50 Camembert, fermented soft cheese (Brie, Camembert, 40-50 g. fermented etc.) Coulommier s, Livarot, Munster, etc.) Coulommiers, (Gruyire, Dwch Dutch cheese, g. fermented hard cheeses (Gruyère, 30-40 g. 30--40 etc.) S aint - P aulin, Cantal, etc.) Saint-Paulin, g. Gruyère Gruyire cream cream cheese 60 g. g. goat goat cheese 25 g.

(closely quantities of then calculated the aliments (c1osely of other other aliments then caJculated the quantities given w!::ight a given weight related in nutritive value) required to replace a of each each of these basic elements. they have naturally taken In establishing these quantities, they into account in each group are aceount that the aliments mentioned in precisely the not of precisely same composition composition andmay and'may ev even differ en ditfer the same points. We profoundly on see the We can can nevertheless see on certain points. advantage of comparing which, practically speakadvantage comparing aliments which, ing, are interchangeable. If the is sufficiently alimentation is jng, are the alimentation from their their different varied the can only only benellt benefit from varied the organism can nutritional values. nutritional variable than than the is more variable Volume of aliments alimenb - Nothing is stomach; although elastic organ organ the the stomach; capacity capacity of of that that elastic 1200 cm.) cm.3 is the recognised average capacity, this may fall to 600 cm] cm.3 according to the individual. cm.3 or rise to 2000 cm.) We must not forget that iogested ingested liquids leave the stomach very rapidly rapidly and only minimally minimally into into calculations calculations very and enter enter only involving the volume of aliments. to draw draw up a alimmts Classification of the tbe aliments - Any attempt to guiding principles for for sensible eating must must be be based set set of guiding a simple classification of the aliments. upon quite a little to choose between the varÎous various classifications There is liule nutritionists, but like Mme. Randoin we prefer suggested by nutritîonists, the following: l. Milk and its derivatives (with the exception exception of butter). 1. 2. Various meats and and fish, fish, eggs. 2. 3. Fatty substances. 3. (flour, bread, rice, dried dried vege4. Starchy Starchy foods bread, noodles, noodles, rice, 4. foods (flour, and sweetened fruit, sugar, tables, potatoes) and sweetened foods (dried fruit, sugar, jam, chocolate, etc.). vegetables and fruit: 5. bles and 5. Fresh vegeta (a) eaten (cruditis) (a) eaten raw ruur (crudités) (b) eaten cooked.

OF FARINACEOUS MUTUAL SUBSTITUTION OF MUTUAL SUBSTITUTION FARINACEOUS FOODS FOODS
a source can be 100 G. BREAD can be replaced as a G. BREAD 70 g. cereal flour

of calories by:

70 g. rusks or dry sponge fingers g. biscuits 50 g. g. gingerbread 80 g. 70 g. porridge porridge oats 70 g. pasta or noodles g. rice 70 g. g. dried vegetables (haricot beans, lentils, 75 g. lenlils, peas, etc.) g. potatoes (gross weight) 350 g. g. chestnuts chestnuts (gross weight) 150 g. prunes, etc.) g. dried fruit (dates, figs, prunes, 90 g.

MUTUAL SUBSTITUTION OF FATTY SUBSTITUTION OF MUTUAL SUBSTANCES
a source of lipids lipids by: as a G. BUTTER BUTTER can can be replaced as 100 G. g. animal fat fat, etc.) fat (lard, mutton fat, 100 g. g. oil 85 g. g. margarine 100 g. 120 g. unsmoked bacon foods is of alimenb= consistency of foods Consistmcy of the aliments Consisteocy - The consistency far greater importance (as regards their digestion) than their volume or a rule, rule, whatever whatever their their initial initial conor weight. weight. As volume As a to reach reach the stomach reduced reduced to to a aliments ought to the stomach sistency, alîment5 t3 13

ALIMENTATION ALIMENTATION
(or pap) pap) tbrough rulp (or through mastication mastication and (for the and insalivation insalivation (for the mlp gastric musculature musculature is is too too feeble feeble in in tbe the human human species species to to 6astric break down down large large fragments; fragments; the the latter latter lie lie too too long long in in the the break stomach and and cao can cause cause dyspepsia). dyspepsia). The The bad bad habit habit of of not not stomach properly, of chewing food food properly, of swallowing swallowing too (tachyquickly (tachytoo quickly chewiog phagra) has has the possible effects. the worst worst possible effects. pbagia) X-ray examination examination reveals, reveals, for for example, example, that that a a hardhardX-ray boiled egg, egg, considered considered to to he be one of the the most one of most indigestible indigestible of of boiled just as foods, leaves leaves the the stomach stomach just quickly as as quickly as a a soft-boiled soft-boiled egg egg foods, grated finely (or chewed if it it is is grated finely (or chewed very very thoroughly) give it thoroughly) to to give it a a if similar consistency. consistency. similar We must must Dot not conclude conclude from from this this that that the the Ideal ideal way way of of We ingesting food food is is in in the the fform pur6e; on of a a purée; on the the contrary, contrary, ingesting onn of pur6ed foods foods are last resort, are a a last resort, to to have have recourse recourse to to in in cases cases of of puréed infection of the mouth mouth and of the and teeth, teeth, or or as as a a temporary temporary measure measure infection in some some forms forms of of dyspepsia, dyspepsia, or or in in the the early early stages stages of of conconin valescence. The The importance importance ofmasticatîon, of mastication, insalivation, insalivation, and and valescence. digestion cannot cannot he be over over emphasised; emphasised; a a diet diet consîsling consisting solely solely digestion pur6ed foods of puréed foods would would not not stimulate stimulate the the stomach stomach muscles muscles of sufficiently and gastric atony; and could could ca cause atony; it it could could also also lead lead slIfficiently use gastric to dental dental caries caries owing owing to to the the enforced idleness imposed enforced idleness imposed on on to the teeth. teeth. So So one one must must encourage encourage the the culinary culinary habit habit of of the (fried croûtons, adding some some hard hard substances substances (fried cro0tons, for for example) example) adding presented in pur6ed fonn. to foods foods presented in puréed form. to Tenperature of of the the aliments·alimenb- Hot Hot foods foods are are morestimulatmore stimulatTemperabue ing than than cold cold and and man man always always looks looks for for such such stimulation stimulation in in lng his food, food, for for unlike unlike other other animal species he he is animal species is not not content content his simply to to have have his his hunger hunger appeased. appeased. simply Only extreme extreme lemperatures temperatures are are harmful harmful to to tbe the organism. Only If food food is is too too hot hot it it can can cause cause burns burns to to the the mou mouth, the If th, the tongue, and and the the œsophagus, esophagus, especially especially when when hot Iiquids liquids are longue, gulped down. down. The The latter latter can can also also cause cause irritation to the irritation to gulped stomach which may even gastritis. even develop develop into stomach which may into gastritis. Foods cold induce induce conslriction constriction of of the Foods which which are are too too cold capillary blood of the the stomach, stomach, causing causing subsequent subsequent capillary blood vessels vessels of dilatation. The side side effects effects are are even even worse dilatation. The worse than than those produced foods which are too too hot. produced by by foods which are hot. The nature consistency of of the aliments have a strong The nature and and consistency the aliments have a bearing on how can, if bearing on how their their temperature temperature is is withstood; withstood; one can, if need 60"C. (140'F.); need be, be, sip sip broth broth or or coffee coffee at at 60~C. (140~ F.); porridge porridge taken at al the the same same temperature temperature would would have have serious serious effects. effects. The particular particular moment moment at at which wbich these these foods foods are are quickly quickly swalswallowed lowed is is also also significant; significant; an an iced îced substance substance taken taken on on an empty empty stomach storoacb can can be be harmful, harmful, whereas whereas the the effect effect of of an ice cream cream taken taken immediately immediately after after a a meal meal and and received received by by an already already full full stomach stomach would wou!d not not be be nearly nearly so so serious. serious. Too Too swift swift a a transition transition from from hot hot to to cold, cold, for for example, example, a a hot hot food food followed followed immediately immediately by by an an iced iced drink, drînk, is is extremely extreme1y harmful harrnful to to the the enamel enamel of of the the teeth. teeth. Soups in the the plate, plate, so so they they are are usually usually Soups rapidly rapidly become become cold cold in served served very very hot; hot; it it is is hardly hardly possible possible to to drink drink a a clear clear soup soup (140"F.) heated heated above above 60"C. 60°C. (140°F.) - even even above above 58"C. 58°C. (136'F.). (l36°F.). c Most Most people people wait wait until until it it cools cools to to 37" 37° to to 45"C 45 C (99'to (99° to 103'F.) 103°F.) to to taste laste the the flavour. flavour. Thick porridges, vegetable vegetable pur6es purees must must not not be be Thick soups, soups, porridges, drunk d runk above above 38" 38° to to 42"C. 42 C. (100" (100° to to 107'F.). 107°F.). Roast Roast meat meat is is usually usually served served between between 40o 40° and and 45"C. 45°C. (104' (104° and and ll3"F). I13 e F). Its Its temperature temperature must must not not fall fall below below 40"C. 40°C. (104'F.) fa t begins begins to to congeal congeal (this (this is is especially especially (104°F.) otherwise otherwise the the fat true of roast roast mutton). mutton). This This is is why why plates plates are are heated heated (particu(particutrue of larly larly meat meat plates). plates). Hot Hot bread bread of of 38"C. 38 C. (100"F.) (100°F.) and and above above is is much much more more indigestible indigestible than than cold cold bread; bread; this Ihis depends depends less less on on the the temperature temperature itself itself than than on on the the physical physical condition condition of of the the crumb. crumb. It Il is is a a widespread widespread belief, belief, however, however, that that slow slow digestion digestion of of cold cold foods foods is 1S beneficial. beneficiaJ. Ninon Ninon de de Lenclos Lenclos attributes attributes his his sprightly cold food. food. sprightly old old age age to to having having all ail his his life lire eaten ea ten cold Psychologicd PsychologicaJ effects effects of of the the aliments aliments - For For its its curiosity curiosity
Q Q

value, here, here, according according to to a a learned learned Swedish Swedish doctor, doctor, are are the the value. produced on effects produced on man man by by the the different different foods foods he he eats: eats: effects (especially roast By eating eating beef roast beef) beef (especially beef) for for months months on on end, end, -- By one is is certain certain to acquire self-confidence to acquire self-confidence and and audacity audacity ... ... one Mutton makes makes one melancholy ... one melancholy ... -- Mutton pessimistic. Could Pork makes makes one one pessimistic. it be pork Could il be that that pork -- Pork butchers only see see the the black black side side of of things? things? bu tchers only Duck ftesh flesh makes makes man man bad-tcmpered bad-tempered .. . . .. -- Duck For wit wit and and beauty beauty eggs eggs are are supreme supreme .. . . .. -- For Walnuts, hazelnuts, hazelnuts, almonds, almonds, dried dried figs figs develop develop the the -- Walnuts, mind. .. mind ... Tomatoes, oranges oranges and and lemons lemons considerably considerably improve improve -- Tomatoes, quality of the quality the voiee voice ... ... of the the Finally, doughy doughy English-type English-type bread bread slows slows the the mental mental -- Finally, processes; light-textured light-textured brcad bread assures assures a a buoyant buoyant morale. morale. processes; Rye bread and and buckwheat buckwheatpancake one melancholy melancholy.... .. Rye pançake make one

ALIMENTATION Alimentation varies varies according according to to age, age, ALIMENTATION - Alimentation profession, and climate, profession, and state state of health. of health. climate, Alimentation must provide (with must be be adequate. (with a adequate. Il It must must provide Alimentation small excess) excess) the (in the the wherewithal wherewithal for growth (in young for growth the young small repair and and upkeep of ofthe tissues and and organs, organs, person), for the repai! the tissues and for the the expenditure of ofenergy. and energy. To determine the the energy energy value value of an an aliment aliment or or diet, diet, wc we To employ as a a measure the calorie (q.v.), going going on the principle employas that ail all forms of energy energy can can be transfonned transformed into heat. that methods are are used to determine tbe used to the requirements Various methods of the the human body. body. One One way is is by by calculating calculating the the average of from global alimentation of the global population. Anotber of a a population. Another from the method (aliments and is by by analysing the the ingesta ingesta (aliments and oxygen method is consumed), and the excreta excreta (excretions, secretions, secretions, carbonic carbonic cODsumed), quantity of exhaled) and and the quantity ofheat discharged. acid exhaled) heat discharged. Modern dieticians a{"e are agreed agreed that the normal normal alimentation alimentation Modern for (65 kg. of average weight (65 or 143 lb.) in in repose for an an adult of kg. or or engaged in in only only Iight light duties duties must or must correspond to to 2350 calorieg that approximately 36 calories for every kg. 36 calories tbat is is approximately for every calories, of weight (2.2lb.). a much higher calorie intake (2·2 lb.). Previously Previously a was considered consid ered necessary. We usually allow that: I 4'44 calories 1 g. albuminoids albuminoids gives out 4·44 I 4'23 calories 1 g. g. carbohydrates carbohydrates gives out 4·23 I 9.40 calories g. fat fat gives gives out 9-40 1 g. The figures of of the the physiologist physiologist M. M. Atwater Atwater are are slightly lower lower because because he incorporated incorporated losses losses and waste products products in them. tbem. His His table reads as follows: Albuminoids 3'68 Albuminoids 3·68 calories per g. Carbohydrates 3'00 Carbohydrates 3·00 calories per g. Fats 8'65 8·65 calories per g. He He also distinguished distingulshed between between substances substances of of animal animal origin (best (best utilised) utilised) and substances of of vegetable vegetable origin. To obtain obtaill 100 100 calories one one must consume, consume, according according to to him: him: Animal 23.50 Animal proteins proteins 23· 50 g. g. Vegetable 28'19 Vegetable proteins proteins 28·19 g. Amyloide 25.00 Amyloide substances substances 25·00 g. Animal ll.18 Animal fats fats 11·18 g. g. Vegetable ll'97 Vegetable fats fats 11·97 s. g. We We must must not not lose lose sight of of the the fact fact that that these these figures figures are merely merely averages, averages, and and while while of of great great interest interest in in alimentary alimentary studies studies of of collectivities collectivitîes they they lose lose their their precision precision when when reduced of individuals. indivîduals. reduced to to the the level level of The The food food requirements requirements of of the the child child are are (in (În proportion proportion to to its its weight) weight) slightly slightly higher higher than than those those of of an an adult adult since since it it must must satisfy satisfy its ifS growing growing needs. needs. Those Those of of the the aged aged are are less less because of the reduced reduced expenditure expenditure ofenergy. ofenergy. Food Food requirerequirebccause ofthe ments ments increase increase with with the the lowering lowering of of exterior exterior temperatures temperatures and and with with the the work work done. done. The The daily daily diet diet must must be be balanced.It balanced. It must must contain contain a a miniminimum mum amount amount of of albuminoids albuminoids and and fats, fats, and and enough enough carbocarbo-

oc

l4 14

ALLIGATOR ALLIGATOR
hydrates hydrates to to ensure ensure that that the the two two preceding preceding elements are
thoroughly thoroughly utilised. utilised. The normal normal diet must must comprise: comprise: 80 80 g. albuminoids albuminoids 70 70 g. fats fats 350 350 g. g. carbohydrates carbohydrates The The proportion proportion of of fats fats in in an an infant's diet diet must be higher in carbohydrates. relation to to carbohydrates. relation The The daily dai/y diet must must be be varied. The The impossibility of of measurmeasurthe imponderables imponderables of of alimentation alimentation (very minute minute mineral mineraI ing the substances "UiU:>I,<lll\A<O and and vitamins) vitamins) obliges obliges us us to to procure procure our our alimentary alimentary elements from a a wide variety of nutrients (something, in elements instinctively). fact, that man has always done instinctively). It It is is probable probable that the disorders disorders arising from from following too of uniform a diet are caused by the the absence or deficiency of uniform these imponderables. imIPOJr1df:ralbles. The daily diet diel must be be pleasant. Although it is possible possible to (as feed like like animals animaIs simply sim ply upon upon what what nature nature provides pro vides (as feed tried to to indo) man certain sects sects do) man has has always tried members of certain of his food by adding palatable condicrease the savouriness savouriness of crease art, which which is The culinary culinary art, ments and and by by applying heat. The applying heat. ments effect of adding derived from these two operations, has the effect nourishof taking nourishto the psychological need and satisfaction oftaking ment, a gustative, olfactory satisfaction, and in so doing has of the the human development of exerted an influence on the development on the an influence exerted
species.

water, with with an extremely strong pungent pungent odour odour reminiscent reminiscent It is conof of urine. urine. Its Its fumes can be asphyxiating. asphyxiating. It is used used in in concarmines. . fectionery fectionery as as a solvent for for cochineal carmines.
vegetable origin of vegetable ALKALOIDS. ALKALOIDS. lrcnroinss ALCALOÏDES - Substances of even when on the effect on that that have a a powerful powerful effect the organism, even

(The stimulants in in coffee, coffee, absorbed absorbed in in minute quantities. quantities. (The tea and and chocolate are are alkaloids.) alkaloids.)

red cordial, cordial, old-fashioned red ALKERMES. ALKERMES. lrrnnuis ALKERMÈS An old-fashioned - An sweetened a sweetened distilling a by distilling once once very very popular, produced by Its cloves. Its leaf and and cloyes. nutmeg, cinnamon, bay infusion infusion of nutmeg, bay leaf
name. hence its name. colour is derived from kermes, hence

plant has has a a This plant (Jack-by-the.hedge). ALLIAIRE ALLIAIRE ALLARH ALLARIA (Jack-by-the-bedge). - This as a a condiused as condibe used flavour, and can be very pronounced garlic flavour, ment for salads.
a classic white given to a classic white SAUCE - The name given ALLEMANDE SAUCE ALLEMANDE (q.v.). yolks and cream to toaveloutd sauce made by adding egg yolks a velouté (q.v.). (one for this this sauce sauce (one of the the recipe for A more modern version of A given in in the is given culinary repertoire) is the French culinary of the best best in the devoted to sauces. section devoted is not not of of German German origin. sauce is name, this this sauce Despite its its name, Despite of its its light because of is so so called called because it is to Carême Car€me it According to from espagnole espagnole sauce, sauce, which it from distinguish it and to colour, and to distinguish colom, in have originated (The latter to have originated in not seem seem to latter does does not dark. (The is dark. is Spain, either.) is an an enormous enonnous there is In the culinary repertoire, there the French culinary countries, from other other cotmtries, borrowed from designations borrowed number of of designations number origin. French origin. of entirely entirely French dishes of most of of them them describing dishes most Smtce as Sauce allemande as refer to the allemande also refer authors also to the Modem authors Modern (see SAUCE). parisienne (see SAUCE). parisienne recipe for for the recipe by giving the Car€me begins by Car6me's recipe Carême's - Carême preparation (soo SAUCE), then de5;cnbes describes the prepara SAUCE), then VeloutC sauce sauce (see Velouté tion as follows: follows: of allemande allemande sauce sauce as of an equal Add an into a a saucepan. saucepan. Add 'Pour half the velouté velouti into half the 'Pour good chicken has been quantity of to which which has consomm6, to of good chicken consommé, (stalks and peel), and much salt salt and as as much and peel), mushrooms (stalks added a a few mushrooms added point of knife. ofa held on on the the point as can can be be held as a knife. a wood wooden heat and and stir stir with with a a brisk brisk heat Place the the sauce sauce over over a Place en from the it away away from the boil. Draw Draw it to the the boil. spoon until until it it cornes comes to about an an hour. hour. Skim simmer for for about leave to to simmer flame, coyer, cover, and and leave Skim the stirring with with the flame, stirring high flame, a high and replace replace on on a off the fat fat and off the prevent it the bottom bottom of of the it sticking sticking to to the to prevent wooden spoon spoon to wooden the perfectly cooked, sauce should should coat coat the cooked, the pan. When the sauce When perfectly pan. it quite thickly; and when when poured, it thickly; and surface of a spoon quite of a surface redcurrant jelly. as redcurrant same consistency consistency as should be be of of the same should prepare a a liaison heat and and prepare from the the heat saucepan from Remove the the saucepan Remove (3 tablespoons) tablespoons) yolks mixed 2 tablespoons mixed with with 2 tablespoons (3 4 egg using 4 egg yolks using piece of a piece of best butter adding a best butter a sieve, sieve, adding cream. Pass Pass this this through through a cream. liaison, Pour the the liaison, into small an egg, cut cut into small pieces. Pour of an the the size size of the with the carefully with velouti, stirring carefuJly little by little, into the the velouté, little by !iUle, in smoothly. it is is blended in smoothly. make sure that it sure that wooden spoon spoon to to make wooden on aa perfectly incorporated, replace the the sauce sauce on incorporated, replace is ail When When it it is all perfectly heat and and continue continue stirring. moderate moderate heat remove from the the rise, rem start to to rise, soon as as a a fewbubbles few bubbles start As ove from As soon grated nutmeg held on on the the as can can be be held nutmeg as and add add as as much much grated heat and heat pass through through aasieve.' sieve.' point of well blended, blended, pass of a a knife. knife. When When weil point

denigrating culinary either denigrating aHmentation - Without either Natural alimentationgastronomic traditions, qualities or traditions, dieticians qualities betraying gastronomic or betraying of composition of in the the composition foods in encourage us to natural foods encourage us to use use natural menus. food products This means that we ought not to to consume food that have have been been subjected to to any form of chemical adulteration. Mme. Randoin defined the problem perfectly when she business upon WTote: is a a serious serious business ourselves is wrote: 'Nourishing ourselves It is is incumbent, which depends. It and bad, bad, depends. which much, much, good and we make make or or therefore, upon realise that that we one of us us to to realise upon each each one of the choice of or injudicious injudicious choice health by a judicious or break our health elements that constitute our daily diet.' different, and and The fact remains that every individual case case is different, go on, are general lines to that although we on, there there are a few general to go we have a no truly standard régimes r6gimes in in alimentation. alimentation. products wherever the Besides wherever possible, the Besides using natural products using natural best of to follow follow the the precepts of quantity, of one can can do do is is to best one the preparation, and of cooking cooking methods laid down by the and of dieticians. into Forced feeding- The introduction directly into of aliments aliments directly introduction of the "lU'l1AQ,,",lI. stomach. Artificia.l made to to can be be made substances can feedlng Alimentary substances Artificial feeding - Alimentary gastric penetrate the gastric than the penetrate the other than by channels channels other the organism by one. medical domain. domain. to the the medical are confined confined to one. These These procedures are

(Aliments) -ALKALESCENTS (Food). ALCAUNISANTS ALcALINISANTS (Aliments) ALKALESCENTS (Food). (lime, soda, Foods that cess of soda, elements (lime, an ex excess of basic basic elements that contain contain an potassium, m'lgrleslurn). magnesium). Milk and blood are are the only alkalescents of animal origin. Milk and On are origin are most foods of vegetable origin the other other hand, hand, most On the products alkalescents cereal products of cereals, cereal the exception exception of alkalescents with with the and consume the the which we we consume vegetables of of which a number number of of vegetables and a flowers (asparagus, Brussels Brussels sprouts). sprouts). buds (asparagus, flowers (artichoke) or or buds Ali are redcurrants, etc., etc., are lemons, redcurrants, such as as lemons, All acid-tasting acid-tasting fruit such alkalescents. alkalescents. beetroot, carrots, beetroot, turnips, carrots, artichokes, turnips, Celery, Jerusalem Jerusalem artichokes, lettuce, tomatoes, endive, lettuce, tomatoes, dandelions, endive, cucumber, cabbage, cabbage, dandelions, spinach, very strong lemons are are very strong and lemons oranges, tangerines tangerines and spinach, oranges, alkalescents; potatoes and milk, potatoes cauliflower, less less and cauliflower, fruits, milk, alkalescents; other other fruits, so. so.
---.. 1. . - -

VOLATILE. ALCALI - Commonly ALKALI known ALcALI VOLATIL voLArILCommonly known ALKALMLATILE. as liquid, lighter lighter than than It is a colourless is a colourless liquid, as liquid liquid ammonia. ammonia. It
15 t5

American crocodile crocodile commonly commonly ALLIGATOR -- A A species species of of American ALLIGATOR called called cayman. gastronomic part of of the thegastronomic has already already bec become The alligator has The orne aa part the flesh eaten eaten by by the rather too musky flesh Not onJy is its its rather too musky world. world. Not only is alligator are are occasionally occasionally it, but but slices slices of of alligator natives natives who who capture capture it, served in London London and and Paris. Paris. served in feet or flippers, parts of the reptile reptile are are the thefeet or fljppers, most valued valued parts of the The most The less aquatic than most mostcrococrocoaquatic than although Jess since since the the alligator, alligator, aJthough I'amiriare prepared dl'amériThese flippers flippersare diles, lives in in water. water. These diles, also also lives TURTLE.) manner. (See TURTLE.) caine, or in in any any similar similar manner. d /'indienne I'indienne or caine, à

ALLSPICE ALLSPICE
ALLSPICE. ALLSPICE. rourE TOUTE 6prcs ÉPICE - Common Corn mon name for the myrtle seed seed (Jamaica (Jarnaica pepper) pepper) and and for for cultivated cultivated nigella nigella (fennel (fennel
flower). f1ower). strips, cut them (l inch) wide, and bake them into pieces pieces 2 to 3 cm. (1

ALLUMBTTES ALLUMETTES - Strips of of puff puff pastry variously variously garnished and baked baked in in the the oven. oyen. Little cakes made of of puff puff pastry and and filled or garnished garnished with with various various mixtures mixtures are also called ca lIed allumettes. allumettes. Allumettes a strip of puff Allumettes (hot (hot hors-d'auvre) hors-d'œuvre) - Roll out a pastry pastry to a a thickness thickness of of ] t cm. (+ (t inch) and about about 7 to 8 cm. (3 (3 inches) inches) wide. wide. Cover Co ver the the surface with f'rsft Fish forcemeat, forcemeat, or any any other other suggested suggested mixture mixture (see (see FORCEMEATS FORCEMEA TS or STUFFINGS). STUFFINGS). Cut into rectangles, rectangles, place place on a baking baking tray, tray, and bake bake in in the the oven oyen at 200'C. 200°C. (400"F., (400°F., Gas Mark 6) for about about 15 15 minutes. minutes. Allumettes Allumettes I à la la perigourdine périgourdine - Coat Coat the puff puff pastry pastry with a puree of chicken chicken livers livers (see (see FORCEMEATS FORCEMEATS or STUFFSTUFFpurée of INGS) INGS) mixed mixed with with finely finely chopped chopped truffies. truffles. Bake Bake in in the oven. oyen. Allumettes Allumettes ià la la reine reine - Coat Coat the the puff puff pastry pastry with with a a very very fine fine mixture mixture of of minced minced breast breast of of chicken and truffies, truffles, blended blended with with thick thick Veloutd Velouté sauce sauce (se, (see SAUCE). SAUCE). Bake Bake in in the the oven. oyen. Allumettes Allumettes I à la la toscane toscane - Sprinkle Sprinkle the the sheet of of puff puff pastry pastry with with grated grated Parmesan. Parmesan. Cut Cut into into strips strips and and bake bake in in the the oven. oyen. Ox Ox palate palate allumettes. allumettes. ALLT,JMETTES ALLUMETTES DE DE pALArs PALAIS DE DE BGUF BŒUF 'Remove 'Remove the the skin skin from from 2 2 ox palates palates previously previously cooked cooked in water. matchsticks and Cut into into strips strips the the size size of ofmatchsticks and marinate marinate in in water. Cut lemon or vinegar vinegar seasoned seasoned with a a little little salt, salt, sprigs of lemon juice juice or parsley, parsley, and and whole whole spring spring onions. onions. When When they they are are thoroughly thoroughly macerated macerated drain drain them, them, and and dip dip them them in in a batter batter made made as as follows: follows: 'Place 'Place 2 2 good good handfuls handfuls of of flour, f1our, I 1 tablespoon tablespoon fine fine oil, oil, and ground salt, salt, into into a a basin. basin. Dilute Dilute this this gradugraduand a a little little finely finely ground ally ally with with beer beer until until the the batter batter reaches reaches the the consistency consistency of thick thick cream. cream. Dip Dip the the palate palate strips strips into into it it and and fry fry until until golden brown. Serve Serve as as hot hot as as possible.' possible.' (La (La Cuisine Cuisine bourbourgolden brown. geoise,1769, Paris) geoise, 1769, Paris)

(400'F., Gas Mark 6) for 12 minutes. in the oven oyen at 200'C. 200°C. (400°F., ALMOND. of a stone fruit, particularly of ALMOND. AMANDE AMANDE - Kernel of

-

the almond tree. are two varieties, sweet almond and tree. There are and bitter almond. almond. They come mostly from from North Africa, Africa, Provence, Italy and from California, U.S.A. ltaly and Languedoc, and More than half their weight is oil. There are two varieties of this; one is is used used principally in perfumery, perfumery, the other in pharmaceutics, in the manufacture manufacture of soothing emulsions. The The almond tree tree is mentioned in Genesis, and almonds were among the fruit offered to Joseph (see ALMOND, Country almond). almond).

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Almond

Aboukir almonds almonds (confectionery). (confectionery). nrrlNnEs AMANDES D'ABoUKIR D'ABOUKIR Aboukir Petits fours, fours, made made of kirsch-flavoured, kirsch-flavoured, green-coloured Petits almond paste, paste, shaped in in the the form of of an almond, almond, and stuffed stuffed almond almond. Aboukirs Aboukirs are coated coated with gum, or with a a blanched blanched almond. with iced with with sugar sugar cooked cooked to to hard hard crack crack stage (see (see SUGAR). SUGAR). iced Almond and and puff puff pastry pastry gffteau. gâteau. cArntu GÂTEAU rEUlLrerE FEUILLETÉ lux AUX Almond This gdteau gâteau is is known known under under the the name name of of Pithiviers Pithiviers AMANDES - This AMANDES(q.v.). (q.v.). Almond butter. butter. BEURRE BEURRE D'AMANDEs D'AMANDES - Pound Pound 150 150 g. Almond (5 (5 oz.,l oz., 1cup) cup) freshly freshly blanched blanched almonds almonds in in a a mortar mortar until until they they are reduced reduced to to a a paste, paste, adding adding a a few few drops drops of of cold water water to to are prevent them them from from turning tuming into into oil. oil. Pound Pound in in 225 g. g. (8 (8 oz., oz., prevent cup) fresh fresh butter. butter. Pass Pass through through a a very very fine fine sieve. sieve. I1 cup) This butter butter is is used used for for flavouring flavouring certain certain sauces sauces and and cream cream This soups; it it is is also also used used in in the the preparation preparation of of cold cold hors d'euvre. d'œuvre. soups; PAINS ANGLlrs ANGLAIS - Small Small dry dry cookies cookies prepreAlmond cuokies. cookies. rAINS Almond pared in in the the following following manner. manner. pared Ingredients. 225 225 g. g. (8 (8 oz., oz., 2 2 cups) cups) sieved sieved flour, flour, 225 g. g. Ingredients. (8 oz., oz., 2 2 cups) cups) ground ground almonds, almonds, 225 225 g. g. (8 (8 oz., I 1 cup) cup) castor castor (8 (fine) (fine) sugar, sugar, 100 100 g. g. (4 (4 oz., oz., I t cup) cup) butter, butter, 4 4 eggs, eggs, halfa half a liqueur liqueur of rum. rum. glass of glass Method. Sieve Sieve the the flour flour onto onto the the table. table. Make Make a a well weil in in the the Method. almonds, the the sugar sugar and and the the well-softened well-softened centre and and add add the the almonds, centre butter. Break Break the the eggs eggs into into these these ingredients ingredients and and pour pour in in the the butter. rum. To To prevent prevent burning, burning, mix mix the the paste paste without without kneading kneading it it rum. too firm, firm, add add an an egg egg yolk). yolk). (if too (if into long long sausages sa usages on on the the lightly lightly floured floured Roll the the paste paste into Roll table. Cut Cut them them into into small small pieces pieces and and roll roll these these into into balls. balls. table. out on on buttered buttered trays trays (use (use two). two). Coat Coat each each Space the the balls balls out Space bail twioe twiee with with beaten beaten egg egg and and score score with with the the blade blade of of a a wet wet ball knife. Bake Bake for for 20 20 minutes minutes in in a a slow slow oven. oyen. knife. Almond cookies cookies Qemon-flavoured). (lemon-flavoured). pArNS PAINS ANcLArs ANGLAIS AU AU Almond CITRON - Pound Pound 225 225 g. g. (8 (8 oz., oz., l| 1t cups) cups) blanched blanched almonds almonds cIrRoN finely with with 225 225 g. g. (8 (8 oz., oz., I 1 cup) cup) castor castor (fine) (fine) sugar sugar and 2 2 finely whole eggs. eggs. whole
16 l6

Allumettes (cakes) (cakes) Allumettes

Allumettes (cakes) (cakes) - These These sweet sweet pastry pastry cakes cakes are are said said to to Allumettes have century ago ago by by a a Swiss Swiss pastry-cook pastry-cook who who have been been created created a a century

lived lived in in Dinard Dinard (Ille-et-Vilaine). (Ille-et-Vilaine). M. M. Lacam, Lacam, who who wrote wrote a a history history of ofpastry-making, pastry-making, describes describes the the invention invention as as follows: follows: 'One 'One day day Planta, Planta, the the above-mentioned above-mentioned pastry-cook, pastry-cook, had had some and did did not not know know what what to to do do with with it. it. sorne icing icing left left over over and added a a pinch pinch of offlour flour to to it it in in order order to to Having softened softened it, it, he he added Having prevent prevent the the sugar sugar from from running running in in the the heat heat ofthe of the oven, oyen, and and puffpastry. spread it iton ona a sheet sheetof ofpuff pastry. This This he he cut cutinto into little little sticks sticks spread and baked baked in in the the oven,' oven.' and Thus allumettes, allumettes, n a sort sort of ofdry drypetit petitfour four which which are are now now so so Thus popular, popular, were were invented. invented. Method. Roll Roll out out some sorne puff puff pastry pastry to to the the thickness thickness of of Method. 4 4 mm. mm. (* (t inch) inch) and and cut cut it it into into strips strips 8 8 cm. cm. (3 (3 inches) inches) wide. wide. of Royal Royal icing icing (see (see ICING) ICING) on on these these Spread a a thin thin layer layer of Spread

ALMOND ALMOND
Sieve Sieve 225 225 g. (8 oz., OZ., 2 2 cups) flour onto onto the table. table. Make Make a well weil in the centre centre and place place the pounded mixture mixture in it. il. Add 175 g. (6 I lemon lemon (or (6 oz., OZ., * i cup) butter and and the the grated grated rind rind of 1 orange). Knead well weil together. Divide Sprinkle the Divide the the paste paste into into walnut-sized pieces. pieces. Sprinkle table table lightly with with flour flour and and form form these these into into little little cigars, cigars, pointed pointed at each end. Place them on a buttered baking baking sheet, brush with beaten egg and score in the centre. Bake Bake in a hot oven for 8 to to l0 JO minutes. min utes. Almond Almond cream. creaOl. cnirun CRÈME D'AMANDES - Prepare Prepare ] ~ litre (scant pint" 2* cups) crime (seant pînt, 2l'cups) crème pdtissiCre pâtissière in the usual manner, cool it and add to it 250 g. (9 oz.,l] OZ., l-t cups) cups) freshly blanched almonds 250 g. almonds poundod pounded to to a a smooth smooth paste paste with with 250 g. (9 (9 oz., OZ., generous generous cup) sugar sugar and 250 250 g. (9 oz., OZ., generous generous cup) butter. butter. This uime This cream cream is is used used for for filling filling sweet sweet dishes. dishes. For For crème pdtissiire see CREAMS, CREA MS, French postry pastry ueam. cream. pâtissière see Almond Almond loaf. pAlN PAfN coMpLE'r COMPLET - A cake cake made of almond almond paste shaped like like a loaf. 10af. Almond LAIT D'AMANDEs D'AMAl';1)E.S - The The codex codex gives gives the Almood milk. milk. rlrr following followiog recipe recipe for almond almond milk: milk: Ingredients. 50 50 g. g. Q (2 oz., OZ., scant seant * ! cup) cup) blanched blanched sweet almonds, 50 cup) white 50 g. (2 oz., OZ., I i cup) white sugar, I 1dl. (6 tablespoons, tablespoons, scant seant * t cup) distilled water. Method. Method. Place the almonds, sugar sugar and water in a marble mortar and pound to a very smooth smooth paste. Press Press through a fine sieve. sievc. Alnond Almood nougat. nougat. NoucAT NOUGAT AUx AUX AMANDTs AMANDES - Dry Dry 500 500 g. (18 (18 oz., OZ., 4l 4t cups) blanched, chopped almonds in the the oven. oyen. Place Place them them in a copper bowl bowl in which which 400 g. (14 oz.,l| oz., li cups) cups) sugar, flavoured ftavoured with wîth a a squeeze squeeze of lemon juice, juice, has has been boiled to to a pale pale caramel. Stir Stif this mixture with a spatula. While Whîle the the mixture mixture is is still still hot, hot, pour pour it it into into variously variously shaped greased moulds. moulds. Alternatively, the the nougat nougat may may be spread thinly thinly on an oiled oîled marble slab and cut eut into different different shapes. shapes. Nougat prepared in this way may be he shaped shapcd into bowls, baskets, clogs c10gs and other other objects. objects. Almond Almood paste I. pAtE PÂTE n',q,Ira.l,NDEs D'AMANDES - Crush Crush 450 g. g. (l (1 lb., 3 cups) blanched almonds and place them in a mortar with the the selected selected flavouring flavouring (vanilla (vanilla sugar sugar or or liqueur). liqueur). Cook 900 900 g. (2 lb., 4 cups) cups) sugar sugar to to hard hard crack stage stage (see SUGAR). SUGA R). Qlb.,4 Add Add this gradually to the the almonds, almonds, pounding vigorously vigorously until well weil mixed. Almond 475 g. Almood paste paste II. n. pArE PÂTE D'^luANDEs D'AMANDES - Ingredients. 475 (17 OZ., o2.,3| 3t cups) cups) sweet almonds, 25 g. (1 (1 oz., OZ., 3 tablespoons) bitter (1 teaspoon) teaspoon) gum arabic, arabic, 100 100 g. g. (4 oz., OZ., bitter almonds, almonds., 5 g. (l scant seant cup) icing sugar, I 1 egg white, juie juice of I 1 lemon. Method. Method. Pound Pound the almonds almonds with the the lemon lemon juioe juice and pass pass through through a fine fine strainer. strainer. Put into a copper pan pan with the icing icing sugar and egg egg white. Dry this this mixture mixture gently over over heat, heat, stirring all ail the the time. Add the the gum arabic dissolved dissolved in in a little water. To To be he perfect this this paste paste must must not be be sticky. It Il is used used as an abaisse abaisse (q.v.) (q.v.) in various various sweet dishes and petits petits fours. fours. Almond Almood praline. rRALIN PRALIN Aux AUX AMANDnS AMANDES - Melt Melt 450 g. (l (l lb., lb., 2 cups) castor (fine) sugar slowly slowly in a copper pan. Cook it until until it reaches reaches the the degree of of light caramel, 160'C. 160°C. (320"F.). (320"F .). Add to lb., 3 to this sugar sugar 450 g. (l (lIb., 3 cups) cups) raw unblanched unblanched wellwelldried almonds. Tip all ail this this mixture mixture onto an an oiled marble marbre slab. Allow to cool. Pound the the mixture in in a mortar. Pass Pass it through through a fine sieve. Keep Keep this this dry almond almond powder powder in tins with well-fitting well-fitting lids. Almond Almond tartlets. tartlets. TARTELETTES AMANDTNES AMANDINE.<; - The recipe recipe for these these very delicate tartlets tartlets was was set set to to rhyme rhyme by by Edmond Edmond Rostand in Cyrarn Cyrano de de Bergerac. Bergerac. The The recipe recipe itself itself is tS attributed to to Ragueneau, Ragueneau, the the famous famous seventeenth-century pastrypastrycook.

Here it is in verse: verse:
Comment on fail Comment on fait les tartelettes amandines amandines Battez, Battez, pour pour qu'ils soient mousseux,

Quelques eufs; œufs: Quelques Incorporez d à leur mousse mousse jut de cCdrat Un Un jus cédrat choisi; choisi: Versez-y Un bon lait d'amande d'amanck douce; douce; Mettez de dflan ck la la pdte pâte à flan Dans le flanc flanc Dalll Ie De moules d à tartelette; tartelette: D'tm D'un doigt doigt preste preste abricotez abricotez Les Les cdtds; côtés; Versez Versez goutte d à gouttelette Votre en ces puits, puis puis Votre mousse mousse m Que ces puits puits Que Passent anfour, au four, et, blondines, blondines, Sortant en gais troupelets, troupelets, Ce sont SOn! les t e le t t e s amandine s. Tar Tartelettes amandines.
Beat Beat your eggs, the yolk and white

Very light; their creamy creamy fluff Mingle with their Drops of of lime lime juice, juice, cool and green; greeo; Then Theo pour in Milk of of almonds, almonds. just just enough. enough. Dainty Dainty patty pans, pans, embraced embraced In puff-paste Have these these ready within reach; With With your thumb thumb and and finger, pinch pinch Half Half an inch inch the edge of of each Up around the Into Into these, these, a score or more, Slowly Slowly pour pour All Ail your store store of of custard; custard; so so Take them, them, bake them golden-brown golden-brown Now sit down! . .. ... Almond Almond tartlets!i tartlets!·
* Cyruno de Bergerac • From From Brian Brian Hooker's Hooker's translationof translation o/Cyrano Bergerac by by Ehnond EdmoruJ Rostand. Heinemann in association association with with Allen & tlnwin. Unwin. Ros/and. Published Published by Heinemann
AMANDfS ,ltr{tnss AMÈRES - Bitter almonds almonds owe Bitter almonds. AMANDES bitterness to to the relatively relatively high amount amount of of prussic acid their bitterness contain. They should therefore therefore be used in moderation. moderation. they contain. These almonds almonds are employed in pdtisserie pâtisserie for flavouring fiavouring icings and and fillings; and and in confectionery. confectionery. They They are are not not used used as icings dessert fruit. The oil obtained obUlÎned from from them is is poisonous. poisonous. Bhnctd Blanched almonds. almonds. AMANDES AMANDES uoNoEss MONDÉES - Drid Dried almonds almonds from which which the the skin skin has has been been removed. removed. Proceed in in the from following following manner. manner. Put Put the almonds almonds into into a sieve; sieve; plunge plunge into into a a saucepan saucepan of of boiling boiling water water and immediately lmmediately draw the saucepan to to the the side of of the stove. Drain Drain the the almonds, a few few at at a time, lime, and aod skin skin thern them as soon as you see see that the the skin comes cornes off when when pressed with the If Drop them them into into cold water, water, drain and pat pat dry. If fingers. Drop t hey are to 10 be kept, kept, scatter sca tter on a sieve or fine grill and dry they a tin or jar jar with a thorougbly in a slow slow oven. oyen. Store Store in a thoroughly well-fitting well-fitting lid. lid. Keep Keep in a dry place. place. Chopped Chopped elmonds. almonds. AMANDES AMANDES HAcHEEs HACHÉES - These are are blanched blanched almonds almonds roughly roughly or finely chopped depending upon upon how how they are are to to be he employed. employed. Variously Coloured almonds. a Lmonds. AMANDES AMANDES cot.oRfEs COLORÉES Variously Coloured coloured shredded shredded and and ground ground almonds almonds are are used use<:! for for colourcolourcoloured ing Îng nougat nougat and for for sprinkling sprinkling on iced iced petits petits fours, fours, cakes, cakes, biscuits biscuits (cookies) (eookies) and sweet dishes. dishes.

17

ALMONDS. EARTH ALMONDS,
appropriate to the colour may be added' added: thus Flavouring appropriate pink scented with raspberryessence, raspberry essence; mauve flavoured pink may be scented with wi th essence of violets. (Indian almond ahrod (lndian almond tree). uomum. - This Country 1Iimond tuee). BADAMIER Country in Asia. tree, wruch which is is also also ca called tree, lied catappa, grows generally in pleasant taste, from wruch oil an oil fruit is is an an almond, of pleasant which an The fmit somewhat similar to olive oil is extracted. produces resinous country almond produces and Another species of country resinous and aromatic matter, matter, a a kind kind of gum which is is used used in in aromatic gum benzoin, which confectionery. confectionery. EN ofs Dic€d aImonds. almonds. AMANDEs Diced AMANDES EN DÉS - Blanched, Blanched, halved as required. They are or small dice as almonds cut into large or and in pdtisserie. used for sweet dishes and pâtisserie. This is AMANDEs BRUTES BRUTEs the name almonds. AMANDES Raw 1Ilmonds. is the name given - This almonds which which have tn pdtisserie and confectionery confectionery to in pâtisserie and to almonds are left unof their hard shells but simply been taken takeh out of simply hard shells but are skinned. Provengal almonds are the the most sought The hard-shelled Provençal after for pdtisserie. after pâtisserie. But medium-sized almonds grown in the plains are also in great demand. These often contain quite a high proportion and are are the ones prehigh proportion of bitter bitter almonds and the ones for ma making ferred for king almond paste. biraudc almonds comprise comprise a smaller The broad and fleshy béraude percentage percentage of bitter almonds and are generally shredded or ground and and used ground used for sprinkling on petits petits fours, fours, biscuits and sweet dishes. almonds are irregular in shape and very small. Tournefort a/monds Because excellent flavour, they are much in demand Because of their theu excellent for the confection confection of almond paste. cnIrrfss -- Shred Shed the almonds alnonds. Roasted almolld Roasled .... AMANDES GRILLÉES and dry thern them in the oven until they turn pale golden. AMANDEs SALÉES sALfEs almonds. AMANDES Salted almollds. - Toast sweet blanched almonds in the oven until their colour changes changes to pale yellow, almonds their colour with a pinch ofsaffron, of saffron, red pepper Sprinkle with turning once. Sprinkle tuming pepper and golden brown. Drain on a cloth ginger then fry in butter butter until golden ginger of and cool. Finally, coat the almonds with a clear solution of gum arabic and sprinkle sprinkle with fine salt. are used alnonds. AMANDES nrrnfrs Shredded almonds. EFFILÉES .. These are used a great deal Shredded and deal in pdtisserie confectionery. Shredded grcat pâtisserie and in confectionery. roasted almonds are used for coating and garnishing sweet (white) almonds are are used shredded, unroasted (white) dishes; dishes; shredded, used for of cooked nougat, confection of coatinEpetitsfours, coating petits fours, and in the confection Mont6limar nougat, Montélimar nougat, petits petils fours, fours, meringues, meringues, almond slices, etc. There are several very efficient implements for shredding equally operation can be performed although the operation almonds, although perforrncd equally lengthwise and each The almonds should be cut lengthwise well by hand. Thealmondsshould weil becut This shou should shredded into twelve to one shredded Id be one to fifteen fifteen pieces. This and before after blanching done immediately irnroediately arter blancrung and berore the the almonds laid on on a a metal they should be are dried. dried. After are Aner shredding they be laid slow oven or orin avery sheetand sheet and dried dried in a very slow in awarmingcupboard. a warrning cupboard. During the drying drying process they should be turned three three times a Store in hermetically hermetically sealed tins. a day. Store onic.cfEs coated with hard dnonds DRAGÉES - Almonds coated Sugared almollds. (not, strictly strictly speaking, speaking, exactly sugar. Sugared almonds (not, exactly as we coated with know know thern them today, today, but but nevertheless nevertheless coated with sugar or It is said that around around the year a long history. Il honey) have a Roman family, a patrician Roman 177 t.c. 177 B.C. a farnily, the the illustrious Fabius of distributing sugared almonds to the family, had the habit of populace as a token of occasion of ofa ofrejoicing rejoicing on the occasion a birth birlh or of So il it is evident that the custom marriage in in the the family. farnily. So custorn of presenting at the of a a birth almonds at celebration of sugared almonds presenttng sugared the celebration goes goes back a very long way. It is is difficult to make make sugared almonds almonds at home, home, and hardly nec€ssary, necessary, considering the excellent excellent sugared almonds manuare made Some are factured commercially. Some factured commercially. made from from windfall wÎndfall almonds; almonds; others with hazelnuts or pistachios; pistachios; others again almond or chocolate, almond filled with drops of of liqueur, chocolate, few drops filled with a a few are particularly etc. Verdun filbert paste, etc. Verdun sugared almonds are particularly esteemed. DoucEs almonds. AMANDES DOUCES Sweet almollds. - Sweet almonds are in great demand and confectionery; demand for pdtisserie confectionery; ail all Spanish gœat pâtisserie and and Italian almonds are sweet. and esteemed as dessert fruit Green sweet almonds are greatly esteemed and are consumed consumed in great quantities. They are less oily and and that reason easier to digest digest than dryalmonds. dry.almonds. for that Whole 1Ilmonds. AMANDEs ENTIÈRES ENTTiRES .. almonds AMANDES When a Wbole a recipe in - When pdtisserie and confectionery confectionery calls calls for a certain certain amount amount of pâtisserie and for a whole almonds, this means blanched almonds and not raw always referred to as raw, meaning with almonds, which are always the thin brown skin left on.
AMANDEs DE These are EARTH. AMANDES rERRE .. ALMONDS, EARTH. DE TERRE - These grow in marshy ground ground in countries cyperus tubers, tubers, which grow and tempera temperate climates. with hot and te c1imates. These almond-shaped atnond-shaped tubers outside, very are brown These tubers are brown outside, white inside inside and extremely starchy. They can either be eaten (like hazelnuts) or cooked (like chestnuts). kind of raw (Iike chestnuts). A kind raw flour is made from them.

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ALOCASIA ALOCASIA - Plant indigenous to the Indies of which there known species. important of are about fifteen species. The The most arc fifteen known most important these, a native of Ceylon, has spread throughout of the ofCeylon, throughout most of as a Indian subcontinent. There its il, voluminous voluminous roots serve as prolonged period of cooking. cooking. food, but only after a prolonged

ALOE. Aloiis ALOÈS - A genus of plants plants belonging to the family purgative gum plant a Liliaceae. From of this a purgative From the the leaves of this plant Liliaceae. resin resin is extracted. Certain species found in Vietnam Vietnam produce an edible starch. starch.
ALPIIEUS. ALPHÉE erpruu-A shellfish with a slightly slightly corn· comALPHEUS. -- A kind of shellfish Some species species pressed body body resembling that of the crayfish. Sorne are found in ail all French coastal coastal waters; others are peculiar peculiar to the Mediterranean. Mediterranean. Sorne are confined to the seas Some varieties are of Asia, Australia and America. America. quality to the spiny Although spiny lobster, this shellshellAlthough inferior in quality fish fish is is quite highly esteemed. All Ail methods of preparation given for lobster lobstcr are applicable to it. il.
stocked with ALSACE ALSACEAisatian larder larder is is well weIl stocked with numerous - The Alsatian of good fare excellent foods. Alsace and excellent Alsace has a long tradition tradition of surprising that 50 not surprising that its its gastronomic gastronomie repertoire repertoire is is a so it is is not lengthy one, full of succulent succulent dishes. source of of unendColmar come that source From From Strasbourg and Colmar gourmands, the and terrines and ing delight to ing delight to gourmands, the magnificent magnificent terrines i! thcir gras truffés, pdtis truffis, which rival in pâtés de foies gras their delicacy even of France France (see PÂTÉS, PATES, TERRlNES). TERRINES). those of of the south-west south-west of found delectable charcuteries The most delectable charcuteries in France are also found in and thanks to the quality of the pork in Alsace, and pork shoulder, saveloy and sausages, the smoked bacon, save/oy and sausages, the choucroute choucroute prepared à d la mode strasbourgeolse strasbourgeoise is more delicious than than any others. others. andfoies gras truffis, But choucroute truffés, excellent excellent though though they cllOucroute andfoies specialities. be, are not the only specialities. Pork is particularly Meat in this of good quality. Pork particularly trus region is of ('the noble pig') holds a place of high tasty. Seigneur cochon ('the honour in Alsace. Alsace. The The Benedictine monks were the first to recognise the advantages advantages of ofpig recognise pig breeding. were the first to keep fish 'The Benedictine monks, who were 5sh ponds, thus thus laying the the basis basis of pisciculture, pisciculture, were were also the advantages of pig first first to to recognise recognise the the advantages pig breeding,' breeding,' writes Paul Bouillard in an essay on the cookery of of Alsace. Alsace. In ln fact, firm-textured, delicately the the region region produces produces firm·textured, delicately flavoured, flavoured, admirable admirable pork. The Strasbourg pork butchers, butchers, masters masters of their art, transform it into a number of preparations preparations which which are not only enjoyed of Alsace cnjoyed by the gourmets of Alsace but in all ail the best Paris restaurants.

l8 18

ALSACE

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MA.NY

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It Alsatian Alsatian geese geese are famous for the delicacy of their flesh. It geese that is from from these these specially fattened geese that the magnificent magnmcent Alsace transmattres de cuisine in Alsace liver liver is obtained which the maîtres and terrines. celebrated pdtes form so skilfully skilfully into the celebrated fonn pâtés and good. And good and and taste good. The vegetables of Alsace look good produce delectable fruit of delectable fruit of which of Alsace produce the the orchards orchards of
plums, some, such as quetsches (Alsace plums) and mirabelle plums, sorne, fresh but are also used used to make are not only delicious to eat fresh (see SPIRITS). not be The list list wou would noted eaux-de-vie eaux-de-vie (see SPIRITS). The noted Id not and the the raspthe cherries cherries and complete without without mentioning the complete make well-known liqueurs. which are are distilled to to make berries, berries, which does not know fish are renowned, too. Who does The freshwater fish trout, salmon, the river trou of the Rhine salmon, the succulence of t, the crayand the eels, eels, tench tench and the Vosges; Vosges; the fish from from the the streams streams of of the fish vin d'Alsace d'Alsace are are au vin matelotes au from which which delicious matelotes bream from prepared prepared ? no means menWith such raw materials - and we have by no and cordon cordon bleu mattes de de cuisine cuisine and all of them the maîtres tioned aIl - the Alsace well. In fact the Alsace Alsace cannot help but cook weil. of Alsace chefs of meal is a a perfect epicurean epicurean symphony. meal Strasbourg and and de Strasbourg magnificent choucroute chouuoute de the magnificent Besides the Besides principal pdti gras aux the principal are the aix truffes truffes the the following are pâté de foie gras of the the region's representative of Alsace, dishes truly truly representative dishes of Alsace, superb cuisine: potee : matelote specialities Alsatian potée: matelote of of fish de Culinary specialities .fish de - Aisatian carp à d Alsatian wine'; wine'; stuffed carp in Alsatian I'Ill; crayfish crayfish'cardinalised l'Ill; 'cardinalised in veal; hot hot meat breast of of veal; stuffed crayfish flan; l'alsacienne; crayfish tuffed breast flan; s noodles ; pdti ; anion of hare hare with with noodles; zewelewai; civet civet of onion flan or zewelewal; pâté; flan or kind of estouffade estouffade a kind beckenoffe, a hare à d la la crème; crime; beckenoffe, saddle of hare pork and potatoes, which which must must be and potatoes, made with with mutton, mutton, pork made justify its geese à d name; fat its name; in a a baker's to justify cooked cooked in baker's oyen oven to fat geese pickled pork with pickled shoulder of of pork i.e., shoulder I'alsacienne;the l'alsaCienne; the schifela, i.e., pastry; fricassée of chicken chicken à d in pastry; turnips; ham ham cooked cooked in turnips; fricassde of goose; turkey calfs turkey with with chestnuts; chestnuts; calf's salmis of of goose; I'alsacienne; salmis l'alsacienne; pork partridges;kalerei, akind of partridges; of pork liverfritters; liver fritters; chartreuse kalerel, a kind of chartreuse of puddings, saveloys and sausages; sausages; saveloys and brawn; Strasbourg Strasbourg black brawn; black puddings, goret' ; red with pig 'à 'd la peau de red cabbage cabbage with de goret'; stufed sucking sucking pig la peau stuffed rabi à potatoes à d la la crème; crime; kohl rabi d l'alsacienne; I'alsacienne; kohl chestnuts; potatoes chestnuts;

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Gastronomie map of Alsace Gastronomic map of Alsace
$itirj:iifl'fiii,=''

(pork butcher:y AJsatian produce): Alsatian charcuterie charcuterie (pork butchery produce): (Schinkenwurst); (knackwurst);2. l. usages (knackwurst); 2. Saveloys; 4. Metwurst; 6. Ham Ham sausage pudding with l. Little Little Strasbourg with tangue; sausage (Schinkenwurst); Black pudding Strasbourg sa sausages Saveloys; 3. 3. Thann Thann sausage; Metwurstl 5. tongue;6. 5. Black sausage;4. in 7. 7. Schwartenroagen; Bierwurst; 9. Veal roll; roll; 10. 10. Schwartwurst; I l. Strasbourg 12. Mulhouse 13. Lyon Lyon type type sausageroade sausage made in Schwartenmagen; 8. 8. Bierwurst; 9. Veal Schwartwurst; Il. Strasbourg sausage; sausage; 12. Mulhouse sausage; sausage; J3. gras Strasbourg; 14. Leberwurst; Leberwurst; 15. 15. Tongue Tongue roll roli with with truffies; 16. Veal Veal roll roll with with foie foie gras Strasbourg; 14. trufres; 16.

19 19

(A L') ALSACIENNE (À L') ALSACIENNE

Wasselonne
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Alsatian kugelhopf kugclbopf Alsatian

iylvtancr

noodles à d l'alsacienne; l'alsacienne; knepfle. knepfle,a fritter; mi/chstriwle; kind of of fritter; milchstriwle; noodles a kind bretzel; schenkele; schenkele; beignets (carnival beignets de de carnaval carnaval (car fritters); bretzel; nival fritters); various types· types of of Aisatian Alsatian tarts; tarts; kougloff kougloff or or kugelhopf; kugelhopf; various Jewish kouguel; kouguel ; bi/berry kafeekrantz, etc. bilberry flan; etc. Jewish flan ; kaffeekrantz, Winos To accompany good things, accompany ail all these these good things, Alsace Alsace WiDes - To produceq in in addition addition to to a a delicious delicious beer, some rare rare and and beer, sorne produces, exceptional wines, which which are are mostly white. white. The decree decree of of 3 3 October 1962 created October 1962 created the the appellation appellation The 'Alsace' or or 'vin 'vin d'Alsace'. d'Alsace'. This This appellation appellation can include the can include 'Alsace' the grape. In variety of grape. In fact, fact, Alsace Alsace wine wine does does not not usually usually bear bear variety the na name of the the locality locality from from which which it it cornes, comes, but but of of the the me of the grape used production. used in in its its production. variety of grape Cipaga nobles. nobles. Sylvaner. Sylvaner. A fresh, fruit fruity wine, best drunk Cépages y wine, best drunk young. Excellent accompaniment for for sauerkraut sauerkraut and and charcharyoung. cuterie. Muscat. A A wine wine with with a a distinct aromatic aromatic Bavour flavour tbat that is is Muscat. an apéritif ap'6ritif or dessert dessert wine. generally served as an (or 'Alsace Tokay'): gris (or Tokay'): Quite a full-bodied full-bodied wine wine Pinot gris Quite a with a a delicate bouquet. (or Clevner): Pinot blanc blanc (or A fresh, freslr" rather rather sharp Clevner): A Pinot sharp wine, often used used for blending. Gewiirztraminer and Traminer. Traminer. The The wine from from tbis grape this grape Gewürztrarniner is very fruit fruity, a distinctive distinctive flavour, flavour, and and is is often drunk y, with a well weil matured. dty, very elegant elegant wine, full of vigour. vigour. Perfect Riesling. A dry, for fish, goes well seafood. It It also also goes well with with sauerfish, shellfish and seafood. kraut.

Hardt Clevner

IINE
iVeuf

rch;/ Guebwr'ller

v

Wine Wine map map of of Alsace Alsace

Cépages Cdpages courants. Chasselas and Kniperlé. Kniperl6. Carafe Chasselas and Carafe wines. wines. The The wine resulting from from the the blending of of cépages cipages nobles nobles and and cépages cipages courants is is called called Zwicker. Zwicket Edelzwicker Edelzwicker is is the name the name given to a a b1end blend of cépages cipages nobles. nobles. Red wines wines and and Rosés. Rosis. The The red red wines wines are made from from the are made the black Pinot grape, grape, rosé ros6 from the grey Pinot grape. Producthe grey Pinot grape. Production is poor compared to that of of white wine. wine. The The name of of the the locality locality often grape. Among often accompanies accompanies that that of of the the grape. Among the best known are Ammerschwihr, Ammerschwihr, Barr, Barr, Eguisheim, KaysersKaysersberg, berg, Kientzheim, Kientzheim, Mittelwihr, Ribeauvillé, Ribeauvill6, Riquewihr. Riquewihr. ALSACIENNE ALSACIENNE (A L') applying to ro an an enormous enonnous - Definition app1ying number of preparations. The predominating predominating ingredients of of dishes prepared are dishes thus are sauerkraut, ham thus prepared ham and and Strasbourg Strasbourg sausage. sausage.

ALUM. ALUN sulphate of aluminium and and potas- A double sulphate sium or ammonium; an an astringent-tasting astringent-tasting salt. salt. Alum was once used used in confectionery confectionery to set the co10ur to set colour of of pâtisserie to crystallised fruits, fruits, and and in in pdtisserie prevent egg to prevent egg whites whi1e being whisked. This from curdling while from is now This is now forbidden forbidden by law.
ALUMINlTE -A - A kind kind of alumina-based fireproof ALLTMINITE of alumina-based fireproof porcelain. Ali porcelains, in fact, fact, are based on All are based silicates, but alumina silicates, on alumina but
Vines Vines in in Alsace Alsace (French (French Government Governmenr Tourist Tourisi Ofice) Office)

higher content content of aluminite has a higher of alumina alumina (oxide of of alumialumiis consequently much tougher than nium) and is than other other porceresistance to heat. lains and possesses a far greater resistance to heat.

20 20

AMBIGU

kitchen utensils: utensils : Aluminite kitchen L Gratin dish: 2. Saucepan: Shell; 10. Soufflé SouffiE dish dish; 2. 4. Sauté dish; 7. 7. Plate; Plate; 8. 8. Rarnekin: Ramekin; 9. 9. Shell; Saucepan; 3. 3. Coffee fiIter; 1. 6lter: 4. Saut6 pan; 5. 5. Vegetable steamer; 6. 6. Snail dish;

lightness. silver, sil ver, its principal characteristic being its extreme extreme lightness. of aluminium have led to its use The numerous properties of marmites, manufacture of of kitchen utensils: saucepans, marmites, in the manufacture stewpans, etc. previously etc. Conclusive Conclusive experiments experiments were were previously stewpans, action various liquids used carried out to determine the action used in preparation of food had on aluminium. food had the preparation It has been proved that there is little or no reaction with pure a1cohol, red or or white white wine, wine, brandy, red brandy, pure alcohol, coffee coffee or or tea beer, 5 per cent cent solution of tartaric, acetic, poured in hot, beer, acids, 3 per cent solution of butyric citric, lactic or phenic acids, per cent solution 0'2 percent solution ofsalicylic of salicylic acid. Nitric acid, on the acid, 0·2 vigorously. other hand, attacks the metal vigorously.

ALUMINIUM Ductile, resistant metal looks like metal that that looks - Ductile,

AMANITA. AMANITE AMANIT A. AMANITE of the agaric agaric group. - A genus of fungi of of amanitae, amanitae, sorne some edible, others There are numerous species of is, therefore, very important and even deadly. It is, dangerous and MUSHROOMS.) to learn to recognise them. (See MUSHROOMS.)

positively ecstatic outpouring, sings the praises Savarin, in a positively of the restorative powers of ambergris chocolate. This product, which which was was formerly uSed in confectionery This used in confectionery perfumery. used as il a fixative in perfümery. and in cookery, is today used In Miditation Z1 Brillat-Savarin refers to ln Méditation VI Brillat-Savarin refers to ambergris 'I know that as the africted': '1 chocolate as the 'chocolate of the the affiicted': glorious memory, constantly Marshal Richelieu, of glorious Marshal constantly chewed get one as for myself, when 1 I get one of those ambergris lozenges; lozenges; as felt, or when one's days when the weight of age makes itself itself feh, sluggish, 1 I add a knob of of ambergris ambergris the size of of a bean, mind is sluggish, pounded with sugar, I a strong sugar, to to a strong cup cup of chocolate, and and 1 poundedwith always find find my condition improves improves marvellously. marvellously. The my condition always flow with ease; burden of life becomes lighter, thoughts ftow ease, and I do do not suffer from insomnia, which would have have been 1 bden the invariable result of a cup of coffee taken for the same purinvariable pose.' highly praises the power of Brillat-Savarin also bighly of ambergris in his Magl'stires Magistères Restaurants. Restaurants.

plant is AMARANTH. This plant ,lMA.n.ANrp is cultivated cultivated in AMARANTH. AMARANTE - This for the beauty of its ftowers. flowers. In In Italy, howFrance mainly for leaves of one variety variety of amaranth are eaten, ever, the tender leaves prepared rather like spinach. spinach.
Nvrsns GRIS cRIs intestinal concretion concretion of of the AMBERGRIS. AMBRE - An intestinal sperm whale found found ftoating floating on the Far Eastern Eastern sperm the surface of Far wax-like substance, dotted with yellow and black seas. It is a wax-like spots, and possessing a strong and pleasant smel!. spots, sed in smell. U Used ancient pharmacopoeia as as an an antispasmodic, it it was also ancient wasalso Brillatcredited with aphrodisiac and restorative properties. Brillat-

(Cold collation) gives the collation) AMBIGU (Cold Trivoux Dictionary gives - Trévoux 'A mixed following definition: at which definition: 'A mixed collation collation at which meat following such a manner manner as to make one and fruit are served together together in such wonder whether it is a simple collation or a supper.' In other dictionaries same dictionaries the ln the sa me definition, or or nearly nearly the same, sa me, is given with the proviso that the dishes served at this of meal must be cold. kind of lnhis de cuisine, cuisine, Joseph Favre says ln his Dictionnaire Dictionnaire universel universel de that the word ambigu is applicable to a meal which is taken dinner. or between dinner and lunbetween luncheon and dinner,

Amanitae

2l 21

AMBROSIA AMBROSIA
cheon, and at which ail all the dishes, the sweets and the dessert, cheon, are served at the same lime. time. This name name should apply specifically to an evening evening meal, to an between midnight and or supper served between and two o'dock in the o'clock in the (evening party). morning, in the course of a soirée morning, soirie (evening
ambrosier, a bush with sweet-smelling leaves. It It flowers and and leaves. sweet-smelling flowers arnbrosier, said to have have restorative powers, especially for stomachic restorative powers, especially for is said complaints. complaints.
AMBROSIE from the the made from A kind kind of of tea tea made AMBROSIA. tr,rnnosrE -A

found in The species in Asia Asia and and Africa. Africa. The known under found species known under the the of Amomum Amomwn cardamon name of scientific scientific name cardamon produces capsular capsular fruit often called called cardamom, cardamom, which which are are used as as a a substitute substitute for real real cardamom. cardamom. quantities of Considerable Considerable quantities of amomum amomum are are exported exported from from Siam, Siam, Singapore Singapore and and Saigon. In France France the Saigon. In the seeds seeds are are grains of variously variously known known as as grains of paradise, Malaguetta Malaguetta pepper, grains, and Guinea are occasionally used as a a sulJstlltulte substitute for Guinea grains, and are used as pepper.
AMOUAMOU - Béarnaise B6arnaise cheese cheese consumed consumod from from October October to to May. May. AMOURETTES AMOURETTES -- Culinary name for Culinary name for the the spinal spinal marrow marrow of of oxen amourettes, very delicate oxen and and calves. calves. Calves' delicate in in flavour, flavour, Calves'amourettes, pies, vol-au-vent, are patties, hot are used as as a a filling filling for for patties, hot timbales,pies, vol-au-vent, etc. etc. Amourettes prepared as Amourettes can can also also be be prepared as an an independent independent dish, dish, made made into into croquettes, and various croquettes, and various fried fried dishes, dishes, etc. etc. Ives' and Most Most of and lambs' lambs' brains of th..:: the recipes recipes given for for ca brains calves' which amourettes amourettes rather resemble resemble -- can be applied to to them. them. can be No first No matter how how amourettes amourettes are are prepared, they should should first be (q.v.) in the same in court-bouillon way as as calves' be boiled court-bouillon (q.v.) same way calves' boiled in (see OFFAL and brains (see and lambs' lambs'brains MEATS). OFFAL or or VARIETY VARIETY MEATS). AMPHICLES More AMPHICLES -- Celebrated cook of ancient Greece. Greece. More Celebrated cook of ancient than his colleagues of of that that distant distant epoch, epoch, Amphicles Amphicles than any any of of his deserves alone recognised recognised He alone from oblivion. oblivion. He deserves to to oe be rescued from ail ostentatious in in the the all that and foolishly foolishly ostentatious that was wa3 barbarous barbarous and culinary and in in his time, his teachings, teachings, and time, and methods of of his and in in bis culinary methods - practice, practice, he them a a task of he devoted himself to to the of bringing bringing to to them devoted himself the task saner prepare nature's nature's products liked to saner logic. 'Amphicles liked to prepare simply. a spit spit and and served underundersimply. He had a hare cooked cooked on on a done fennel. nothing but a sprinkling sprinkling of of coriander coriander and and fenne!. done with with nothing but a He pig should sucking pig simply be be boiled boiled He maintained maintained that that a a sucking should simply and leaves sage. He He wrapped larks larks in in vine vine leaves and placed on on a a bed bed of of sage. and among the the them among and red mullet mullet in in fig fig leaves leaves and and cooked them cinders. No-one knew knew better a cinders. No-one better than than he he how how to to harmonise harmonise a piece piece of disapproved more aromatic. No-one No-one disapproved of flesh flesh and and an an aromatic. more than t he did did of the flavour flavour of of a a mea meat than he of the the practice of disguising the or vegetable. This friend friend of of Theotime even even used spic€s used spices or vegetable. sparingly predecessors îndiscrimisparingly in in his his sauces. sauces. Where Where bis his predecessors indiscriminately nately mixed mixed the' the- most most iIl-assorted ill-assorted condiments condiments together, together, where lavished twenty where his his emulators, emulators, whimsical whimsical to to excess, lavished twenty ingredients a single single dish, dish, Amphicles himself to to ingredients on on a Amphicles confined himself two three.' two or or three.' Our maltre de de cuisine cuisine Our reason reason for for dwelling dwelling on on this this ancient ancient maître is ply to practitioners of is sim simply to remind remind more more modern modern practitioners of the the art art that lie in that cuIinary culinary merit merit does does not ndt necessarily necessarily lie in the the extravaextravagance gance of of the the trimmings. trimmings. AMPHITRYON (tlost) -- Authors gastronomical books Authors of of gastronomical books AMPHITRYON (Host) (such (such as la Reynière, Reynidre, Berchoux, Berchoux, as Brillat-Savarin, Brillat-Savarin, Grimod Grimod de de la Monselet Monselet and and Chavette) and most dictionaries define define the the most dictionaries Chavette) and word 'the one as 'the whom we we dine'. According to to Molière: Molidre: word as one with with whom dine'. According 'The 'The real real Amphitryon Amphitryon Is st with I dîne.' Is mine mine ho host with whom whom 1 dine.' Ail gastronomical writers precepts on All the the gastronomical writers have have laid laid down down precepts on the guests. The relationships of hosts and and guests. The most most famous the relationships of hosts famous of of these la dela works is is the Manuel des des amphitryons arnphitryons by by Grimod Grimod de these works the Manuel Reynière. Reynidre. In le recent times In more more recent Auguste Michel Michel has has devoted devoted aawho whole times Auguste book 'the man full of receives at at his his book full of usefuJ useful hints hints to to 'the man who who receives table' table' concerning concerning his his rôle r6le of Manuel des des of host, host, entitled entitled Manuel nn<mhitrufllH au debut du XX" siècle. amphitryons an debut fu X)( siicle. host, means host, only means speaking the the word word «rnnhitnJAn amphitryon only Strictly "P'-"""".5, and on who person who enterenterand applies, and should only only apply, to the pers tains his table. table. tains someone someone at at rus We host was in find it it difficult to imagine imagine what what aa host was like We find difficult to like in ancient amphitryons, of the the most celebrated amphitryons, ancient times. times. One One of most celebrated
22 22

AMÉLÉON A French a for a French word used in in Normandy for word used AMELEON -A

particular kind of of cider.

AMERICA (See WINES, WINES, INTERand cuisine. cuisine. (See Wines and - Wines COOKERY.) NATIONAL COOKERY.) AMÉRICAINE (À given to various methods of (A V) of L) anAEnfClINE - Name given preparing meat, prethese prevegetables. Among Among these preparing fish, eggs, eggs, vegetables. meat, fish, the best-known (see I'amiricaine (see is Lobster Lobster à d l'américaine parations the best-known is LOBSTER). AMERICAN P ARTRIDGE. COLIN partridge Bird of the partridge PARTRIDGE. corrN -- Bird of the quail, very family, a in America. a little larger than than quail, very common in The (bob-white, quail (bob-white, The colin colin loui, loui, also also called called American Americmt quail Virginian colin) is highly esteemed Virginiot esteemed in in the United States, States, and and the United is now established established in England. (For its culinary preparation, see see QUAIL, QUAIL, PARTRIDGE.) AMIENS gastronomically AMIENS is famous, famous, gastronomically - This town in Picardy is speaking, its andouillettes speaking, for its duck pie, its andouillettes and and its macaroons. macaroons. AMIRAL (A L') fish dishes. dishes. The The charactercharacterAMIRAL (À - Name given to fish istic garnish, composed of dishes is is their their garnish, composed of these dishes istic feature of these fried mussels which and truffies, trufres, to which mussels and and oysters, oysters, crayfish tails and peeled peeled mushrooms are are added. added. The The sauce is a a Normandy sauce is sauce (see SAUCE) (see flavoured with SAUCE) flavoured with Crayfish Crayfish butter butter (see sauce (see BUTTER). BUTTER). AMMAPERDRIX partridge A variety variety of of the AMMAPERDRD( the European European partridge -A found It only in Algeria, Algeria, Egypt, Israel, India India and and Persia. Persia. It only Egypt, Israel, found in differs (it is is smaller) red-legged partridge in from the in its its size size (it smaller) the red-legged differs from and likes in the absence of a tarsal The ammaperdrix ammaperdrix likes the absence of a and in tarsal spur. spur. The hiding partridge, feeds places and, like the French partridge, hiding in in rocky and, like feeds rocky places the French on plants resembling wild thyme. They are are and wild on plants resembling thyme thyme and thyme. They sometimes Mediterfields on on the wandering about about the sometimes found found wandering the fields the Mediterranean given of France. France. Ail All methods methods of of preparation given ranean coast coast of for (q.v.) can partridge (g.v.) applied to for partridge can he to this be applied this bird. AMMOCOETE. - A fish lamprey, fish resembling resembling the the lamprey, errarrlocire-A AMMOCOETE. AMMOCÈTE found the Seine. Seine. mouth of of the found in in the the mouth The (q.v.) and given for preparation given for eel eel (q.v.) and The methods methods of of preparation lamprey applicable to fish. lamprey (q.v.) are are applicable to this this fish. AMMONlA. gaseous compound of nitrogen nitrogen compound of AMMoNIAc -- A A gaseous AMMONIA. AMMONIAC and possessing strong caustic proand caustic strong alkaline alkaline and hydrogen possessing and hydrogen perties. sneezing, gas affects perties. This the breathing breathing and and causes causes "ll",çL.!Jl)';, This gas affects the watering soluble in It is is easily easily soluble and cougrung. coughing. Il of the the eyes, eyes, and watering of water, volatile liquid ammonia ammonia or or volatile constitutes liquid and then then constitutes water, and alkali (the aqueous of it it A few few drops of solution of of ammonia). ammonia). A aqueous solution alkali (the are vomiting. of inebriety inebriety to to induce induce vomi'tml!. in cases cases of are recommended recommended in "",,,'liTJ''U>J.~'''''', cARBoNATE .luttloNIAQUE, CARBONATE OF. AMMONIAQUE, AMMONIA, CARBONATE CARBONATE OF. heat into into action of of heat under the the action decomposes under D' - A salt that decomposes ammonia gaseous) without leaving without leaving acid (both gaseous) carbonic acid ammonia and and carbonic preparations under names It is is used in certain preparations under the the names any residue. residue. It used in powder or or Alsatian Alsatian yeast to render non-fermented non-fermented of baking powder to render dough porous. The gases, in occupy a and porous. in escaping, occupya spongy and dough spongy greater an the grains of flour, vacuoles greater volume and form vacuoles the grains flour, and v-olume th than in thedough. These then disappear completely if the heat of of in the dough. These then disappear completely if the heat the oyen is sufficiently strong. strong. is sufficiently the oven AMOMUM. ginger family family herb of of the the ginger AMoME -- Perennial Perennial herb AMOMUM. AMOME

ANAEMIA ANAEMIA

Terracotta amphorae amphorae for for Terracolla storing oil oil or or wine wine storing

Decorated Greek Greek amphora amphora Decorated

historical or or legendary, legendary, was was Lucullus. Lucullus. He He can can be as a a be taken as historical model of amphitryons, for of amphitryons, forhe guests truly offered his his guests trulymagnifihe offered magnifimodel feasts. cent feasts. cent Historians havegiven have given us us accounts accounts of of the the lavishness lavishness of of Historians Maecenas' table; table; he, he, too, too, is is described great master of described as as a a great of Maecenas' the art art of of entertaining. entertaining. Heliogabulus Heliogabulus was was another renowned the for the the extraordinary extraordinary luxury luxuryof his table. table. Then Then there there were were the for of his men of three men (see of the the name Apicius in in ancient ancient Rome Rome (see name Apicius three APTCTUS). APICIUS). Let us us not not forget forget Assurbanipal, Assurbanipal, even even though he he belongs belongs to Let legend rather rather than than to history. He was one one of of the the most legend to history. He was ostentatious of of the the Assyrian Assyrian kings kings none other than than the ostentatious - none legendary Sardanapalus. Sardanapalus. legendary Belshazzar, must have grand amphitryon on a grand Belshazzar, too, too, must have been been an an amphitryon on a scale, because when describing even describing a a truly scale, because ev en today, today, when truly magnifimagnificent still say say that we still that it it was'a was 'a veritable veritable Belshazzar's Belshazzar's cent banquet, banquet, we feast'. feast'. 'For a 'For a rich rich man,'writes man,' writes Grimod Grimod de de la la Reynidre, Reynière, 'the 'the best r6le is that rôle in in the the world world is that of of host.' host.' Berchoux, says: Berchoux, for for his his part, part, says:

ground or on on a a specially specially constructed pierced pierced shelf. ground

AMYGDALINE name for for the the substance substance that AMYGDALINE - Chemical name makes the the oil oil of bitter almonds noxious. noxious. Amygdalin is makes is the the all substances, cakes or sweets, sweets, that contain term applied to ail almonds. ANAEMIA. ANÉMIE llwrtIun characterised by a diminuANAEMIA. - Anaemia is characterised tion of of the the red red corpuscles corpuscles of the blood. Persons suffering tion the blood. anaemia are said to be anaemic. anaemic. from anaemia Diet for anaemÏcs anaemics - Iron being the principal medicine for anaemic conditions, conditions, dieticians introduce introduoe as as many iron-rich anaemic foods into possible. These the diet diet as as possible. yolk of These are are yolk foods into the of egg, meat, pig's (animal origin); green cabbage, blood, etc. origin); green etc. (animal meat, pig's blood, spinach, chicory, chicory, oats, oats, lentils, white haricot beans, carrots, etc. (vegetable is naturally etc. (vegetable origin); also also red red wine. wine. It It is naturally advisable, before following following such a diet, diet, to take into account the condition of of the digestive digestive organs, since they are usually usually deficient. This is the reason why, for example, ex ample, pig's blood, although rich in iron, can can rarely rarely be he used. used. This This diet diet has rich in recently been modified modified following research research carried carried out by an American scholar, Dr. American scholar, Dr. Whipple, Whipple, who who has has proved proved both experimentally experimentally and in in practice practice that that calfs calfs liver liver is the the food food that best assures the regeneration of of the the blood; blood; kidneys, hearts hearts and meat also react react well, weil, but but less effectively. The efrcacy efficacy of preparations preparations based based on on dehydrated dehydrated stomach, usually prescribed in pharmaceutical pharmaceutical form, has has also also been been recognised. recognised. Whipple's diet consists of a daily ration of 150-250 g. (5-9 (5-9 oz.) calf's liver eaten for breakfast breakfast or lunch, a little meat, meat, fresh fresh vegetables vegetables chosen chosen from those those rich rich in iron, iron, fruit fruit (peaches, (peaches, apples, etc.). etc.). Bread, Bread, starch starch products, products, eggs eggs and sugar sugar are are restricted; restricted; oils and and fats fats are are forbidden forbidden apart apart from from a a little little fresh fresh butter; butter; skinmed skimmed milk milk is is generally generally allowed. allowed. The The Iiver liver has has preferably preferably to to be be eaten eaten raw, raw, especially especially for for grave grave forms of pernicious pernicious anaemia. anaemia. forms of There There are are various various recipes recipes for for the the preparation preparation of of raw raw or or cooked cooked liver. liver. Raw Raw liver. liver. Slice Slice the the liver, liver, then then mince mince it. it. The The resulting resulting pulp pulp should should be he free free from from all all stringy stringy tissues. tissues. Serve Serve it it in in sandwiches, sandwiches, or or mixed mixed with with preserves, preserves, or or with with wann warm beef beef tea tea to to form fonn a a pur6e. purée. There is even even a a recipe recipe for for liver liver cocktail. cocktail. Pound Pound about about There is 100 100 g. g. (4 (4 oz.) oz.) lightly lightly cooked cooked liver. liver. Place Place on on lettuce lettuce leaves, leaves, and and season season with with salt salt and and pepper. pepper. Add Add a a slice slice of of raw raw tomato, tomato, choppd chopped parsley parsley and and a a little little mustard. mustard. Prepare Prepare It cup cup tomato tomato sauce, sauce, * t cup cup lemon lemon juice, juice, 2 2 coffeespoons coffeespoons Worcestershire Worcestershire sauce,1| sauce, t coffeespoon coffeespoonfinely finely chopped chopped shallots, shallots, salt salt and and pepper. pepper.
23 23

'S'il est 'S'il est un un r6le rôle noble noble et et bien bien digne digne d'envie, d'envie, C'est C'est celui celui d'un d'un mortel mortel qui quifait en sa sa maison, maison, fait en Les Les honneurs honneurs de de sa sa table table en en digne digne amphitryon.' amphitryon.'

The of his his table table like like a a true true amphitryon.' amphitryon.' The honours honours of Barras, Cambac6rds and Talleyrand Barras, Cambacérès and Talleyrand were were distinguished distinguished amphitryons. amphitryons. Napoleon Napoleon said said of of Cambacerds: Cambacérès: 'If 'If you you wish wish to to eat Other tables tables eat really really well, weil, go go and and visit visit my my arch-chancellor.' arch-chancellor.' Other were their food, were renowned renowned for for the the quality quality of oftheir food, although although some, sorne, like that of of Princess Princess Mathilde, Mathilde, for for their their mediocrity. mediocrity. The The like that disappearance disappearance of of great great wealth, wealth, the the servant servant problem, problem, the the habit of entertaining entertaining in in restaurants, restaurants, have have pushed pu shed amphiamphihabit of tryonism tryonism to to the the background. background. But But there there are are still still houses houses where where great great pains pains are are taken taken to to ensure ensure the the bonheur bonheur gourmand gourmand of of the the guests. guests.

'If 'If there there is is a a noble noble r6le, rôle, a a truly truly enviable enviable one, one, It It is is that that of of a a mortal mortal who who in in his his house house does does

amphora, of the the Romans, Romans, was was 25.89litres. 25·89 litres. An An amphora amphora amphora, that that of kept kept in in the the Capitol Capitol served served as as a a standard standard measure. measure. The The Attic Attic arrphor4 of the the Greeks, Greeks, was was a a third third larger. larger. Amphorae Amphorae amphora, that that of were were used used to to store store oil, oil, wine, wine, olives olives and and raisins. raisins.

AMPHORA. AMPHORA. AMpHoRE AMPHORE - A A terracotta terracotta vase vase used used in in ancient ancient t'mes times for for measuring measuring liquids. liquids. The The capacity capacity of of the the Italic Italic

The amphora was was sess/r.s sessilis or or non non se.rsills sessilis according according to to The amphora whether whether it it stood stood upright upright on on its its base base or or terminated terminated in in a a rounded in a a hole hole in in the the rounded point. point. In In the the latter latter case case it it was was placed placed in

ANAGNOST ANAGNOST
1 part part of minced minced or grated grated liver to 2l 21 pans parts of this this Mix I shake and and chill. chilI. mixture, shake Ca/f's liver /iver an au gratin. Blanch Blanch and and dice dice 450 450 g. (l (1 lb.) calf's calf's Calf's liver, and and place place it on a a buttered buttered plate. Cover with breadliver, crumbs, white sauce sauce and pulped pulpedtomatoes. tomatoes. Season with salt crumbs, and pepper pepper and and brown brown in in the the oven. oven. A little Httle ham ham and chopped and he· added. added. parsley may be Liver balls. balls. Blanch and pound 450 g. g. (1 (l lb.) liver with rashers cif Of fat bacon. Add 2 tablespoons (3 tablespoons) 2 rashers crea m, I 1 chopped chopped onion, onion, 2 2 eggs (or (or the the yolks yolks only), only), and stale cream, fresh breadcrumbs until of a consistency to forrn fonn into or fresh rather large balls. Bake these in the oven. oven. rather Liver creun. cream. Mix i cup pounded poupded liver urith with I 1 egg, egg, well weIl Liuer and season with salt and pepper. Thin with milk, beaten, and place in the oven until set. pour into a bain-marie, and place Raw /iver vinaigrette. Cut raw liver into small pieces and Raw liver season with vinegar, onion, parsley and chervil. chervil. season

I

ANAGNOST. ANAcNosrEANAGNOSTE - Name given by the Romans to ANAGNOST. job it was to read during during meals. meals. slave whose job the slave The of the Emperor Emperor Claudius, Claudius, The custom dates from the time of although nowadays nowadays it it hardly hardJy exists, except except in sorne some nunneries althougb of the· French French educational establishments run by the run by educational establishments of the Church. He was considered a privileged privileged person. His meals Church. were bis companions corn panions had left the table, were served to him after his and he was usually given a a wider choice and more copious The post was was much by the after by much sought after portions of food. food. The pupils. monasteries. and monasteries. Not so there was an anagnoste in each Not so long ago, however, there

Preparation of of anchovies (after (afler a drawing HoueI) Preparation drawing by J Houel)

ANALECT. y duty slave whose dut ANALEcTE- Name given to the slave ANALECT. ANALECTEit was to collect the remains of a a Roman meal. meal. History does not relate what happened left-overs; they were probhappened to these left-overs; ably portions, artistically artistically arranged, acceptable portions, ably neatened into acceptable and and sold in special markets. (See ARLEQUINS.)
and up and Whatever builds builds up - Whatever restores Term applied to light foods which rcstores exhausted exhausted forces. Tenu are easy quickly produce a sensation of a sensation to digest and which guickly €asy to well-being. Full-bodied wines, wines, heef beef tea, meat jellies, tapioca and analeptics. all analeptics. and chocolate are aIl

ANALEPTIC. lNlr.eprIQUE ANALEPTIC. ANALEPTIQUE

ANALYSIS. term for for the the separation ANALYSIS. ANALYSE -- Scientific tenn of the The various consticonstiits component component parts. The into its the whole into tuents been scientifically scientifically analysed. food have often been tueats of food ANAPHYLAXIS. ANAPHYLAXIE ANApHyLAxE -- Word Word created created by by Professor discurious phenomenon disdefine the the curious fessor C. C. Richet Richet to to define covered poisons increase rather than increase rather him: that that certain certain poisons covered by by him: diminish their action. of an an organism to their sensitiveness of organism to the sensitiveness diminish the A minimal dose given to animal 1e a 4 non-sensitised nsn-sensitised animal dose of of poison given has no while alarming effects in effects are are produced in no serious serious effects, effects,while an animal dose of a non-fatal dose of has previously been given a animal that has the the same same poison. This It also also injeotions. It internal injections. true after after internaI This is is especially especially true explains certain ofcertain after the the ingestion of that occur occur after thq disorders disorders that explains the foods. foods. Food people, following ingestion following the the ingestion Some people, Food anaphylaxis anephylrxb -- Sorne of honey, chocolate, chocolate, milk, honey, eggs, milk, as bread, bread, eggs, foods such such as of certain certain foods etc., of the the nettlenettleoften of eruptions, often to skin skin eruptions, af€ subject either to etc., are subject either rash or to to asthma, or akin to to asthma, disorder akin a respiratory respiratory disorder rash kind, kind, or or to to a severe severe headaches. headaches. The and belongs belongs onp and is a a delicate delicate on~ treatmetrt is The desensitisation desensitisation treatment entirély of medicine. to the the realm realm of entirely to

stretches almost to the gills. stretches almost It is a food. The has long been appreciated as as a food. It The anchovy has and its mentioned in the the works works of of Elien Elien and and Aristotle, Aristotle, and mentioned in (q.v.), which garum (g.v.), which the used in the the making making of garum viscera viscera are used Greeks and Romans called 'the most precious sauce'. delicate flavour Anchovies have have a very very delicate flavour when when fresh, but can where they are caught. only be eaten fresh in the countries where eate,n fresh smelt. or smelt. they are are much much tastier When fried they tastier than than gudgeon or When fried Mediterranean coast from The best best anchovies anchovies come from the Mediterranean Nice to Catalonia, Catalonia, and are very large in that region. prepared at home or industrially, are used Anchovy Anchovy fillets, prepared example. in many dishes, hot and cold; in pizza, for example. offand Method of preparation. Cut the head off and clean out the of preparatior. flesh is inside. inside. Wipe the fish without pressing too hard, as the flesh very delicate. method of of cooking cooking and most most popular method Perhaps Perhaps the the best best and When they they are frying them them in in olive olive oil. oil. When fresh anchovies is is frying fresh anchovies (q.v.) fresh sardines (g.v.) large, aIl for cooking all the recipes given for cooking fresh can anchovies. to anchovies. can he be applied to found in this Anchovy is mostly prepared in brine, and is found It can also he be preserved in fonn form in aIl all the markets of Europe. It oil, oil, or or pickled. r, LA u SILÉSIENNE snfsruNs -- Fillet 6 ANcHoIs À Ancbovies i la silésienne. silesienne. ANCHOIS Anchovies à for half-an-hour half-an-hour in and leave them to to soak soak for fresh fresh anchovies anchovies and white wine. and rub rub in water, water, and roes of 2 2 salted herring in Soak the soft soft roes salted herring Soak the finely chopped chopped sieve. Add 2 teaspoons finely them a fine fine sieve. thern through through a pur6e parsley. Thin Thin down down this this purée with chopped chopped parsley. shallot shallot mixed with were soaked. soaked. the anchovies anchovies were which the with with the white wine in which arrange dish, and and arrange Spread in an an hors-d'œuvre hors-d'euvre dish, the mixture mixture in Spread the the Surround the the anchovy fillets on a criss-cross criss-cross pattern. Surround anchovy fillets on it in a of boiled boiled mixed salad salad composed composed of fiJlets a border of mixed fillets with with a border of well dice and and weIl into small small dice potatoes cut into potatoes and apples, cut and tart tart apples, parsley and of and thin slices of thin slices seasoned. with sprigs sprigs of of parsley seasoned. Garnish Garnish with olive sprinkle with with olive lemon serving, sprinkle and beetroot. Just before before serving, lemon and beetroot. Just oil. oil. anchovy ANcHoIs -- Cut Cut anchovy Ancbovy cer.lApEs AUX Atx ANCHOIS Anchovy canapés. canapcs. CANAPÉS pieces and slices ofbread of bread on long long slices and arrange arrange them them on fillets small pieces fillets in srnall a spread with with a and been been spread which removed and which have have had had the the crusts crusts removed (see BUTIER). BUTTER). Chop Chop light d'hdtel butter (see Mattre d'hôte/butter light coating coating of of Maître and (separately) the yolks and (separately) hard-boiled eggs, and and whites whites of of hard-boiledeggs, the yolks pieces parsley; arrange between the the pieces little heaps heaps of of these these between sorne arrang€ little some parsley; parsley. of with curly curly parsley. anchovy. Garnish Garnish with of anchovy.

(6 inches) ANCHOVY. inches) 15 cm. cm. (6 sea fish, fish, 15 ANcHoIs -- Small Small sea ANCHOVY. ANCHOIS long. ms a green colour a latpr tu turns colour which which latpr a beautiful is a beautiful green long. Its Its back back is dark the all of whict! helps helps the of which' greenish blue, almost black., black, aIl then almost blue, then dark greenish buyer to determine from It can can bedistinguiShed be distinguished from its freshness. freshness. It determine its buyeito the which projecting snout, large mouth, mouth, which snout, and and large its projecting sardine by by its the sardine

Anchovy

and spices: spices : from lrom lefllo paprika;aaniseed, tierbs and juniper berries. njseed , cayenne, left to righlright -juniper cayenne, berries, cinnamon, cinnamon, basil, basil, paprika; ajoujoli, coriander; pepper, ginger, ginger, fennel, coiander; curry, fennel, ajoujoli, curry, caraway, caraway, raz raz el el IJan/OUl, rosemary; pepper, hamour, rosemary; pepper; Phot. Larousse) sweet pepper; celery, Lorousse) frron , c1oves, sage (Hédiard. Phal. sweet celery,sa saflron, cloves,sage(Hidiard.

ANCHOVY ANCHOVY
gall-bladders and and intestines intestinesby pressingwith withthe bypressing gaU-bladders thethumb. thumb. Put Put theanchovies anchoviesin inlayers layersinto intoaasmall small barrel barrelwith withsalt saltmixed the mixed powderedbrick; with red red ochre proportionsare ochreor orpowdered brick; the with theproportions are66kg. kg. (12lb.) (1lb.) lb.)salt g.(1 powdered brick. saltto lb.)powdered to500 500g. (12 brick.The Thelayers layersof of (2| inches) anchovies should should be be66cm. cm.(2t inches) thick, anchovies layer thick,each eachlayer (f-inch)layer separated from from the next by the next byaa2-cm. 2-cm. (i-inch) layerof separated ofthe the mixed salt saltand and brick dust. brickdust. mixed When the puton thebarrel barrel is full, put When isfull, onthe lid,which which must musthave haveaa thelid, pierced in hole pierced inthe themiddle. hole middle. Pour Pour aaconcentrated concentrated solution solutionof of seasalt salt on sea on the the anchovies anchovies through through this thishole. hole.Leave Leave the thebarrel barrel in the thesun, sun, with with aabrick in brick over over the thehole holein inthe thelido lid.The Theheat heatof of producesfennentation the sun preserves the the sun produces fermentation which which preserves thefish fishand and quality, and ensures their ensures theirkeeping keeping qua!ity, andthe thebrick brickover overthe thehole hole preventsthe prevents thebrine brine from from evaporating. evaporating. When When the degree of fermentation is thedegree offermentation isconsidered consideredsufficient, sufficient, putaacork remove remove the thebrick andput brick and corkin inthe holein thehole inthe thelido lid. Anchovies preserved in Anchovies preserved in brine brine can can be usedas ashors-d'œuvre hors-d'euvre beused preparations. and and for for other other preparations. p,l,uprnrrEsD'ANCHOIS RoUed Rolled ancbovies anchovies à A la Ia Talleyrand. Talleyrand. PAUPIETTES D'ANcHors À A LA u TALLEYRAND rx.lryRAND -- Trim Trim and and flatten flattenthe thefiUets. fillets.Stutf Stuffthem them with pur6e made with aa purée pickled tunny (tunafish) made of of pickled fish) mixed tunny (tuna mixed with with finely finely chopped chopped truffies truffies and and bound bound with with aa tablespoon tablespoonof of mayonnaise. mayonnaise. Arrange Arrange the and roUed rolled anchovies the stutfed stuffed and anchovies on onthick thickslices slices of of hard-boiled hard-boiled egg. egg. Put Put them them on on an anhors-d'œuvre hors-d'euvre dish dishand andsursurv.) of round (q.v.) round them with aachiffonade chffinade (q. them with of finely lettuce, finelyshredded shredded lettuce. Decorate Decorate with with slices slices of lemon and and beetroot, of lemon beetroot, and and sprink1e sprinkle with with olive olive oil. oil. pAuprETTEs D'ANCHOIS p'.LNcHors À RoUed Rolled anchovies anchovies à i la la tartare. tartare. PAUPIETTES ALA r,c, TARTARE rARrARx -- Trim Trim and and flatten flatten anchovy anchovy fillets. fillets. Stuff Stuff them them with grated horseradish puree of with a a purée of grated horseradish which which has has been been kneaded kneaded with with butter. butter. Put Put the the roUed rolled anchovies anchovies on rather thick on rather thickslices slices of of cooked (cut with cooked beetroot beetroot (cut with fluted fluted cutters) cutters) and and arrange arrange them them on on an an hors-d'œuvre hors-d'euvre dish. dish. Decorate Decorate with with chopped chopped hard-boiled hard-boiled eggs and capers, eggs and capers, and and sprinkle sprinkle with with olive olive oil. oil. pAuprErrEs RoUed Rolled anchovies anchovies with with bard-boiled hard-boiled eggs. eggs. PAUPIETTES D'ANCHOIS D'ANcHors AUX Aux OEUFS oEUFs DURS DURS -- Trim Trim the anchovy fillets the anchovy fillets and and shape (canned or shape them them into into rolls rolls (canned or bottled bottled anchovies anchovies may may be be used). used). Arrange Arrange them them in in an an hors-d'œuvre hors-d'euvre dish, dish, decorate decorate with with chopped chopped hard-boiled hard-boiled eggs, parsley and eggs, parsley and capers, capers, and and sprinkle sprinkle with with olive olive oil. oil. Soused Soused anchovies. anchovies ANCHOIS ANcHors MARINÉS umrNfs -- Clean g. (1 (l lb.) Clean 450 450 g. lb.) fresh fresh anchovies. anchovies. Lay Lay them plate, sprinkle them on on a a plate, sprinkle with with salt, salt, and and leave leave to to souse souse for for 2 2 hours. hours. Dry just Dry the the anchovies, anchovies, and and fry fry them them in in smoking smoking hot hot oil oil just long enough enough to to stiffen stiffen them. put them Drain, put them. Drain, them into into an an earthenearthenware dish, dish, and and cover with a prepared in cover with a marinade marinade prepared in the the followfollowing manner: manner: Heat the oil in which the anchovies were cooked (adding the oil in which the anchovies were cooked (adding 5 5 or or 6 6 tablespoons tablespoons of of fresh fresh oil). Fry a oil). Fry a finely finely sliced sliced mediummedium-

Anchovy canapés canap6s Anchovy

Anchory fillets. fillets. FILETS FTLETs D'ANCHOIS D'ANcHors -- Desalt Desalt the anchovies Ancbovy the anchovies (that is, and trim trim them them (that is, remove remove bones and skin). and bones and skin). Wipe Wipe these these fillets with with a a c10th and cut into 20r cloth and cut into 2 or 3 lengthwise. fiUets 3 strips strips lengthwise. (Canned fillets fillets may may be be used.) used.) (Canned Arrange the the fiUet fillet strips strips decoratively Arrange decoratively in in an an hors-d'œuvre hors-d'euvre dish. Garnish Garnish with yolks and with yolks and whites dish. whites of of hard-boiled hard-boiled eggs, eggs, chopped separately, separately, and and chopped parsley and chopped parsley chopped and capers. capers. the fiUets fillets with with a a few Sprinkle the few tablespoons tablespoons of of olive olive oil. oil. The arrangement of porcelain, cut-glass anchovy fiUets The of anchovy fillets in in porcelain, cut-glass or silver silver hors-d'œuvre hors-d'euvre dishes or dishes lends lends itself itself to to aa variety variety of of artistic expression. expression. Slices quartered lettuce artistic Slices of of lemon, lemon, quartered lettuce hearts, sm small hearts, ail gherkins cut cut in in various various shapes, shapes, beetroot betroot cut cut in in rounds or crescents, crescents, etc., can also also be etc., can be added added to ingredients to the the ingredients mentioned above. Anchory fillets Ancbovy filleb à I la la suédoise. suedoise. FILETS FTLETS D'ANCHOIS o'^LNcnors À A LA r.L suEoolsr SUÉDOISE prepared in anchovy fillets, fillets, prepared in the the usual usual - Arrange the anchovy manner, on manner, on a foundation of a foundation of salad salad composed composed of of tart tart red red apples and cooked cooked beetroot, cut in small small dice, dice, seasoned seasoned with with oil, vinegar, salt and and pepper. Surround Surround tbis garnish of this salad salad with with a a garnish little bunches of little bunches of of parsley, yolks and parsie y, yolks and wbites whites of hard-boiled hard-boiled eggs, eggs, and and cooked cooked truffies, ail all chopped separately separately and and arranged arranged in in individual individual groups. Sprinkle Sprinkle with a a few few tablespoons tablespoons of oil. oil. Anchovy toast. Anchovy toast. TOASTS rolsrs AUX Aux ANCHOIS ANcHors -- Garnish Garnish lightly lightly pieces of bread with toasted pieces with fillets fillets of of anchovies. anchovies. Sprinkle Sprinkle them with breadcrumbs which have been fried in in butter, and and brown in the oven oven for a a few minutes. Fried anchovies. ANCHOIS .cxcHols FRITS FRrrs and prepare fresh Clean and fresh - Clean anchovies. Dip them in anchovies. in milk, milk, drain drain them, them, and and roll roll them them in in flour, keeping the fish fish separate as as far far as as possible. Fry them in irr very very hot fat. fat. Drain, Drain, and and sprinkle sprinkle with with fine, fine, dry salt. Pile them on a a heated plate and and garnish with fried fried parsley and lemon quarters. Medallions of ancbovy Medalliore anchovy à I la niçoise. MEDATLLoNS D'ANCHOIS D'ANcHors nigoise. MEDAILLONS À u LA utgotsn NIÇOISE - Spread A Spread slices slices of crustless crustless bread bread with with butter butter that has been mixed with thick tomato purée. pur6e. Put a a slice slice of of hard-boiled egg on each slice, hard-boiled and a roUed rolled fiUet fillet of anchovy slice, and egg. on the egg. these medallions with stoned Garnish these stoned black black olives, olives, and and a little !ittle chopped parsley. Arrange sprinkle with a Arrange them them on on a a paper doyley, and add a further garnish of parsley. of curly curly parsley. poRTUcArsE Portuguese anchovy ancbovy fillgts. fiUets. FILETS Portuguese FTLETS D'ANCHOIS D'ANcHors PORTUGAISE Prepare desalted desalted anchovies anchovies in fillets, fiUets, and cut Prepare cut them into thin them into thin be used. used. Canned fillets may may be strips. Canned fondue of of tomatoes (see Prepare a a fondue (see TOMATO), TOMATO), cooked cooked it in in anhors-d'euvre an hors-d'œuvre dish. lightly in oil, and and put it lightly dish. Arrange Arrange the the pattern on on top top of of the fondue. Decorate fillets in a a criss-cross criss-cross pattern fillets the fondue. Decorate capers, chopped chopped parsley, slices slices of of peeled peeled lemon, with capers, lemon, and and of olive olive oil. oil. sprinkle with with a a few tablespoons tablespoons of sprinkle Preserved anchovies. ancbovies. coNsERvE CONSERVE D'ANcHors D'ANCHOIS - This must be be heserved This must - the made with with freshly freshly caught caught anchovies. anchovies. Remove Remove the heads, the made heads, the

Medallions la niçoise Medallions of of anchovy anchovy à d la nigoise

25 25
Barquettes andtartlets and tartlets with witb fruit fruit fillings fillings (Po (Potel and Chabot. Chabot. phot. Phot. Larousse) Larousse) Barquettes tel and

ANCHOYADE
a sliced sliced carrot in in the the oil. oil. Add Add 3 unpeeled sized onion and a unpeeled (6 tablespoons, garlic, 1 cloves of garlic, I dl. dl. (6 tablespoons, scant ! cloyes l cup) vinegar, j cup) water. Season I dl. (6 tablespoons, scant t and 1 Season with fine and j bay leaf parsley, 1of thyme, 3 sprigs parsley, leaf and salt, and add a sprig of peppercorns. crushed 1teaspoon cru shed peppercorns. I teaspoon for 10 l0 minutes. Pour Ppur the mixture, mixture, still boiling, on the Boil for anchovies. Leave to souse souse for 24 hours. anchovies. garnished in an an hors-d'œuvre hors-d'euvre dish dish garni slices of Serve in shed with Serve with slices lemon.
(Provengal eookery) preparation based ANCHOYADE cookery) ANCHOY ADE (Provençal - A preparation paste. Pound on anchovy paste. the anchovies anchovies in a mortar, on Pound the in a mortar, add paste on and a a few olive oil oil and few drops drops of vinegar. Spread olive Spread this this paste home-made bread, and sprinkle with finely chopped of home-made slices of chopped hard-boiled hard-boiled egg, onion, chopped and a a little egg, and onion, little olive olive oil. Brown in the oyen. Brown oven. I la niçoise nigoise Anchoyade à Anchoyade - Add chopped shallot and parsley to anchovy paste, moisten with olive oil, and spread to paste, moisten oil, and spread this mixture on slices of toast, or bread fried fried in oil until until golden brown. Sprinkle Sprinkle with with breadcrumbs mixed mixed with with chopped brown. garlic, and and garlic, with olive oil. and then then with parsley and oil. Brown in in the oyen. oven.

(A V) preparations treated ANCIENNE L') to preparations ANCIENNE (À Name given to - Name of the old school. school. These These dishes dishes were according to the precepts of garnishes, and braised braised beef slowly simmered usually mixed garnishes, simmered characteristic type is Rump of of beef for a long time. The most characteristic d l'ancienne I'ancienne (see BEEF). BEEF). à applies to dishes such as pastry shells baked The term also applies baked blind (empty) and and filled with ragoûts ragofrts of cocks' combs combs and blind quenelles of kidneys, or or quenelles of truffles truffies and and mushrooms. mushrooms. (For kidneys, d l'ancienne I'ancienne mode see CHICKEN, and for Escalopes Chicken à VARIETY l'ancienne see OFF OFFAL of calves' sweetbreads à of AL or V ARIETY d l'ancienne MEATS.) d l'ancienne l'ancienne also applies blanquettes (q.v.) and applies to blanquettes The term à of lamb, veal and chicken treated treated in a special fricassées (q.v.) oflamb, fricassies way.
(A V) preparations ANDALOUSE (À L) Name different prepara ANDALOUSE ame given to different tions -N mainly by by tomatoes, tomatoes, sweet sweet pimentos characterised mainly pimentos and sometimes chipolata sausages, aubergines chipolata sausages, aubergines and and rice rice pilaf. sometimes (See EGGS, d l'andalouse; I'andalouse; CHICKEN, CHICKEN, Chicken EGGS, Eggs Eggs à (See Chickm à d I'andalouse.) l'andalouse.)

(Chitterlings) prearc preANDOUILLETTES (Chitterlings) - Andouillettes are pared like andouilles, andouilles, but smaller intestines are used. There pared are many varieties, differing for the most part in the spices (old are made made à ri la ficelle ficelle (old used composition. Sorne used in in their composition. Some are method); the tripe is cut lengthwise into strips. Others are stuffed with diced or minced tripe. gastronomic societies, comexclusive of gastronomic One of the most exclusive prising is the only five five branches, branches, is the Association amicale des prising only andouillettes (A.A.A.A.A.) amateurs amateurs d'authentiques d'authentiques andouillettes lovers of authentic andouillettes'. diploma from 'Society of loyers of authentic andouillettes'. A diploma after. Its members have opporthis society is much sought after. members have opporthis length the comparative merits of the comparative merits tunities to to discuss at length tunities Troyes, Arras, Arras, Cambrai, Fleurie in andouillettes of Troyes, Paris, Fleurie Cambrai, Paris, Beaujolais, Aubagne, Lourdes, etc. poached and Andouillettes,like andouilles, are Andouillettes, like andouilles, are sold ready poached All that needs to be done is to slit the skin and and grill cooled. AlI them gently. andouillettes. It is a mistake to serve fried vegetables with andouillettes. A.A.A.A.A. has experimented with creamed potatoes, The A.A.A.A.A. lentils, red fried onions, raw red red cabbage, creamed creamed celery, celery, lentils, fried au gratin, stewed apples, etc., but total beans, vegetables au apples, etc., gratin, stewed beans, agreement has been reached on only one point: andouillettes agreement a good strong mustard. require a Andouillettes à I la la lyonnaise lyonnaise Slit the and AndouiUettes the andouillettes and - Slit cook them in lard or butter. When two-thirds done, add a previously lightly cooked in finely chopped onion previously in lard lard or finely butter. Simmer until done. When ready to serve, add a tableand a ofchopped ofvinegar. a tablespoon of spoon of chopped parsley and vinegar.

(Vlue grass) plant of the genus of plant ANDROPOGON ANDROPOGON (Vlue A genus -A are known, known, one species of it are Gramineae Numerous species Grarnineae family. Numerous of which is the sugar cane. Several of the plants are used for infusion. like tea. infusion,

ANDOTIILLE A large large pig filled with strips strips of ANDOUILLE pig intestine filled -A chitterlings and and stomach stomach of the same animal. These popular chitterlings (See are generally served cold, cold, as as an hors-d'œuvre. hors-d'euvre. (See sausages are PORK.) Large smoked of Vire Vire and as those andouilles such smoked andouilles such as those of L~lfge are sold sold ready-cooked, readv-cooked. and Gu6m6n6 are and should should be Guéméné be served thinly sliced.

(Historig gastronomie gastronomic and culinary) ANECDOTES (Historie, and eulinary) ANECDOTES advised by was advised by his his physician that A convalescent Pompey was his recovery recovery would would be hastened by following a bis be hastened a diet diet of by following thrushes. When his servants servants returned with the news that it thrushes. summer except at of summer was impossible to find any in the height of Lucullus, the invalid turned to his physician and of Lucullus, the home of 'What's this? remarked, 'What's survival depend remarked, this? Does Pompey's survival (Les Classiques de Lucullus is a a glutton?' (Les upon the fact that Lucullus la table) la
de Duras, Duras, seeing Descartes Descartes tucking into a a good Le duc duc de jestingly, 'What 'What ho! ho ! Do Do philoday, remarked jestingly, meal meal one one day, a use for such delicacies?' delicacies?' sophers have a you imagine 'Do you imagine that 'Why not?' retorted Descartes. Descartes. 'Do 'Why not?' retorted simply Nature produced the good things of the earth sim Nature ply for the ignorant?' (Panckoucke)
well known that Mme. de Maintenon was extremely It is weIl poor evening wbile of her first marriage. One evening while she po or at the time of was entertaining no roast entertaining sorne some people at at supper and and had had no was lackey, a witt witty some spirit, sidled up to to offer, her lackey, y fellow of of sorne his mistress, mistress, who who was was entertaining entertaining the the company with with her his 'Madame, witty charmingly y conversation, charmingly witt conversation, and and whispered, 'Madame, you have more story, story, and and no no one will will notice notice that have no that you one more Beaumelle) roast for supper.' (La Beaumelle)

The food was very very bad bad at food was at Mme. Mme. d'Aligre's d'Aligre's hou house se and The 'Really,' remarked M. 'if much discussed. discussed. 'RealIy,' M. de de Lauraguais, 'if much neighbour's, one did not eat one's own bread as weIl well as one's neighbour's, here one wou Id die of hunger.' (Grimm, Correspondance) would Correspondance) Admiral Russel invited the officers and and crews of One day AdmiraI his fteet fleet to He had had a a marble marble basin bis to drink punch with him. He for the the middle the occasion in specially constructed for middle of a in the magnificent which he he ordered to be poured six magnificent garden, into which (brandy), six hundred bottles of hundred bottles of Cognac (brandy), rum, twelve twelve hundred bottles of Malaga, four tons of boiling

Vire and and Guéméné andouille (Larousse) Vire Gu6m6n6 andoujlle

26

ANECDOTES
water, water, the Ihe juice of two two thousand six six hundred hundred lemons, six hundred pounds of the best Lisbon sugar and two hundred grated grated nutmegs. nutmegs. A young young man man representing representing Hebe Hebe rowed round round the Ihe basin basin in a small small mahogany mahogany boat, boat, filling filling the Ihe cups of more more than six thousand thousand drinkers drinkers seated seated in an an amphitheatre amphitheatre of benches benches round the basin. (Ivrogniana)
Heliogabalus rus parasites parasites to meals meals of Heliogabalus used used to entertain entertain his
grass, and was wont wonl to cover coyer his rus table with embroidered or all the dishes tapestry tablecloths upon upou which wruch were worked worked ail

uninspired uninspired for a gastronome of his calibre: 'The difference between between her and la Brinvilliers Brinvilliers is in their intention.' intention.' By skillful skillful grafting a gardener gardener from Montreuil Montreuil succeeded sucœeded in propagating propagating a most exquisite variety variety of of peach. peach. He desired desired to 10 present the fruit fruit in homage to 10 Louis XVIII, XVIII, but before before exposing himself to to a a test test upon which which his rus reputation so 50 The latter, much much depended, depended, he he decided decided to to visit visit M.P.R. M.P.R. The stretched stretched out ouI in in his his armchair, armchair, legs legs crossed crossed and and hands hands clasped, c1asped, prepared himself himself in gentle gen tle contemplation con templation to deliver him. The the important important yerdict verdict that was was expected of ofrum. The gardener silver knife. requested requested a a plate piate with a a silver knife. He cut cut the the precious peach in quarters, quarters. speared one of of these with the point of of the saying, knife knife and and gravely pushed pushed it it into into M.P.R.'s mouth, saying, 'Taste the juice!' juice!' His eyes eyes closed, closed, M.P.R. M .P. R. tasted tasled the juice juice without uttering a a word. The The gardener observdd observed him, him, his of two or three eyes clouded with anxiety. After an interval of minutes, of his minutes. those of ms mentor mentor opened. opened. 'Good, very good, good, my had time friend,' friend,' were were the the only only words words he he had time to to utter. utter. Imquarter was advanced like the first, mediately, the second quarter the second was advanced first. confident tone, and more confident tone, comand the the gardener, in a a firmer, more same manded, 'Tagte 'Taste the flesh'. There followod followed the sa me silence, gourmet. This on the part of the learned gourmet. the same gravity gravit y on time the movement of his mouth was more pronounced, pronounced, for for nodded rus his head. 'Ah, 'Ah, very good, he was chewing. At last he uodded wa~ chewing. of very good!' You You are are going to think think that the superiority of judged and that no more remained to be the peach had been beenjudged 'Savour slioe followed said? Not at all! The third tmrd slice followed in its ils turn. tum. 'Savouf the gardener. The aroma was found the aroma!' aroma!'continued continued the found and the of the juice to worthy of to be be worthy juice and the flesh. ftesh. Whereupon Whereupon the gardener drew rumself himself up to his gardener rus full height to present present the last quarter. His His face, flushed, glowed quarter. face, slightly flushed, g10wed with with pride and satisfaction: 'Taste the whole!' His triumph was complete. satisfaction: him moist-eyed and and towards him and carne came towards M.P.R. M.P. R. tasted tasled it, it, and friend, it it is hand effusively. 'Ah, my friend, his hand smiling. He grasped his perfect! 1 compliments.' I offer you my heartfelt compliments.' perfeet! night at one of of a number of elegant Fontenelle dined dined each mght houses, a fact that caused Piron to to remark remark upon upon seeing the hou ses, a fact Ihat one day day achis window doyen of of the the AcadCmie Académie passing passing his window one doyen I have seen retinue: 'That is the first time 1 his retinue: companied by rus out!' intending to dine out!' M. de Fontenelle leave home without intending battle, Artaxerxes, king of Persia, having been defeated in baille, during the was constrained to eat dried figs and barley bread durillg ye gods,' he 'O ye fare excellent. excellent. '0 retreat. He found round this this rough fare I have denied myself myself up to now by 'what pleasure 1 exclaimed, 'what tastes!' over-fastidious in my tas being over-fastidious tes !' Montmaurwas noisycompany daywith eating one day Montmaur was eating with a large, noisy company gentlemen!' he singing friends. friends. 'Hey there, there, gelltlemen!' and singillg of coughing and pray, eise called out, 'A lillie little silence, else how how are are we we to to know out, 'A silence, pray, called (Menagiana) what we are eating.' (Menagiana) Marshal Albert immediately immediately felt ill ifwild if wild boar or suc sucking king pig appeared on the the table. Erasmus had had only only to fish to to sme]] smell fish to become feverish. Erasmus placed apples llear anyone placed near Duchesne, Duchesne, secretary secretary to When anyone Frangois 1, I, blood blood poured from from his his nose. François

appeared at that ought to to have have appeared al the the different courses. courses. At other other times times he tantalised their Iheir gaze gaze with paintings paintings of of various various them everything everytrung they could wish foods, seemingly offering thern for, yet leaving them ravenously hungry. hungry. (Lampride)

M. le pr6sident président B. gave a regular weekly dinner; splendid wines, cuisine worthy of an archbishop, archbishop, and wit table, fine wines, worthy of a member of l'AcadCmie l'Académie frangaise'of française 'of the fortyfort yfirst chair'. An old and faithful servant charge of servant was put in charge the cellar, to offer the various cellar, and was was also also commissioned 1O wines to the guests. He acquitted himself himself of this task with a dignified air, though intonations discreet and dignified intonations of of an amorous tabby-cat crept into his voice each each time he he announced the Ihe tabby-cat wines - the na me and and the patent of nobility of these great wines name the patent glory of France. He announced with particular fervour a glory certain cerlain vin vin de fond. fond. When he he said he gave the said 'Vin de fond' he his mouth, so impression that was roHing rolling it around that he he was around in in his gounnets allowed his that even the least enthusiastic of the gourmets that rus fiIled. However, this glass to be filled. trus wine, wine, so brilliantly brilliantly presented, presented, gave little pleasure to Ihose il. As a rule Ihey little pleasure those who tasted it. they pulled faces while drinking vdn wry faces vin de fond. fond. r,s this 'Tell me, what is this vrn vin de fond?' Mme. la pr6sidente présidente B. 'Is there it in asked her her sommelier sommelier one one day. day. 'Is there much asked much of it in the cellar?' cellarT an air the servant with with an air of of mystery, 'Madame,' replied replied the 'there is enough enough to last for ever.' still looking perplexed. 'Ah!' sa id Mme. de B., stilllooking 'Ah!'said 'I make it it 'It is quite simple,' is quite sommelier. '! continued the 'It the sommelier. simple,' continued myself the boules. bottles. It is quite good enough rnyself from the dregs of Ihe prepared to drink without knowing for people who are prepared knowing what difference between they are drinking and who cannot tell the difference Bordeaux-Lafite.' a Clos-Vougeot and a Bordeaux-Lafite.' vm defonddisappeared the vin de fond disappeared from From that day onwards the (J. Richard, the table ofM.Ie of M. le pr6sident Richard,,l'Epoque) président B. (1. l'Époque)

-

history was The man with the the most voracious appetite in hislory
successor of Alexander Severus the Emperor Maximin, Maxiinin, successor of Alexander the Emperor

(Marcus AureIius). Aurelius). He went to to the the extent of consuming (at and an an amphora of an ordinary meal) meal) fort forty meat and Y pounds of meal an aocording to sorne, twenty-eight French wine; that is is to say. say, according some, twenty-eight (EncyclopCdie méthomCthootlers, thirty-six. (Encyclopédie pints; according to to others, dique) 0'93 of a a litre. litre. Note. A pint in in Paris Paris was 0·93 NOIe. serving honour of serving had the the honour landlord of a a village inn had The The landlord that he he broke broke his an occasion occasion thal II with with an an egg egg on on an rus George George II journey there, guinea in in payment. joumey there, and and asked one guinea His His Majesty smilingly smilingly remarked: 'It seems scaroe hereabouts.' 'It seems eggs are are rather scarce the the eggs the innkeeper, 'not 'not the replied the 'Oh no, sire,' sire,' replied 'Oh no, - the kings.'

happy and A mosl and factious and Oh, happy and un unhappy cooks! A most faclious Oh, happy cooks! detestable race, according to to Hegesender. detestable gave the freedom The Athenian Athenian government gave freedom of the city city 10 to The a certain certain Cherips invented an excellent Cherips because his father had Învented a ragofit. trufred ragoût. truffled a town town to to with a a dinner, presented a Anthony, weil well pleased wilh his his cook. Mme. Henaultmade President Henault President made the following remark about Mme. and was far far too too unrefined and du du Deffand's cook cook whose cuisine was
27

to Furetière, Furetidre, in in the the chapter devoted devoted to to large According to appetites: appeliles: 'I have seen eat a a loin of veal, a capon, a brace of seen one man eat capon, a of '1 woodcock and and a a mountain mountain of bread help. bread without any any help. 'The ballet so Aglais, who who lived lived two two hundred hundred or or so ballet dancer dancer Aglaïs, 'The supper she she would would Christ, was was so greedy that for supper years before Christ, and a dozen bread, and meat, and and a doze'n loaves of bread, ten pounds of meat, eat ten eat six pints of wille. wine. the equivalent equivalent of six drink the five day ate ate for lunch five Claudius Albinus one day 'The Emperor Claudius peaches, ten a hundred melons, a hundred peaches, ten melons, hundred figs, figs, a a hundred hundred gapes. forty-eight oysters oysters and and many grapes. beccaficchi, forty-eight

ANETHOLE
'The Crotonia ate 'The athlete Milon Milon of ofCrotonia ate a whole ox after having carried it for a considerable length of of time on his shoulders. shoulders. 'The 'The Emperor Maximin became became so so fat fat through through overeating that he he used his wife's wife's bracelets bracelets as rings. 'An Phagon ate, 'An actor actor by by the the name name of ofPhagon ale, in the presence of of the Emperor Emperor Aurelius: Aurelius: a wild boar, a a sheep, a hundred round loaves loaves of of bread, bread, and a sucking pig. He washed washed it down down with twenty-four twenty-four measures of of wine.' (Les Classiques de la table) table) Louis Louis XIII xm - He was excellent excellent at at preparing eggs and and did so in of ways: ways: perdus, perdus, poached in black butter, hardhardin a variety variety of boiled up with bacon bacon (one of of his his inventions), inventions), boiled and chopped up etc. etc. He also also larded larded loins loins of of beef magnificently, magnificently, using using his his own own vermeil vermeil larding larding needle. needle. Mme. Mme. de Maintenon Maintenon - She She was was adept at preparing preparing dainty dishes dishes for for the the king king (still (still of of good appetite despite despite his his advancing ing years). years). Her Her particular particular speciality speciality was was dressed dressed cutlets seasoned seasoned with with parsley, parsley, which whir,h she she wrapped wrapped in buttered buttered paper paper and and grilled. In other other words words cutlets en en papillote. Mne. de Conti- She preparing loin She invented invented the the method of ofpreparing
of of mutton mutton that that bears bears her her name, name, while while Mme. Mme. de de S6vign6 Sévigné had had a talent talent for for preparing preparing waffies. waffies. I.oub Louis XVXV - He He loved loved to to make make his his own own coffee, coffee, and and invented invented an an omelette omelette of of asparagus tips tips for Mme. Mme. du du Barry. Louis Louis XYI XVI - Like his grandfather, grandfather, Louis Louis XlV, he had had the the sort sort of of appetite appetite nothing nothing could cou Id upset; upset; the the very very evening evening before his trial before the the opening opening of ofhis trial he he ate ate six six cutlets, cutlets, a a chicken and and several several eggs. Balzac Balzac (Honor6 de) - Even Even if if he he did did not not always eat his his fill fil! (because (because he he happened to to be be working) working) Balzac Balzac had by by nature nature an an astonishing astonishing capacity capacity of of absorption. And And the the menu menu he he orderd ordered for for himself himself alone alone at at Very's Very's one one day day was was not not excepexceptional: tional: Hors-d'euvre Hors-d'œuvre Eight Eight dozen dozen Ostend Ostend oysters oysters Twelve Twelve pri-sali pré-salé mutton mutton cutlets cutlets au au naturel naturel A A duckling duckling with with turnips turnips A brace of roast partridges A Normandy sole Sweet Sweet Fruit Fruit Coffee Coffee and and liqueurs liqueurs

'Oh 'all I 'Oh Madame,' Madame,' said said Renan, 'ail 1 wanted wanted was a second was a helping of peas.' ANETHOLE. .lxErnor ANÉTHOL - Compound of a hydro-carbon a hydro-carbon (resembling oil oil of turpentine) and a a certain certain crystallisable crystallisable substance substance possessing a strong aniselike anise-like odour. odour. The essences of of anise, fennel, Chinese anise and and tarragon tarragon are mainly formed of of anethole. It is used for flavouring sweets, sweet dishes, and various liqueurs. liqueurs. ANETHUM. ANETHlJM. ANETTI ANETH - See FENNEL. ANGEL CAKE - See CAKE.
ANGEL ANGEL FISH FISH (Squatina squatina). squatina). ANGE DE DE uEn MER - A kind of dog dog fish, fish, with with a a large, flattened flattened body; body; the the pectoral pectoral and ventral fins fins seeming to to continue continue the lateral lateralline of the body in ventral line of all aU its thickness. The tail is big big and rounded, rounded, while while the back is covered with a rough brownish-green skin marked with small whitish whitish and and grey spots. The belly is is whitish. Angel Angel fish is is the the intermediary type type between between the family family of of sharks sharks and that of of ray ray and skates. On the French coasts, where it fishermen call this fish angelot or angel. ange/. abounds, the fishermen The flesh of of the the angel fish is quite quite delicate and and recalls recalls that Ali methods of preparation given for the latter of the ray. All are applicable applicable to angel fish.

-

A A FEW FEW GOURMANDS. GOURMANDS. euEleurs QUELQUES cotrnrra,qwDs GOURMANDS-

Angelica Angelica

"0fi-:Tff:f[To*'

Whereupon Whereupon he he slept slept for for two two hours, hours, drank drank some sorne coffee coffee and and worked worked the the whole whole night night until until seven seven or or eight eight o'clock o'clock in in the the morning. morning. Victor Victor Hugo Hugo - The The great great poet poet was was areal a real guzzler, guzzler, especially especially late not only only ate ate a a cutlet, cutlet, but but the the bone bone as as well, well, Jate in in life: life: he he not rn,nrhlrlO" it it loudly loudly between between his his powerful powerful jaws. Sometimes, Sometimes, crunching to amuse his grandchildren grandchildren after after a a meal, meal, he would would have have all ail to amuse the brought in: in: ragofit, ragoût, fish, fish, vegetables vegetables and and dessert. dessert. the left-overs left-overs brought These put with with seasoning seasoning into into a a large large salad salad bowl bowl and and ate, ate, These he he put sharing sharing the the dish dish with with the the enraptured enraptured children. children. He He called called the the concoction 'daubs'. 'daubs'. concoction LamartineLamartine - A A thin thin man man who who only liked ice cream. Stendhal -A A fat fat man man with with a a penchant for for macaroni. macaroni. Stendhal Theophite Théophile Gautier Gautier -A A delicate delicate palate palate who who did did not not allow allow himself himself to to be he deceived. deceived. It It was was he he who, who, at at the the Russian Russian court, court, observed to to the the chef chefthat thc:.t his his almond almond gflteau gâteau (which (which everyone p\lf'n"... np observed else adored) adored) was was nothing nothing more more nor nor less less than than pounded else macaroons. macaroons. 7frlrZola - He He had had a a fondness fondness for for shellfish shellfish although although he he called called them 'filth'. thern'filth'. Rman Renan - Invited Invited one one day day to to a a house house where where the the hostess hostess desired desired that that each each guest guest in in turn turn should should contribute contribute to to the the Renan persistently persistently tried tried to to intervene intervene during during conversation, Renan conversation, the course course of of the the meal. meal. At At last last the the mistress mistress of of the the house house the turned to to him him and and said, said, 'Now, 'Now, Master Master Renan, Renan, it's it's your your turn.' turn.' turned

under the common name name of angelica, angelic herb. It is is a under

ANGELICA. ANGELrer.rE ANGÉLIQUE - A A genus of of plants plants of of the the family ANGELICA. of which which the the prototype is i~ generally known known Umbelliferae, of

large appearlarge perennial perennial herb herb usually usuaJly grown grown as a a biennial. biennial. In In appearance it it closely closely resembles resembles cow cow parsley. parsley. ance Angelico archangelica grows grows wild wild in in the the Alps. Alps, in in the the Angelica and in in northern northern Europe. Europe. It It has has long long been been valued valued as as Pyrenees and Pyrenees a stomachic, stomachic, carminative carminative and and anti-spasmodic anti-spasmodic stimulant. stimulant. Toa day it it is is cultivated cultivated mostly mostly for for the the sake sake of ofits roots and and stalks. stalks. day its roots The fresh fresh stalks, stalks, candied candied in sugar, sugar, make make a a pleasant pleasant prepreThe Niort angelica, angelica, or or Nevers Nevers angelica, angelica, or or ChdteauChâteauserve called called Niort serve briand angelica. It It is is used used by by confectioners confectioners and and wine wine and and briand spirit merchants. me:rcl1arlts. spirit The roots, roots, which which come come principally principally from from Bohemia, Bohemia, are are The wrinkled, grey outside outside and and white white inside. inside. They They are are deceptive deceptive wrinkled, to the the palate: sweet sweet at at first, first, producing producing an an acrid acrid and and bitter bitter to after-taste. after-taste. roots also also contain contain a a volatile volatile oil, oil, angelicine, angelicine, angelic angelic The roots The acid, tannin, tannin, malic malic acid, acid, pectic pectic acid, acid, the the malates, malates, etc. etc. They They acid, very strong strong digestive digestive and and anti-dyspeptic an'ti-clvsnelltic properties. nr()nprtll'<: possess very is for for this this reason reason that that they they are are used used in the production of It is meliss cordials cordials and and other other liqueurs liqueurs such su ch as as chartreuse, chartreuse, meliss gin and and English English bitters. bitters. vespetro, gin liqueur. LreuEUR LIQUEUR lNo6r.reue ANGÉLIQUE - Put Put I 1 kg. kg. (2* (2! lb.) lb.) Angelica liqueur. cut into into small small pieces, and and I 1 litre litre (lf, (11 pints, pints, stalks, cut angelica stalks, generous quart) quart) brandy, brandy, in in a a bottling jar. jar. Macerate Macerate for for a a generous

28 28

ANGLET
month. monlh. See that the jar jar is 1S hermetically hermetically sealed. Expose it il to the sun whenever whenever possible. Add from 600 to 10 800 g. (1* to l* lb.) lump lump sugar sugar dissolved in ln very little !iUle water. waler. Press the whole whole through a silk or fine muslin sieve. Leave to ta stand for a few hours. hours, then lhen filter filler the liqueur through soft paper. Decant into ioto bottles, boules, cork and seal. Candied angclica. lNcfrrqun ANGÉLIQUE coNFrrE CONfJTE - Cut the angelica angelica Candied angelica. stalks 15- to ta 20-cm. 20-cm. (6- to 10 8-inch) pieces pieces and soak in cold stalks into înto 15water. Plunge them into a pan of boiling water water until unti) the pulp begins to give slightly when pressed with the fingers. fingers, Cool all under a cold tap, tap. drain and peel, taking care to remove aIl stringy parIs. stringy parts. fot 24 Macerate I cup sugar sugar to la I 1 cup water for Macerale in a syrup of 1 hours. c (215'F.) Drain. 102'C. (215 Lü 102°C. F.) and pour it il over Drain, Boil the syrup to of angelica. angelîca. the pieces of Repeat this operation operation three days running. On the fourth day cook the syrup to small. pearl, i.e. 10 small i.e. 105"C. (221"F.). Put angelica into this syrup and bring it to bring il la the boil several times. lhis syrup Remove the pan from the fire and let it stand. stand. Drain the on a a sieve. sieve. Lay the pieces of angelica angelica on Lay them them on a them to dry in a marble sprinkle with fine sugar and put marb!e slab, sprinkle pullhem very slow aven. oven. Store in tins.
pepper pepper before before being being put put under under a grill. grill. It lt must be be cooked on a low flame. t'lame. When grilled. such such as as When fish fish with a delicate flesh fiesh is being grilled, whiting, fresh fresh sliced cod, etc., elc., it should be be dusted dusted with flour t'lour and and sprinkled sprinkled with with melted melted butter butter or or oil oil before before putting pUlling it it under the the grill. grill. Grilled Gri/led fish fish d à I'anglaise l'anglaise is is served served simply siroply with with melted butter or Maite MaÎtre d'hitel d'hôtel butter bUller (see (see BUTTER) BUTTER) and (optionally) potatoes, boiJed. pota loes, either steamed or boiled.

AI\GLAISE (Custard) - Variously flavoured custard made of yolks of egg, sugar and milk (see CREAM, Custard cream).
ANGLER ANGLER (U.S. (V.S. AI\GLERFISID. ANGLERFISH). LorrE LOTTE DE MER, VIER, BAUDRoIE BAUDROŒThis fish is extremely ugly. Its foreparts are are very very broad while Its head, which is its hind-quarters hind-quaners are exceedingly narrow. ILs enormous, is very flat fiat and spiky. Along its ilS back it has three very mobile mobile filaments. The first and largest largest ends in a sort of all can lash a spearhead, flail, shaped like spearhead, which flail, shaped like a wh.ich can !ash out out in in ail as bait to directions. Il is believed that thal the angler uses this trus as directions. It attract a ttract its i ts prey. The skin skjn of or the angler is olive brown along the back and grey on the belly. It is flabby entirely without t'labby and sticky stick y and entirely similar to the scales. covered with bony bouy filaments similar scales. Instead Instead it il is covercd spikes on its head. bouillabaisse The mainly as an ingredient ingredient of of bouillabaisse The angler angler is used mainly (q.v.) it can be cooked in the same (q. v.) and other fish nsh soups, but bu! il way as cod or other large sea fish. should be In manner it it is is prepared, prepared, angler should ln whatever whatever manner since it is a a somewhat tasteless.fish. rather highly seasoned, sinec tasteLessfish. not widely In the whi1e plentiful, plentîful, is îs not the U.S.A. the the anglerfish, while steaks can can be in the marketed. be used used in marketed. White White fish tîsh fillets flilets or or steaks following recipes. DE MER A L'ANGLAISE t'lNcr.ltse - FiJlet Fillet Angler LorrE DE à I'anglaise. l'anglaise. LOTTE MER À Angler i Flatten them angler, and trim trÎm the fillets. fl1!ets. Flatten a medium-sized raw angler, and season with salt and pepper. Dip them in egg and breadServe crumbs and fry Ihem them in butter, browning on both sides. Serve crumbs dhdtel buller a long dish, covering the on a butter on the fish with Maitre d'hô/el (see BUTTER). Boild algler with various sauces. LorrE Boiled LonE DE MER BoITILLIE BOUlLLlEa courlcourtSkin the angler and cut it into thick steaks. Cook in a (q.v.) (see as for Boiled with any bouillon as Boi/ed cod (see COD). Serve with sauce suitable for boiled fish. sauce nsh. Lorrn DE MER -- Proceed as pflt6. rAre FRorD DE LOTTE r TÉ FROID Cold angler pâté. for Cold eel pie (see EEL). for nrsrs DE DE LOTTE Lorrr DE in white winc. wine. FILETS Fillets of angler braised in Trim and the fillets. AU vrN and flatten Mnn BRAISÉS sRArs6s AU MER VIN BLANC BLANC - TrÎm fiatten the pepper. Lay them in a buttered baking baking Season with salt and pepper. (see FUMET) with with white and moÎsten moisten with with Fish tin and FÎsh fumet fumel (sec tin wine. Cook in a a moderate oven. a long long dish dish wîth with a a white white wine Drain the fillets. Serve on on a the flUets. Drain (see SAUCE, White SAUCE, White made from from [he cooking stock stock (see sauce made the cooking sauce
sauces).
DE MER fRITE FRIrE fillets of angler Fried angler. LonE LorrE DE - Cut the flUets in in milk. milk, flour lightly, lightly, and and dcep-fry deep-fry in into strips. strips. Dip Ihem them in inro boiling faL fat. garnished with a napkin, napkin, garnished with Drain and and season. season. Serve Serve on on a parsley and fried parsley and Icmon. lemon. frîed is Lorrn DE MER pflt6. P,\TÉ nArE CHAUD cHAUD DE DE LOTTE angler pâté. Hot al1gJer - This pie is stuffing, in in or whiting sluffing, from fillets fillets of angler, with pike or made from (see EEL). Hot eel pie (see the same same way as as HOl the DE LOTTE LorrE DE DE MER MER -- CU! the MATELoTE DE Cut the angler. MATELOTE Matelot of angler. matelote in white white fillets of angler angler into squares. squares. Cook them them en malelote fillelS (see EEL). matelote (see EEL). red wine, as as for for Eel en en male/ole or red

re ANcELIeUE oE A LA Niort angelica il i la la sybarite. ANGÉLIQUE DE Ntonr N10RT À quality butter dozen or so best best quality syBARrrE SYBARITE - Have ready ready a a dozen or so dish filled with sticks of candied hol), a fruit dish ftlled Wilh brioches (kept hot), brioches.(kept angelica, a bottle angelica cream, a acarafe of iced water, a bOUle of carafe of of angeljea rlOl'lrl'III'C;: packet of Egyptian cigarettes. Light cigarette, sip a a mouthful of îced iced water, crunch a Lighl a cîgarelte, piece of of Niort angelica angelica with a piping hot bite of brioche, sip, breathe and savour savour a few drops ofangelica liqueur, and then repeat the whole process. proccss. If, according to A to whom whom we this Austin de Croze, Croze, to we owe [rus ustin de a fresh, fresh, light perfume recipe, the the room room is is sprayed with with a (verbena or an idea of of the or southernwood) one one can can have have an sybaritism. blessed joys of sybaritism. blessed
ANGELS ON ANGELS ON HORSEBACK (English cookery).

A ANGES À ANGES

CHEvAL hors-d'euvre is prepared in the following cHEvAL - This hot hors-d'œuvre manner. Take plump oysters out of their shells, drain their in a a very very beards, and wrap each one în and remove liquor aod remove their beards. metal skewers, on little metal rasher of bacon. thin thin rasher bacon. Thread them on fingers of of season with salt and and pepper, and grill. Arrange on fingers season toast. with breadcrumbs which sprinkle with Just Just before before serving, serving, sprinkle fried in butter. have been fried
a In cookery, the to a AI\GLAISE the term anglaise is applied to ANGLAISE - In per egg), mixture composed eggs, oi! oil Ci egg), salt composed of of eggs, teaspoon per mixture $ teaspoon and.pepper. and .pepper. Various ingredients which which have have to to be be dipped dipped in in breadbreadVarious mixture, and are are said to be crumbs are first coated with this mixture, 'd l'anglaise'. I'anglaise'. They are then then sautécd sautOed in in butter or oil, or deepdeep'à fried.

preparations (A L') given to Name given to viJrious various preparations ANGLAISE ANGLAISE CA - Name (see MUTTON, Leg Zeg of mullon) mutton) or or in water (see cooked in usually cooked (see CHICKEN, English boiled chicken). in white stock (see in English boi/ed term'also applies to the following fish: fish poached in This lermalso grilled or in breadcrumbs; court-bouillon (q.v.); or fried in fish grilled ; fish (see potatoes, boiled in in water or or steamed (sec vegetables, mainly potatoes, POTATOES, POlafOeS Potatoes li d '·anglaise). l'anglaise). porssoxs GRILLÉS ffsh à A L'ANGLAISE l'lNcl,tIsr -I'anglaise. POISSONS cnn-rfs fA Grilled Gdlld f:ls.b i l'anglaise. This method can applied to all fish. fish. The The large fish fish are are CUI cut can be be applied to ail This slices or the 5ma)] small ones ones are are cooked cooked whole, after after into slices or steaks, steaks, the having a few slits in them. The osh, or sliced, sliced, is is slits cut cut in them. The fish, whole or having a few seasoned with with salt oil or or melted melted butter and seasoned salt and coated with oîl butter and and
29 29

from Bayonne, Bayonne, 4 km. km. (2* miles} miles) from AI\GLET Town sÎtualed situated 4 ANGLET - Town here, dry dry and and near the sea. is produced here, sea. A famous famous white wine is is called called Vin Vin de de sable. sable. heady, which is Rock salt salt also cornes comes from from Anglet. Rock

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Gastronomic map of Angoumois, Gastronomie map of Angoumois, Aunis and Saintonge

.I,I,IGOULEME A town ANGOULtME - A town in in the the Charente where where famous brandies brandies are are distilled. distilled. A A noted notOO partridge partridge pdtd piité is is made made at Angoul6me Angoulême.
P€rigord, Périgord, Limousin Limousin and and Saintonge. Such a neighbourhood neighbourhood could could not not help help but but turn tum the the inhabitants in habitants into into gastronomes, gastronomes, considering considering the the excellence excellence of of its food products. products. Ground Ground and and feathered feathered game game abound abound in.Angoumois. in- Angoumois. Freshwater of all Freshwater fish fish of aIl kinds kinds are are to to be be found found in its Îts rivers; the Touvre, Touvre, which which flows flows past past Angoul€me, Angoulême, is is still, stiJl, as as Clement Marot Marot said, said, 'paved 'paved with with trout, trout, edged with wÎth eels ecls and crayfish,' crayfish,' and and these these delicious delicious fish fish and shellfish are made into into mouthwatering watering matelotes. matelotes. Various Various species species of of mushrooms mushrooms are are gathered gathered in in AngouAngoumois. mois. In In the the quarries quarries around around Angoul6me Angoulême cultivated mushmushrooms rooms are are grown; grown; the the delicacy delicacy of of their their flavour fla vour rivals rivais the the famous famous mushrooms mushrooms cultivated cuhivated in in the the quarries quarries around around Paris. Paris. Cattle Cattle bred bred in in this this region region produce produce excellent beef. beef. FirstFirstclass c1ass poultry poultry is is raised raised there, there, Barbezieux Barbezieux chickens chickens being being particularly particularly esteemed. esteemed. Culimry Friture charentaise charentaise composed composed of of Culinary ryecialities speciallties - Friture various various small small fish; fish; cagouilles, cagouilles, stuffed st uffed or or in in ragofit. ragoût. (By cagouilleswe cagouilles we mean mean snails. snails. The The inhabitants inhabitants ofCharente of Charente are are so so fond of them them that that they, they, themselves, themselves, are are nicknamed nicknamed cagouilfond of lards.) lards.) Tourtiire (raised pie pÎe containing containing chickar chicken and and salsify); salsify): Tourtière (raised jugged jelly; preserved jugged hare, hare, to to which which is is added added redcurrant redcurrant jeUy; preserved duck,which is served served with with potatoes potatoes sautEed sautéed in in goose goose fat, fat, or or duck, which is
30 30

LNCOUVIOIS This area is situated between ANGOUMOIS - This between Poitou Poitou and

partridge partridge pdtd pâté of Ruffec, Ruffec, lark pdtds pâtés of Exideuil. Sausages, Sausages, saveloys, puddings, chitterlings chiflerlings and and other other 'charcuterie charcuterie sa ve loys , black puddings, are all ail excellent. excellent. Among the the sweet dishes and and cakes cakes there are marvels, marvels, a kind of of fritter; cheesecake cheesecake made made of of Ruffec cheese; chocolate chocolate tartlets tartlets flavoured with brandy. brandy. WinesThe wines wines of of the the Angoumois Angoumois region are mediocre mediocre Wines - The and and are are rarely rarely drunk d runk outside the the province. province. They They are are excellent for for distilling distilling purposes, porposes, however. Charente cognac is made made from these wines wines (see (see COGNAC). COGNAC).

w:rth cCpes with cèpes sautded sautéed d à la bordelaise; gigorit or lamb's pluck; stuffed of variouspdtis stuffed cabbage cabbage calldfarie; calledJarée; a selection selection ofvarious pâtés such as of Barbezieux and as pdti paté de foie Joie gras gras truffé of and Angoul€me, Angoulême,

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ANGREC ANGREC - A A group group of of plants; plants; some sorne of of the best known known of which grow in in R€union Réunion Island and Madagascar, others on the the Cape of of Good Hope Hope and on the the west coast of of Africa. Africa. The most most important important species is is the Angraeanmfragrans; Angraecum Jragrons; its leaves the/aham, tea of of R€union Réunion Island, Island, which which is is leaves furnish furnish the faharn, or tea
widely widely used used in the the same same way way as as China China tea. tea.

ANIMELLES ANIMELLES - This This is is a a culinary term term for the the testicles testîcles of male male animals, animals, in in particular particular those those of of rams. rams. In ln the the past, past, animelles animelles were were very very much much in in vogue vogue in in France, France, Spain and and Italy. Italy. For For recipes recipes see see OFFAL OFFAL or or VARIETY VARIETY MEATS, MEATS, Animelles. Animelles.
AIYISEED ANISEED (Sweet (Sweet cnmin). cumin). ANrs ANIS vERr VERT - Plants Plants with wilh ovoid ovoid seeds, contracted at at the the top, top, with with a a ribbed ribbed surface surface seeds, slightly slightly contracted
and and short short stiff stiff greyish-green greyish-green hairs. hairs.

-

ANJOU
proportion of of The proportion several preparations. for several sugar is is used used for preparations. The of for the preparation it is is intended for When it aniseed varies. When preparation of (l oz., 3 tablespoons) aniseed are added g. (1 cake,25 aniseed cake, 25 g. (18 oz., g. (18 castor suga If, on on the the other 2f, cups) 500 g. oz., 2* cups) castor sugar. to to 500 r. If, sponge cakes, cakes, biscuits, flavour sponge to fiavour hand, it is to to be hand, it is be used used to go up proportion of aniseed can can go up to custards or creams, the proportion (18 oz., g. (18 o2.,2* cups) sugar. 500 g. cup) per 500 100 grams (4 oz., i cup) 2* cups) a fine fine and rub on on a aniseed carefully carefully and Method. Pick over the aniseed for 12 12 hours. hours. oven for a slow oyen stalks. Dry in a sieve to remove the stalks. fine sieve sieve to to a fine and sift sift through through a lump sugar, sugar, and Pound with with lump Pound in the the a very fine powder. Pound whatever remains in obtain ob tain a sifted. has been been sifted. until the whole has sieve until jar or and sealed jar or tin, tin, and hermetically sealed sugar in in a a hermetically this sugar Keep this a dry place. store in a satisfactory fiavouring flavouring a more satisfactory Aniseed-flavoured sugar is a Aniseed-fiavoured inrather strong strong and and inwhich is is rather essenc€, which agent than than aniseed essence, agent flavour. aniseed smell smell than fiavour. an aniseed clined to have more of an c1ined

Aniseed a. Fruit a. b. Flower

The seeds sold in the shops must be c1eansed cleansed of the soil which often to them. them. Parsley seed, which seed, with with the the hairs often sticks sticks to

is sometimes sometimes fraudulently sold pâtisserie anianisold as pdtisserie removed, is seed. Aniseed is used in confectionery confectionery and and distilling.
pAINs À (Ahatian pastry). cookies (Alsatian pastry). PAINS A L'ANIS L'ANIs - Mix Aniseed oookies

g. (18 500 g. (18 oz., 500 12 eggs oz., 2| cups) cups) fine fine castor sugar sugar and and 12 in a a eggs in copper basin. basin. Beat the mixture with a as for for an an ordia whisk as nary sponge cake. (18 oz., When the the mixture is g. (18 When is weil well whisked, add 500 whisked, add 500 g. (7 oz., g. (7 4t cups) cornfiour cornflour 4| cups) sieved fiour, flour, 200 g. oz., scant 2 cups) (2 oz., and 50 g. 1 cup) aniseed (in grains). Mix weil. g. (2 well. oz,l Drop tablespoons of the a wetted wetted baking the mixture onto a sheet. Place in a warm place to dry. When the cookies begin to rise slightly, slightly, bake in a cool oyen. oven. Aniseed-flavoured Aniseed-flavoured sugrr. SUCRE ANIsf -- Aniseed-fiavoured Aniseed-flavoured sugar. sucR"E ANISÉ

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The best aniseed liqueur. The best aniseed Aniseed-based liqueur. AI\IISETTE ANISETIE - Aniseed-based is also also anisette is liqueur in France France is made in Bordeaux. Dutch anisette liqueur repute. held in high repute. held LIQUEURS, (For the preparation of see LIQUEURS, liqueur see of the the liqueur the preparation (For Anise or anisette liqueur.)
and harmony where ANJOU of sweetness the cuisine anisine where the sweetness and ANJOU - Land of natural beauty. beauty. and wines match its natura] and gastronome and great gastronome a native native of of and a Henry Coutant, a great Coutant, a Henry its skies, harmon'Its cuisine is as as mellow mellow as as its skies, harmoncuisine is wrote: 'Its Anjou, wrote: and of Anjou's wittiest wittiest sons sons and one of as its horizons. Did not one ious as Anjou great gourmet, gounneL the say that that Anjou humourist Curnonsky, Curnonsky, say a the humourist a great gastronomy what Racine And Coutant Coutant literature?' And is to gastronomy Racine is is to to literature?' is went on: on: like the humour humour ofits ofits in inhabitants: 'As to its wines, are like 'As habitants : wines, they are

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ANJOU ANJOU
light and and sparkling, sparkling, of of incomparable incomparable tas attimes taste, but at timesalso also light te, but malicious and and treacherous treacherous towards towards those those who who have have no no idea idea malicious how to to face face up to their up to their caprices caprices with preparation. with adequate adequate preparation. how Admirable wines, wines, however, however, which which merit merit one one of of the the first first Admirable places among great wines among the the great wines of France.' of France.' places Anjou cattle, give meat cattle, bred for food, bred for food, give meat of quality. ofexcellent excellent quality. Anjou The Maine Maine region region cattle cattle are are famous quality of famous for for the the quality of their their The meat, and and so so are are the the Cholet Cholet cattle. cattle. meat, pork is Anjou pork greatest delicacy, is of of the the greatest delicacy, and and various various locally locally Anjou potted park pork mince, made charcuterie charcuterie -- rillettes, rillettes, potted mince, andouilles, andouilles, made (U.5. blood) puddings -- are black (U.S. scrusages, black blood) puddings are admirable admirable sausages, just the 'bacchic sspurs', as Rabelais Rabelais called called them, them, just the thing thing to to 'bacchic purs', as make one one appreciate appreciate the the fragrant fragrant wines wines of of the the Anjou Anjou vinevinemake yards. yards. Anjou chickens chickens are are tender plump, and tender and and plump, and make make excellent excellent Anjou fricassées. fricassies. 'The fish fish which which the generously offers the Loire Loire so so generously offers us us between between 'The Saumur and and Champtoceaux Champtoceaux is is more more delicate delicate than than anywhere anywhere Saumur else,'declares gourmand. an Anjou Anjou gourmand. else,' declares an pike are Its pike are among among the the finest; finest; its its shad, shad, its its tench tench and and its its Its bream know know no no rivaIs. rivals. For pike and For pike and shad, shad, the the cooks cooks of bream of passed on Anjou have have passed generation to on from from generation generation the to generation Anjou the for a a succulent succulent sauce, (white butter), sauce, beurre beurre blanc blanc (white butter), the recipe for the thste ofwhich of which is a a fragrant fragrant delight. delight. Tench Tench and and bream, creamy taste bream, particularly bream, bream, are are cooked cooked chiefly chiefly with with a a sorrel sorrel stuffing particularly stuffing which makes a savoury foundation a savoury foundation for for their their flesh. flesh. The Loire salmon salmon are are famous; famous; they they are are cQnsidered The censidered the the best best all French river river salmon. salmon. of ail is excellent excellent in in Anjou. The The whole Poultry is whole worId world knows knows of of capon de de la fliche and chicken chicken du du Mans. Mans. First-class capon flèche and First-class game game is is found here. here. also found green cabbages Anjou vegetable produce is superb. superb. The The green cabbages of of as they this region, the piochous, as they are are caIled, called, are are weil well known known and are made made into into those fricassées and which delight delight the lovers the loyers Jricassles which of country dishes. The Anjou Anjou orchards produce excellent The orchards produce excellent fruit; fruit; pears, and cider apples, plums and dessert and and strawberries. strawberries. 'We must 'We must pay homage homage to the fruits of Anjou, which which form form a a vegetable aristocracy of province of aristocracy of this this province France,' said of France,' said gastronome Henry Coutant. Coutant. Anjou cheeses are renowned. The The famous Angers Angers crémets cremeE (soft fresh cream cream cheeses) should really be classed classed among among the the sweet courses rather than the cheeses. These crémets, sweet crimets. which which eaten with are generally eaten with sugar, sugar, can can also also be be sprinkled sprinkled with with salt and flavoured with chives.

The The Loire Loire near (FrenchGOI'emmenl nearSaumur Saumur (French GovernmentTourisi Tourist Office) Offce)

With With food quality available food of of such such quality available the master cooks themaster cooksand and cordons cordons bleus of Anjou bleus of Anjou are are naturally naturally noted noted for for their theircuisine. caisine. Culinary Culinary speciaUties specialities -- Saumur (greaves); Saumur rillettes,' rillettes; rillons rillons(greaves); potted potted park pork mince,' puddings and mince; white white puddings and other other charcuterie charcaterie made pork of from the made from fine pork the fine of the the region. region. Bouilleture, a kind Bouilleture,a kind of of matelote matelote ofvarious principally fishes, principally of various fishes, eels; eels; stuffed stuffed shad; shad; bream pike or bream in in butter; butter; pike or shad shad au au beurre beurre blanc (white butter); blanc (white butter); matelotes matelotes of perch with offreshwater with freshwater fish; fish; perch prunes; prunes; fish pdti. stews; eel eel pâté. fish stews; Rump Rump of pig's fry; of veal veal à gogue; fricassée d l'angevine; I'angevine; pig's of fry ; gogue; fricassie of chicken; partridge à (boiled green chicken; partridge d la la mancelle; mancelle ; chouée green chouie (boiled cabbage cabbage sprinkled sprinkled with green cabbage; with butter) butter);;fricassée of green cabbage; fricassie of lads with fricassée green sa of cauliflower; cauliflower; green salads with walnut walnut ail. oil. fricassde of Well-known Well-known cheeses cheeses include include the the Saumur Saumur chouzé; chouzi; caillecaillebotte botte à d la la chardonette, chardonette, and the Saumur and the Saumur and and Angers Angers crémets. crimets. Other Other famous famous dishes dishes are (similar are bijane bijane or 'magpie soup' or 'magpie soup' (similar to to the the Saintonge Saintonge broth) broth) -- bread bread crumbled crumbled into into sweetened sweetened red red wine; roast meat wine; roast (maize meal meat with with hot hot wine; wine; millière milliire (maize and rice rice meal and porridge); porridge); fouée (a sort girdle cake of fiat flat girdle sort of cake made made of of bread bread fouie (a dough, (flat cakes dough, spread spread with with butter);fouace butter);fouace (fiat cakes baked baked in in the the

A vineyard vineyard on on the the bank bank of the Loire Loire at Huillé A at Huill6 of the

32 32

ANJOU ANJOU

Champ/ace '4 LOIP.~ SÙJartlleJemy • S.'{jeorçe~5fL Bra;n·s/./Au/IIIOII Sovennil!~ ~ ___- -__ IlIgrolldes • LoPosJo.nmàf! l'turs Monljeau R~c/iefort- 5.' Me/alfle Le Tl7ourei/ • Cliobonlles -JUr!oJrr. BrIssac • laPommeroye '..St.4UblfldNUlgne)~ • ~ Gellnes ~ C/laudefond' BeaulIeu f'LamIJu; ol'oye .~.f .~~ dlJLalloy "our:rel! 1 . .• ~'l Q"\ ).. ~ C' • Chavaglles 5Wtlolre <:JO ~;\()\'I' o~f: LeCllo,:p .. 5~/orl!nt. ">r:sq(§#).~<:J IRE 1v foyeroye 110~!lçne·8rlafll! Varratn! \"-t-Q'I' \.0

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( Map of the principal vineyards vineyards in Anjou ~

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Bottles Botties and a glass for Anjou wine

of'fouaciers ofLern€ hearth). Rabelais speaks 'fouaciers of Lerné (or Lernay), sp€aks of Lernay), which shows how long these cakes have of Maine-et-Loire,' which known. There There are are also also guillaret or échaudé; ichaudi; Angers been known. gui/laret or been guillaret are and the gui/laret are aniseed biscuits; prune pie. pie. The fouace fouace and bisaits; prune not delicate pastries; in the past they used to be sold in the in western western France. Their main main quality markets and at fairs fairs in was to provoke thirst. Wines Wines - The Anjou wines include those of the Angers and (which have Saumur regions have a a right right to to the the appellations appellations Saumur regions (which 'Anjou' and 'Saumur'). 'Saumur'). Ch6nin grape. White wines. wines. These are made from the Chénin White Saumur. Very dry white wines wines with with a a strong Saumur. Very dry strong bouquet. process of the They stand up They up very very weIl well to to the the fermenting fermenting process semi-sparkling méthode mdthode champenoise to to give very very pleasant semi-sparkling grown on the banks of and sparkling sparkling wines. wines. The grapes are grown Thouet. Brézé, Brezg, the tributary, the Thouet. the Loire and on those of its tributary, Parnay and Montsoreau Parnay Montsoreau are three of of the principal vineyards. with a wines with de la la Iniire. Fine, elegant white white wines Coteawc de Coteaux Loire. Fine, produced here; get dryer every strong bouquet are produced here; these strong bouquet are these get year. The best-known are those year. Epir6, Saventhose of Epiré, best-known vineyards are nidres (which has a right to a special appellation), Rochenières appellation). la Rocheaux-Moines and and la la Coulée de Serrant, Serrant, both both on on the the right aux-Moines Coul€e de bank. vineyard that was was preLa Coulée Coul€e de de Serrant is a walled vineyard chamberlain Perthus Perthus de Brie along sented by Louis XI to his chamberlain chAteau which has since disappeared. disappeared. with a château It was was at at la la Roche-aux-Moines, Roche-aux-Moines, on 12L4, that 27 July It on 27 lruJy 1214, that John Lackland was was defeated defeated by Philippe John by Louis XI, XI, son son of Philippe Auguste. The The vineyard, vineyard, planted monks of SaintAuguste. planted by by the the monks Nicolas Nicolas of Angers, dates back to the eleventh eleventh century century A.D. Coteaux du &t Layon. Coteaux Layon. Liqueur-like aromatic white white wines made from made from over-ripe grapes ('la pourriture noble' or 'noble t ot', Botrytis cenerea). rot', cenerea). great liqueur-like The great liqueurJike Anjou wines are at their best in the Bonnezeaux and Quarts-de-Chaume appellations. The Bonnezeaux and Quarts-de-Chaume appellations. mentioning Coteaux de l'Aubance I'Aubance are also worth mentioning excellent - excellent River Aubance. white wines from the banks of the River Red wines. The The red red wines wines of Anjou and and Saumur Red wines. Saumur come from the Cabernet grape. The best known of them (and for good reason) Saumur-Champigny with with its its exquisite good reason) is is Saumur-Champigny It was strawberry bouquet and and deep deep ruby ruby colour. colour. It strawberry was Curnonsky's favourite wine. Rosi The rosés ros6s of Anjou Rosé wines. The Anjou and and Saumur, velvety or well known and much in demand. They are dry, are weB are made

grapes. The The Cabernet from the the Gamay, and Groslot grapes. from C6t and Gamay, Côt rosé ros6 is (as its name indicates) produced exclusively from the Cabernet grape. all into verse: The Angevin Angevin poet Marc Leclerc has put it aIl

Voici les les vins du Layon, Beaulieu, Rablay, Touarcé, Beaulieu, Touarc6, Faye, Doux coum' le miel au rayon, Chauds coum' le soleil qui raye, Voilà Voild la Coulée Coulie d' Serrant, S avenniC r e s, Saint-Barthélemy, Saint- Bar thC lemy, Savennières, Qui tiennent tiennent ben aussi leu rang d'La Possotuiire, La Possonnière, canss d' Avec ceuss Ceux de dc Saumur Saumur et d'alentour, Varrains ou Saint-Cyr-en-Bourg, Saint-C yr-en- Bourg, Mont Montsoreau, soreau, Parnay, Dampierre, gofrt d' pierre, Et leu si plaisant plaisant goût qu'd la L' champigny Ia couleur couleur L' champigny qu'à Et la senteur des des framboises framboèses Et l'on I'on n' sait quel est l' meilleur Vin de de tuffeau nffeau ou ou vin d'ardoèse. d'ardoCse.

Here are the wines of Layon, Touarc6, Faye, Beaulieu, Rablay, Touarcé, Sweet as honey in the comb, Glowing like the sun's ray, There is the Coulée Coul€e de Serrant, S avennidres, Sain t- Barthélemy, Savennières, Saint-Barth€lemy, That are every bit as good Possonnidre As those of La Possonnière Of Saumur and its neighbours Varrains Varrains or Saint-Cyr-en-Bourg, Saint-Cyr-en-Bourg, Montsoreau, Dampierre, Montsoreau, Parnay, Dampierre, And the raspberry-scented Champigny Champigny The colour of rubies Laced with the tang of the soil slate Chalk or sla te Who can say which is best. Good quality marc brandies (distilled from the husks of grapes after after the wine has has been made) and and sorne some highly grapes the wine been made) d'Angers are also proesteemed liqueurs such as Guignolet d'Angers duced in this region. Segr€ cider, which is excellent. excellent. Finally, there is Segré

33

ANNA POT POTATOES ANNA ATOES
ANTISEPSIS. ANTISEPSIE nvnsnpsrr - - Method ANTISEPSIS. Method wruch which aims aims at atthe the preventionof putrefaction or of putrefaction orinfection infection by prevention useof ofchemical byuse chemical substances. The The salting salting and and smoking smoking of meatactually substances. actually conconof meat stitutes an an application application of of antiseptic antiseptic treatment. stitutes treatment.The Theuse useof of vinegar in in marinades, marinades, and preserving vinegar and of ofsalt saltor forpreserving alcoholfor or alcohol purpose.With fruit, also also achieves achieves this fruit, thispurpose. With exceptions, exceptions, the useof of theuse preservativesfor antiseptics as generally antiseptics as preservatives forfood foodsubstances isgenerally substances is practice can condemned. The Thepractice condemned. can be bedangerous, dangerous, except exceptin inthe the qualified food hands of hands of gualified chemists,who food chemists, who use, when reguired, required, use,when selected substances substances which selected which are arestrictly strictly controlled controlled by byapproappropriate laws. priate laws.
ANTISEPTICS. ANTISEPTICS. ANTISEPTIQUES lNnsnprrer.rEs - - Substances Substanceswhich whichcountercounterputrefaction, fermentation act putrefaction, (See PRESERact fermentation and and infection. infection. (See PRESERVATION.) vATroN.)

for Anna Anna potaloes Casserole for Dotatoes Casserole

pomvrns DE POTATOES. DE TERRE rERRE ANNA ANNA -- A ANNA POT ATOES. POMMES A method method of of potatoes cut cut in in thin round slices, thin round slices, cooked preparing potatoes cooked in in butter butter (See POT in a or a a covered a special special utensil utensil or covered terrine. terrine. (See POTATOES.) in A TOES.)

(A V) ANVERSOISE ANVERSOISE (À L') -- Method Method of preparing large large and of preparing and pieces of small small pieces of meat, meat, calves' calves' sweetbreads sweetbreads and andeggs. eggs.These Theseare are garnished with garnished with hop hopstaJks potatoes stalks in in butter butter or orcream cream and and potatoes fried fried in in butter. butter.
AOUDZÉ AOUDZE -- Name given in Name given in Ethiopia Ethiopia to to aastrongly strongly spiced spiced sauce sauce whichis which is made pimento, ginger, ginger, cloyes made of of pimento, cloves and and an an aromatic plant somewhat aromatic plant somewhat similar similar to to thyme, known as thymeoknown as zégakelie. zigakelie. The The Ethiopians Ethiopians serve serve this this sauce sauce with with aadish dish which which they they cali call brondo, brondo, of of which which they they are are very very fond. fond. APÉRITIF pharmacopoeia recognised APERITIF -- The The old old pharmacopoeia recognised major major bitters (roots of parsley, fenneJ, bitters (roots of parsley, fennel, asparagus asparagus and and butcher's butcher's broom) (roots ofmaidenhair and minor minor bitters broom) and bitters (roots fern, couchof maidenhair fern, couchgrass, grass, thistle, rest-harrow and thistle, rest-harrow and strawberry-plant). strawberry-plant). The The term term as as used used today today only only applies applies to to stimulants stimulants of appetite. of appetite. Apéritifs Aperitifs served greater or served in in cafés cafts are are drinks drinks of of aa greater or lesser lesser degree degree of of bitterness, bitterness, variously variously flavoured, flavoured, which which are are drunk drunk neat or diluted diluted with generally have neat or with water. water. They They generally have aa strong strong alcoholic alcoholic content, content, because because the which they are they are the essences essences of of which composed (which is composed are not soluble alcohol (which are not soluble except except in in strong is strong alcohol why go cloudy why they they go cloudy when when mixed mixed with water) and and this this alcohol with water) alcohol content great extent content to to a a great nullifies the extent nullifies action of of the the the beneficial beneficial action bitters. bitters. But, (or perhaps But, through perhaps through through sheer sheer force force of of habit habit (or through imagination), people think imagination), sorne some people think that have no that they they have no appetite appetite unless (or apéritifs). unless they they have have their their daily daily apéritif ap€ritif (or aperitifs). It It is is this this fact fact which phrase that which has has led led to to the the coining coining of of the the phrase that if if an an apéritifcan ap€ritif can open open the the appetite, appetite, it it does does so so with with aa skeleton skeleton key. key. Be Be this this as as it it may, may, the the apéritif was, and ap€ritif was, and still still is, is, a a traditional traditional rite rite in in certain certain circles. circles.

porrauns DE ANNETIE POT POTATOES. ANNEITE ATOES. POMMES DE TERRE rERRE ANNETTE ANNETTE -Prepared like potatoes, but potatoes should like Anna Anna potatoes, Prepared but the the potatoes be should be (q.v.). (See (See POTATOES.) shredded into into fine fine julienne strips shredded strips (g.v.). POTATOES.)

Annona Annona 1. l. Cherimoya Cherimoya 2. 2. BulJock's Bullock's heart heart 3. 3. Sour sop

ANNONA. ANONE - The annona or custard apple ANNONA. ANoNEapple is fruit is the fruit of of a family of of trees (Annonaceae) native to to tropical tropical America America but cultivated cultivated in southern California and and tropical tropical Asia. The The cherimoya (Annona (Annona cherimolia), one cherimoya one of of the the most most popular globe artichoke varieties, resembles a a globe artichoke in in both both colour colour and and shape, with the difference that its skin is is shiny. shiny. It It has has cream cream coloured flesh, less white than coloured (Annona than that of the sour sour sop sop (Annona muricata), which is larger and more is larger more acid in in flavour. flavour. The The sweet sweet sop (Annona squamosa), which sorne some people say say is is the the true true apple, is particularly popular popular in custard apple, in the the West West Indies Indies and and has a sweet, sweet, custard-like custard-like flavour flavour and a a strong strong scent. Annonas scent. Annonas
are only eaten raw.

vast numbers in in the the English English Channel. in vast Its flesh flesh is is very Channel. Its very layered. white, and layered. white, The fishing season mainly January The season for it is mainly January and and February. February. the U.S.A. hake hake and and cusk cusk (usually sold fillets) are In the sold in in fillets) are very very to this this fish. fish. similar to For cookery cookery purposes purposes it it is is treated treated as For (q.v.). as whiting whiting (g.v.). ANTHRACITE - Coal Coal remarkable remarkabJe for for its its great purity; one ANTHRACITE great purity; one of the the fuels fuels which which is is used, used, in in preference preference to to others, others, for heating of for heating and cooking. cooking. and

ANON - This fish, one of of the the varieties of ANON of haddock, haddock, abounds abounds

ANTIDOTE. coNrRE-porsoN CONTRE-POISON Substance capable of ANTIDOTE. Substance capable of neutralising the the toxic toxic properties of of another another substance, by neutralising substance, by forming with with it it an an insoluble insoluble non-toxic non-toxic combination. combination. forming 34 34

La Moitte afler a painting by Lancrel an engraving La Partie Partie de de Plàisir, Plaisir, an engraving by by de de Moitte after a painting by Lancret

APHORISMS APHORISMS AND AND AXIOMS AXIOMS
The The traditional traditional ap6ritif apéritif 'rite' -rite' is is tending tending to to disappear. disappear. Those Those who who used used to to look look upon upon it it as an an occasion occasion to to meet meet their their friends or simply simply as a a form fonn of of relaxation relaxation are are beginning beginning to to friends or substitute substitute for for this'agreeablefaux this 'agreeablefaux pas pas of of the the pdlate'perhaps pi1[ate' perhaps a a fruit fruit juice, juiee, or or a a glass glass of of mineral minerai water, water, or - better betler still stillsimply simply a a glass glass of of wine. wine.
14. 14. A A dessert dessert without wit hout cheese cheese is is like 1ike a beautiful bea utiful woman woman

with with one one eye. cye.
15. 15. One One can can learn lcam to to cook. cook, but but a a restaurateur restaurateur is is born. born.

-

Doctor Doctor Ramain, Ramain, who who calls calls himself himself an an 'independent 'independent gastronome', gastronome', has has selected selected what wha t he he considers considers to to be be the the best best ap€ritifs and lists lists them them in in the the following following order: order : apéritifs and L 1. The The best best vintage vintage brut brui Champagne, served served well weil chilled chilled and and sparkling sparkling with with tiny tiny bubbles. bubbles. 2. 2. The The still still Champagne Champagne Blanc Blanc de de Blancs. Blancs. 3. 3. A A glass glass of of genuine genuine old old sherry; sherry; or, or, better beUer still, an an authentic authentîc Chdteau-Chdlon Cbâteau-Châlon yellow yellow wine wine from from the the Jura. Jura. 4. 4. An An 'Aligot6' 'Aligoté' white white Burgundy Burgundy (Aligot6 (Aligoté is is the the name name of of the the grape) grape) blended blended with with a a little little fine fine Cassis. Cassis. 'Kir,' 'Kir,' as as this trus mixture mixture is is called, called, is is a a misnomer, misnomer, since since it il was was already already being being drunk drunk in in Burgundy Burgundy in in l9l2,long 1912, long before before the the Alsatian AJsatian Canon Canon Kir Kir held held office office as as deputy deputy mayor mayor of of Dijon. Dijon. 5. 5. A A good good quality quality Scotch Scotch whisky whisky served served neat neat or or with with a a splash splash of of soda. soda. 6. 6. Certain Certain authentic authentic Italian Italian vermouths, vermouths, alone, alone, or or with with ice, ice, or or with with chilled chilled sparkling sparkling mineral minerai water. water. 7. 7. One One of of a a small small number number of of good good dry dry French French vennouths vermouths such such as as Noilly, Noilly, drunk drunk neat, neat, or or with with sparkling sparkling mineral minerai water wateror or (wait (wail for for it!) it!) blended blended with with Casis. Casis. Even Even the the ancient aocient (but (but reborn!) rebom! ) Savoyard Savoyard Chamb6ry Chambéry vermouths vermout hs are are recommended. recommended. 8. 8. As As a a last last resort, resort, during during the the long long hot hot summer summer days days (especially (espccially if jf you you happur happen to to live live in in the the south south of of France) France) a a splendid splendid light'pastis' light 'pastis' simply simply because because its its tart tan aniseed aniseed flavour flavour refreshes refreshes the the palate palate without without spoiling spoiling the the appetite. appetite.

-

APHORISMS APHORlSMS AND AND AXIOMS. AXIOMS, ApHoRTsMES APHORISMES Er ET AxroMEs AXIOMES * Short Short pithy pithy maxims, maxims, expressing expressing rules rules and and precepts precepts of of
gastronomy, gastronomy, hygiene hygiene and and everything everything pertaining pertaining to to the the table, table, the the most most celebrated celebrated of of which which are are those those of of Brillat-Savarin, Brillat-Savarin, given given by by this this master master of ofgastronomical gastronomical sciences sciences as as a a preface preface to to Physiologie Physiologie du du gofrt. goût. Here Here they they are: are: l. 1. The The universe universe is is nothing nothing except except for for life, life, and and everything everything that that lives lives has has to to feed feed itself. itself. 2. 2. Animals Animais feed; feed; man man eats; eats; only only a a man man of ofwit wit knows knows how how to to eat. eal. 3. 3. The The destiny destiny of of nations nations depends depends on on their tbeir manner manner of of eating. eating. 4. 4. Tell Tell me me what what you you eat, eat, and and IJshall shall tell tell you you what what you you are. are. 5. 5. The The Creator, Creator, by by making making man man eat eat to to live, live, invites invites him him to to do do so so with witb appetite appetite and and rewards rewards him him with with pleasure. pleasure. 6. 6. Gourmandism Gourmandism is is an an act act of of judgement, judgement, by by which wbich we we prefer prefer things thingswhich which have have a a pleasant pleasant taste taste to to those thosewhich which lack lack this this quality. quality. 7. 7. The The pleasures pleasures of of the the table table belong belong to to all ail agei, ageS, to to all ail conditions, conditions, to to all ail countries countries and and to to every every day; day; they they can can be be associated associated with with all ail the the other other pleasures pleasures and and remain remain the the longest us for for the the loss loss of ofthe the rest. rest. longest to to console console us 8. 8. The The table table is is the the only only place place where where one one is îs never never bored bored during during the the first first hour. hour. 9. 9. The The discovery di5covery of ofa a new new dish dish does does more more for for the the happihappiness ness of ofmankind mankind than than the the discovery discovery of ofa a star. star. 10. 10. Those Those who who give give themselves themselves indigestion indigestion or or get get drunk, d run k, do do not not know know how how to to eat eat or or drink. drink. I Il. l. The Thecorrect correct order orderof offoods foods is isstarting startingwith with the theheaviest heaviest and and ending ending with with the the lightest. lightesl. 12. 12. The The correct correct order order of of beverages beverages is is starting starting with with the the most most temperate temperateand and ending endingwith with the the most most heady. beady. 13. 13. To To claim daim that tbat wines wines should should not not be he changed changed is is aa heresy; heresy; the the palate palate becomes becomes saturated saturated and and after aner the the third third glass glass the the best best of of wines wines arouses arouses nothing nothing but but an an obscure obscure sensation. sensation.
35 35

16. The The most most indispensable indispensable quality quality of of a cook is is punctupunctual.ity; alîty; it should should also also be be that that of of a a guest. guesl. 17. 17. To To wait wait too too long long for for a a late-comer late-comer is is to to show show a a lack lack of consideration consideration for for all all those those present. present. 18. 18. He He who who receives receives his his friends friends and and gives gives. no no personal personal attention attention to to the tbe meal meal which which is is being being prepared prcpared for for them, them, is is not not worthy worthy of of having having friends. friends. 19. 19. The The mistress mistress of of the the house house must must always always make make sure sure that that her her coffee coffee is is excellent, excellent, and and the the master master of of the the house house that that his his wines wines are are choice. choice. 20. 20. To To invite invite someone sorne one is is to to take take charge charge of of his his happiness happiness during during the the time time he he spends spends under under your your roof. roof. Some Sorne of of Brillat-Savarin's Brillat-Savarin's aphorisms, aphorisms, notably notably the the one one which which claims daims that that 'One 'One can can learn learn to to cook, cook, but but a a restaurateur restaurateur is ! is born' born' are are rather rather disputable disputable! There Thcre are are many many other other gastronomic gastronomie aphorisms. aphorisms, We We quote quote some sorne which which are are attributed attributed to to the the actor actor Des Des Essarts, Essarts, who, who, according according to to a a contemporary contemporary author, author, had had an an appetite appetite proproportionate porüonate to to his his corpulence corpuleoce (Des (Des Essarts Essarts was was very very fat) fat) and and was wit- qualities was as as much much a a gastronome gastronome as as a a man man of ofwitqualities which which often oflen go go together. together. Some daim that that he he was was the the precursor precursor of of BrillatBrillatSorne people people claim Savarin. Savarin. A A good good dinner dinner would wou Id put put him him into into good good spirits. spirits. LIe He would would eloquently eloquently analyse analyse the the qualities qualities of of each each dish dish and and create crea te amusingly amusingly bizatre bizafre combinations combinations of of words: words: 'Good 'Good cookery cookery is is the the food food of of a a clear clear conscience.' conscience.' 'Let the the leg leg of ofmutton multon be be awaited awaited as as the the first first lovers' lovers' meetmeeting, caught in in the the act, act, golden golden as as a a young young ing, mortified mortified as as a a liar liar caught German German girl, girl, and and bloody bloody as as a a Carib.' Carib.' 'Take 'Take advantage advantage of of the the gracious gracious condescension condescensÎon of of the the elegant calf's kidney, kidney, multiply multiply its its metamorphoses; metamorphoses; you you can, can, eJegant calf's without without giving givlng it it offence, offence, call cali it it the the chameleon chameleon of of cuisine.' cuisine.' 'Make 'Make of of an an egg egg an an amiable amiable intermediary intermediary which which comes cornes between betweeo the the various various parts parts of of food food to to bring bring about about difficult difficult reconciliations.' reconcil iations.' 'Mutton 'Mutlon is is to to lamb lamb what what a a millionaire millionaire uncle uncle is is to to his his poverty-stricken poverty-strîcken nephew.' oephew.' 'A 'A vineJeaf vine-leaf wrapped wrapped round round a a partridge partridge brings brings out oût its its quality, quality, just just as as the the barrel barrel of of Diogenes Diogenes brought brought forth forth the the qualities qualities of ofthe the great great thinker.' thinker.' 'Never 'Never forget forget that that the the pheasant pheasant must must be be awaited awaited like like the the pension ofa a man man of ofletters letters who who has has never never written written epistles epistles to to pension of the the ministers m.inisters or or madrigals madrigals to to their their mistresses.' mistresses.' Des Des Essarts, Essarts, born born at at Langres Langres in in 1740, 1740, was was one one of ofthe the best best actors actors of ofthe the Com€die-Frangaise. Comédie-Française. He He died died suddenly suddenly in1793, in 1793, on on hearing hearing ofthe of the arrest arrest ofone of one ofhis of bis best best friends. friends. The The poets poets and and prose prose writers writers of ofthe the past past have have also also formuformulated lated gastronomical gastronomical aphorisms aphorisms and and axioms. axioms. Horace, Horace, who who set setgreat grea tstore storeby bythe thecleanliness c1ean liness of ofthe the table, table, and and above above all ail insisted insisted that that one one should should be be able able to to see see one's one's reflection reftection mirrored m.irrored in in the the plates plates and and glasses, glasses, wrote wrote as as follows: follows: 'The 'The stomach stomach heaves heaves when when one one receives receives from from a a valet valet a a goblet goblet bearing bearing the the greasy greasy imprint imprint of of his his sauce-stained sauce-stained fingers, fingers, and and when when one one sees sees at at the the bottom boltom the the filthy filthy dregs dregs collected collected there.' there.' Plutarch Plutarch makes makes this this statement statement - which which he he attributes attributes to to Aemilius Aemilius Paulus, Paulus, the theconqueror conqueror of ofPersia: Persia: 'The 'Tbesame sameintelliintelligence genceis is required required to to marshal marshal an an arrny army in in battle battle as as to to order orderaa good gooddinner. dinner. The Thefirst firstmust must be beas asformidable formidable as aspossible, possible, the the second second as as pleasant pleasantas as possible, possible, to to the the participants.' participants.' In In these these words words Plutarch Plutarch gives gives a a valuable valuable lesson lesson to to all al! would-be would-be gastronomes, gastronomes, to to those those who who frequently frequently compose compose menus menuswhich which would would give give no no pleasure pleasure to to aa true truegastronome. gastronome. Rabelais Rabelais categorically categorically declares declares that that only only 'candle-lit' 'candie-lit'

'kt

APHORISMS AND AXIOMS
dinners and suppers suppers are pleasing. He goes goes on to say: 'There 'There is no good cheer cheer except at night when the the lanterns are in place with wilh their gentle gentle flickering lights.' Nearer to our own time, other writers and gastronomes have have formulated many many aphorisms which may may be be taken taken as sound sound gastronomical gastronomical rules. rules. Thus Car€me Carême gives the following advice to ministers and diplomats: 'The culinary art follows diplomacy, and every prime prime minister minister should pay it tribute.' tribute.' Talleyrand knew used to knew this this only too too well. weil. He He used ta advise French ambassadors ambassadors at the courts courts of foreign sovereigns sovereigns to ta rely more on their their casseroles than on their secretaries. secreta ries. chamber, Carême also says: 'To 'To preside preside over a political cham ber, or Car6me course in gastroa post in an embassy, em bassy, is to ta take a a course to hold a nomy.' Another of Carême's aphorisms stresses how very very imAnother of Car€me's stresses how portant is is the the part part played played by by cookery: 'When 'When there is is no more cookery in the world there will be no more letters, no quick and lofty intelligence, no no pleasant pleasant easy relationships, relationships, (Pdtissier pittoresque) no more social unity.' unit y.' (Pâtissier pilloresque) Saint-Beuve is responsible Saint-Beuve responsible for this aphorism: 'Intellectual 'IntelJectual quickly wolf men who quîckly wolf down whatever nourishment nourislunent is necesnecessary for for their sary their bodies with with a a kind kind of disdain, disdain, may may be be very rational of rational and have have a lofty intelligence, but they are not men of taste.' a gastronome and Monselet, who who was was a and extremely witty, witt y, Monselet, writings. This one shows formulated many aphorisms in his writings. formulated social importance importance of good dinners: the social 'Tout sefait siicle où oil 1101lS nous sommes sommes 'Toul dînant dans se fait en dinant dans le siècle c'est par des dÎner.ç Et c'est diners qu'on gouverne les hommes.' 'Everything is done at dinner in the century in which which we live, and it is by dinners that men are governed.' Monselet also wrote: 'Gastronomy is the joy joy of every condition and every age. It adds beauty to wit.' lt 'A gourmet is a a being pleasing to Heaven.' 'A passions, rationalised 'All passions, 'AJI rationalised and controlled, become an art. is sensitive sensitive to to more than other passion, Gastronomy, more than any Gastronomy, any other passion, is and direction.' reasoning and pleasant hours of our Iife point: the pleasant life well on this point: 'Ponder weil less intangible intangible link, more or all connected, by a more or less are by a link, with are ail some memory of the the table.' sorne 'There are to produce are many many flowers which serve serve only only to 'There flowers which could have made made savoury dishes.' of which one could essences, ofwhich And in his Le!lres Lettres à d Emilie he gives the following advîce advice to 'Enchant, stay beautiful beautiful and gracious; but to do all women: 'Enchant, ail well. Dring Bring the the same consideration consideration to the preparata the this, eat weil. your appearance. Let your devote ta to your appearance. tion ofyour ofyour food as you devote like your dress.' be a a poem, Iike dinner be great-nephew of the great-nephew of Brillat-Savarin, Tendret, the Lucien Tendret, Lucien a few gastronomical aphorisms in his book La Table created a are, no no doubt. doubt, less famous de Brillat-Savarin. au pays de Brillat-Savarin. They are, gottt, but a &t goût, a few few of of author of Physiologie than those of the author Physiologie du them them deserve to be be quoted here: 'Cuisine is it is both an art art and and a a science. It is is an an art art when when it both an science. Il 'Cuisine and the to bring bring about about the the realisation realisation of of the the true and the true strives to (the good) in in the order of culinary bon (Ihe le bon the order beautiful, beautiful, called le and it is analagous analagous ta to chemistry, physics and a science, science, jt ideas. As a theorems Its natural history. 1 ts axioms are called aphorisms, its theorems natural gastronomy.' philosophy gastronomy.' and its philosophy recipes, and are identical, but the the fleeting beautiful and and the the good are 'The beautiful work of a a cook cook or or a a musician created by by the the work impressions created as they they are are being experienced. Raphael's disperse disperse even even as being experienced. painting The The Transfiguration Transfiguration is is immortal, immortal, but but Carême's Car€me's painting lasts only only while while it is is being Ragottt de de truffes truffes à d la parisienne Ragoût parisienne lasts just as be roses last last as as long long as as their their fragrance can can he eaten, Just as roses eaten, enjoyed.' not and even if he may mav not 'The cook cook is is no no less than an an anist, artist. and even jf
36 36 be he on the level level of of Polygnotus PoJygnotus and Phidias, Phidias, he he has his his part part and his place in civilisation as a whole.' whole."

'Skilful cookery has always made its appear'Sk.ilful and refined cookery ance during the most glorious glarious epochs in history.' conqueror of 'Vatel 'Vatel is not not less famous than his master, master, the conqueror of Rocroi, and and if if glory glory is nothing but smoke, then then Antonin Antonin Car€me Carème has bas made as much of it it as Napoleon.' 'To give life to ta beauty, the painter painter uses a whole whoJe range of of colours, the musician of of sounds, the cook of of tastes tastes - and it is indeed indeed remarkable remarkable that there there are seven seven colours, seven musical notes and seven tastes.' tastes.' Lucien Lucien Tendret Tendret also made the following following remarks illustratillustrating the importance importance of good cuisine cuisille in diplomatic diplomatie affairs: affairs: 'Political 'Political issues issues are are decided decided at at table. table. Talleyrand often creations of owed owed his his successes successes to to the the skilful sk.ilful creations of Antonin Car6me.' Carême.' 'At ambassador 'A t the time of the Congress Congress of Vienna, the ambassador (Talleyrand), said to (Talleyrand), taking taking leave leave of of Louis Louis XVIII, XVIII, said to him: o'Please "Please believe me, me, your Majesty, Majesty, I l need need saucepans more than written questions."' questions." , ambassador 'Monsieur assures us 'Monsieur Guizot Guizot assures us that that while he was am bassador in London, London, his rus cook was more useful useful to ta him politically politically than his secretaries.' secretaries,' advice, of axioms, He also gave the following ad vice, in the form ofaxioms, to his rus hosts and guests: given only 'To order a dinner only to order and and conduct conduct a 'To dinner is is givcn to fine gastronomes, of of delicate delicate and cultivated gastronomes, cultivated tastes. A skilful host a good cook.' is as rare as a gastronomes who 'One only dines well of true 'One weil at a t the homes of t rue gastronomes of spoils the loveliest of feel all ail the nuances. The least puffiness spolls faces, and and attention to detail creates perfection.' faces, perfection.' 'With dishes and can offer succulent dishes offer succulent 'With money, money, anyone anyone can courtesy kindness cannot be bought.' famous famous wines, wines, but courtes y and kindness wit 'To appetite eat, to make 'To make make people people who have no appctîte make the wit lack these of those who have it sparkle, to of ta enable those who Jack qualities to science of of a this is supreme science qualities to find find them them is the the supreme - this gastronome-host.' gastronome-hosl.' seated comfortably and are not 'The gourmets, if if they chey are not seated and the food food for have no elbow raom, room, count both the wines and for nothing.' philosophy Lucien Tendret says: And to sum up his phîlosophy 'French conversation was born in 'French in the salons of the eighthe Regent, from dining-rooms of the teenth century. From the dining-rooms H€nault, Baron Holbach and and Mme. Baron Holbach those of of President those President H~nault, and a society, society, certainly sceptical sceptical and emerged a Geoffrin, there emerged permeated with and that suave urbanity urbanity and impious, but but permeated impious, wilh suave which has since spread and enlightened courtesy which ingenious and of the the salient Europe, and and has has become one of throughout Europe, become one throughout civilisation.' characteristics of cha rac teri s tics 0 f modern ci vi lisa ti 0 n. ' point in his poem, Richepin makes makes a a practical Jean Richepin Jean practical point in his

A rable: À Table:
y compris serrel lafamille, se serre! Est-on dix, y compris la famille. on se Est-on d l'étro;1 I'dtroit et sans être Atre à ftop cependant, et Mais pas trop II l'air aux aux coudes. et le droit coudes, el Il faut faut qu'on ait de "air gestes; I'on veul, bavardant, si l'on veut, de grands r;?estes; De faire en bavardant, Grignotis de profil,les mets SOnl sont indig~stes. indigestes. . Grignotés profil, les mets
the family; sit sit closer together! 'We are ten, with the But not too closely: we don't want la to be be cramped, We must have elbow room, room, and and be able We To talk and and make gestures, if if we feel feel so incllned; inclined; Ta picking at and picking at food food is courting Sitting sideways and indigestion.' ' indigestion.
say la to he has has something ta to say return to to Lucien Tendret, he To return giving people who in giving think they they are doing wrong wrong in who think are doing reassure people table: to the the pleasures of the the ta themselves up to ble: gluttony as 'The casuists seven have classed classed glutlony as one one of of Ihe the seven casuists have 'The drinking to to sins, but if if it it is not not taioted tainted by the the vice of drink.ing deadly sins, deadly

APHORISMS APHORISMS AND AND AXIOMS AXIOMS

painting by D Téniers T6niers by D a painting The The Five Five Senses, Senses, a

inebriation or eating to excess, it de serves to be ranked with with be ranked deserves the theological virtues.' AndAnd 'Those who have a profound indifference to to the the pleasures a profound of the table are and unamiable.' generally gloomy, charmless charmless and are generally of Apothegms. - The phorisms of The a aphorisms couRMANDsAPoPHTEGMEs GOURMANDS Apothegms. APOPHTEGMES Much less less Brillat-Savarin the world. world. Much throughout the are known known throughout Brillat-savarin are of author of known are the author which the gastronomical apothegms apothegms which are the gastronomical philosophy of of the the Physiologie goftt has forth on on the the philosophy has set set forth Physiologie du du goût table: Cookery. which and one one which arts, and the oldest oldest arts, 'Cooking is is one one of of the Cookery. 'Cooking has in civillife.' civil life.' service in important service most important us the the most has rendered rendered us 'The much as as least as as much at least is worth worth at men is 'The science which feeds feeds men science which the kill them.' them.' how to to kjll one which which teaches teaches how the one 'Once improvement for improvement instinct for the instinct 'Once fire fire was was discovered, discovered, the made place to it, and and dry it, to dry first place the first it, in in the to it, men bring food to made men bring food afterwards t on cook.' put fire to to cook.' on the the fire to pu afterwards to 'Cookery vessels fire-resisting vessels progress when great progress when fire-resisting made great 'Cookery made in or clay clay appeared.' appeared.' in bronze bronze or 'Meals, word, the word, we understand understand the in which which we sense in in the the sense 'Meals, in began species.' human species.' of the the hurnan age of with the the second second age began with 'In itis is find ourselves, ourselves, it now find in which which we we now 'In the society in the state state of of society difficult and on bread breadand lived solely solely on nation which which lived a nation to imagine imagine a difficult to vegeta bles. ' vegetables.' Gourmandism ism is t, ardent, isan anarden G ottmandism Gourmands.''Gourmand and Gourmands. G ourmandism and rational the whichflatter flatter the preference for things which for things habitual preference rational and and habituai taste.' taste.' 'From gourmandism, you look atgourmandism, point of look at view you of view 'From whatever whatever point it praise and andencouragement.' encouragement.' but praise deserves nothing nothing but it deserves 'Gourmandism society.' links uniting uniting society.' main links of the the main 'Gourmandism is isone one of 'If are thereare predestination, then thenthere gastronomes by by predestination, 'If there there are are gastronomes also some by bycircurnstance.' circumstance.' also sorne Taste. cannot say, it itcannot isto tosay, itsaction, action, that thatis inits 'Taste is issimple simple in Taste.'Taste react atonce.' once.' flavours at twoflavours react to to two 'Man's ofthe the andof textureand its texture palate, by ofits thedelicacy delicacy of 'Man's palate, by the various proof gives sufficient sufficient proof it,gives surround it, thatsurround membranes that various membranes of wasintended.' intended.' forwhich which ititwas functions for offunctions sublimity of of the thesublimity
37 37

proclaims itself 'Appetite proclaims itself by by aa digestion. 'Appetite and digestion. Appetite and Appetite feeling of of and a a feeling stomach, and in the the stomach, languor in of languor slight sensation sensation of slight tiredness.' tiredness.' the and the function, and mechanical function, 'Digestion is absolutely mechanical is an an absolutely 'Digestion with mill equipped equipped with as a a mill of as thought of can be be thought organs can digestive organs digestive sieves.' sieves.' linked with with must be be linked it must as a awhole, whole, it 'To understand digestion as understand digestion 'To and its its consequences.' consequences.' food and food which one which is the the one functions, is the bodily bodily functions, all the 'Digestion, of of ail 'Digestion, an of an mental state state of greatest influence on the the mental influence on the greatest exercises the exercises individual.' individual.' is in in while digestion digestion is people are bad temper temper while are in in aa bad 'Some people 'Sorne prosuggest proto suggest either to not the the time time either progress; it it is is therefore therefore not progress; jects or of them.' them.' favours of ask favours to ask or to jects quality and and prove that that the thequality 'Theory and both prove andexperience experience both 'Theory onwork.' work.' powerful influence influence on quantity of have aa powerful food have of food quantity copewith with the the adequatelycope cannot adequately mancannot 'A badly nourished man badly nourished 'A length of oftime.' time.' any length for any work for continuous work effort of of continuous effort the among the neverfound foundamong 'Obesity is isnever Thinness. 'Obesity and Thinness. Obesityand Obesity people have have thepeople wherethe ofsociety society where classesof theclasses or among among the savages or savages live.' tolive.' eatto theyonly onlyeat where they eat, and andwhere work to toeat, to towork isaa for men, men,but butititis greatdrawback drawbackfor 'Thinness is is not not aagreat 'Thinness women.' for women.' misfortune for dreadful dreadful misfortune introduced which, introduced meanssubstances substanceswhich, 'By foods onemeans foodsone Foods.'By Foods. restore andrestore digestion,and bydigestion, assimilated by canbe beassimilated stomach, can into into the thestomach, body.' human body.' lost by bythe thehuman energy lost the theenergy gaveto to qualitiesnature naturegave thequalities with the 'Wewere satisfiedwith 'We were not notsatisfied pretextof ofimproving improving thepretext underthe poultry;art in,and andunder artstepped stepped in, poultry; ofthem.' them.' martyrs of fowls, fowls, made made martyrs painting, and the andthe forpainting, isfor canvasis whatcanvas 'Poultry 'Poultryis isfor forcookery cookerywhat usboiled, boiled, servedto tous Itisisserved forcharlatans. charlatans.It Fortunatusfor cap ofFortunatus capof portions,with orwithout without withor orin inportions, wholeor roast, cold,whole orcold, roast,hot hotor success.' withequal equalsuccess.' sauce, alwayswith sauce,and andalways proofprohonourof thehonour contestthe France contest 'Three 'Threelands ancientFrance landsof ofancient andBresse.' Bresse.' Mansand poultry:Caux, LeMans Caux,Le ducing thebest bestpoultry: ducingthe giftsthat New thatthe theNew thebest bestgifts oneof ofthe 'Turkey 'Turkeyisisundoubtedly undoubtedly one

APHTONITUS APHTONITUS
the seven seven great cbefs chefs of Ancient APHTONITUS - One of tbe Greece. He invented the pudding. pudding.

World W orld has made to the 0 Id. ' Old.' 'Game provides the the delights delights of our table; it 'Game it is is healthy, rich, savoury food, food, excellent in in taste taste and and easy rich, savoury easy to to digest, digest, especially when young.' especially 'Under the direction of an able goes through able chef, game goes many skilful skilful modifications and and transformations, transformations, and and promany vides most most of of the the full-flavoured dishes vides dishes which which constitute constitute cuisine.' superlative cuisine.' 'The taste of partridge is not the same as that of a Périgord P6rigord partridge tha t of a Sologne Sologne partridge.' a 'If the the garden warbler warbler were were the the size size of of a a pheasant, 'If pheasant, it certainly cost as much as an an acre of land.' would most certainly 'The quail is the sweetest and the nicest of game birds. It It is an act of ignorance to serve it in any way except roasted.' glory only when woodcock is in its full glory when roasted roasted actually 'A woodcock actually before of the hunter; above ail, before the eyes of all, the hunter who shot it.' 'In the the hands hands of an an able able cook, cook, fish fish can 'In become an can become an inexhaustable source of delight.' exhaustable is the garden warbler of the water; the 'The smelt is the same smallness, the same high flavour, the same superiority.'
38

There were the name APICIUS by the name of were three three Romans Romans by - There genius, their Apicius. Ali All three were were famous, not not for their genius, virtues, or their great qualities, but for their gluttony and virtues, gastronomical art. achievements in the gastronomical achievements The first first lived lived under The under Sulla, the second under Augustus Sulla, the second under Tiberius, and the third under Trajan. It is and Tiberius, is the second most famous, and it is ofhim Apicius of him that Seneca, Seneca, Apicius who is the most Pliny, Juvenal Martial have spoken Pliny, Juvenal and Martial spoken so much. Athenaeus says sa ys that he spent immense immense sums to satisfy his gluttony and that of cakes which bear his name. tha t he invented several kinds of Seneca, who was bis his contemporary, contemporary, tells us that he ran a sort Seneca, 'good fare'. adds that Apicius, having got of school of 'good fare'. He adds debt, was at last forced to examine into heavy debt, examine the state of of his seeing he had only 250,000 Roman pounds affairs, and that, seeing (some authors forty million sesterces, sesterces, about about an authors say say fort left y million left (sorne income of of f80,000), €80,000), he poisoned himself, fearing that such a sum would not be enough for him to live on. ragofits which Apicius invented, of the ragoûts Pliny often speaks speaks of omnium altissimus altissimus gurges. and calls them nepotum omnium The third Apicius lived under Trajan. Having invented a secret method of preserving oysters, managed to deliver oysters, he managed Emperor, who was busy fighting sorne es to the Emperor, some very fresh on ones the Parthians at the time. given to The name Apicius was was not not only to cakes cakes but The but to only given several kind of sauces. of Coelius Apicius, There Apicius, a treatise There exists, under the name of (1a98); in Milan (1498); re culinaria, printed for the first De re first time tirne in De any critics the cri tics do not think, however, that it was written by byany named Apicius. Martin Lister produced a of the three men named De obsonus magnificent edition edition of of this this book entitld De obsonus et magnificent book entitled 1705), ofwhich of which condimentis, condimentis, sive de arte coquinaria coquinardc (London 1705), 125 copies were printed. printed. However, the first edition, which is undated, seems to be It was was printed in in Venice by than the the Milan edition. It older older than forty Bernardus de Vitali bus, and comprises fort y quarto pages, de Vitalibus, constitute Apicius's book. the first thirty-two thirty-two of which constitute a remarkable remarkable summary of the Dix DLx But the latest edition, a Bertrand Guégan livres livres de de cuisine cuisine d'Apicius d'Apicius is is that that of of Bertrand Gu€gan Ren€ Bonnel, Paris, 1933). 1933). (published by René it is interesting To return to interesting to to Marcus Gavius Apicius, it note sorne some of his his discoveries. discoveries. To To improve sows' sows' livers, livers, he note gave them honeyed wine fattened them dried figs, figs, gave them honeyed wine to them with dried warning. drink, then then suddenly slaughtered them them without without warning. drink, When camel was on the menu he only had the most delicate part served up - the heel. Did Imperial Rome have her gastronomes in the strictest word, and were were the illustrious illustrious personages, whose sense sense ofthis of this word, prowess table has been described described in history prowess at table history or legend, real On this this point Car6me, connoisseurs point Carême, connoisseurs of culinary matters? On of the history history of of ancient Rome, who made a profound study of was'fundamentally cookery was says that Roman cookery 'fundamentally barbaric'. barbaric'. named What the us of men named What the historians historians tell tell us of the the three three men leads us to agree with Carême. The Roman Roman table Apicius leads us to Car6me. The spectacular was certainly magnificent, in the spectacular certainly sumptuous and magnificent, all refined. sense, but it was not at ail at the the Apicius family, family, governed the Rome, Rome, at the time of the known. She whole world, at any rate the world as it was then known. laws to to distant provinces. From these these subdictated her laws provinces. From dictated her jugated provinces she great quantities quantities of various received great she received jugated sent her food products. products. Gallia her pork. pork. Africa food Gallia Narbonensis sent and Asia sent delectable foods Roman cooks, and foods which the the Roman Asia sent Greeks, prepared in lavish manner. trained by the Greeks,
ApoNocEroNs APONOGETONACEAE. APONOGETONACEAE. APONOGETONS - Flowering rush represented by one genus, Aponogeton family, represented Aponogeton. Their leaves water. rather like waterlilies. float on the surface of the water,

APPERT APPERT The Aponogeton Aponogeton distachyus distachyas is is widely widely cultivated cultivated in in the the The parts of temperate parts years now of Europe. Europe. For For sorne some years now it it has has bebetemperate come completely completely naturalised naturalised at Montpellier, where at Montpellier, where ils its come young shoots shoots are are eaten eaten and and calied called Cape Cape asparagus. asparagns. The The young plant are common names names for for this this plant are Cape Cape pond weed weed and and water water common hawthorn. hawthorn.
APOPHORETA given by by the the ancient ancient Romans Romans to to APOPHORET A- Name given gifts which the gifts guests for which the the host host made made to to his his guests for members members of of the their families. families. These gifts were These gifts were often great value. often of of great value. They They their precious dishes dishes or or vases which had had been at been used used at were mostly precious the feast. feast. Sometimes Sometimes the slaves who the slaves who served served at table were were also at table also the presented to guests. to the the guests. presented

APOTIIECA. APOTHÉCAlpornEcn- Roman name name ofa of a room, room, situated situated APOTHECA. under the the roof roof of of a a house, house, so so arranged arranged that that the the smoke smoke of of various fireplaces passed passed through it, with purpose of with the sole sole purpose of boiling down down the the famous famous Caecu wine to Caecubum to the the desired desired boiling bum wine consistency. syrupy consistency. to mature. This wine took at least fifteen years to
APPAREIL In French culinary culinary terminology terminology this this word word is is APPAREIL - In go into into the making making used to describe mixed preparations that go of dishes. dishes. For For example, example, the the following following terms terms are are used: of (souffi€ mixture); appareil appareil à d soufflé souffii (soufflé (sponge appareil à d biscuit biscuit (sponge appareil mixture); appareil à (custard mixture), d crème crime renversée renversie (custard mixture), etc. etc. mixture);

APPELLATIONS D'ORIGINE According to to French APPELLATIONS - According legislation the label of the label of a a controlled controlled wine wine must must bear an legislation bear an appellation d'origine; that is to say the name of of the viticultural appellation area to which it belongs. d'origine are are divided divided into into two two categories: categories: Appellations d'origine contrdlie (A.O.C.) and and vins vins délimités dilimitds de de appellation d'origine contrôlée qualiti supérieure (V.D.Q.S.). The supirieure (V.D.Q.S.). group The first first and and superior superior group qualité consists of viticultural areas of wines wines belonging belonging to to the the viticultural areas that consists that produce wines wines of great quality and and individuality, following traditional methods. methods. The The latter group of latter is is a a secondary secondary group traditional of controlled wines belonging to viticultural areas to viticultural areas that that have general quality while a reputation for for their general while not not proearned a ducing wines of of su such of the ducing ch individual characteristics as those of first group.

Nicolas Appert

APPERT - It is impossible to explain how so many people people (including the authors of the first edition of this dictionary) committed the the error of naming naming Frangois François Appert Appert in in this context, context, when when it ought ought to be Nicolas according to a - at least according short short report report in in I'Encyclopidie l'Encyclopédie universelle universelle du du XD( XIX" siècle siicle (1858 (1858 edition, published published eighteen eighteen years years after the the death death of Charles-Nicolas Appert). Charles-Nicolas His biography is is so vague that we prefer to repeat what the canners canners themselves themselves have to say about him. the About a a hundred hundred and and sixty sixt Y years years ago, the Frenchman Frenchman ago, the Nicolas Nicolas Appert Appert discovered discovered how to to preserve preserve food products products by the action action of of heat. the

The only only document document that that has has been been found found relating relating to to The Appert's civil civil state state is is his his death death certificate, certificate, although although we we do do Appert's know that that he he was was born born in in Châlons, Chdlons, in in the the Marne, Marne, in in 1750. 1750. know Whether it it was was Châlons-sur-Marne Chdlons-sur-Marne or or Châlons-sur-Vesle Chdlons-sur-Vesle Whether remains a a mystery. mystery. remains His father father was was a a wine wine merchant merchant in in the the Champagne region, Champagne region, His and Nicolas Nicolas began began work work with with him, him, corking corking bottles. bottles. and Then he he moved moved on learn the on to to learn culinary art the culinary art as as a acook cook at at the Then the court of of Christian Christian IV. IV. He He also also worked worked in in several several brasseries brasseries court private households. and private households. Finally Finally when when he he was was about about thirty thirty and (about 1780) years old 1780) he old (about he set set up up as as a a confectioner confectioner in in rue ruedes des years Lombards, Paris. Paris. Lombards, preparation of Appert became became deeply deeply interested interested in in the the preparation of Appert products. He food products. He soon soon realised realised the inadequacy and the inadequacy and disdisfood preservation, and advantages of of contemporary contemporary methods methods of of preservation, and advantages set himself himself the the task task of of investigating investigating new new ones. ones. set In 1810, 1810, in in order order to his invention to bring bring his invention to to the notice of the notice of the the In public, Appert published le Appert published le Livre Livre de de tous tous les les ménages mdnages ou ou public, pendant plusieurs plusieurs années I'Art de de conserver conserver pendant anndes toutes l'Art toutes les les subsub('The Manual animales et stances animales vigitales ('The et végétales Manual for stances for Every Every HouseHousehold or or the the Art Art of Preserving ail of Preserving all Varieties Varieties of hold of Animal Animal and and Vegetable Substances for Several Substances for Several Years'). Vegetable Years'). He wrote: wrote: 'My 'My method method is is not not a a vain vain theory; He theory; it it is is the the fruit fruit of late late nights, nights, much much deep deep thinking thinking and and research, research, and of and ininnumerable experiments.' experiments.' numerable probably Appert Most probably Appert intuitively Most recognised the intuitively recognised the destrucdestruc'ferments' that tive action action of of heat heat on tive on the the 'ferments' that alter alter animal animal and and possible to He realised substances. He vegetable substances. that if if it it were realised that were possible to destroy or attenuate the 'ferments' by or attenuate destroy the effect effect of of these heating these 'ferments' by heating sufficiently, and preventing other them sufficiently, and afterwards afterwards succeed succeed in in preventing other 'ferments' from from being 'ferments' being introduced introduced into into the the substance, substance, the the conservation of prolonged, if conservation of the the latter latter would would be be prolonged, if not not inindefinitely, at at least least for period. Although definitely, for a a very very long long period. Although this this disdiscoverywas pon scientific managed co very was not not based based u upon scientific theory, theory, Appert Appertmanaged (rule-of-thumb) methods through empirical through empirical (rule-of-thumb) perfect a methods to to perfect a system of preservation which of food food preservation principle is system which in in principle is little little difdifferent from ferent from that employed in processes that employed in manufacturing manufacturing processes today. Encouraged by Encouraged by official official approval, approval, Appert gave gave up up his his conconfectionery business business and fectionery and occupied occupied himself himself exclusively exclusively with with experiments; these proved the experiments; these at at length length proved validity of the validity of his his theories. ln 1794 1794 he settled settled in In in Ivry-sur-Seine. lvry-sur-Seine. In In 1804, 1804, with with the the help help of sorne some financial financial backing, he of he acquired piece of acquired a a piece of land land of of 4 4 (10 acres) hectares (10 hectares acres) at Massy in at Massy in Seine-et-Oise, Seine-et-Oise, and and built built a a factory. This This he equipped equipped with with what to to us us would would seem seem rather rather primitive machinery. He He employed employed about about fifty fifty workers. workers. Scientific Scientific controversies controversies arose arose over over Appert's Appert's discovery, discovery, and and it it was was not not until until Pasteur Pasteur arrived arrived on on the the scene scene that that a a satissatisfactory factory explanation was was reached. Massy Massy was destroyed destroyed by by the the Allies Allies in in 1814. 1814. practically penniless, Although old penniless, Appert old and and practically Appert did did not not give up. give up. In In 1817 l8l7 he he settled settled in in rue rue Cassette, Cassette, in in Paris, Paris, and and premises in managed managed to to obtain obtain premises in rue rue Moreau Moreau from from the the government. There There he he resumed the application application of his manumanuof his facturing processes on a facturing processes a large large scale. scale. The last years of his Iife, life, like his early years, years, are are something something of a a mystery. He He died poverty on died in in extreme extreme poverty I June on 1 June 1840. 1840. In In 1852, Chevallier-Appert Chevallier-Appert took up up where the the other other had had left left off. He He was was Appert's Appert's successor perfected Appert's successor and and he he perfected Appert's ideas. He had had the idea idea of putting canned foods foods in in the the autoautoclave (q.v.), which clave (q.v.), which up had been up to to then then had been used used for for entirely entirely different purposes. He raised the temperature to a different purposes. a high level. level. Since it was was necessary to to know the the temperature inside inside the the autoclave autoclave during during the the operation operation in preserve the in order order to to preserve the quality quality of the the canned canned foods, foods, Chevallier-Appert Chevallier-Appert devised devised a a pressure gauge as as weil. well.
39 39

APPETENCE APPETENCE

Calville Blanc apple

Reinette du Canada apple

(Pomona) Richared apple (Pomona) Richared apple

(Pomona) apple (Pomona) Stark Jaugrines apple Stark Jaugrines

which brings desire desire lppfrsNcE -- A APPETENCE. APPÉTENCE A feeling which for food; this is the first stage for appetite.
me for APPÉTIT name for chives chives in in French. French. (See APPf,TIT Common na - Common CHIVES.) APPETITE. define under the the term Appfrlr -- Psychologists define APPETITE. APPÉTIT natural.appetite cause us which instinctively cause natural,appetite the tendencies which to needs of the body. to satisfy the needs In physiology physiology appetite is difis defined defined as as sometrung something rather different from hunger. in reality reality is is nothing more than hunger. Hunger Hunger in the need which of pleasure which need to eat, whereas appetite is the lure of one experiences whilst about by a a particular whilst eating, brought about condition of the organism. The sensation at regular mealsensation of hunger, which develops at times people, sometirnes it is is not not sometimes disappears disappears if it in civilised civilised people, times in satisfied at the usual is stimulated stimulated by the the hour. The The appetite appetite is usual hour. sight and smell of food; bitter substances substances frequently awaken awaken lost appetite by releasing digestive secretions. digestive secretions. In certain psycruc psychic and cases, appetite appetite can can degenerdegenerand mental cases, ate into substances. offensive and and non-edible substances. into a a craving for offensive The means distaste is anorexia, anorexia, wruch which means distaste of appetite is The opposite ofappetite for food. APPIGRET Rabelais used used to to which Rabelais An old old French French word word which APPIGRET - An define juice, seasoning. seasoning. define gravy, BraW, juice,
poMME - AppIes APPLE. to are the fruit fruit of of a a tree tree belonging belonging to APPLE. POMME - Apples are the Rosaceae. the family Rosaceae. The are divided divided into into cooking cooking varieties of of apples apples are The numerous varieties and eating apples. apples. and eating The are: among the American varieties varieties are: dessert apples apples among The best best dessert Golden golden yellow yellow in in in colour, colour, truncated truncated in Delicious, golden Golden Delicious, shape, juice, very very tasty tasty fiesh, flesh, eaten eaten between between with a a delicate delicate juice, shape, with October Delicious and Starking Delicious and April; Red Red Delicious, Starking October and and April; Richared, red, varying shades shades of of dark dark red, Richared, truncated in in shape, in varying shape, in keeping keeping weil March. Among Among the varieties of French the varieties well until until March. of French origin yellow streaked Reine des reinettes, early early variety, variety, yellow origin are: are: Reine des reinettes, streaked with russet; yellowishrusset; Reinette Reinette du &t Canada, Canada, rough-skinned, rough-skinned, yellowishgreen green with with brown spots, mid-season mid-season variety variety keeps keeps weil well if if it it brown spots, has grown at has been at a a high high altitude; altitude; Reinette Reinette du du Mans Mans and and been grown Reinette late varieties Reinette Clochard, Clochard,late varieties both cultivated in in the the Loire Loire both cultivated valley. vallev.

particular Calville in shape shape irregular in Calville, in particular Calville Blanc, Blanc, irregular Calville, in pronounced 'shoul'shoulprominent with more or minent sides sides and or less less pro and pronounced ders', gradually disappearing, has sorne some adherents adherents still has disappearing, but ders', is is gradually but still on These different its very very delicate delicate Bavour. flavour. These different on account account of of its from pp lied from varieties well su supplied apples keep keep the the market market weil varieties of of apples production is September is important important French production May. French to April April or or May. September to qualitatively, and both quantitatively and is complemented complemented and qualitatively, and is both quantitatively by Italy and the Holland. During During the imported from from Italy and Holland. apples irnported by apples (the golden golden varieties season her excess excess (the varieties France exports exports her season France especially) also Imports are and Great Great Britain. Britain. Imports are also to Germany Germany and especially) to received from hemisphere in in April, April, May May and and from the the southern southern hemisphere June, French apples apples are are exhausted. exhausted. June, when when stocks stocks of of French The grape, is is one like the choicest dessert dessert our choicest The apple, apple, like the grape, one of of our fruits. It is is rich rich in in assimilable assimilable mineraIs minerals -- calcium, calcium, copper, copper, fruits. It iron, potassium -- and contains Vitamins Vitamins B B and contains magnesium and and potassium iron, magnesium preparation of and of are used in the the preparation Apples are and C, and tannin. tannin. Apples used in C, and numerous preserves, etc., in the manusweet dishes, dishes, preserves, etc., and and in the manunumerous sweet facture pastries and They and apple apple sugar sugar in in confectionery. confectionery. They facture of of pastries are give cider, pressed and cider, from from and used in the the alembic alembic to to give are also also pressed used in which Calvados. which is is derived derived Calvados. Baked pastry or DE normand. RABOTTES RABoTTES DE Bakd apples apples in in pastry or douiJIon douillon normand. poMMEs OU POMMES DOUILLoN NORMAND NoRMAND -- Choose big sound sound baking baking ou DOUILLON Choose big apples part containing apples and and core core them, containing them, to to remove remove the central part the central prethe pips. Make middle, to a circular circular incision incision round round the the rniddle, to preMake a the pips.

Baked pastry Baked apples apples in in pastry

40 40

APPLE APPLE
vent vent their their bursting. bursting. Fill Fill the the middle, middle, hollowed hollowed out out by by the the corer, corer, with with butter butter kneaded kneaded with wilh sugar sugar (and (and with wilh a a pinch pinch of of cinnamon, cinnamon, if if desired). desired).
Enclose Enclose eachapple each apple in in apiec,eof a piece ofLiningpaste(w Lining pas/e (see DOUGH), DOUGH), rolled rolled out oUi not nol too 100 thick. Ihick. Put Put a a little little circlet circlet of of paste paste (cut (eut out out with with a a fluted-edged fluted-edgcd cutter) culler) on on top top of of each each apple. apple. Brush Brush with with beaten egg egg and and score score the the outside oUlside of of the the apples apples lightly lightly with with a a beaten

knife. knife. Bake Bake in a a moderate moderate oven oyen from from 25 25 to to 30 30 minutes. minutes. Serve Serve piping piping hot. hot. Note. NOie. The apples apples can be be peeled pecled before before being being put put into into pastry. paslry. They can also be be cooked cooked first first as for Apples Apples bonne bonne femme (see below). below). In ln that that case case the the baking baking will will only only take take femme 15 15 minutes. minutes. Lining Lining paste paste can be be replaced replaced by by left-over left-over pieces pieces of of puff puff pastry. pastry. Apptes POMMES BoNNE BONNE FEMME FEMME - Make Make a light light Apples bonne bonne femme. femme. PoMMEs circular round the the middle middle of of some sorne baking baking apples, apples, and circular incision incision round core them. them. Put them them in a buttered buttered ovenproof ovenproof dish. Fill Fill the middle middle of of each apple with with a little butter butter mixed with with fine castor castor sugar. sugar. water into the Pour a few tablespoons tablespoons of ofwater the dish, bake bake gently gently in in the the oven oyen and serve in the same dish. dish. Apples Apples Bourdaloue. Bourdaloue. PoMMEs POMMES BouRDALoue BOURDALOUE - Poach apples, apples, as described in whole, who le, halved or quartered, in in syrup, syrup, as in the recipe for Apricots Apricols Bourdaloue Bourdaloue (see (see APRICOT). APRICOT). Apple butter, butter, marmalade marmalade - See See JAM, JAM, Apple Apple ielly; jel/y; Apple MARMALADE, MARMALADE, Appil, Apple marmalade. marmalade. some BEURRE Buttered apples. PoMMEs POMMES AU BEURRE - Peel and core sorne water with minutes in boiling boiling water with baking apples and parboil for 2 minutes baking put them it. Drain the apples, put of lemon lemon juice juice added to il. a dash of fine sugar, dish, sprinkle with in a a buttered wilh fine in buttered ovenproof dish, and of water (or light syrup) and moisten with a few tablespoons tablespoons ofwater oven. cook gently in the oyen. cro0ton of bread a round croûton apple on a Serve each apple bread which has a few tablethe pan juices.with fried in in butter. been fried butter. Dilute the juices with a spoons of water, add a little butter butter and pour over the apples. Peel and and PoMMEs AU AU CHAMBERTIN cHAMBERTn Apptes au chambertin. POMMES Apples - Peel Chambertin in sweetened Chambertin Poach them in apples. Poach core several apples. pint, li (6 oz. per per pint, l| cups g. sugar per litre (6 300 g. allowing 300 wine, allowing in this this syrup. syrup. cool in per quart) quart) of wine. apples 10 to cool Leave the the apples wine. Leave per the syrup syrup by down the a limbale. timbale. Boil down a fruit dish or a Arrange in a pour over apples. over the the apples. half, leave until cold, then pour half, See CHARLOTTE. CHARLOTTE. charlotte Apple charlotte - See See COMPOTE. COMPOTE. compote Apple compote - See poMMEs CONDÉ the Prepare as as described described in the coNpf -- Prepare Apptes Condé. Cond6. POMMES Apples (see APRICOT). Condi (see recipe for for Apricols Apricots Condé recipe lu r. LA u CRhlE cniun AU PoMMEs À au kirsch. kirsch. POMMES Apples il i la la crème crbme au Apples vanilla-flavoured in a a vanilla-flavoured cook the the apples apples in Peel, core core and and cook rnscs -- Peel, KIRSCH and arrange arrange Drain, dry dry and in the the syrup. syrup. Drain, cool in syrup. Leave kave 10 to cool syrup. (or on At the the glass goblets goblets (or a fruit fruit dish). dish). At on a in glass individually in them individually them sweetened fresh cream, cream, sweetened half-whipped fresh moment top with half-whipped top with last moment last with kirsch. flavoured with with sugar sugar and and flavoured with can be be topped topped above, can prepared as as described described above, Apples, prepared Note.Apples, NOIe. anisette, such as as anisette, various liqueurs, such with various with cream cream ftavoured flavoured with with etc. liqueur, rum, rum, etc. raspberry liqueur, chartreuse, raspberry cassis, chartreuse, b€n€dictine, cassis, bénédictine, (apple pallcakes). pancakes). CRÊPES cnBprs apples (apple wift apples Cr6pes stuffed strffed wilb Crêpes poMM.Es - Prepare (q.v.) in in the the usual usual crdpes (q.v.) the crêpes AUx POMMES rounnfns AUX FOURRÉES - Prepare the (see saace (see Apple sauce with concenlrated concentrated Apple manner and and coat coat them them with manner below). below). Put them them on on aa in four. four. Put pancakes or them in fold them or fold Roll the the pancakes Roll quickly glaze quickly and glaze icing sugar sugar and with icing baking sheet, sheet, sprinkle sprinkle with baking napkin. a folded folded napkin. on a in the the oyen. oven. Serve Serve on in pannequets In in called pannequels are usually usually called Nole. Stuffed Stuffed crêpes cr)pes are NOIe. French. French. or halved or Poach halved PoMMEs -- Poach AUx POMMES Apple eroOte. cro0te. CROÛTE cno0rn AUX Apple prepare as as and prepare syrup, and quartered apples in vanilla-flavoured vanilla-flavoured syrup, apples in quartered (see APRICOT). APRICOT). for Apricol Apricot crOÛle crofite (see recipe for in the the recipe described described in poMMEs FIGARO gives the the Gilbert glves Phil€as Gilbert FIcARo -- Philéas Figaro. POM.\lES Apples Figaro. Apples

vanilla vanilla bean bean and and enough enough milk milk (previously (previously boiled) boiled) to to cover coyer them them completely. completely. Simmer Simmer gently gently for for 45 45 to to 50 50 minutes. minutes. 'Core 'Core and and peel peel 10 10 medium-sized medium-sized apples. apples. Cook Cook them them in in a a light light syrup, syrup, strongly strougly flavoured fiavoured with with vanilla; vanilla; it it is is enough enough for for the the pulp pulp just just to to be be softened. softened. 'Shred 'Shred about about 15 15 almonds almonds and and roast roast them them until until they they go go slightly slightly yellow yellow (not (not brown). brown). Add Add to to them them 50 50 g. g. (2 (2 o2.,3 oz., 3

following following recipe: recipe: 'Scald 'Scald 650 650 g. g. (l+ (l-l: lb.) lb.) chestnuts, chestnuts, remove remove the the shells shells and and the the inner inner grey grey skin, skin, put put them them into into a a pan pan with with a a

tablespoons) tablespoons) coarsely coarsely crumbled crumbled marrons marrons glacis. glacés. 'Make 'Make a a cream with wilh 150 150 g. g. (5 (5 oz., oz., 3 ~ cup) cup) castor castor sugar' sugar, 4 4 egg egg yolks, yolks, 11 tablespoons tablespoons (2 (2 tablespoons) tablespoons) flour flour and and 4 4 dl. dl. (} ct pint, pint, scant seant 2 2 cups) cups) vanilla-flavoured, vanilla-flavoured, boiled boiled milk. milk. After After boiling boiling this this cream cream for for I 1 minute, minute, remove remove from from the the heat heat and and incorporate incorpora te 2 2 tablespoons tablespoons (3 (3 tablespoons) tablespoons) butter. butter. Do Do not not allow allow to to boil boil again. again. Rub Rub the the chestnuts chestnul~ through through a a sieve, sieve, put put this this puree purée intoa into a saut6 sauté pan, pan, and and add add 125 125 g. g. (4 (4 oz-,l oz., 1 "up) cup) the castor sugar sugar and and l+ It dl. dl. (t (i pint, pint, J 1cup) cup) cream. cream. Stir Stir on on the fire tire for for 2 2 minutes, minutes, and and spread spread on on a a dish. dish. 'Place on this this chestnut chestnut puree, purée, pour pour 'Place the the well-drained well-drained apples apples on the the cream cream over over them, them, and and sprinkle sprinkle with with the the almond almond and and chestnut mixture.' mixture.' Apples Apples ffamb6 flambé au au kirsch kirsch (or (or other other liqueurs). liqueurs). PoMMES POMMES There are rrmrmfrs FLAMBÉES AU AU KIRscH KIRSCH - There are two two ways ways of of preparing preparing this Ihis dish. dish. a light, apples, peel 1. cooking apples, 1. Core cooking peel them them and and poach poach in in a light, timbale syrup. Drain vanilla-flavoured vanilla-flavoured syrup. Drain them, them, put put into into a a silver silver timbale glass dish. Sprinkle with or or an an ovenproof aven pro of china china or or glass dish. Sprinkle with kirsch, kirsch, just before serving. heat, set alight heat, and and set alighl just before serving. a buttered apples into and cored cored apples 2. Put 2. Put the the peeled peeled and into a buttered dish. dish. slowly in and bake and melted sugar and Sprinkle with Sprinkle with sugar melted butter, butter, and bake slowly in the oyen. oven. an ovenproof or an a silver timbale or silver timbale apples to Transfer the Transfer the apples to a ovenproof just alight just and set set alight glass dish, with kirsch, dish, sprinkle sprinkle with china or or glass china kirsch, and before serving. alight with with brandy, set alight also be be set can also Note. Apple Apple flambé flamb6 can NOIe. brandy, quetsche, rum, any other other rum, or or any Calvados, quetsche, raspberry eau-de-vie, Calvados, content. alcohol content. a high-degree high-degree alcohol liqueur with with a liqueur FLAN. TART, FLAN. See TART, Apple flan - See (sweet\ fritters. Dessert (sweel) FRITTERS, Dessert fritters See FRITTERS, Apple fritters Apple fril/ers. - See r'rup6Rlcl.e,ctss À A L'IMPÉRAPoMMEs GLACÉES glace Il I'imperatrice. POMMES Apples glacé i l'impératrice. Apples poached in well in syrup syrup and and weil apples, poached TRIcE - Using Using dessert dessert apples, TRICE d for Peaches Peaches à prepare as recipe for in the the redpe as described described in drained, prepare drained, (see PEACHES). PEACHES). I' impir at ice (see l'impératrice cut apples, eut Peel tart tart apples, gratin6. POMMES cnlrrx6ns - Peel PoMMES GRATINÉES Apple gratiné. Apple keeping sYruP, keeping vanilla-flavoured syrup, in vanilla-flavoured quarters, and cook in and cook into quarters, into and dry. dry. Drain and firm. Drain fairly firm. them fairly them sauce apple sauce layer of of apple a layer on a dish on in an an ovenproof ovenproof dish Arrange in Arrange (see CHARLOTTE, Apple prepared as CHARLOTTE, Apple as for for a a charlotte charlotte (see prepared sprinkle on top, top, sprinkle macaroons on crushed macaroons some crushed Scatter sorne charloue). Scatter charlolle). slow oyen. oven. in a a slow the top top in brown the and brown melted butter, butter, and little melted with a a little with quarters and and cut into into quarters also be be eut can also apples can this dish dish apples .l/ote. For For this NOie. syrup. poached in in syrup. being poached instead of of being in butter, butter, instead cooked in cooked

l|

-

-

JELLIESAND JELLlES. See JAMS JAMS AND Apple jelly - See ApplejeUy A LA LA PoMMEs À AUx POMMES MoussE AUX la Chantilly. Chantilly. MOUSSE d la mousse Il Apple mousse Apple vanilla-flavoured thick, vanilla-flavoured fine, thick, a very very fine, Prepare a cHANTILLv -- Prepare CHANTILLY it on ice, (see below). and whisk whisk il on ice, sauce and Cool the the sauce Apple sauce sauce (see below). Cool Apple sure cream, making making sure thick cream, fresh thick adding to to it it a a few few tablespoons tablespoons fresh adding glass into glass its consistency. Pour into lose its consistency. Pour not lose mixture does does not that the the mixture that piling it in a a dome. dome. it up up in goblets or fruit dish, dish, piling or a a fruit goblets stiff. whisked stiff. cream, whisked whipped cream, with vanilla-ftavoured vanilla-flavoured whipped Top with Top lux rounnfn AUX oMsl-errr FOURRÉE normande. OMELETIE i la la normande. Apple omelette omelette à Apple poMMEs DITE in the the Make the the omelette omelette in A LA LA NORMANDE NoRMANon -- Make otrn À POMMES Just before before sugar. Just with sugar. sweetened with eggs sweetened manner, using using eggs usual manner, usual sauce Apple sauce concentrated Apple with concentrated omelette wilh filI the the omelette folding, fill folding, in peeled, diced, cooked in diced, cooked (see bdow) apples, peeled, with tart taft apples, or with below) or (sec or with with apple sauce, sauce, or with aa tittle little apple mixed with and mixed and sugar, sugar, and butter and butter cream. fresh cream. thick fresh thick

4l 41

APPLE-CORER APPLE-CO RER
Arrange the the omelette omelette on on a a long long dish. dish. Sprinkle Sprinkle with with sugar sugar Arrange glaze with andglaze glazing iron with a aglazing iron or or with with aasalamander. salamander. and poMMES- Tbis pectin. JUS juice, which Apple pectin. rus DE DE POMMES which has has aa Apple - This juice, strongly viscous viscous consistency, consistency, is is used preparing Apple used for for preparing Appte strongly jelly (see (see JAMS JAMS AND AND JELLIES). JELLIES). je/ly jellies made It is is also preparing many also used used for for preparing many other other jellies made of of It fruit with with too too higb high a a water water content; content; without without su such addition an addition fruit ch an jellies these jellies would would not not have have the the desired desired consistency, consistency, and and these would run run the the risk risk of fermenting. of ferrnenting. would juice does Added in proportions, apple in the the rigbt right proportions, apple juice does not not alter alter Added the flavour flavour of of other other fruit. fruit. the To obtain obtain about (4| pints, juice, about 21 litres (4!pints, 51 2] litres pints) apple 5] pints) apple juice, To cut 36 36 sound sound apples quarters, without apples in in quarters, peeling or without peeling or coring coring cut peel and them, as as both both the the peel provide a pips provide and the great deal the pips agreat deal of of them, mucilaginous matter. matter. Put Put them them in pan with in a a copper copper pan with 2 2 litres litres mucilaginous (3| pints, pints, 41 pints) water. 4{ pints) paniioseiy water. Seal (hermetically, Seal the the pan (31 closely (hermetically, possible) and if possible) and cook cook on (not too on sustained sustained heat heat (not too brisk) brisk) until until if quarters become the apple apple quarters become soft soft enough enough to 'give' easily to 'give' easily when when tbe pressed with with a a finger. finger. pressed Pour the the fruit fruit into into a a muslin muslin c10th cloth fixed fixed over over a a bowl bowl and and Pour juice will leave for for sorne some time; time; the the juice will drip drip througb. through. Do press Do not not press leave juice can fruit itself in the fruit in order order to to hurry process. The hurry the the process. The juice can be be tbe used as as indicated in in various various recipes. recipes. used The residue, residue, i.e., i.e., the apple apple pulp left behind, behind, can can be be used used for for The preparing Apple (se,e below) sauce (see paste, and Apple sauce below) or or paste, and for for various various preparing sweet flans, flans. loaves loaves and and soufflés. souffi6s. sweet pie Apple pie See PIE. Apple - See pudding Apple pudding See PUDDING. PUDDING. Apple - See poMrrrrs GRATINÉES Apples witb with rice. rice. POMMES cn.lrrufrs AU AU RIZ Rrz -- Prepare Apples (4 oz., ig. (4 125 g. (see RICE). cup) rice rice as as for for Dessert rice rice (see RICE). Put Put 125 ! cup) it into into an an ovenproof ovenproof dish dish in in layers, layers, alternating g. alternating with with 225 225 g. it (8 oz.) oz.) apples, apples, sliced sliced and and cooked cooked in in butter. butter. Smooth Smooth the (8 of the top rice layer, layer, and coyer quarters, cover with 10 l0 apple quarters, surface of in butter. butter. Sprinkle Sprinkle with with crusbed crushed macaroons and and a a cooked in tablespoon ofmelted of melted butter, and brown the top. Serve Serve in in the the same dish, with kirsch-fla kirsch-flavoured SAUCE), sa me dish, voured lpricot Apricol sauce (see SA UCE), separately. served separa tely. poMMEs MERINGUÉES Apples with rice rice and and meringue. meringue. POMMES MsnNcu6ns AU lu Apples with Rlz apple quarters in in vanilla-flavoured vanilla-flavoured syrup, syrup, or RIZ - Poach apple cook them in butter. Proceed described for Apricols Apricots wilh with Proceed as described rice and meringue APRICOT). meringue (see APRICOT). poMnaes À Apple la normande. normande. BoRDURE i, LA rA, Apple dng ring i à la BORDURE oe DE POMMES NoRMANDE NORMANDE - Peel, Peel, core and halve balve the apples, and cook them in vanilla-flavoured cool in in the syrup, then vanilla-flavoured syrup. Leave to cool drain on a flat fiat sieve until they are dry. Prepare CUSTARD, Vanilla euslard), crème moulie moulée (see (see CUST ARD, Vani//a Prepare a crime custard), flavouring flavouring with I 1 to to 2 tablespoons tablespoons Calvados Calvados (applejack), and cook it bain-marie (q.v.) in a plain ring mould. mould. When it it rn in a bain-marue is is cold, turn tum out the mould onto a dish. Fill the middle with the dry apple halves, piling piling them up into a dome. Decorate with with firmly firmly whipped whipped cream cream piped piped through through a a forcing-bag forcing-bag with a fluted nozzle. Serve with Calvados-flavoured Apricol Calvados-flavoured Apricot sauce (see SAUCE). SAUCE). sauce (see Apple ring Brillat-Savarin. BoRDURE BORDURE DE poMMES POMMES BRTLLATBRILLATSAVARIN SAVARIN - Fill Fill a savarin savarin (q.v.), (q.v.), steeped steeped in in syrup syrup and flavoured flavoured with witb rum, rum, with stewed apples which whicb have been mixed with rum-flavoured rum-fiavoured confectioner's confectioner's custard custard (see (see CREAMS, CREAMS, French French pastry paslry cream). cream). Poach Poach apple halves halves in vanilla-flavoured vanilla-fiavoured syrup, drain drain well, weil, and and coat coat with with reduced reduced apricot apricot pulp. pulp. Place Place these these on top top of of the savarin fresh walnuts, savarin and decorate decorate with with halves ha Ives of offresh walnuts, crystallised crystallised cherries of angelica. angelica. Serve Serve with with rum-flavoured rum-flavoured cherries and and lozenges lozenges of custard. custard. Apple RISSOLES DE DE poMMEs POMMES - Roll Roll out a piece piece of Apple rissoles. rissoles. Rrssolrs Puff Puff pastry paslry (see (see DOUGH) DOUGH) and and cut into little little circles circJes 8 to to 10 10 cm. cm. (3 (3 to to 4 4 inches) inches) in in diameter. diameter. Put Put a a tablespoon tablespoon of of highly highly concentrated Apple sauce sauce (see (see below), below), flavoured flavoured with with kirsch kirsch concentrated Apple (or (or any any other other liqueur), liqueur), in in the the middle middle of of each each circle. Fold the the pastry to toenclose enclose tbe thefilling filling completely, completely, and andseal sealthe pastry theedges, edges, moistening tbem with water. them with water. moistening Justbefore before serving, serving, fry fry in in smoking-hot smoking-hot deep deepfat. Just fat. Drain Drain the rissoles rissoles and and arrange arrange them them on folded napkins. the on folded napkins. Serve Serve kirsch-flavoured Apricot (seeSAUCE). Apricot sauce sauce separately separately (see kirsch-flavoured SAUCE). (or other Apple (or other fruit) fruit) rissoles rissoles can prepared using canalso also be be prepared Apple using paste, or lining paste, or ordinary ordinary brioche brioche dough, dough, and and can Iining can be be made made in various various shapes. shapes. in poMMEs - Cook Apple sauce. sauce. MARMELADE MARMELADEDE DEPOMMES quartered Apple - Cook quartered apples in inaalittle little water water until until soft. soft. Pass Passthrough through aastrainer. apples strainer. Add Add pinch of of salt salt and and enough enoughsugar sugar to aa pinch to sweeten. sweeten. Boil Boildown down until until juice improves thick. A A squeeze squeezeof of lemon lemon juice thick. improves the thefiavour. flavour. poMMES - Prepare Apple soufflé. soufr6. SOUFFLÉ souFFLf AUX Atrx POMMES Apple asdescribed described - Prepare as in the the recipe recipe for for fruit fruit soufflés, pulp and in souffi6s, using apple pulp using apple and cream. cream. (See SOUFFLÉS, SOUFFLES, Sweet Sweet souffiés.) (See souffiis.)

APPLE-CORER. VIDE-POMMES vmn-poMMEs -- Tube-shaped APPLE-CORER. Tube-shaped implement implement for taking taking the the cores cores out out of for of apples. apples. APPRET -- In In French French cookery APPR};T cookery this this word word means means aa finished finished preparation. culinary preparation. culinary

APRICOT. ABRICOT ABRrcor -- Fruit APRICOT. Fruit of apricot tree, of the the apricot tree, brought brought from Armenia Armenia into into Italy from Italy but but not not widely widely k.nown known in in Europe Europe until the until the fifteentb fifteenth century. century. justly famous The musk musk apricot, The apricot, justly famous for for its its succulent succulent flesh, flesh, is found found in in the the south south of is of France, France, Algeria Algeria and and Spain. Spain. In Auvergne, Auvergne, another another much In much prized prized variety variety of of apricot apricot is is cultivated for for tbe quality of the high high quality cultivated jam which produced from which is is produced ofjam from it. it. Among the the best varieties of Among of apricot best varieties apricot is is clingstone, clingstone, a a species species of apricot apricot with with white white flesh of flesh wbich which adheres adheres to to the the stone. It has has stone. It a somewhat somewhat tart a tart flavour. flavour. Peach Peach apricot, apricot, a a choice choice fruit, fruit, is is much sought sought after after for much for the the delicacy delicacy of of its its flesh; flesh; it it is is fragrant, fragrant, juicy and and sweet. juicy sweet. Apricots are Apricots are one one of of the pdtisserie. most used fruits most the fruits used in in pâtisserie. They are are used Tbey in a used in a number number of preparations, including of preparations, including sweet sweet courses and and confectionery. courses confectionery. They They also also make make excellent excellent tarts, tarts, as as well as weIl as delicious compotes compotes and and jellies. Compotes can can be be made made from green preserved preserved apricots, from green apricots, which peeled before being which should should be be peeled being bottled.
Varieties of apricots apricots (Ptpiniire G (Pépinière G De/bard) Delbard) The early Boulbon Boulbon apricot

apncots Luizet apricots Luizet

Nancy peach peach apricot apricot Nancy

42 42

APRICOT APRICOT
Apricots Apncots iil I'ancienne. l'ancielllle. ABRIcors ABRICOTS A À t'lNctBNNs L'ANCIENNE - Halve Halve large large apricots, apricots, remove rem ove the the stones, stones, and and poach poach in in vanillavanillaflavoured of sponge sponge cake cake soaked soaked l'lavoured syrup. Arrange Arrange on on a a layer layer of in and coated coated with with a layer layer of of apple apple sauce. sauce. Sprinkle Sprinkle with with in rum rum and chopped in the the chopped almonds, almonds, sugar and and a a little little melted melted butter. butter. Put Put in oven oyen to to set. Serve Serve with apricot apricot jam jam diluted in in a little lillle water, water, strained strained and and laced !aced with with rum. r\lm. Apricot Apncor barquettes barquettes - See BARQUETTES. BARQUEITES. Apricot Apricot bombe. bombe. BoMBE BOMBE ABRIcoTINE ABRICOTll\.'E - Line Line a mould mould with with chocolate ice cream. Fill fil! with with Mousse Mousse (bombe\ (bombe) mixture (see (see chocolate ice ICE ICE CREAMS CREAMS AND AND ICES), fCES), flavoured flavoured with with apricot brandy brandy purée. or apricot pur€e. Apricot Apricot bouchdes. bouchées. soucH6Es BOUCHÉES i À L'.nnnlcot L'ABRICOT - These cakes can be made made with with either Genoese Genoese or sponge batter, batter, and are can be filled and coated coated with with apricot apricot jam. jam. Ingredients.250 Ingrediems. 250 g. (9 (9 oz.,generous OZ., generous cup) cup) fine fine sugar, sugar, 8 8 whole whole eggs, eggs, 200 g. (7 oz.,l| OZ., li cups) sieved flour, 200 g. (7 (7 oz., I ~ cup plus 2 2 tablespoons) tablespoons) best best butter, a a small glass of kirsch or rum. Method. Melhod. Beat Beat the sugar sugar and the the eggs in a copper bowl on a low heat, or or over over hot water. water. When the mixture mixture becomes pale, pale, light and frothy, blend in carefully carefully the sieved flour and the melted butter (to (to which which the Ihe chosen chosen flavouring flavouriog has has been melted butter added). added). Pour Pour the mixture mixture into into shallow shallow round round moulds (cake (cake or muffin tins) filling filliug up to three-quarters. Cook for about 20 cool. When minutes in a slow oven. oyen. Turn out and allow a/1ow to ta cool. a thin sharp quite bouchée in half with a sha rp knife, knife, qui te cold, eut cut each bouchde kirsch-flavoured ta avoid crumbling crumbling the sponge. Spread with kirsch-ftavoured to bouchies together the bouchées sandwich the jam, then then sandwich together again. apricot jam, jam and all and coat the sides ail Brush with concentrated apricot jam round with chopped roasted almonds. almonds. Decorate Decorate the the tops glaal cherry. a glacé with half a Cook 16 I. ABRICOTS mntcors BoLIRDALoTJE Bourdaloue l. BOURDALOUE Apricots Bourdalure - Cook Remove, vanilla-flavoured syrup. Remove, light vanilla-flavoured halves in in a light apricot halves two-thirds a shallow ovenproof dish two-Ihirds in a drain and and arrange in 2 egg in milk milk and and bound with semolina cooked in filled filled wilh bound with with 2 semolira pudding). SEMOLINA, English semo/ina pudding). yolks (see SEMOLlNA, sprinkle Coyer Cover the apricots with a light layer of semolina, sprînkle of a teaspoon teaspoon of and a wÎlh with the crumbs of 2 crushed macaroons and oven for a few minutes fine powdered sugar. Put in a very hot aven to glaze the top. to jam (apricot jam sauce (apricot and kirsch kirsch sauce with an apricot and Serve wilh an apricot which the the apricots apricots were in which syrup in with the the syrup down with thinned thinned down a tablespoon of kirsch). and laced with a cooked, strained and BouRDALour -- Cook Cook II. ABRICOTS lnnlcors BOURDALOUE Apricots Bourdaloue Bourdaloue ll. on a a layer of of in syrup, halve them, and place on apricots lightly in in an an ovenproof ovenproof 1-1'I7Y10',nt7Y1P cream cream (see FRANGIPANE) in Frangipane flan shell. shell. dish or or on on a a flan dish and butter, and and melted melted butter, macaroons and with crushed crushed macaroons Sprinkle with Sprinkle and kirsch sauce sauce as as glaze in an apricot apricot and Serve with an in the the oyen. oven. Serve glaze above. above.
(apricot comftts). ABRIcors comfits). ABRICOTS apricob (apricot or crystallised crystallised aprlcots Candied Candied or size. of unifonn uniform size. firm white apricots, apricots, of very firm Choose very - Choose the stalk. stalk. end to to the at the the opposite end a ligbt light incision at Make a full of cold of cold a ume, time, in a copper pan full few at at a Put them. them, a a few Put water, are ""'''''M.I",t,,..hl completely covered. Place the pan water, so so Ihat that they they are the surface, surface, rise to to the as the apricots apricots rise low l'lame. As saon soon as a low flame. As over over a perforated spoon and feel feel spoon and with a a perforated the water with take them them out out of of the take this is is the the softened; this thoroughly softened; see if if they they are are thoroughly them la to see them operation. blanching operation. Ul"',"'w,WlI!', which water, which 12 hours hours in in cold cold watcr, for 12 apricots for Soak the apricots hours. should be be changed changed every every 2 2 hours. should water, to l.i lf cups water, sugar to I cup cup sugar syrup: 1 Prepare the the following following syrup: Prepare this SUGAR). Pour this 18" by a syrup gauge (see SUGAR). to 18° by a boiled boiled ta put have becn been put which have the drained apricots, which syrup over over the boiling boiling syrup high pan. Bring over a a high boil over Bring to to the the boil in the back in the copper copper pan. back flame. Rame.
coNFITs CONFITS 43 43

Decant Decant the the apricots apricots and and syrup syrup into into an an earthenware earthenware bowl bowl and and leave leave overnight. overnight. Next drain the the apricots apricots and and boil bail the the syrup syrup (it (it should should Next day, day, drain not be above above l2o 12~ on on the the syrup syrup gauge). Add Add + t cup sugar, and and not be bring ISO on on the the syrup gauge. When it is boiling, add add bring up up to to 18' the the apricots, apricots, bring bring again again to to the boil, and return to the earthenware is called called 'grving 'giving a a dressing'.) dressing'.) ware bowl. bowL (This (This operation is Continue to give give a a dressing dressing in in this this manner manner every every other other day. day. Continue to When by 6' 6c each each time. time. Add Add sugar sugar When boiling, boiling, bring bring the the syrup up up by and and boil boil down down when when there there is too too much much sYruP, syrup, which which must, must, however, however, completely completely cover caver the the fruit fruit each each time. time. When it comes up up to to 30' 30~ (average (average syrup syrup density) - that that is, is, When it after after the tbe third third dressing dressing - do do not not bring bring it il up up by more more than than 4o, 4° and and give give the the dressings dressîngs only only every 3 days. Proceed in in this manner 36° (moderately (moderately thick). thick). manner until uoti! the syrup reaches 36' Stone the apricots by by inserting inserting a a copper copper needle needle at at the the stalk end and pushing the the stone stone towards towards the the incision incision made made at at the the beginning of the operation. operation. Some Sorne of of the the apricots may may not not look as good as damaged as the rest, rest, perhaps perhaps by being slightly damaged during the stoning Cut these these into into small pieces pieces and and stoning process. process. Cut stuff them into the the rest of of the the apricots apricots to to keep them them in in a a round an earthenware bowl. round shape. Lay them in in an Bring the syrup to the the boil, bail, check the degree degree (36'), (36'), and and pour pour it, iL, still boiling, over the apricots. Leave Leave to to cool. cool. Spoon Spoon the apricots apricots and syrup into into jars jars and cover with with greaseproof greaseproof paper, as you would would jam. jam. Keep the jars in in a a cool, dry dry place. place. apricot comfits in Candied apricots or or apricot in brandy. brandy, ABRIcors ABRICOTS apricots of Choose very small, firm coNFITs A CONf1TS À t'eAU-or-vIEL'EAU-DE-VlE - Choosc firm apricots of as described uniform unifonn size. sue. Blanch Blanch them them as described in in the the recipe recipe for for cold water candied apricots above. Soak them an hour, hour, candied them in in cold water for for an syrup, which drain, and put them them in syrup, which should be be brought up to to at this the syrup at 25'(see them in the Ihîs degree for 25° (see SUGAR). Leave them jars. Fill put them into and put 4 days, days, then drain, and inta preserving preserving jars. Fill with the following mixture: withthe (lf, pints, pints, I litre candied, 1 in which the Syrup in the fruit fruit was was candied, litre (Ii Syrup generous quart). (lf pints, pints, generous generous litre (li of 90", I tasteless, of90", Neutral l litre Neutral alcohol, tasteless, quart). quart). pod, or vanilla essence essence or lI teaspoon teaspoon vanilla of vallilla vanilla pad, Add a piece of per 2 litres 2 litres or kirsch kirsch per cup) rum or I dl. scant ~ or 1 dl. (6 tablespoons, tablespoons, scant or I cup) jars ($ pints, quarts) liquid. well. When When the the jars Mix weIl. pints, generous generous 2 liquid. Mix 2 quarts) or with with tops, or with their their special special tops, them with have been filled, filled, seal seal tbem cork lids. humiprotected both from heat heat and and humiboth from in a cool place, protected Keep în ready for for use. use. fruit will will he be ready the fruit At the end end of one month the dity. At (r, (petit fours). nnntcors (À fous). ABRICOTS brandy (petit in brandy apricots ln Caramel IIprÎCots Caramel preserved apricots apricots as as Drain the preserved cARAMET AU CARAMEL L'EAU-DE-vIE) AU L'EAU-DE-VIE) - Drain below). apricots (see below). for Cryszallised Crystallised apricols recipe for in the described in the recipe descrihed one by dip them, one by gum arabic, powdered gum arabic, then then dip in powdered Roll them them in Roll (see SUGAR). SUGAR). stage (see crack stage in sugar cooked cooked to to crack one, in one, marble slab, slab, and and slightly oiled on a a slightly oiled marble carefully on Space them them carefully Space paper cases. cases. quite dry, put them into flulcd fluted paper them into when they they are are quite when Fruit charJol/es. charlottes. Apricot charlotte charlotte Apricot - See CHARLOTTE, Fruit Halve the the apricots, apricots, coLBERT -- Halve ABRIcors COLBERT Colbert apricots. apricots. ABRICOTS Colbert light syrup fruit in in a a light the fruit and poach the remove the the stones, stones, and remove gently l'rom to (flavoured with from 8 to Simmer genlly with vanilla, if desired). Simmer (ftavoured fruit. Cool. ripeness of of the Cool. the fruit. on the the ripeness 10 rnjnutes, minutes, depending on 10 a fcw few in a a fruit fruit dish; dish; add add a apricots in To serve, serve, arrange arrange the apricots To pour it it over over the fruit. syrup and the fruit. the syrup and pour kirsch to to the drops of of kirsch drops To be peeled. Ta halved apricots can can be the halved For this compote the this compote For halves for a a few few dip the apricot halves the operation easier, dip make the operation easier, make by adding adding Flavour the compote compote by water. Flavour into boiling water. seconds into seconds from the the have been been extracted extracted from which have kernels which few of it a a few of the the kernels to it and blanched. blanched. apricot stones, stones, and See COMPOTE. COMPOTE. Apricot comlnte -- See (old recipe). ABRICOTS coNof -- Cook Cook ABRIcors CONDÉ Apricots Conde (old Apricots (q.v.) on a a savarin savarin (q.v.) arrange on in syrup. apricots in syrup. Drain, arrange halved apricots halved with kirsch. kirsch. flavoured with syrup flavoured apricot syrup and top with apricot top with and

APRICOT APRICOT
Garnish the middle of the middle savarin with of the the savarin with aamixture mixtureof g. of25 25g. Garnish (l oz., oz., i* cup) cup) cornmeal cornmeal or or maize maize ftour flourcooked cooked in inaa double double (1 (lI pints, boiler with with scant pints, 4 scant litre litre O-!4cups) cups)scalded, scalded, sweetened, sweetened, boiler

vanilla-flavoured milk, milk, until until thick. thick. Dilute Dilute the the mixture mixture with with vanilla-ftavoured cream. Make Make little little cork-shaped cork-shaped croquettes croquettes from from the the corn corn cream. meal or maize Hour or maize flour mixture, mixture, and place them and place round the them round the meal savarin. savarin. Apricots Condé Cond6I. ABRrcors CONnÉ coNpf -- Fill Fill three-quarters three-quarters of ofaa Apricots J. ABRICOTS (see RICE). shallow fireproof dish with with Dessert fireproof dish Dessert rice rice (see RICE). Cook Cook shallow apricot halves halves in in syrup, syrup, drain, drain, and and arrange arrange them themon on the the rice. rice. apricot glac€ cherries Decorate with with glacé cherries and and angelica angelica cut cut into into lozenges. lozenges. Decorate Heat thoroughly thoroughly in in the the oyen, oven, and and serve servewith with Apricot Apricot and and Heat (see SA kirsch sauce sauce (see SAUCE). kirsch UCE).

CREAMS). Sprinkle Sprinkle the apricots with theapricots withfine finesugar glaze sugarand andglaze CREAMS). inaavery veryhot hotoyen. oven. in Whenready ready to toserve, serve,add addto dishaafew tothe fewtablespoons thedish tablespoons of of When apricotsauce sauce laced lacedwith with kirsch. kirsch. apricot Apricob flambé flambe in inkirsch. kirsch. ABRICOTS ABRrcors FLAMBÉS rL,qMsEsAU AUKIRSCH Apricots KrRscH- Cook apricots apricots in insyrup, syrup, drain, drain, halve put22or halvethem, them, and andput Cook ot33 halves into into individual individual fireproof fireproof dishes. dishes. Add Addto toeach eachdish dish22 halves (3 tablespoons) tablespoons (3 tablespoons)of inwhich of the thesyrup syrupin tablespoons which the the apricots were were cooked, cooked, blended blendedwith withsorne somecornftour cornflour or apricots or point. arrowroot. Heat Heat to toboiling boiling point. arrowroot. pour into When ready ready to toserve, serve, pour intoeach When eachdish dishaateaspoon teaspoonof of kirsch and andset set it italight. alight. kirsch Apricotflan flan -- See SeeTA TART. R T. Apricot Apricotfritters fritters-- See FRITTERS. SeeFRITTERS. Apricot Apricotice icecream ICE CREAMS cream -- See See ICE Apricot AND ICES. ICES. CREAMS AND Apricots à l'imp6rahice 1. i l'impératrice Apricots I. ABRICOTS ,rnnrcors ÀA L'IMPÉRATRICE L'rMpERArRrcE- Three-quarters fill fill aa dessert dessert dish dishwith Three-quarters with Rice Rice àdl'impératrice l'impiratrice (see RICE). RICE). Set place, on Set in inaacold possible.Cook (see cold place, ice,if onice, if possible. Cookaa dozen apricots apricots in inaasugar sugar syrup dozen syrupftavoured flavoured with with vanilla, vanilla, drain drain well, halve halve the the apricots, apricots, and weil, andarrange arrangethem them in inaacircle circleon onthe the jelly (see rice. Top Top them them with with aacoating rice. coating of (seeJAMS of redcurrant redcurrant jelly JAMS jelly). Decorate AND JELLlES, JELLIES, Currant AND Curuant jelly). Decorate with with cherries cherriesand and lozenges of lozenges of angelica. angelica. Keep Keep on on ice iceuntil until ready ready to toserve, serve, then then put the the dish dish on put larger one onaalarger one covered covered with with aanapkin, napkin,and andsursurround with with crushed round crushed ice. ice.

Apricots Condé (Scarnati) Cond6 (Scarnali) Apricots

Apricob Condé lsnrcors CONDÉ Cond6 II. II. ABRICOTS coNo6 -- Arrange the Apricots the apricot apricot (see RICE). halves on a a ring of Dessert rice (see RICE). Stud Stud the apricots apricots

with halved, almonds, and and decorate glaci with halved, blanched almonds, decorate with with glacé cherries angelica. Heat through in cherries and lozenges of ange!ica. in the the oyen oven (see SAUCE). ond kirsch sauce (see and serve with Apricot Apricot and SAUCE). Apricot coupe See ICE CREAMS AND ICES. - See Apricot crofite. cno0rB AUX AUx ABRICOTS croûte. CROÛTE ABRrcors -- Arrange Arrange a a dozen dozen or so slices of savarin in a circle on a dish, s!ices of dish. as described in the the recipe recipe for Fruit crofites croûtes (see CROÛTES) CROUTES) replacing the pineapple slices by a layer of apricot jam spread by a spread evenly evenly on on the savarin slices. slices. Cook halved apricots in syrup, drain them, and and lay them on on the the savarin savarin slices. Decorate Decorate with with crystallised fruit. fruit. Heat in the the oven oyen and serve with with Apricot and kirsch sauce or Madeira sauce SA U CE). sauce (see SAUCE). Crystallised apricob apricots in brandy (petits fours). Crystallised (a forns). ABRICOTS mnrcors (À L'EAU-DE-vrr) L'EAU-DE-VIE) cnrsr.lrrrsfs CRISTALLISÉS - Use Use apricots which which have have been been preserved (see Candied Candied apricots in preserved in brandy (see in brandy). brandy). Lay Lay fiat sieve sieve and drain for 2 hours. hours. Melt a the apricots on a flat a little water. Put the apricots in a !ittle gum arabic in water. a bowl and pour the the gum arabic over them, them, a a little at time, gently at a a time, shaking the the bowl until until all ail the apricots apricots are coated. coated. shaking Remove them, them, one one at a time, with cooking cooking tongs, tongs, and roll Remove them in in crystallised sugar. sugar. Leave Leave for an hour on a them a wire cake cake sieve, and when when they they are quite dry arrange them in paper sieve, cases. cases. la diable. ABRrcors ABRICOTS A À r,c, LA otesr.r DIAELE - Spread Apricots ià la Apricots - Spread the ftat sides sides of of 8 8 large large macaroons macaroons with a layer of apricot jam flat ftavoured with with kirsch. kirsch. Place Place them on a fireproof fireproof dish dish in a a flavoured circle. circle. Cook the the same sa me number number of of apricots apricots in in syrup, drain, halve Cook and place place 2 2 halves halves on on each macaroon. macaroon. Spread Spread over over them, and them, them a a few few teaspoons teaspoons of Praline Praline castard custard crectm cream (see (see them
44 44

Apricots Apricots à d l'impératrice I'imp€ratrice Il II

Apricots 'IMPÉRA TRICE Apricots à I'imp6ratrice II. i l'impératrice II. ABRICOTS asnrcors À AL L'rMpfRATRrcE Prepare (see RICE) Prepare Rice à d l'impératrice l'impiratrice (see RICE) in in a a charlotte charlotte mould. mould. Turn it out into a shallow fruit bowl and arrange on it a Turn it out into a shallow fruit bowl and arrange on it a syrup and circle circle of halved apricots, of halved apricots, cooked cooked in· in'syrup and drained. drained. Decorate with glacé glac€ cherries cherries and lozenges of and lozenges of angelica. angelica. This This method of presentation may may be be applied applied to to ail all fruit fruit desserts desserts à d l'impératrice. I'impiratrice. The Id, tumed The rice rice can can also also be be served served in in a a savarin savarin mou mould, turned out onto onto a a dish, dish, the the centre centre filled filled with with cooked, cooked. drained drained half half apricots. jam Apricot Apricot jan See JAMS JAMS AND AND JELLIES. JELLIES. - See Apricot Apricot omelette.· omelette. OMELETTE oMELETTE AUX AUX ABRICOTS ABRrcors -- See See EGG, EGG, Omelette: Jam andfruit Omelette: Jarn andfruit omelette. omelette. Apricot oreillons. Apricot oreillons. OREILLONS D'ABRrcors oRETLLoNS D'ABRICOTS Halved apricots apricots - Halved are ca lied Apricot Apricot oreillons. called oreillons. They They are are bottled bottled in in water water or or a a sugar syrup. sugar syrup. Apricot pudding. pudding. POUDING Apricot eouorNc AUX Aux ABRICOTSABRrcors - See See PUDDING, PUDD I NG, Fruit pudding. Fruit

ARCHESTRATUS ARCHESTRATUS
in Danube, and and the the common common apron, apron, which which abounds abounds in in in the the Danube,
Only Only two two species species of of apron apron are are known, known, one one which which is is found found

the Rhône and and all ail its its tributaries. tributaries. the Rhdne The The apron apron rarely rarely exceeds exceeds 18 18 cm. cm. (7 (7 inches) inches) in in length. length. The The upper upper part part of of its its body body is is yellowish yellowish brown brown streaked streaked with with down obliquely darkish darkish bands bands or or stripes, stripes, which which extend extend obliquely down its its sides. is a a greyish greyish white, white, its its fins fins are are yellow yellow spotted spotted sides. Its Its belly belly is with with grey. grey. Its Its flesh flesh is is very very succulent succulent and and resembles resemb1es that that of of perch, perch, and and it it is is much much appreciated appreciated by by gastronomes. gastronomes. For For culinary culinary preparation preparation see see PERCH. PERCH.

Aprico! omelette omelette Apricot

ARAB ARAB COOKERY COOKERY - See See ALGERIA. ALGERIA . comshellfish comARAPEDE ARAPEDE - French French name name for for a a univalve univalve shellfish way as as same way monly found found in in Provence. Provence. It It is is prepared prepared in in the the same
cockles. cockles.

Apricot sauce sauce - See See SAUCE, Dessert Dessert sauces. sauces. Apricot Apricot sorff6 soufflé - See See SOUFFLES, SOUFFLÉS, Sweet souffiis. soufflés. Apricot Apricots preserved preserved in in syrup. syrup. coNsERvE CONSERVE D'ABRICors D'ABRICOTS AU Apricots Compote of SIROP - The The procedure procedure is is exactly the the same as for Compote asfor slRop Preserved fruit fruit in in comapricots in syrup (see COMPOTE, Preserved pote). pote). Apricots preserved au au naturel. naturel. coNsERvE CONSERVE D'AsnIcots D'ABRICOTS AU Apricots NATUREL - Pack the the apricots apricots into preserving jars jars without NATUREL adding either either water or sugar. Screw on the lids Iids and sterilise adding (194°F.). 90'C. (194'F.). for 15 to 20 minutes at 90°C. ABRICOTS AU RIz RIZ - Cook Apricots with rice. ABRIcors I cup rice in Cook 1 Apricots sweetened milk milk which has been been flavoured with vanilla. 2 cups sweetened 2 Place in a fruit dish. Cook halved a sugar syrup, halved apricots in a stone them, and arrange arrange on the bed bed of few rice. Add Add a a few of rice. on the stone them, and tablespoons of apricot sauce, if desired . Serve hot or cold. Serve hot desired. tablespoons Apricots with rice and meringue. ABRICOTS lu nsnNcuEs AU ABRIcors MERINGUÉS Apricots (see RIZ - Cook rice (see (4 oz., 1 as for g. (4 for Dessert rice rice as 125 g. cup) rice ntz f cup) - Cook 125 dish. an ovenproof ovenproof dish. on an a thick thick layer on RICE) and and arrange arrange it in a Cook a with flavoured with syrup flavoured a sugar syrup a dozen or so apricots in a vanilla, halve and in a a circle circle the halves in them. Arrange the and stone them. on the (q.v.), smoothing the sursursmoothing the rice. Coyer the rice. Cover with meringue (q.v.), face. edge. piped round round the the edge. meringue piped face. Decorate with meringue Sprinkle oven, in a a moderate moderate oyen, sugar and and bake bake in with icing icing sugar Sprinkle with raising to last moment moment to the last at the to very very hot hot at raising the the temperature to make the golden brown. decorate baked, decorate When baked, the meringue golden brown. When the redcurrant piped edge and redcurrant little apricot apricot and with a further with a 1ittle the piped edge further jelly, jelly, alternating served is usually usually served This dessert dessert is colours. This alternating the the colours. hot, be served served cold. cold. hot. but it it can can also also be Pineapple, pears and peaches, pears apples and apples cherries, peaches, Pineapple, bananas, bananas, cherries, can preshould preThe fruit prepared in fruit should same manner. manner. The in the the same can be be prepared viously in stewed in poached in syrup or or stewed in vanilla-flavoured vanilla-flavoured syrup viously be be poached butter; le, halved, slices, or or diced. diced. whole, halved, in in slices, used who it can butter; it can be be used Apricot TARTLET. TART, TARTLET. See TART, Apricot tarts tarb and ta;tleb -- See and ta.rtlets

(Franche-Comte) which which Jura (Franche-Comté) small town ARBOIS ARBOIS - A A small town in in the the Jura ros€ red and and rosé white, red esteemed white, has given its to highly highly esteemed its name to (See FRANCHE-COMTE.) wines. (See FRA NCHE-COMTÉ.) La Here is is La popular dessert. dessert' Here most popular a most Once a ARBOLADE ARBOLADE - Once pan and add and add in a a pan little butter butter in 'Melt a a little for it: it: 'Melt Varenne's recipe for juice, sugar pinch of salt. Cook Cook of salt. a pinch and a pear juice, sugar and yolks of of egg, egg, pear yolks pale a pale Colour a water. Colour flower water. with flower sweeten with then sweeten iogether, together, then green and and serve.' a apple, a cane apple, the cane of the Fruit of ARBousE -- Fruit ARBUTUS BERRY. ARBOUSE parts of of southern parts profusion in in the the southern in profusion found in is found shrub which is Canary the Canary and the Europe and southern Europe Mexico, southern America, Mexico, North America, North Islands. parts of southern of southern grown in some parts in some is grown which is shrub, which This shrub, Thls strawas strawknown as also known is also Languedoc, is in the the Languedoc, mainly in France, mainly France, its of its and colour colour of shape and to the the shape name to this name It owes owes this tree. It berry tree. its neither its has neither but has strawberry but the strawberry resembles the which resembles fruit, which fruit, flesh. its melting melting fiesh. nor its scent nor scent and wine and of wine suppliers main su the main are the Algeria and A Spain and Italy, 1 taly, Spain Igeria are ppliers of berry. arbutus berry. the arbutus from the distilled from spirits distilled spirits yields aa also yields berry also this berry fruit of of this the fruit spirits, the wine and and spirits, Besides wine Besides of reputation of has the the reputation which has d'arbouse, crime d called crème liqueur called 'arhouse, which liqueur digestion. helpful to to digestion. being helpful being and are sweet, sweet, and they are ripe; they when ripe; fleshy when very fleshy are very Tde berries beiries are The to be astrinbeastrinreputed to They are are reputed after-taste. They acid after-taste. faintly acid a faintly have a have gent and diuretic. and diuretic. gent

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arch.lts known as asarch. commonly known mollusc commonly A bivalve bivalve mollusc ARCA -- A Its ARCA the allthe found on onail are found colour, are rather aadark dark colour, which are are of of rather shells, which shells, France. of France. coasts coasts of wayas as' prepared in thesame sameway in the raw or or prepared eaten raw mollusc is iseaten This mollusc This mussels. mussels. of southernshores onthe situated on town,situated ARCACHON-This ARCACHON - This town, the southern shores of (aninlet isdear dear Biscay), is Bayof ofBiscay), theBay inlet of ofthe d'Arcachon (an Bassin d'Arcachon the Bassin the for ofoysters, oysters,for lovers of gastronomes and and lovers of gastronomes heartof the heart to to the (andfor for beds(and oysterbeds magnificent oyster for its itsmagnificent isfamous famous for Arcachon Arcachon is particular). gravettes in particular). 'tes in its itsgraVé of speciesof givenin toaaspecies Lorraine to inLorraine Namegiven ARCAI'TEITE ARCANETTE -- Name from andfrom tealand froman anordinary ordinary teal Itdiffers differs from local teal. teal.It small small local inits its foundin isfound andis migrate, notmigra garganey in doesnot inthat thatititdoes garganey te, and swift' butswift. shortbut Itsflight flightisisshort yearround. round.Its theyear native landail allthe native land species twospecies thetwo shooting,the likeduck duckshooting, islike Arcanette shootingis Arcanetteshooting being behaviour. ofsimilar similarbehaviour. beingof much andmuch excellentand ofteal tealisisexcellent speciesof thisspecies The Theflesh fleshof ofthis compared becompared canbe gastronomes. In Intaste tasteititcan bygastronomes. appreciated appreciated by preparation see DUCK. see For culinarypreparation duck. with . Forculinary DUCK. withthat thatofwild of wildduck
ARCA. ARCH SeeARCA ARCH- -See

APRJCOTING. in used in This .is the the term term used ,c,nntcorER -- Thisis APRICOTING. ABRICOTER pâtisserie in covering covering consists in which consists pdtisserie to operation which to define define the the operation a cake or which has has been been layer ofapricotjam of apricotjam which sweet with with a a thin thin layer acake or sweet boiled with liqueur, liqueur, flavoured with down to thick consistency, consistency,flavoured boileit down to aa thick and passed through fine strainer. strainer. and passed through aa fine

Apron Apron

APRON body elongated body rounded,elongated withaarounded, fish,with A small smallfish, APRON - - A covered the flattened,the headisisflattened, Itshead scales. Its rough scales. withvery veryrough covered with snout th , its placedat at finsare areplaced protrudes above mouth, itsdorsal dorsalfins itsmou aboveits snout protrudes aadistance large. gillslits arelarge. slitsare itsgill eachother, other,its distancefrom fromeach 45 45

ANGELICA' SeeANGELICA. ARcHANGfLIQUE - -See ARCHANGELICA. ARCHAI\GELICA. ARCHANGÉLIQUE
was s.c.,who who 350 poetof of about350 Greekpoet ARCHESTRATUS about B.e., was ARCHFSTRATUS- -Greek of authorof was the Hewas said.He gastronome,ilitisissaid. greatgastronome, the author aa a avery verygreat

(AL') ARCHIDUC (À L') ARCHIDUC
work in verse, Gasfronomy, of which only a few short fragwork in verse, Gaslrol1omy, of which only a rew short fragments have survived. ments have survived. Archestratus was born, it is believed, in Athens, although Archestratus was born, it is believed, in Athens, although say in Gela, an ancient town in southern Sicily; and he lome say sorne in Gela, an ancient town in southern Sicily, and he lived for long time in Syracuse. He was chiefly renowned lived for aalong time in Syracuse. He was chiefly renowned for the numerous voyages he he made made to to colleet collect notes notes on on for the numerous voyages culinary methods and the eating habits of different nations. culinary methods and the eating habits of different nations. Archestratus is sometimes referred to as a cook. From the Archestratus is sometimes referred to as a cook. From the writings of authors of the time it is apparent that he was more writings ofauthors of the time it is apparent that he was more of a gastronome and an able wdter, not a cookery technician. ofa gastronome and an a bic writer, not a cookery technician. He can be described as the Brillat-Savarin of his time. He can be described as the Brillat-Savarin of his time. The most reliable data we have concerning this poetThe most reliable data we have concerning this poetgastronome comes from Deipnosophistai or Specialists in gastronome cornes from Deipnosophistai or Specialisls in Dining by Athenaeus, a work translated into French from Dining by Athenaeus, a work translated into French from the Latin text by Michel de Marolles in 1680. There we find the Latin text by Michel de Marolles in 1680. There we find all that pertains to gastronomy, gastronomy, food production, cookery ail that pertains to food production, cookery and ceremonial banquets. and ceremonial banquets. Here is what Barth€lemy, inspired by Athenaeus, says of Here is what Barthélemy, inspired by Athenaeus, says of Archestratus: Archestrat us: 'This author was a friend of one of pericles' sons. He a friend of one of Perieles' sons. He 'This author was crossed many lands and seas to find out for himself what was crossed many lands and seas to find out for himself what was the best they had to offer. In his voyages he did not study the the hest they had to otfer. In his voyages he did not study the customs and manners of peoples, which it is useless to study customs and manners of peoples, which it is useless to study since it is impossible to change them, but went into the since it is impossible to change them, but went into the places where the delights of the table were manufactured, places wbere tbe delights of the table were manufactured, and had no dealings except with people who catered for and had no dealings except with people who eatcred for these pleasures. His poem is a shining treasure, and does not these pleasures. His poem is a shining treasure, and does not contain a single verse which is not a plea for gastronomy.' contain a single verse which is nol a plea for gastronomy.' ARCHIDUC (A L') - A term applying to a great number of ARCHIDUC (À V) - A lerm applying 10 a great number of preparations. Dishes d I'archiduc are usually seasoned with preparations. Dishes à l'archiduc are usually seasoned with paprika and blended with cream. (See EGGS; CHICKEN. paprika and blended with cream. (Sec EGGS; CHICKEN, Chicken sauti Ar chduke.') Chicken sauté Archduke.) purptsh-red (Orchif Dyer's moss). ARCHIL moss). ORSEILLE oRsETLLE ARCHIL (Orcbil, Dyer's - Purplish-red paste made from lichen, used as colouring matter. It is paste made [rom lichen, used as colouring matter. lt is mainly used for tinting pickled tongue - langue d l,icarlate. mainly used for tinting pickled tongue -langue à l'écarlate. ARDENNAISE (A L') - A term applying mostly to dishes of ARDENNAlSE (À V) - A term applying mostly to dishes of small birds cooked in a cocotte with juniper berries. (See small birds cooked in a cocolle with juniper berries. (See
someresemblance resemblance to peacock, and tothe thepeacock, andis isround found in inJava Java and and sorne Sumatra. Sumatra. The flesh flesh of ofargus pheasant is argus pheasant is very verydelicate. delicate. Ail All the the The preparation given methods of of preparation given for pheasant (q.v.) for pheasant (q.v.)are are also methods also applicable to pheasant. argus pheasant. toargus applicable

ARIDGE -- The The Ariège Aridge dépanemenl dipartemenl of of France, France, situated situated on on ARIÈGE theSpanish Spanish frontier frontier between between Haute-Garonne Haute-Garonne in inthe thewest westand and tbe Pyrdn€es-Orientales in in the the east, east, is is chiefly chiefly famous famous for for the the Pyrénées-Orientales mineral waters watersof of the the thermal thermal springs springsat at the the spas spas ofAx of Ax and and minerai Aulus. Aulus. Among Ariège Aridge culinary culinary specialities specialities Ihere there are good are many many good Among dishes; above above ail, all, those those ri rich in fat fat meat. meat. dishes; eh in Excellent Confits (se CONFIT) Confits d'oie d'oie (see CONFIT) are are made made in in this this Excellent region. The The Ariège Aridge geese geese have have a a very very fine fine flesh. flesh. Ariège pork Aridge pork region. is also also of quality, and of high high quality, and is is made good charculerie; made into into good charcuterie; is Aridge bams hams and and sausages sausages are are famous. famous. (See (See LANGUEDOC.) LANGUEDOC.) Ariege

ARIEGEOISE (À (A V) L') -= Name given to Name given to various various dishes dishes ARIÉGEOlSE almost ail all of of whieh which include include the the following following ingredients ingredients as as almost garnish: green green cabbage pickled pork, cabbage and pork, and and pickled and- sometimes sometimes gamish: kidney beans. (See CHI beans. (See CHICKEN Stffid chicken chicken à I'ariigeoise; d l'ariégeoise; kidney CKEN,, Stuffed MUTTON, Sluffed Stufed breasi breast of of mullon mutton ci d l'ariégeoi5e.) I'ariigeoise.) MUTTON,
(Harlequin) --The ARLEQUIN (Harlequin) (or rather was, arlequrn is is (or was, for for ARLEQUIN The arlequin it is is_almost past) an a thing thing of of tbe the past) an assortment assortment of of scraps of of it almost a food, bought bought from from bottle bottle washers or or washers-up washers-up in in restaufood, rants. rants. The scraps scraps were were made made to to look look palatable palatable and and sold The sold to to people of of small small means, means, who cou could, for a few sous, have a few have the the Id, for people illusion good of eating eating a a good meal. illusion of These bits pieces were also ealled bits and and pieees jewels. called bijoux These - jewels. Privat d'Anglemont d'Anglemont says: says: 'Arlequin is is so so called because Privat because these dishes are are composed composed of of bits pieces, thrown and pieces, thrown 10tothese dishes bils and gether in a haphazard parti-coloured gether in a haphazard fashion, just just like like the parti-eoloured tights of citizen of tights of the the citizen of Bergamo. A A bucket of pieces costs 3 francs; 3 francs; there there you you can can find find everything, everything, from from trufled truffied chicken and chicken and game game to to beef beef and cabbage.' cabbage.' ARLES ARLES - Many Many famous famous gastronomic gastronomie products produets originate originate in this neigbbourhood, situated in in the iouth south of this city city and and its its neighbourhood, France. France. Chief Chief among among them them is is the the celebrated saucisson d,Arles d'Arles (Arles (Arles sausage), sausage), but but the the region region also produces produces excellent oil. oil. (See PROVENCE.) (See PROVENCE.) ARLESIENNE ARLÉSIENNE (A (À L')L') - The The name na me applies applies to to dishes dishes some some of which which have have a a garnish garnish of of aubergines aubergines fried fried in in oil, oil, saut€ed sautéed tomatoes, tomatoes, and and onion onion rings rings dredged dredged in in flour flour and fried. fried. Another Another garnish garnish consists consists of of whole whole small small tomatoes tomatoes peeled peeled and eooked in in butter, bu 11er, and and very very [ender tender pickled pickled endive endive and cooked hearts hearts fried fried in in oil. oil. Yet small tomatoes Yet another anothergarnish garoish consists consists of ofsmall tomatoes stuffed stutfed with with pilaf pilaf and and browned browned on on top, top, large large olives olives stuffed stutfed with with chicken ehicken forcemeaf, forcemeat, and and new new potatoes. potatoes.

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THRUSH.) THRUSH.) The same name also applies to a method of preparing The same name also applies to a method of preparing crayfish (q.v.). crayfish (q.v.). ARDOISE (Slate) - Slang name given to the bills for meals ARDOISE (Stale) - Slang name given to the bills for meals taken in cheap restaurants; in days gone by, these bills were taken in cheap restaurants; in days gone by, these bills were written on a slate. written on asiate. ARENGA (Sugar paln) - A genus of palm tree. Its trunk ARENGA (Sugar palm) -- A genus of palm tree. Ils trunk contains abundant pith, which produces a large quantity of contains abundant pith, whieh produces a large quantity of starchy matter, obtained by making an incision on the starchy matter, obtained by making an incision on the trunk, from which sago (q.v.) prepared. tnmk, from which sago (q.v.) is is prepared. From From the the clusters, clusters, which which develop develop all ail the the year year round round between the lower leaves, there is a flow of sweet sap which, hetween the lower leaves, there is a tlow of swect sap which, by simple evaporation, by simple evaporation, furnishes furrushes a a kind kind of of suglr sugar of of a a brownish colour, and, by a process of fermentation, a palm brownish colour, and, by a pro cess of fermentation, a palm wine. wine. In England In England and and in in some sorne parts parts of of France, France, where where imported imported sago is to be had, fruit of the sugar palm, gathered green, sago is to be had, fruit of the sugar palm, gathered green, is candied, and is much valued as a stomach remedy. is eandied, and is much valued as a stomacb remedy.

ARGENTEUIL ARGENTEUIL - Asparagus Asparagus cultivated cultivated in in the the Argenteuil Argenteuil region, in Seine-et-Oise, enjoys a world-wide reputaiion. region, in Seine-et-Oise, enjoys a world-wide reputation. Nowadays, Argenteuil exports its 'cuttings, and spreads Nowadays, Argenteuil exports its 'cuttings' and spreads .Conthe renown the renown of of its its asparagus asparagus with wilh the the help help of of the the 'Confraternity ofthe Argenteuil asparagus'. (See ASpARAGUS.) fraternity of the Argenteuil asparagus'. (See ASPARAGUS.) Argenteuil wine once rivalled that of Suresnes. A few Argenteuil wine once rivalled that of Suresnes. A few casks of it are still produced annually. casks of it are still produced annually.
ARGUS PI{EASANT - Bird thus called because of the ARGUS PHEASANT Bird thus called because of the great number of 'eyes' on its magnificent plumage. It bears great number of 'eyes' on its magnificent plumage. It bears
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ARMADILLO. ARMADILLO. urou TATOU - Small Small toothless toothless mammal mammai covered eovered with with scales, sc.ales, found found in in South South America. America. It 1t is is about about the the size size of ofa a guinea-pig, guinea-pig, but bul more more highly highly esteemed esteemed as as meat. meat. ARMAGNAC ARMAGNAC - Region Region in in the the old old province province of of Gascony, Gascony, now now almost almost entirely entirely included included in in the the dipartement département of of Gers. Gers. The The Armagnac Armagnac brandies brandies are are famous. famous. Armagnac Armagnac (which (which is is even even shaped shaped like like a a vine vine leaf) Ieaf) is is divided divided into into three three zones: zones: lower lowcr Armagnac, Armagnac, upper upper Armagnac, Armagnac, and and T€nardze. Ténarèze. (See (See sPrRrTs.) SPIRITS.) ARMORICAIIYE ARMORICAlNE - Armorica Armorica (older (oider Aremorica) Aremorica) was was the the ancient ancient name namefor for aa region regionin in north-west north-west France Francecomprising comprising the thecoast coastof ofGaul, Gaul, between betweenthe the Seine Seineand and Loire Loirerivers. rivers. Armoricaine isthe thename namegiven givento toaavery verychoice choice Armoricainenowadays nowadaysis variety varielyof ofoysters oysters(q.v.). (q.v.).

ARROWROOT ARROWROOT
ARMORICAINE ARMORICAINE(A (ÀL') V)-- Corruption Corruptionby bycertain certainauthors authorsof of
the thename na meof ofdishes dishescalled calleditàI'amiricaine, l'américaine,particularly particularlylobster. lobster. this corruption, As ofthis corruption,the thedish, dish,so sotypically typicallyProvenqal, Provençal, Asaaresult resultof has hasbeen beenplaced placedunder underthe thepatronage patronageof oflegendary legendaryArmorica. Armorica. describes describes the the characteristic characteristic fragrance fragrance ofvarious of variousdishes. dishes. The The word wordaroma aromais isstronger strongerthan thaneither eitherodour odouror orsmell. smel!. The Theword word perfume, on the the other other hand, hand, is is more more specifically specifically reserved reserved for for perfume, on essences essences and and other other non-edible non-edible substances. substances. It It is is right right and and

AROMA. AROMA. ARoME AROME - Gastronomically Gastronomically speaking, speaking, this this word word

proper proper that that gastronomical gastronomical literature literature should should have have a a termiterminology nology of ofits its own. own. We We say, say, the the aroma aroma of ofthis this consomm€, consommé, the the aroma aroma of of tfus thisfumet (q.v.), the the aroma aroma of of this this coffee. coffee. fumel (q.v.),

AROMATIC AROMATIC PLANTS. PLANTS. PLANTES PLANTES ARoMATIQUES AROMATIQUES - A A great great number of aromatic aromatic plants, plants, with with either either a a bland bland or or pungent pungent number of aroma, aroma, are are used used as as flavourings flavourings in in cookery. cookery. The The following following are are among among the the herbs herbs most most commonly commonly used used in in the the kitchen: kitchen: parsley, parsley, chervil, chervil, tarragon, tarragon, rosemary, rosemary, thyme, thyme, bay bay leaf, leaf, wild wild thyme, thyme, sage, savoury; and and the the following following are are the the most most common common aromatics: aromatics: garlic, garlic, shallots, spring spring onions, onions, chives chives and and onions. onions.

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AROMATICS. AROMATICS. lnounrns AROMATES - Taken Taken in in its its general general sense, sense, this this out an an odour odour of of describes all ail substances substances which wbich give give out word describes varying varying degrees degrees of of sweetness. sweetness. The The greatest greatest number number of of aromatics is provided by plants of of hot hot countries, countries, notably notably aromatics concerned here with aromatics aromatics used used in in Arabia. We are only concerned cookery, pdtisserie pâtisserie and confectionery. confectionery. cookery, ancient practice, excesses of Without indulging in in the the excesses of ancient practice, when scents like rose water and benzoin were were used used on every every a disposal a cookery has possible occasion, present-day cookery has at its its disposai those great number of aromatics. The following are among those pepper' cinnacinnadill, betel pepper, as condiments: condiments: dill, widely used most most widely used as leaf, mace, mace, mustard' bay leaf, coriander, bay mon, cloyes, mustard, nutmeg, mon, cloves, coriander, for used mostly for pepper and pepper and thyme. Next come the aromatics used cumin, basil, cumin, anise, basil, anise, star anise, food: ambergris, ambergris, anise, flavouring food: etc. juniper, ginger, sage, etc. rosemary, sage, ginger, horseradish, horseradish, rosemary, fennel, juniper, for fresh' for used fresh, plants are are frequently frequently used aromatic plants Some aromatic Sorne exThe essence essence exparsley, etc. etc. The tarragon, parsley, chervil, tarragon, instance: instance: chervil, is and tangerines tangerines is lemons and peel of of oranges, oranges, lemons from the the peel tracted tracted from to the the in addition addition to and confectionery, confectionery, in Pdtisserie and also used. used. Pâtisserie also and chocolate and vanilla, tea, tea, chocolate use vanilla, also use mentioned, also aromatics aromatics mentioned, coffee. coffee. with are dealt dealt with onions are and onions shallots and onions, Garlic, spring spring on Garlic, ions, shallots well as as as weil order, as alphabetical order, in their their alphabetical entries in separate entries under under separate parsnip, which are which are and parsnip, celery and of carrot, carrot, celery roots of the aromatic aromatic roots the than aromatics. aromatics. vegetables than more vegetables really really more

Medical Medical opinion opmiOn concerning concerning the the use use of aromatics in tolerate it, cookery cookeryvaries. varies. Some Sornedoctors doctorsdenounce denounceit, it, others others tolerate it, of aromatics Formerly it. upon yei insist and and yet others others insist upon it. Formerly the the use use of aromatics has, in and and itrong strong seasoning seasoning was was abused. abused. Modern Modern cookery cookery has, in excesses. these with away done measure, large large measure, done away with these excesses. use of iromatherapia Aromatherapia (treatment (treatment for for maladies maladies by by the the use of simply plants) plants) is is now now being being successfully successfully practised, practised, often often simply (See CONDIincorporated incorporated in in the the daily daily diet' diet. (See SEASONING' SEASONING, CONDIMENTS.) MENTS.) To impart some aroma to a AROMATISE. AROMATISE. ARoMATIsER AROMATISER - To impart sorne aroma to a aromatised culinary preparation or ora a pastry. pastry. Pastries Pas tries are are also also aromatised culinary preparation with with liqueurs. liqueurs. plover. ARPBNTEUR ARPENTEUR - Common Common French Frencb name name for for ployer. aromatic various made of liqueur old An ARQUEBUSE ARQUEBUSE - An old liqueur made of various aromatic plants. plants. of eau Eau Eau d'arquebuse d'arquebuse - Also Also known known under under the the name name of eau or infusion by is obtained This beverage d'arquebusade. d'arquebusade. This beverage is obtained by infusion or lady's finger, maceration maceration of of vulnerary vulnerary plants plants (kidney (kidney vetch, vetch, lady's finger, wound-wort). wound-wort). ARRACACHA ARRACACHA or or ARRACACIAARRACACIA - Plant, Plant, native native of of ColumColumAmerica. bia, bia, which wbich grows grows in in the the Andes Andes and and in in North North America. is which produce flour a farinaceous, Its Its roots, roots, which which are are farinaceous, produce a flour which is cooked eaten eaten in in its its country country of of originorigin. The The roots roots can can also also be be cooked like like yams yams and and sweet sweet potatoes potatoes (q.v.). (q.v.). arraof the T[e The starch starch which which is is extracted extracted from from the the roots roots of the arraarrowroot. similar to is similar cacha cacha is to arrowroot. from distilled from given to a spirit spirit distilled Name given ARRACK. ARRACK. ARAcK ARACK - Name to a sugar and from either distilled is also Arrack rice. fermented fermented rice. Arrack is also distilled either from sugar and juice which seeps from the the juice or from ferment, or left to milk left coconut rnilk coconut to ferment, which seeps palm.In R€union coconut palm. the coconut made on on the incisions made through incisions In Réunion through parts the South South of most parts of the in most and in Madagascar and in Madagascar Island-, in Island, the cultivated, is cane sugar where sub-continent, African African sub-continent, where sugar cane is cultivated, the ferfrom ferdistilled from given to spirit distilled to a a spirit is also also given arrack is of arrack name of name juice squeezed out under a juice (sugar (sugar cane cane juice cane juice mented cane mented squeezed out un der a

of aromatics in

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distillation ofArmagnac Armagnac distillation leading centre Gers, Cellaratat Condom, Gers. Cellar Condom. aa leading centre or (French TouristOffice) Ofr.ce) Governrnent TouriSI (French Governmenl

press). press). obtained extracts obtained given to to starchy starchy extracts Name given ARROWROOT - Name ARROWROOT regions' tropical regions. plants of the tropical of the various plants of various roots of the roots from the from because the name originated originated because this name that this legend that a legend is a There is There the roots capable the from obtained sap the consideied Indians Indians considered the sap obtained from the roots capable name in Hence the the name arrows' Hence by arrows. caused by wounds caused healing wounds of healing of in arrowroot that arrowroot is, however, however, tbat fact is, The fact 'arrow-root'. The English, 'arrow-root'. English, flour-root, word for Indian American Indian word for flour-root, the American from the name from its name takes its takes araruta. araruta. Indian arrowroot arrowroot is the the West West Indian starches is these starches of these chief of The chief The plant from the plant because the called (Maranta arundinacea), thus ca arundinacea), thus (Maranta lied because from West Indies. in the the West produced originated originated in is produced flour is the flour which the which Indies. is also called West itis and it India and it into into India introduced it The English English introduced also called West The Indian salep. salep. Indian Madagascar. grows in in Madagascar. plant also also grows The plant The is imported into Europe andis edible and iseminently eminently edible Arrowroot is Arrowroot imported into Europe in is used used in starch is delicate starch very delicate This very quantities. This great quantities. in great in preparation in the well as gravies, as and soups thiclening thickening soups and gravies, as weil as in the preparation sweet dishes. numeroussweet puddings and andnumerous milk puddings blancmangei, milk ofblancmanges, of dishes. as a food valuedas isespecially especially valued arrowroot is Easilydigestible, digestible,arrowroot a food Easily aged. theaged. andthe invalids and young children, children, invalids for young for into Pour into i L'ARROWROOT t'nRRowRoor - - Pour LIAIsoN À liaison LIAISON ,Amonnoot liaison. Arrowroot (or other) stock, veal(or quart) boiling boiling veal generousquart) (lf pints, pints,generous litre(li 11litre other) stock, stock coldstock littlecold withaalittle wellblended blended with arrowroot,weil tablespoonarrowroot, 1Itablespoon strain. andstrain. boiland theboil tothe bringto Mix,bring water. Mix, orwater. or Mix t'.nRnowRoor - - Mix AL'ARROWROOT porridge. BOUILLIE BouILLIEÀ Arowroot porridge. Arrowroot cup) with33tablespoons tablespoonsCt (|cup) arrowrootwith cup)arrowroot 6cup) tablespoons(1 33tablespoons the Bringthe pint,2t 2|cups). cups).Bring dl.(l(l pint, from66d!. milk taken takenfrom cold co Id milk teaspoon either1Iteaspoon addingeither boil,adding theboil, tothe milkto ofthe themilk remainderof remainder ofthe the Poursorne someof sugar.Pour tablespoons)sugar. oz.,66tab.lespoons) or75 75g.g.(3 saltor Qoz., salt pan and cook tothe the returnto then arrowroot,th thearrowroot, hotrnilk milkonto ontothe en retum pan and cook hot

47 47

ARSENIC ARSENIC
gentlyfrom to10 l0minutes, stirringfrom timeto totime. time.Stock gently from 88to minutes, stirring from time Stock canbe beused usedinstead insteadof ofmilk. milk. can por.lDrNc À Arrowroot pudding. pudding. POUDING A L'ARROWROOT L'.e,nRownoor - _ See ArroWToot See PUDDING, Semolina Semo linapudding. pudding. PUDDING, ARSENIC - Anelement element which whichis isnormally normally present presentin inminute minute ARSENIC-An quantities in inthe thetissues tissues of of the thehuman human body (thyroid gland, body (thyroid gland, quantities gland, mammary marnmary gland, gland, head headand ind body body hair). thymus hair). lhymus gland, Certain vegetables vegetables (kohlrabi, (kohlrabi,turnips, turnips, certain certaincere cereils;, Certain aIs), sea sea fish,sea seasalt, salt,milk milk and and egg yolk contain eggyolk contiin sm quantitiej ofit, small fish, ail quantities of it, sufficient for for the the requirements requirements of of the theorganism. organism. sufficient ARTAGNAN (A LA D) Name garnish composed ofaagarnish composedof ARTAGNAN (À LA D') -- Name of of preparcd à cCpes prepared (see SAUCE), d la la béarnaise bCarnaise (see SAUCE), little littl; stuffed cèpes stuffed tomatoes and and cork-shaped cork-shaped potato potatocroquettes. croquettes. tomatoes garnish is This garnish is served served with with large large or pieces of or small small pieces This of meat meat poultry. and with with poultry. and
vinaigrette vinaigre t t e(see (seeHORS-D'ŒUVRE). HORS-D'GUVRE). Artichoke Artichoke hearts, hearts,cooked cooked and andchilIed, chilled, make make one oneof ofthe the best Id dishes. garnishesfor bestgarnishes forco cold dishes.They Theycan canbe bestuffed stuffedwith with various variousingredients. ingredients.They Theyare arealso alsoserved servedas asan anhors-d'œuvre. hors-d'euvre.
(Seealso (See also JERUSALEM JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE.) ARTICHOKE.)

Artichoke orescence Artichoke showing showing infl inflorescence a. a. Large Large green green from from Laon Laon b. b. Camus Camus from Brittany Brittany c. Artichoke Artichoke bud bud

ARTICHOKF. ARTICHOKE. anrIcuAur ARTICHAUT - Vegetable Vegetable derived derived from from the tbe cardoon, by scientific scientific methods. methods. cardoon, vastly vastly improved improved by This This plant plant has has been been cultivated cultivated in in France France since since the the beginbeginning of the the. sixteenth sixteenth century century and and is is mentioned mentioned by by Rabelais. Rabelais. ning of brought to to France France by by It originated originated in in Sicily, Sicily, and and was was brought Catherine of them them that that sh! she Catherine de de Medici, Medici, who who ate ate so so many many of 'cuyda 'cuyda crever' crever' ('almost ('almost burst'). burst'). (Journal (Journal of of p. P. de de I'Estoile) l'Estoile) The The principal principal regions regions of of French French production production are are in in the the west Anjou); the the south-east sou th-east (provence (Provence and and the the west (Brittany (Brittany and and Anjou); Garonne valley; valley; the the Paris Paris region; region; and and Hyères region); region); the the Garonne lVbres

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artichokes of Laon, Laon, the the camus camus of of Brittany, Brittany, the the violeiart! violet artiartichokes of choke choke of ofProvence, Provence, the the green green (or (or 'white') 'white') variety variety of ofthe the same same region, region, and and the the large large macau. macau. The The green green and and the the violet violet Provengal Provençal artichokes artichokes are are also also cultivated in North North Africa Africa and and exported exported to to France France at at the the cultivated in beginmng of the the season. season. The The bulk bulk of of French French production production beginning of takes ofMay May and and June. June. takes place placein in the themonths months of The is a a health-giving health-giving food, food, and and lends lends itself itselfto to The artichoke artichoke is numerous numerous delicious delicious dishes. dishes. When Whenit itis is young, young, and and therefore therefore very very tender, tender, it it is is eaten eaten raw, raw, dà la la croque-au-sel croque-au-selwhich which means means with 'nought but but a a grain grain of of salt', salt', d à Ia la poivrade, poivrade, and and d à la la with 'nought

Roussillon. The most most sought sought after after are are the the laige large green green Roussillon. The

WHOLE WHOLE ARTICHOKES. ARTICHOKES.ARCTICHAUTS lncrrcHAurs ENTIERS ENrrERs Artichokes prepare Artichokes barigoule. barigoule. ARTICHAUTS ARTTcHAUTs BARIGOULE BARrcouLE - - Prepare the the artichokes artichokes as as described described in in Whole Whole boi/ed boited artichokes artich;kes below. below. Fill Fill the theinsides insides with withaduxelles a duxelles (q.v.) (q.v.)mixture, mixture, adding adding to to it itaa quarter quarter of ofits itsvolume volume in infinely finely shredded shredded fat fat bacon, bacon, the thi same same amount am_ount of of chopped chopped lean lean ham, ham, and and sorne some chopped parsley. chopped parsley. Surround Surround the the artichokes artichokes with with rashers rashers or or strips strips of of fat fat bacon, bacon, and and braise braise them them as as described described in in the the recipe recipe for for Large Large braised braised artichokes artichokes stuffed (see below). stuffed au gras (see au gras below). Finish Finish as is described described in in that that recipe. recipe. Note. Note. A A variant variant of of this this recipe recipe consists consists of of cooking cooking the the stuffed stuffed artichokes artichokes in in oil oil with with aa little little white white wine. wine. In home home cookery, cookery, in in the the absence absence of of Demi-glace Demi-glace (see (see - In SA UCE), the SAUCE), the braising braising liquor liquor can can be be thickened thickened with Xneadea with Kneaded butter (see BUTTER). butter (see BUTTER). Whole lVhole boiled boild artichokes. artichokes. ARTICHAUTS ARTTcHAUTs ENTIERS ENrrERs BOUILLIS BourLL$ -Cut Cut off off the pull off the stalks, stalks, pull the hard off the hard outer outer leaves leaves and and trim trim them. them. Shorten Shorten them them evenly, evenly, cutting cutting off off the the tops tops to to twotwothirds thirds of of their their height. height. Wash, Wash, tie tie with with string string round round the the largest largest circumference, and and put them, them, bases bases downwards, downwards, into into a a saucesaucepan of pan of boiling boiling salted salted water. Cook, Cook, keeping keeping the the water water boiling, boiling, until until done; done; the the time time depends on on the the size size and and freshness freshness of of the the artichokes. artichokes. Drain, Drain, dry on ove the on a a cloth, cloth, rem remove string. Serve the string. Serve as as indicated indicated in in the the recipe chosen. The artichokes must must not not be be overcooked. overcooked. To To ensure ensure this, this, .give, under test test the bottom of the vegetable, vegetable, which which should should 'give' under very pressure when very light light pressure when cooked cooked sufficiently. sufficiently. If If the the artiartiin cold chokes are to be be served cold, put them them in cold water water as as soon soon as they are cooked. ARTICHAUTS Boiled artichokes with Boild with various cold cold sauces. sauces. ARTTcHAUTS BOUILLIS - Boil, Boil, cool and with one of the the following following BouILLrs and serve serve with one of sauces: Mayonnaise, Mayonnaise, Mustard, Mustard, Tartare, Vinaigrette (see (see sauces: Tartare, Vinaigrette SAUCE). sAUCE). To serve serve artichokes artichokes cold, cold, cook them, them, scoop scoop out out the the choke, choke, To and remove remove the leaves leaves which which surround surround it. it. Replace Replace them them in in the the and of the the choke. choke. Season Season these these leaves leaves cavity left by the removal of cavity of chopped chervil chervil and and parsley. parsley. with a pinch pinch of with ARTICHAUTS Boiled artichokes artichokes with with vrrious various hot hot sauces. sauces. ARTTcHAUTS Boitd BOUILLIS - Boil Boil as as described in in the the recipe recipe for for Whole Whole boiled boi/ed BouILLrs ar~ichokes, and and serve serve with with one one of of the the following following sauces: sauces: White, White, artichokes, (see SAUCE). SAUCE). Butter, Cream, Cream, Hollandaise, Hollandaise, Mousseline Mousseline (see Butter, Large braisod braised artichokes artichokes stufred stuffed au au gras gras (with (with meat). meat). cnos GROS Large ARTICHAUTS snArs6s BRAISÉS FARcIs FARCIS AU AU cRAS GRAS - pare Pare and and trim trim the the ARTTcHAUTS artichokes. Blanch Blanch for for 5 5 minutes minutes in in boiling boiling salted salted water. water. artichokes. or leave leave under under a a running running tap tap to to cool; cool; Plunge into into cold cold water water or Plunge drain and and remove rem ove the the choke. choke. drain Season, stuff stuff as as desired, desired, wrap wrap them them in in a a thin thin rasher, rasher, or or Season, offat fat bacon, bacon, and and tie tie with with string. string. Melt Melt some sorne butter butter in in a a slice, of slice, put in in finely finely shredded shredded bacon, bacon, onions onions and and carrots, carrots, sautépan, pan, put saut6 and place place the the artichokes artichokes on on this this foundation. foundation. Season Season and and add add and a bouquet bouquet garni garni (q.v.). (q.v.). a and a a small small quantity quantity of ofwhite white wine wine until until Simmerin in butter butter and Simmer isalmost almostcompletely completely boiled boileddown; down; then then add add a a few few theliquor liquor is the tablespoons of of veal veal stock stock and and cook cook in in a a moderate moderate oven oven tablespoons Gas Mark Mark 4), 4), with with the the lid lid on on the thepan pan for for 55 55 180°C. (350'F., (350°F., Gas 180"C. to 60 60 minutes. minutes. Baste Baste frequently frequently during during cooking. cooking. to Drainthe theartichokes, artichokes,remove rem ove string stringand and bacon, bacon,and andplace place Drain onaadish. dish. Strain Strainthe theliquor liquorin inwhich whichthey theywere were theartichokes artichokeson the cooked and and skim skim off off surplus surplus fat. fat. Stlain Strain again, again, add'Demiadd Demicooked (seeSAUCE), SAUCE),veal vealstock stockor orany anyother othersauce, sauce,according according glace(see glace

48 48

ARTICHOKE ARTICHOKE

to to the the recipe. recipe. Boil Boil down down the the liquor liquor and and pour pour over over the the artichokes. artichokes. Large Large braised braiscd artichokes artichokes stuffed stulfed au au maigre maigre (without (without meat). meat). GROS ARTICHAUTS ARTICHAUTS snalsfs BRAiSÉS FARCIS fARCIS AU AU MAIGRE MAIGRE - Proceed Proceed as as cRos described above, above, leaving leaving out out the the bacon bacon and and replacing replacing veal veal described stock by by vegetable vegetable stock. stock. stock braised artichokes. Ilrtichokes. pETITs PETITS ARTIcHAUTs ARTICHAUTS nnusfs BRAJSÉS Small braised These These are are served served as as a a garnish garnish and and as as a a vegetable. vegetable. Choose Choose very very young young small small artichokes; artichokes; pare pare them, them, trim trim offthe off the stalks stalks evenly and rub rub the the bottoms bottoms with with lemon; lemon; blanch blanch in boiling boiling water water to to and which which has has been been added added salt salt and vinegar. vinegar. Dip Dip in in cold water water to cool, and and drain. drain. Place Place them, them, bases bases downwards, downwards, in in a buttdred buttered cool, sauté pan, pan, or or heavy heavy frying frying pan, pan, on ona foundation ofvegetables, ofvegetables, a foundation saute as described described in the the recipe recipe for for Large Large braised braised artichokes. artichokes. Cook as low heat with the lid on for about l0 10 minutes, minutes, and over a low finish cooking cooking as described described above. above. finish artichokes, and and use use as as indicated. indicated. Strain the Drain the artichokes, braising liquor, liqllor, reduce, reduce, skim off surplus fat, and pour this this braising sauce over the artichokes. artichokes. sauce Note. NOie. Small braised artichokes artichokes can also also be prepared au (without meat) by following following the instructions given maigre (without braised artichokes artichokes au maigre. maigre. for large braised put the artichokes saut€ One can put artichokes into a buttered sa uré pan withenough to out blanching, blancJüng, provided provided one one works works quickly quickly enough out prevent their going black. Artichokes Clamart. ARTIcHAUTS ARTICHAUTS cLAMART CLAMART - Choose 12 Artichokes and put them in a artiehokes; trim trlm them and very small young artichokes; saute pan, or heavy frying pan, with plenty sauté plenty of butter. Add cups) shelled fresh garden garden peas peas and 2 Add 225 g. (8 oz., 2 cups) shredded lettuce hearts. shredded hearls. Season Season with salt and sugar. Moisten (scant l Cook with the lid on, ~ cup) water. Cook with 3 tablespoons (seant of a tablespoon of simmering simmering gently. At the last moment, add a butter. fresh butter. vegetable, being delicate and fragile, can be prepared This vegctable, being delicate saute pan, or in an earthenware bi-melal or aluminium sauté in a bi-metal same dish (to avoid or enamelware enamelware COCOlle, cocotte, and served in the same damage when transferring artichokes to a dish for table). transferring the arüchokes Artichokes Créey. ARTIcHAUTS CRÉCY cnfcv -- Proceed Proceed as Cr6cy. ARTICHAUTS Artichokes and lettuce deseribed described in the preceding recipe, replacing peas and by an an equal equal quantity of young peeled carrots. (Italian I l'infemo I'inferno (Hlllian Artichokes Artichokes Il I la la diable diable or or Careiofo Carciofo à of onnrn ARrrcHAUrs À A re LA DIABLE Ligiltly trim the tips of oookery). cookery). ARTICHAUTS - Lightly Remove the choke, very tender, tender, medium-sized artichokes. Remove very mixture ofbrcadof breadblanch and drain. Fill the artichokes with a mixture chopped garlic, capers and parsley, and season with crumbs, chopped sal t and pepper. salt pan with packing them in closely. Put into into a saut6 pan with oil, them in Put a sauté oil, packing generously with olive oil and season again. in again. Cook in Sprinkle generously the'oven, uncovered, basting frequently. When cooked, the the oyen, uncovered, at the the tips. artichokes should be be crisp at tips. sprinkle with the the oil in which they they on a a dish dish and and sprinkle Arrange on were cooked. cooked. Trim Dricd Dried artichokes. coNsBnvE D'ARTICHAUTS D'ARTIcHlurs SÉCHÉS sfcufs -- Trim artichokes. CONSERVE in water water to to artichokes and and blanch them them for for 5 5 minutes in the the artichokes juice has which lem on juice lemon has been been added. added. put to dry sun, or in a a slow slow them, and and put dry on on trays in the sun, Drain them, (They can dried in the oyen. also be threaded oven. (They threaded on on a a string string and and dried the can also open open air.) air.) preserving artichokes, the blanching For For this this method of of preserving artichokes, the particles would would water must must not salted, otherwise otherwise saline saline partieles not be be salted, water humidity and and thereby artichokes, drawing drawing humidity thereby impregnate the the artichokes, preventing desiccation. desiccation. Fried artichokes hearts fried in Fried artichokes See below below Artichoke Artichoke hearts fried in - See baller. batter. These can Artichoke frilters. fritters. BEIGNETS BEIcNETS D'ARTICHAUTS D'ARTIcHAUTS -- Thcse be can be Artichoke (See HORSHORSas hors-d'œuvre or as as a a vegetable. vegetable. (See served served as hors-dauvre or D'(EUVRE, F"rillers.) D'ŒUVRE, Fritters.) LyoNNAIsE A LA ra LYONNAISEArtichokes Artichokes à la lyonnaise. lyonnaise. ARTICHAUTS ARTIcHAUTs À i la
49 49

Proceed Proceed as as described described in in the the recipe recipe for Artichokes Artichokes barigoule, barigoule, replacing replacing the the daxelles duxelles mixture mixture by by sausage sausage meat meat with with a a

quarter quarter of of its its weight weight of of chopped, chopped, lightly lightly fried fried onion onion and and chopped chopped parsley parsley added added to 10 it. il. Artichokes Articbokes I à la la mdnagbre. ménagère. ARTIcHAUTs ARTICHAUTS A À LA LA rrafr.r,{cins MÉNAGÈRE Proceed Proceed as as described described in in the the recipe recipe for Artichokes Artichokes barigoule, barigoule, replacing replacing the the &txelles duxelles mixture mixture by by chopped chopped boiled boiled beef beef mixed mixed with with finely finely shredded shredded fresh fresh bacon bacon and and chopped chopped parsley. parsley. Artichokes ARTICHAUTS MIREPoIX MIREPOIX - Put Put 12 12 small small Artichokes mirepoix. mirepoix. ARTIcHAUTS artichokes, artichokes, prepared prepared as as described described in in the the recipe recipe for for Artichokes Artichokes Clamart, Clamart. into into a saut6 sauté pan pan on a foundation foundation of of 2 2 dl. dl. $ H pint, pint, scant seant cup) cup) Vegetable Vegetable mirepoix mirepoi.x (see (see MIREPOIX), MIREPOIX), mixed mixed with 2 2 tablespoons tablespoons (3 (3 tablespoons) tablespoons) lean lean ham ham cut eut into into tiny tiny dice. dice. Simmer for 5 minutes minutes over a low low flame, flame, keeping keeping the the pan pan uncovered. uncovered. Moisten Moisten with 4 4 tablespoons tablespoons (* 0 cup) white white wine. wine. Simmer for for 5 5 minutes, minutes, add I 1 dl. (6 (6 tablespoons, tablespoons. scant seant i t cup) cup) veal veal stock, cover caver with with a lid lid and simmer for for 35 35 minutes. minutes. Serve Serve in in a a vegetable vegetable dish. Pour Pour the the mirepoix mirepoix over over the the artichokes, artichokes, and sprinkle sprinkle with chopped parsley. parsley. Pickled Pickled artichokes. artichokes. coNSERvE CONSERVE D'AnrIcHAUTs D'ARTICHAUTS - Trim Trim freshly gathered gathered artichokes. Put them, whole whole or or in in quarters, quarters, added. Blanch in water to which lemon lemon juice juice has been added. Blanch them them of salt. Allow in salted salled water, water, allowing l0 10 per per cent ofsalt. Allow l0 10 minutes minutes for whole artichokes artichokes and 5 minutes for for quarters. quarters. Drain Drain and and refresh refresh in cold water. Drain them again, again, put into into cans, and pour pour in the the following following pickling brine: (4 gallons, 5 gallons) For 20 litres (4 gallons) water, I 1 kg. kg. (21b.) (21b.) wellwellrefined (3 tablespoons) lemon lemon juice. juice. refined salt and 2 tablespoons (3
time Cooking Cooki.ng time lime Cooking lime ( 230" F.) in a bain-marie I JO°c. l0'C. (230°F.) Weight of of cans wilh J Weighl cans with canning kettle pressure sleriliser steriliser or canning keltle

(l lb.) 500 g. (1
(2{ lb.) I kg. (2! 1

30 minutes 30 40 minutes

I hour hour 1

(ai lb.) 2 ke. kg. (4t
A LA LA GRECQUE cRECeue -À

minutes minutes 60 minutes

l|à hours 1 hours
2 hours 2 hours

o'ARTICIIAUTS grecque. CONSERVE coNsERvE D'ARTICHAUTS la grecque. i la Pickled artichokes il pickle for arti for which which only only small ar!iThis is is a a pickJe - This to be cut into have ta artichokes have chokes are are used. used. Large chokes Large artichokes be cul into ofthis hors-d'euvre. the aspect of which changes the quarters, wlüch this hors-d' œuvre. of the the same small anichokes artichokes of 100 sma]] trim 100 Method. Pare Pare and and lrim following into the following them ioto are trimmed, trimmed, plunge them size. As they are size. mixture : previously prepared mixture: (scant pint, (4t quarts, quarts) water; pint, quarts, 5| quarts) dl. (seant water; 5 5 dl. 5 litres 5 litres (41 I teaspoon 1| coriander; 1 teaspoon 2f cups) oil; 1 olive oil; cups) olive 2~ t tablespoons coriander; garni large bouquet peppercorns; 11a large bouquet garni l* tablespoons salt; a tablespoons salt; peppercorns; leaf, fennel fennel and and a a slalk celery; of celer)'; stalk of composed of of thyme, bay bay leaf, composed juice of a muslin muslin bag. 10 lemons lemons strained through a and the juice of JO strained through and for 8 and continue boiling boiling for 8 Bring the artichokes to to the the boil boil and the artichokes 10 minutes. minutes. to 10 to quarters), (20 artichoke quantity (20 artichoke hearts hearts or or quarters), a smaller smaller quanüty For a (HORS-D'GUVRE, Cold grecque (HORS-D'ŒUVRE, la grecque d la Artichokes à see Arlichokes see minutes. for 8 8 to to 10 l0 minutes. hors-d'euvre). Cook Cook for hors-d'œuvre). large earthenware with their liquor, to to a a large earthenware Transfer them, with their Iiquor, Transfer (2- or lJb.) into 11- or or t-litre or l-lb.) cool. Put Put into crock and and allow allow to to cool. crock |Jitre (2finger within the the width width of of a a finger Fill with with the the liquor liquor lo to within cans. FilJ cans. hermetically. from the the top. top. Seal Seal hermetieally. from (l-lb.) for the~-litre the flitre (l-lb.) Place in in a boil 20 minutes minutes for a boiler, and and boil20 Place (2-lb.) cans. cans. l-litre (2-lb.) cans and and 30 30 minutes minutes for for the the I-litre cans HORS-D'GUVRE. poivrade -- See See HORS-D'ŒUVRE. Ia poivrade Artichokes à i la Articbokes punfE D'ARTICHAUTS garnish. PURÉE D'ARTIcHAUTS -for gamish. Pur6e of of artichokes artichokes for Purée vegetable courlcourtin aa white white vegetable hearts in Half-cook artichoke artichoke hearts Half-cook a fine fine (q.v.), and through a Rub through in butter. butter. Rub bouillon (q.v.), and simmer simmer in bouillon

st

ARTICHOKE ARTICHOKE
Artichoke bearts hearts à la lacrème. crbme.FONDS FoNDsD'ARTICHAUTS D'ARTTcHAUTs ÀALA LA Articboke c,ntrr,rs- - Proceed Proceed as Assoon asabove. above. As soonas asthe artichoke hearts theartichoke hearts CRÈME pour boiIing are cooked, cooked,pour boilingcream cream over them.Simmer overthem. Simmerdown downby by are half.Transfer Transfer the theartichoke artichoke hearts vegetable dish. heartsto toaavegetable dish.Add Add half. thesauce, sauce,strain pourover butter to to the strain it, it, and andpour overthe theartichokes. artichokes. butter prepared cream A prepared cream sauce saucecan canalso alsobe pouring over forpouring beused usedfor A over (seeSAUCE, thehearts hearts (see SAUCE, Cream Crearnsauce). sauce). the Artichoke bearts heartsfines fines berbes. herbes. FONDS o'AnrrcH^q,urs FINES FoNDSD'ARTICHAUTS FINES Articboke HERBEs -- Blanch Blanch lightly, lightly, slice, slice, and andfry fryin in butter butterin inaashallow shallow HERBES pan. Transfer Transfer to vegetable dish, toaavegetable dish,and andsprinkle sprinkle with withchopped pan. chopped parsley. cherviland and parsley. chervil

i

Preparing artichoke artichoke hearts (Scarnati) hearts (Scarnali) Preparing

in the the recipe. recipe. If If required, required, thicken thicken its its consistency consistency by by adding adding in potato purée. an equal equal amount amount of pur6e. of potato an punfn D'ARTIPuree of of articbokes artichokes soubisée soubis6e for garnlshes. PURÉE for garnisbes. D'ARTrPurée cHAurs SOUBISÉE sorJBrsfE -- Proceed Proceed as as described preceding described in in the the preceding CHAUTS recipe. Add Add to to the pur6e one the artichoke artichoke purée one third third of of its its volume volume of of recipe. (see PURÉE). Onion soubise soubise (see PUREE). Onion Artichoke salad salad -- See See SALAD, SALAD, Mixed Mixed salads. salads. Artichoke Artichoke soufflé soufr6 -- See See SOUFFLÉS, SOUFFLES, Soufflé Soffii of of various various Articboke vegetables. vegetables. Artichoke stalks. stalks. MOELLE MoELLE D'ARTICHAUT D'ARTTcHAUT Peel the the stalks stalks of of Articboke - Peel large artichokes, artichokes, taking taking care care to to remove remove ail all the the woody woody large casing. Cut them into sticks sticks 5 (2 inches) 5 cm. cm. (2 inches) long. long. Blanch Blanch in in casing. salt water water flavoured with lemon. lemon. salt artichoke stalks prepared stalks can can be prepared When they are blanched, artichoke in various ways; simmered simmered in in butter butter or or cream cream in in a a covered covered in pan; infritots (q.v.); infritols (q. (q.v.); curried; with d la grecque (q.v.); gravy. with gravy. pan; v.); à ARTICHOKE FoNDs D'ARTICHAUTSD'ARrrcHAUrs - Artichoke ARTICHOKE HEARTS. FONDS prepared as hearts as described described below below can can be be served served as as a a hearts prepared vegetable as a a garnish. When sliced sliced and and blended with a a blended with vegetable or as sauce, brown, they should be be served a vegetable served in a sauce, white or brown, dish, in a gratin (q.v.), timbale, in a dish, or or in a croustade (q.v.), timbale, or or gratin dish, dish, in a vol-au-vent preparation of of the hearts heart s see Artichoke vol-au-vent cases. For preparation see Artichoke hear ts in cour t-bouillon below. below. hearts court-bouillon Artichoke hearb i I'allemande. FONDS FoNDs D'ARTICHAUTS D'.enrrcsaurs À A Articboke hearts à l'allemande. L'ALLEMANDE the artichokes lightly and and stew L'ALLEMANDE - Blanch Blanch the stew in butter. a vegetable vegetable dish dish and and coyer butter. Transfer Transfer into into a cover with Allemande sauce sauce (see (see SAUCE). If If the artichoke artichoke hearts are too big, cut them into slices. Ardcloke roNps D'ARTICHAUTS o',mrrcpllr.rs À Artichoke hearb bearts i à la bechamel. béchamel. FONDS A LA ul sfcHAl'Gr (see using Bichamel BÉCHAMEL - Proceed Proceed as as above, above, using Béchamel sauce (see sAUCE). SAUCE). Artichoke ror.rDs D'ARTICHAUTS Articboke hearts cooked cooked in butter - FONDS D'ARTTcHAUTs fruvfs.q,u ÉTUVÉS AU seuRREBEURRE- Pare and and trim trim the artichokes artichokes as described described in Rub them with lemon, and blanch for 10 in the next next recipe. recipe. Rub l0 minutes minutes in boiling salt salt water water to which which a few drops of lemon juice juice have have been been added. added. Drain, put the artichokes artichokes in a well-buttered well-buttered saut6 sauté pan, season, cook with the lid on season, sprinkle sprinkle with with melted melted butter, butter, and cook the the pan pan for 18 to to 25 25 minutes, minutes, according according to their size. Use as as indicated indicated in in the the recipe recipe chosen. chosen. Artichoke Articboke hearts bearts in court-bouillon. court-bouillon. roNos FONDS D'ARTTcHAUTs D'ARTICHAUTS AU AU BLANc BLANC - Strip off off the the outside leaves Ieaves on medium-sized artichokes. artichokes. Trim Trim them them as as evenly evenly as as possible, possible, leaving leaving only only the fleshy fleshy middle middle part. part. Remove Remove the the choke, trim the hearts and rub Put into into cold water water as each one is is rub them them with with lemon. lemon. Put trimmed. trimmed. Cook Cook the the hearts hearts in in boiling boiling white white vegetable vegetable court-bouillon court-bouillon (q.v.).They (q.v.). They can can be he blanched blanched or or cooked cooked until until soft, according according to Drain well. weil. to the the final final dish dish chosen. chosen. Drain
50 50

sieve. Heat Heat the puree and the purée and add add butter butter or or cream, cream, as as directed directed sieve.

If the young and the artichokes artichokes are are very veryyoung tender, slice slicethem them and tender, If rawand and fry fry in in butter beforesprinkling butterbefore sprinkling with with the thechervil cherviland and raw parsley. parsley. Artichoke bearts hearb fried frid in inbatter. batter. FONDS FoNDs D'ARTICHAUTS D'ARTTcHAUTSEN Articboke E[.r FRrror -- Blanch Blanch the the artichoke artichoke hearts, FRITOT hearts, slice slicethem, them, and and juice, salt, marinate in in oil, oil, lemon lemon juice, pepperand marinate salt,pepper and fines herbes finesherbes (q.v.).When required, dip dip them (g.v.). When required, them in in batter batter and anddeep-fry. deep-fry. Drain, season season with with fine fine salt, salt, arrange Drain, arrange them in aaheap them in heap on onaa folded napkin, garnish with napkin, and parsley. and garnish with fried folded frid parsley. Gamishd artichoke artichoke bearts. hearts. FONDS Garnisbed FoNDs D'ARTICHAUTS D'ARTIcHAUTs GARNIScARNrs Artichoke hearts principally asaa garnish hearts used garnish for used principallyas Artichoke for hot hot and and dishes can can be cold dishes be filled filled with with various cold various mixtures. mixtures. Here Here are are the the main ingredients ingredients which which can main for hot can he be added added to to them: them: for hot dishes, dishes, the artichoke artichoke hearts, hearts, cooked the cooked in in white white vegetable vegetable courtcourt(q.v.) and bouillon (q.v.) and simmered bouillon simmered in in butter, are filled butter, are filled at at the last the last moment with with vegetables vegetables or moment or other other ingredients, ingredients, but are not but are not put in in the put the oyen oven to to brown brown the the tops recommended for as recommended tops as for stuffed artichoke artichoke hearts. stuffed hearts. Artichoke hearts Artichoke hearts intended garnish for intended as as a a garnish for cold cold dishes dishes are are cooked cooked in in this this court-bouillon, court-bouillon, drained, drained, dried, dried, and and filled filled with with various vegetables vegetables which various which have have been set in in ajelly. a jelly. Or been set Or they they can can be seasoned seasoned with he with vinaigrette, vinaigrette, mayonnaise mayonnaise or or other other salpicons salpicons (q.v.). (q.v.). jelly or Artichoke hearts hearts can can also also be be covered covered with with aspic or aspic jelly (see SAUCE). Chaud-froid Chaud-froid sauce sauce (see SAUCE). Filled garnish for Filled articboke artichoke bearts hearts as as garnish for cold cold disbes dishes -- Fill Fill the the hearts hearts with with various various butters pounded with butters which which have have been been pounded with any any of of the following: caviare, the following: caviare, shrimps, crayfish and shrimps, crayfish and other other shellfish, shellfish, hard-boiled eggs, pur6es, various eggs, fish fish and and shellfish various shellfish purées, salpicons, etc. etc. Filled Filld articboke garnish for artichoke bearts hearts as as garnisb for bot hot dishes dir*es -- AnverAnversoise: eu il : purée soise: hop pur€e of hop shoots shoots in in cream; cream; argent argenteuil: of white white asparagus; pur6e of asparagus; bretonne: bretonne: purée of kidney kidney beans; beans; Compoint: Compoint: pur6e of purée green asparagus; of green pur6e; écossaise: asparagus; Conti: Conti; lentil lentil purée; Ccossaise: (q.v.) of carrots, celery, brunoise (q.v.) celery, French French beans beans and and onions; onions; macédoine macidoine of vegetables vegetables in in butter; princess: asparagus asparagus tips tips and and diced diced truffies; truffies; Saint-Germain: Saint-Germain: purée purfie of garden of fresh fresh garden peas; peas; thick thick sauces sauces such such as as béarnaise, biarnaise, Choron, Choron, Henri Henri IV, IV, paloise; Vichy: carrots à (For sauces d la Vichy. (For sauces see see SAUCE.) SAUCE.) Articboke bearts Artichoke herrts à la hollandaise. i la hltadaise. FONDS FoNDs D'ARTICHAUTS D'ARTTcHAUTS À COURTA LA rA HOLLANDAISEnorr,c,NDArsE- Cook in (srCOURTin Court-bouillon IV (see BOUILLON), BOUILLOI$, drain, drain, put in a a vegetable dish and and coyer cover with Hollandaise sauce (see (se,e SAUCE). SAUCE). Artichoke Artichoke hearts Mornay. FONDS FoNDs D'ARTICHAUTS D'ARTTcHAUTs MORNAYMoRNAy Sim mer in Simmer in butter in a pan. Put a covered covered pan. in a a fireproof Put in fireproof dish dish which has has been (see SAUCE). been coated coated with with Mornay Mornay sauce sauce (see SAUCE). Coyer the artichoke hearts Cover the hearts with with the the same same sauce, sauce, sprinkle Parmesan cheese with grated Parmesan cheese and melted butter, and and brown brown the top. Pickled artichoke articboke hearts. bearts.CONSERVE Pickled coNsERvE DE DE FONDS FoNDs D'ARTID'ARTICHAUTS - Choose Choose small, small, tender artichokes. Trim cHAUTSTrim them them with with a a and put them as special peeler or by hand and as they are are trimmed trimmed into water water with with lemon lemon juice juice added. Blanch them into added. Blanch them for for 5 5 (8 per per cent cent solution). minutes in salted water (8 solution). Drain, Drain, and and refresh in cold water. refresh Drain again, again, put put into cans, cans, and and pour pour over over the the same same picklpicklDrain as for Pickled Pickled artichokes artichokes (see (see above). above). brine as ing brine

ARTOIS ARTOIS AND AND BOULONNAIS BOULONNAIS

Weight Weight of of cans

cans

Cooking time

Cooking Cooking time time in in a a bain-marie bain-marie or or pressure canning pressure steriliser steriliser ketlle canning kettle

110'C.

with (230"F.)

described stock). stock). Proceed Proceed as as "but described in in the the recipe recipe for for artichoke artichoke quarters in butter, buttcr,but finish finish off off with with lemon lemon juice juice and and

chop@fines herbes. herbes.

500 e. g. (l (1 lb.) lb.) 500

20 20 minutes minutes
30 30

40 40 minutes minutes
60 60 minutes minutes

kg. (2t (2i lb.) lb.) I1ke.

minutes minutes

ftavouroo rith with Onion On ion soubise soubise (see (sec PUREE). PURÉE). Sprinkle Sprinkle with with flavoured grated grated Parmesan Parmesan cheese cheese and and melted meltcd butter, butter, and and brown brown the the top. hearts sfuffed stufl'ed à la la chalonnaise. chaJonuaise. roNps FONDS D'ARrID'ARTIArtichoke hearts CHAUT'S FARcrs FARCIS A Â. r,l LA cnlr,oNNAIsE CHALONNAlSE - As As above, above. with with Salpicon Salpicon cHAUTs ci h la chalornaise chalonnaise (see (sec SALPICON). SALPICON). d Artichoke Articboke heorts bearts strffed stuffed ià la la duxelles. duxeUes. FoNDs FONDS D'ARTIcHAUTS D'ARTICHAUTS fARCIS A À r-l LA puxsrrns DUXELLES - As As above, with wÎth very very thick thîck duxelles duxelles FARcrs (q.v.). (q.v.). Artichoke hearts strffed stutied à la la florentine. florentine. FoNDs FONDS D'ARrID'ARTIArtichoke CHAUTS FARcrs FARCIS A À LA rronrNTINE FLORENTINE - Simmer the the artichoke artichoke cHALns hearts in in butter, butter, and and fill fi.!1 themwith them with spinach spÎnach that that has has also also been been hearts Slmmered in butter. buttcr. Pour Pour Mornay Mornay sauce sauce (see SAUCE) over simmered artichokes, sprinkle spr:inkle with grated cheese, cheese, and brown brown the the artichokes, top. IvelnD.aÏS<e, roNDs FONDS D'ARTIcHAUTS D'AR TI CH A UTS Artichoke hearts stuffed i la lyonnaise. FARCIS A À LA rvoNlqltsn LYONNAISE - As above. Stuff Stuff the artichokes with FARcIs sausage which have have been been lightly lightly sausage meat and chopped onion which

and simmer sim mer in in butter. butter. Garnish Gamish with with a a Chestnut Chestnut purie purée and

Artichoke Articboke hearts bearts stuffed stuffed ià la la o6venole. cévenole. FoNDs FONDS D'ARTIcHAUTS D' ARTICHAUTS FARcrs FARCIS A À Lrq, LA cfvsNore CÉVENOLE - Blanch Blanch the the artichoke articboke hearts, hearts, drain, drain,

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I

n

I

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quarters fried in Artichoke Ar1IlCI110}{e(11.I1IlrtE~rslmetl inbatter. batter. QUARTIERS QUARTIERSD'ARTIcHA{rrs D'ARTICHA1.JTS artichoke quarters. Trim, blanch blanch and and marinate marinatc'artichoke quarters. - Trinn, Proceed Proceed as as described described in in the the recipe recipe for for Artichoke Artichoke heartsfried in in batter. batter. Artichoke Artichoke quarters qllllrters ià la la grecque. grecque. QUARTIERS QUARTIERS D'ARTIcHAUTS D'ARTICHAUTS A À Le LA cneceue GRECQUE - Trim Trim artichoke artichoke quarters, quarters, and and proceed proceed as as described described in in the the recipe recipe for for Pickled Pickled artichokes artichokes d à la la grecque. grecque. These These are are served served as as cold cold hors-deuvre. hors-d'œuvre. Artichoke Artichoke quarters quarters à I'italienne. l'italienne. QUARTIERS QUARTIERS D'AnrIcttAUTs D'ARTlCHA1.JTS A À t'tr^lttBlttu L'ITALIENNE - Proceed Proceed as as described described in in the the recipe recipe for for Artichoke Artichoke quarters quarters aux aux fines fines herbes. herbe.L Finish Finish off off with with ltalian /talian sauce (see SAUCE). SA UCE). sauce (w Artichoke Artichoke quarters au jus. QUARTIERS QUARTIERS D'ARTIcHAUTS D'ARTtCHAUTS AU AU JUs JUS - Proceed as as described in in the the recipe for for Artichoke Artichoke quarters quarters auxfines aux fines herbes, herbes, but but omit omit the the herbs. Artichoke Articboke quarters quarters I à la la lyonnaise. QUARTIERS QU AR TIERS D'ARTIcHAUTS D'AR TTCH AUTS A À r,l LA lvoNrqllseL YONNAISE- Proceed as as describedfor described for Artichoke Artichoke quarters quarlers aux aux fines fines herbes. herbes. Finish Finish off off with wÎth Lyonnaise LYDnnaise sauce sauce (see (see
EN EN FRrror FRITOT -

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i

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ll

fried in butter. t la niEoise. niçoise. FoNDS FONDS o'ARTIcHAUTS D'AR TlCHAUTS Articboke hearts be.arts stuffed il Artichoke FARCIS A À ra LA Ntqotsn - Blanch the artichoke hearts, hearts, fry them FARcIs Tomatofon&te fil! with Tomato fondue (see TOMATO). Sprinkle in oil, and fill and brown the top. with breadcrumbs and melted butter, butter, and FoNDs D'ARTIcHAUTS Pi6montaise. FONDS hearts stufTed stuffed Piémontaise. Artichoke Artichoke be.arfs D' ARTICHAUTS p$ilroNratss covered pan. PIÉMONTAISE - Simmer in butter in a covered (see RICE). RICE), sprinkle Pidmontaise (see d la la Piémontaise Fill with with Risotto Risotto à Fill the top. and brown the with grated Parmesan cheese, and o'ARTIcHAUTS FoNDs D'ARTICHAUTS hearb stu1Jed stuffed Soubise. FONDS Artichoke bearts isee soLJBrsE As above, above. with a a thick soubise (see FARcIs SOUBISE thick Onwn Onion soubise - As PUREE).
D'ARrIcHAUrs -ARTICHOKE ARTICHOKE QUARTERS. QUARTIERS D'ARTICHAUTS QUARTERS. QUARTIERS into and cul cut them iuto Pare Pare and and Irim trim medium-sized artichokes and and blanch with lemon, and quarters. Trim Trim them carefully, rub with juice lemon juice salt and and lemon water ta to which salt 6 minutes in in boiling water for 6 drain and drain running tap and a cold cold running added. Cool have been been added. Cool under a quite dry. until dry. until quite section, in this this section, specific recipes given in addition to to the the specifie ln In addition of those and sorne some of given for for small small artichokes, and most most of of tbose those given artichoke applied to to artichoke be applied given for can be hearts, ean artichoke hearts, given for artichoke quarters. quarters. AU D'ARTIcHAUTS AU quarters in in but1er. butter. QUARTIERS Articboke Artictoke quarters QUARTIERS D'ARTICHAUTS put them a in a them in quarters of and put of 6 6 artichokes artichokes and BEURRE BEURR-E -- Blanch quarters tablewith 3 3 tablepan. Season, moisten with Season, and and moisten heavy pan. well-buttered well-buttered heavy (scant * cup) a tablespoon of with a tablespoon of water. Sprinkle Sprinkle with spoons cup) water. spoons (seant lid and and simmcr with a a lid simmer cover with to the the boil, boil, coyer melted melted butter, butter, bring to pouring dish, pouring in a a vegetable dish, gently for Serve in for 30 30 1035 to 35 minutes. Serve pan over over the from the the artichokes. the pan the juices from quarters aux herbes alx fines fines herbes -. QUARTIERS Artichoke Artichoke quartcrs QUARTTERS for recipe for as in in the the reeipe Prepare as HERBEsAux FINES FINEs HERllES D'ARTICHAlITS - Prepare D'ARTIcHArns AUX dish. Dilute Dilute vegetable dish. Put in in a a vegetable butter. Put Arlichoke in buller. Artichoke quarters in white scant t pan juices wilh I dl. dl. (6 tablespoons, tablespoons, scant with 1 the the pan ;| cup) while cup) 3 tablespoons(scant tablespoons (scant * cup) down. Add 3 wine, and boil boil down. moments. Strain trus this a fcw few moments. for a and boil veal stock boil for th.!cl(ien~~ stock and thickened veal drops a few few drops melted butter, I tablespoon butter, a it 1 sauce, and add add to to it tablespoon melted sauce, and (q.v')' juice and herbs (q.v.). I tablespoon choppedlnes herbs lemon juice and 1 tablespoon choppedfines of of lemon quarters. artichoke quarters. over the the artichoke Pour Pour the the sauce sauoe over (without prepared au also he Nore. This This recipe aumaigre recipe can can also be prepared NOle. maigre (without

sAUCE). SAUCE). Artichoke à la la moelle. moelle. QUARTIERS QUARTIERS D'ARTIcHAUTS D'ARTTCHAlITS Artichoke quarters quarters i A À rl LA noer,rr MOELLE - Cook the the artichoke artîchoke quarters quarters as as described described for for thoseaujus. tbose aujus. Finish Finish offwith offwith Marrow Marrow sauce sauce (see (see SAUCE), SAUCE), and and garnish gamish with with thin Ihin slices slices of of bone-marrow bone-marrow which which have have been been poached poached and drained. drained. Artichoke Artichoke quarters quarters i à la la portugaise. QUARTIERS QUARTIERS poRTUGAIsE - Simmer the D'AnrrcHAUTs D'ARTICHAUTS A À LA LA PORTUGAISE the quarters quarters in in 4 4 (scant oil, together tablespoons (* (1 cup) cup) oil, together with with 3 3 tablespoons tablespoons (seant and pounded Addzpeeled l cup) cup) chopped chopped onions. onions. Add 2 peeled and pounded tomatoes, tomatoes, * Cook in chopped parsley. and a a little lillie grated grated garlic garlic and and chopped parsley. Cook in an an gently. Serve a vegetable vegetable dish dish Serve in uncovered pan, simmering gently. in a chopped parsley. and sprinkle with witb choppcd parsley.

lnrrcrulur D'HryER WINTER. ART1CHAlIT ARTICHOKT'., WlNTER. ARTlCHOKE. D'HIVER (q.v.). artichoke (q.v.). name for for Jerusalem artiehoke name

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Another Another

TREE. BREADFRUIT TREE. See BREADFRUIT mrocmps -- See ARTOCARPUS. ARTOCARPE principal food refood rcThe principal AI\D BOULONNAIS BOLJLONNAIS ARTOIS AND - The ARTOIS sea. province of from the the sea. France come come from of France ancient province sources ofthis of this ancient sources port in in France, France, fishing port most important important fishing Boulogne is is the the most Boulogne Whole eonvoys convoys mackerel. Whole and mackerel. of herring herring and supply of with the best best supply with (gurnard) and gurnet (gurnard) and herring, gurnet mackerel, herring, lorries carrying carrying mackerel, of lorries of fish fish with supplies supplies of day with every day leave this this seaport seaport every other fish fish leave other parts of France. of France. all parts for a11 and is damp damp and rather variable, variable, is region, rather this region, climate of of this The climate The is found found growing, so much fruit fruit is not much fruit growîng, so nol for fruit not suitable suitable for not is the the with bœr, beer, is together with apples. Cider, Cider, together except eider cider apples. there, excepl there, region. of the the region. main beverage of good vegetables. produce very vegetables. gardens produœ very good Artois market market gardens Artois particularly fine. Good fine. Good are particularly around Saint-Omar Those from from around Saint-Omar are Those poultry produced in in Artois; Artois; but quality beef and but poultry mutton are are produced and mutton quality quality. of average quality. and game are only of and Magnificent all kinds. kinds. -'Y.l.G'5""'"'''''' fish of of ail Rivers and ponds abound in fish rivers, small coastal rivers, of the the small in the the estuar:ies estuaries of is found io salmon is salmon great delicacy. delicacy. flesh of of great with ftesh trout with and, in in the the Canche, Canche, trout and, very numerous. not very numerous. These are are not specialities -- These Culinary special.ities and shcllfish. shellfish. fish aod on seafood seafood -- fish are based based on of them them are Almost all of Almost arc andouilles andouilles (q.v.) regionare: principal specialities of of the the region The principal The saucisses de such as as saucisses charcuterie sucb d'Arras and and various charcuterie d'Arras (blood) puddings; puddWs; (country sa black (blood) sausages); campagne (country usages) ; black
Valenciennes tongue. popular in Artois in Artois very popular latter very the latter soup, the Beer soup soup and and leek soup, Beer and Flemish origin origin and a dish dish of of Flemish hotch-potch, a in Flanders; Flanders; hotcn-polCh, and in and dishes excellent dishes pdti of Montreuil-sur-Mer - excellent of Montreuil-sur-Mer woodcock pâté woodcock prunes rabbit wilh with prunes wild rabbil made nowadays; nowadays; wild which are are not not often often made which goose à dlaftamande; laflamande; Valenciennes; goose orraisins, raisins, a a speciality of Valenciennes; speciality of or

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5l 51

ARUM MACULATUM MACULATUM ARUM

ffi

kl
Port of of Boulogne. Boulogne. On On the the lefl: left: trawler trawlerharbour. harbour.On On lhe right: harbour theright: harbourfor forsmaller smaller fishing fishingvessels vessels(Percevaf) (percevaf Pon

eel; the the caudière caudiire de de Berck, Berck, a a kind kind of matelote similar of matelote similar jellied eel; to the the chaudrée chaudrie of of A Aunis. unis. to There is is naturally naturally a a whole whole range range of of fish fish dishes, dishes, from from There mackerel à d la la boulonnaise boulonnaise to to more more complicated complicated disbes dishes made made mackerel of various various kinds kinds of of sea sea fish: fish: burbot, burbot, turbot, turbot, striped striped mullet, mullet, of (green pollack), smelt, coal-fish coal-fish (green pollack), bass, bass, sole, sole, red mullet. skate. red mullet, skate. smelt, But Boulogne Boulogne is, is, above above a1l, all, the the town town of of herring herring and and But mackerel - this this can can be be traced traced back back to to the the ninth ninth century. century. The The mackerelherring industry industry herring dried, dried, smoked, pickled or smoked, pickled or sold sold - herring herring ready for for serving serving has assumed assumed enormous proportions. enormous proportions. - has ready Herring are prepared in are prepared in a a variety variety of of ways. ways. There There are are Herring bloaters, slightly slightly salted salted herring herring which which have have been been smoked; smoked; bloaters, salted herring proper; proper; smoked smoked herring herring called gmdnrmes; called gendarmes; sai ted herring kippers, cured cured and and split; split; herring herring pickled pickled in in white white wine; cured cured kippers, herring fillets in oil; oil; canned canned herring herring and preparations and other other preparations herring fi/lets in of this this fish fish which which are are eaten eaten as as hors-d'œuvre hors-d'euvre. . of
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Canned mackerel mackerelalso alsocome come from fromBoulogne, Canned Boulogne,and andare areoften often eaten as ashors-d'œuvre. hors-d'euvre. eaten Among the pastries and the pastries and confectionery confectionery products products of Among of the the region are are the the Arras Arras hearts hearts and and caramels, caramelr, the region theLille Lille délices, ddtices, the Cambrai Cambrai bêtises, b1tises, and and the Berck chiques. the Berck the chiques.

ARUM MACULA MACULATLTM This plant plant is ARUM TUM -- This is also also known known under under the names names of of lords lords and and ladies, ladies, cuckoo-pint, the cuckoo-pint, calfs calf s foot and footand wake-robin.In French it it is is known known as wake-robin. In French (pepperas chou-poivre chou-poivre-(peppercabbage) because because of of the the acridity acridity of cabbage) leaves and of its its leaves and roots. roots. In In the U.S.A. U.S.A. it it is is sometimes sometimes called ginger for the called wild wild ginger for the the same same reason. reason. The roots roots are are much much valued valued by The by the the Arabs, Arabs, who who cook cook them them on hot hot cinders. cinders. on ASAFOETIDA -- Resinous Resinous gwn gum of ASAFOETIDA of a a species species of of oriental oriental In spite spite of of its its offensive offensive smell, palm. In smell, some people in some people in the the East East
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52 52

ASPARAGUS
and Far Far East East use use it it as as a a condiment. condiment. The The Romans Romans added added it it and many dishes dishes under under the the name name of of sylphium sylphium or or silphion. silphion. to many to ASBESTOS. AMIANTE AMIANTE - Fibrous Fibrous mineral mineraI substance substance which which ASBESTOS. is found found in in eruptive eruptive rocks. rocks. Asbestos Asbestos fibres fibres are are sufficiently sufficiently is to be be plaited plaited and and woven. woven. The The principal principal characteristic characteristic flexible to flexible ofasbestos is its its incombustibility; incombustibility; a a piece piece of ofasbestic asbestic material material of asbestos is put put into into ablazingfire a blazing fire will will not not burn. burn. The properties properties of asbestos asbestos are are exploited exploited nowadays nowadays for for The kitchen stoves. stoves . Asbestos, Asbestos, being being a a bad bad the interiors interiors of kitchen the conductor, does not not absorb absorb heat. beat. Unlike metal, it it reflects reflects conductor, by radiation, radiation, and and the the maximum maximum of of heat heat is is obtained obtained with the by of fuel, fuel, which results results in a considerable saving of minimum of minimum expense. expense. ASCALAPHUS - He was was Pluto's Pluto's cook cook and the the guardian guardian of ASCALAPHUSaccording to to legend. legend. This This position position of of confidence Proserpine, according brought him him misfortune, for for he he incurred incurred the the enmity enmity of brought Ceres. Jupiter Jupiter had had agreed to return return Proserpine to Ceres, her Ceres. condition that that the the girl had eaten nothing during du ring mother, on condition mother, the infernal infernal regions. regions. Ascalaphus revealed revealed her sojourn in the her while that Proserpine had eaten six grains of pomegranate while she was there, and Ceres turned him into an owl because of she this indiscreet revelation. revelation. Minerva, to to console him him in in his this misfortune, took him bim under her protection. protection. misfortune,
FRÊNE - The young shoots shoots of of this tree can be eaten in a ASH. rn6Ns salado The seeds seeds are sometimes sometimes preserved. preserved. salad.
FRÉNETTE An economical drink which is drink which ASHDRINK. rn6Nerrp - An be health-giving. health-giving. Its basis is ash leaves, and the recipe said to be as follows: is as g. (lf oz.) Boil 75g. (3 oz., and 55 55 g.(li ash leaves and 75 g. (3 oz., 3 cups) ash

Argenteuil Argenteuil asparagus; asparagus ; Italian !talian asparagus asparagus or or purple purple Genoa Genoa asparagus ; white ; white asparagus; white Belgian Belgian asparagus asparagus; white German German asparagus' asparagus. There is also also green green asparagus, which is is sub-divided sub-divided into into two two types: asparagus types: small, used used for for garnishes garnishes and and known known as as asparagus tips, and large, which which is prepared prepared llke like Argenteuil Argenteuil asparagusasparagus. Early asparagus asparagus can be found in in France from from February February onwards, and is usually usually sold at high prices. priees. Method Method of of preparation. preparation. This is simple. Scrape, Scrape, or or better better still, peel peel the the asparagus, asparagus, wash wash and and tie tie into into medium-sized medium-sized salted water; water; of boiling bundles, and cook in a a fairly full pan pan of boiling salted bundles, and quart) generous quart) allow allow l| 1t teaspoons teaspoons salt per per litre litre (lf (1 t pints, pints, generous is cooked, drain the water. When When it it is the asparagus thoroughly thoroughly a special or on a and arrange arrange on a dish covered covered with a napkin, napkin, or a flat which is equipped with a asparagus fiat strainer. asparagus dish which depend20 minu minutes, from The cooking cooking period varies varies f rom 18 to 20 tes, dependnot be It should not ofthe ing on the size and nature of the asparagus. It be and tasteless. tasteless. it watery and overcooked, as as this renders it a !ittle little becomes season asparagus bec Note. At the end of the season ornes a short time water for for a a short fresh water into fresh and should be bitter, and be put into it has been cooked. Drain thoroughly. after il sauces. with various various sauces. served with Hot or cold asparagusis asparagus is served or cold Hot a running running is to be served served cold, it should be left under a When it is When tap to cool.

ing ing purposes purposes these these fall fall into into several several main main types; types: French French asparagus, wbich the the best best known known and and most most delicious delicious is is asparagus, of which

(5| pints, pints, 6!pints) water. roasted water. In in 3 litres (Si 6| pints) roasted chicory chicory in 3 litres (5+ lb.) another 40 g. lb.) sugar and 40 2i kg. sugar and vessel dissolve kg. (51 another vessel dissolve 2-!(3j pints, 4 (I-!(l\ oz.) 4| pints) water. oz) citric acid in 2 litres (3-!(l oz.) g. (1 then add 25 g. Mix the two liquids, leave to cool; oz.) add25 cool;then yeast dissolved a barrel. Add Add the whole into a dissolved in water. Pour the enough water to make 50 (l I gallons, 14 l4 gallons) and and 50 litres (II leave to fennent 12 days. ferment for for 12 Bottle the liquid, corking the in and store store in the bottles tightly, and a a cool cool place. The drink is of a certain certain amount amount of lemonade with a of lemonade is a kind of alcoholic content. content.
ASHES. combustion. Various Residue after after combustion. cENDRES -- Residue ASHES. CENDRES foods fire, notably notably ashes of a wood wood fire, in the the ashes of a cooked in are cooked foods are chestnuts, potatoes and and truffies. truffies. chestnuts, potatoes ASIALIA. in It occurs occurs in of saliva. saliva. It A deficiency deficiency of AsIALIE -- A ASIALIA. ASIALIE certain in certain certain nervous nervous conditions. conditions. certain diseases diseases and and in
- Forced ASITIA. Loss of desire for for food. food. ASITIEabstinence. Loss of desire ASITIA. ASITIE Forced abstinence.
asparagus Lauris asparagus,' asparagus/Argenteuil Lauris Argenteuil asparagus

ASPARAGUS. genus of Liliaceae, containing containing A genus of Liliaceae, ASPARAGUS. ASPERGE mpnncE -- A more and warm warm found in in temperate temperate and more than than a hundred species, species, found a hundred regions America. of Europe Europe and and America. regions of Asparagus places, grows wild wild in in meadows meadows and and bushy bushy places, Asparagus grows especially great part part of France, as as weil well of France, in sandy sandy soil, soil, over over a a great especially in as Mediterranean the Atlantic Atlantic and and the the Mediterranean as on on sandy sandy coasts coasts on on the sides. sides. In reign vogue during during the the reign In France, France, asparagus asparagus came came into into vogue of grow who was was the the first first to to grow Louis XIV, to Quintinie, of Louis XIV, thanks thanks to Quintinie, who asparagus He was was able supply the the royal royal for Le Roi Soleil. Soleil. He to supply able to asparagus for Le Roi kitchen year round. with asparagus all the the year round. kitchen with asparagus all Asparagus (common asparagus), has been been asparagus), has Asparagus officinalis fficinalis (common widely garden time immemorial immemorial as as aa garden since time widely cultivated cultivated since vegetable. young sprouts, either sprouts, or or shoots, shoots, are are eaten eaten either vegetable. Its Its young whole just the In Spain, i.e., the terminal buds. buds. In Spain, whole or or just the tips, tips, i.e., the terminal young young shoots have long, long, sharp sharp species, which which have shoots of of aa certain certain species, thorns also eaten. thorns on on the the stems, stems, are are also eaten. A great number for cookcookasparagus varieties varietiesexist, exist, but but for A great number of of asparagus 53 53

(l+ lb.) g. (Ii lb.) asparagus asparagus about 600 600 g. allow about speaking, allow Generally speaking, Generally (see SA person, served SAUCE). per person, with sauce sauce (see served with per UCE). This should should D'ASPERGEs -- This coNSERVE D'ASPERGES asparagus. CONSERVE Canned Canned asparagus. gathered asparagus. asparagus. freshly gathered with freshly not be attempted except except with be attempted not wash the the but do do not not wash carefully, but and dry dry carefully, the skin skin and Scrape off off the Scrape the as to to have have themall them all the so as ends evenly evenly so asparagus. Cut Cut off offthe the ends asparagus. stalks of of choosing stalks small bundles, bundles, choosing tie into into small same length, length, and and tie same cooking. even cooking. to ensure ensure even same thickness to the me thickness the sa prefor precan be be obtained obtained for asparagus can for asparagus Special Special boilers boilers for the for controlling controlling the with devices devices for are equipped equipped with serving; serving; these these are provided. Fill Fill the boiler, the boiler, basket provided. the boiling boiling basket movement of of the movement given, with water to to which which with water instructions given, according according to to the the instructions boil. Put Put the the per cent to the the boil. added, and and bring bring to salt has has been been added, 8 cent salt 8 per and them up up and standing them into the the basket, basket, standing asparagus bundles bundles into asparagus into the the basket into packing them Lower the the basket too closely. closely. Lower not not packing them too up to to are immersed immersed up bundles are the asparagus asparagus bundles boiler boiler so so that that the minutes. for 33minutes. andboil boil for one-third their length length and one-thirdof of their into the the lower into it down down lower and drop drop it Disengage basket and Disengage the the basket are immersed, immersed, tips are of the theasparagus asparagus tips boiler, sothat two-thirdsof boiler, so that two-thirds minutes. and 3minutes. and boil boil for for another another 3 plunge it cold into aa tub tub of ofcold it into Remove and plunge Remove the the basket basket and jetsof of water water cannot cannot thejets that the care that running running water, water, taking taking care

ASPARAGUS ASPARAGUS
damage the theasparagus asparagus tips. tips.Leave Leave in inthis thiswater waterfor forabout about an an damage hour.Drain Drain with greatcare. with great care. hour. Putthe theasparagus asparagusinto jars, placing intocans preserving jars, cansor or preserving placing Put some with heads up and others with heads down. Cover with sorne with heads up and others with heads down. Coyer with water which which has has been been salted salted in in the proportion of the proportion g. of 300 300g. water (11 oz. l| cups) refined salt to l0 litreJ (9 quarts, 1l quarti) (II oz. li cups) refined salt to 10 litres (9 quarts, II quarts) water. water. Cooking time time in in Cooking Cooking time time in in Weight of cans a 115"C: (718"F.) Cooking Weight of cans a 115°C. (238°F.) abain-marie bain-marie a steriliser steriliser g. (l lb.) 500 g. l0 minutes minutes 20 minutes minutes 500 (1 lb.) 10 20 (2* lb.) I ke. l5 minutes minutes 30 minutes minutes 1 kg. (2i lb.) 15 30 (a+ lb.) 2 kg. 20 minutes 40 minutes 2 kg. (41 lb.) 20 minutes 40 minutes

Cnnned green green asparagus porNTss asparagus tips. tips. CONSERVE @NsERvE DE DE POINTES Canned Divide the the asparagus asparagus stalks stalks into into three three - Divide parts: the base, the middle and the tips. parts: the base, the middle and the tips. put the First put (the toughest the bases bases (the toughest parts) parts) into into a a saucepan saucepan of of First salted boiling boiling water water and and boil boil them them for for 2 2 minutes. minutes. Add Add the the salted middle sections sections and and boil boil for for another another 2 2 minutes. minutes. Add Add the the tips tips middle and boil boil for for a a third third 2 2 minutes. minutes. Drain Drain very very carefully. carefully. and Put them jars and them into into cans preserving jars cans or or preserving and coyer cover with with the the Put brine as as in the preceding recipe. same brine same in the preceding recipe. Cooking time time in in Cooking cooking time time in in Cooking weight of of cans cans a (gT.F.) a 110° IIT"c: Weight C. (230°F.) a bain-marie bain-marie a steririser steriliser g. (l lb.) 500 l0 minutes 20 minutes minutes 500 g. (lIb.) 10 minutes 20 (2f lb.) I kg. 15 minutes 30 minutes 30 minutes 15 minutes 1 kg. (2i lb.) (a| lb.) 2 kg. kg. (41 lb.) 40 minutes minutes 40 2 Cream of of asparagus asparagus soup soup See SOUP, SOUP, Cream Crearn soups. soups. - See Cream Aryaragus beaped heaped in in a a croustade croustade à I la ta Carême. Car6me. Br.nssoN Asparagus BUISSON D'AspERGEs EN cRousrADn A u cmtrr,rn Cook the of - Cook the tips tips of D'ASPERGES EN CROUSTADE À LA CARÊME thick white asparagus asparagus in salted water, a thick white in salted water, keeping keeping thern them a little a napkin. Coat each Drain and and dry dry on on a napkin. Coat each one one little underdone. underdone. Drain in in aspic aspic mayonnaise. mayonnaise. Chill Chili thoroughly thoroughly in in a a refrigerator. refrigerator. Arrange Arrange in in a a low low flan flan shell, shell, made made of of pie pie pastry pastry and and baked baked blind, and half-filled half-filled with with a a salad salad of of green green asparagus asparagus tips tips blind, and and truffes, seasoned with oil and lemon iuice. and trutHes, seasoned with oil and lemon juice.
D'ASrERGES vERTEs D'ASPERGES VERTES -

Asparagus au gratin au gratin Asparagus

Asparagus heaped in a croustade d la Car€me Asparagus beaped in a croustade li la Carême

Asparagus Asparagus I à la la flamande. Oamande. AspERGEs ASPERGES A À r,,c, LA rrA,MAr.rDe FLAMANDE - Serve Serve hot, hot, with with melted melted butter. butter. Halves Halves of of hot, hot, hard-boiled hard-boiled eggs eggs are are served separately. The guests mash the eggs on their plates served separately. The guests mash the eggs on their plates and and mix mix them them with with the the melted melted butter. butter. Asparagus in batter. batler. FRrror FRITOT D'Aspm.cEs D'ASPERGES - Cook Cook the the Asparagus frid fried in tips of large green white or asparagus tips of large white or green asparagus in in salted salted boiling boiling water water for 5 minutes. Drain, for 5 minutes. Drain, dry, dry, and and marinate marinate for for 30 30 minutes minutes in in juice oil, oil, lemon lemon juice or or vinegar, vinegar, salt salt and and pepper. pepper. When When nearly nearly ready ready to to serve, serve, dip dip the the asparagus asparagus tips tips into into a a light light batter batter and and fry fry in in smoking-hot smoking-hot deep deep fat. fat. Drain, Drain, dry, dry, season season with with fine fine salt, and arrange in a heap on a a napkin. napkin. salt, and arrange in a heap on Asparagus Asparagus ià la la Fontanelle. Fontanelle. lspm.cns ASPERGES A À ra LA roNr,lNELLE FONTANELLE Boil Boil the the asparagus asparagus in in salted salted water water and and drain. drain. Serve Serve with with melted melted butter. butter. Soft-boiled Soft-boiled eggs eggs are are served served with with this this dish, dish, the the guests guests dipping asparagus in in the the melted melted butter butter and and then then in in the the dipping the the asparagus egg. egg.
54 54

in a a fireproof fireproof dish. dish. in Pour Mornay Mornay sauce (seeSAUCE) sauce (see over the the tips tips only. Pour SAUCE) over only. Coyer Cover the rest rest of of the the asparagus asparagus with greaseproof paper. with greaseproof paper. Sprinkle the Sprinkle the sauce sauce with grated Parmesan with grated Parmesan cheese cheese and and melted melted butter, the butter, and brown brown the the tips. tips. Remove Remove the paper before the paper before serving. serving. and Asparagus à i la la milanaise. milanaise. ASPERGES AspERcEs À A LA r,.l MILANAISE Dur,c,Nrusn -Asparagus Proceed as as described described in in the the recipe recipe for for Asparagus au gratin, Proceed au gratin, but omit omit the the Mornay Mornay sauce. sauce. but Asparagus à i la la Mornay. Mornay. ASPERGES AspERGEs À A LA u MORNAY rrlonN,ly Asparagus - Another name for for Asparagus au gratin. name Asparagus with with noisette noisette butter. butter. ASPERGES AspERcEs AU AU BEURRE Asparagus NoTSETTE Cook the asparagus by the usual usual method. Serve NOISETTE - Cook Noisette butter (see (see BUTTER) BUTTER) separately. separately. Noisette Alternatively, arrange cooked and well-drained well-drained asparagus asparagus Alternatively, arrange in a a dish, and keep it warm in the oyen. oven. Just before serving, in serving, sprinkle it it with with sizzling noisette sprinkle noisette butter. Asparagus polonaise. ASPERGES I la mpm,cns A Asparagus à la polonaise. À rl LA poLoNArsE POLONAISE Proceed described in Proceed as as described in the recipe for Asparagus Asparagus mr au gratin. gratin. Cover Coyer the tips with with chopped yolks of hard-boiled hard-boiled eggs and parsley. parsley. When pour on When ready ready to to serve, serve,pour on sizzling sizzling Noisette butter butter (see (see BUTTER) BUTTER) in in which freshly grated white breadcrumbs breadcrumbs have have been been fried fried until until light light golden brown. brown. Alternatively, Alternatively, arrange the the asparagus on a a serving serving dish and breadcrumbs separately. separately. and serve serve the butter and breadcrumbs Asparagus soufr6. SOUFFLÉS, Souffii Soufflé of various various souffié. See See SOUFFLES, vegetables.' vegetables. Asparagus Asparagus tips tips for for gardshes. garnisbes. porNTEs POINTES D',q,spERcns D'ASPERGES Scrape, Scrape, if if necessary, necessary, and and cut cut the the tips tips into into 5-cm. 5-cm. (2-inch) (2-inch) lengths; lengths; tie tie into into bundles. bundles. Cook Cook as as described described in in the the recipe recipe for for Green Green asparagus asparagus tlps. tips. (see (see below). below). If If this this garnish garnish is is used used for for hot hot dishes, dishes, the the asparagus asparagus tips tips should he added added at at the the very very last last moment; moment; cook cook them them fiist first should be in in water, water, drain, drain, and and dress dress with with melted melted butter butter or or cream. cream. Asparagus an excellent excellent garnish garnish for for eggs eggs which which have have Asparagus makes makes an been been scrambled, scrambled, lightly lightly boiled, boiled, au au plat, plat, poached poached or or in in an an omelette. omelette. Also Also for for some sorne fish fish dishes, dishes, and and for for meat meat served served in in small small portions portions - cutlets, cutlets, escalopes, escalopes, noisettes, noisettes, small small fillets, fillets, tournedas, tournedos, etc., etc., for for calves' calves' sweetbreads, sweetbreads, and and for for fowls fowls and and chickens. chickens. When Wh en asparagus asparagus tips tips are are intended intended for for garnishing garnishing or or for for cold salads, they they must must be be dipped dipped in in cold co Id water water as as soon soon as as co Id salads, they they are are co.oked, co.oked, and and well weil drained. drained. Season Season with with vinaigrette, vinaigrette, or or mayonnaise, mayonnaise, or or bind bind with wi th meat mea tjelly. jelly. Asparagus Asparagustips tipswith witbcretm. cream.porNTEs POINTESD'AspERGEs D'ASPERGESA Àr,c, LAcRi;ur CRÈME Cook asparagus asparagus tips tips and and add add a a few few tablespoons tablespoons of of fresh fresh -- Cook double double cream cream which which has has previously previously been been scalded. scalded. Blend Blend in in lightly and season. season. Arrange Arrange in in a a vegetable vegetable dish dish with with tips tips lightly and uppermost. uppermost.

Asparagus au gratin. ASPERGES au gratin. AspERcEs AU AU GRATIN GRATTNCook in in salted salted Asparagus - Cook water and and drain drain thoroughly. thoroughly. Arrange Arrange the the asparagus asparagus in in tiers water tiers

ASPIC
Asparagrs Asparagus tips in butter. porNTEs POINTES D'AspERGEs D'ASPERGES AU BEURRE BEURRERemove the the tips from from a a bundle bundle of asparagus; scrape scrape and dice the rest. Cook Cook the diced diced pieces, drain well, weil, and dry in a pan over heat. Add small pieces of butter in the proportion proportion of of 75 g. (3 o2.,6 oz., 6 tablespoons) butter butter to 250 g. (9 oz.) asparaasparagus, and stir gently. Heap into a dish, and garnish gamish with the tips, which have been lightly lightly cooked in salted water. Green asparagus tips. rorvr.ns POINTES D'AspERGEs D'ASPERGES vERTEs VERTES - Cut off the tough stalks, keeping the tender parts of green green asparaasparagus. Tie these into bundles of 8 to l0 10 shoots. Cut the lower lower part of these bundles into dice, keeping keepillg the actual tips tied together. Cook the diced asparagus asparagus in boiling salted water for 4 minutes, then add the bundles of of tips. Boil briskly, with the saucepan saucepan uncovered, for 7 or 8 minutes. Drain the bundles and and the the diced diced asparagus. asparagus. Dip Dip in in cold co Id water water and and cool. Proceed indicated in the chosen recipe. recipe. Proceed as indicated Puree Purée of green green rsparrgus. asparagus. prinrn PUREE D'AspERcEs D'ASPERGES vERTES VERTES Cook Cook asparagus asparagus tips in fast-boiling, fast-boiling, salted salted water, drain, and rub through a a fine fine sieve. sieve. Heat the pur6e, purée, and and add add butter and cream. cream. This puree purée is used as a garnish. White ssparagus CROÛTE cRlrrNfr GRATINÉE lux AUX asparagus with fried bread. cno0ru ASrERGES lb.) of white asparagus ASPERGES BLANcHES BLANCHESBlanch 500 500 g. (l (lIb.) ofwhite asparagus - Blanch tips tips in salted water for for 8 minutes, minutes, drain, drain, and and simmer simmer in butter until cooked. Cut decrusted bread into slices slices l0 10 cm. (4 inches) and 6 cm. (2|inches) (21 inch es) wide, and and fry in butter. butter. inch es) long long and Put Put 7 7 or or 8 8 asparagus asparagus tips on each each slice slice of offried bread, sprinkle sprinkle fried bread, with grated Parmesan cheese, cheese, pour on the butter in which which the asparagus asparagus was cooked, cooked, and brown the top top lightly. White aspuagus asparagus with witb melted butter. butter. ASrERGEs ASPERGES BLANcHES BLANCHES AU AU BELJRRE BEURRE FoNDU FONDU * - Cook the asparagus asparagus in salted water, drain and serve, piping hot, with warm melted butter. The butter should be be melted over over a a gentle gentle heat heat and and seasoned seasoned with butter salt, pepper and a dash of of lemon lemon juice. juice. Pur6e Purée of white asparagus. asparagus. pun6n PURÉE D'AspnRGES D'ASPERGES BLANcHES BLANCHES Blanch 500 500 g. g. (l (1 lb.) white asparagus asparagus tips lips for 8 minutes, drain, drain, and simmer sim mer lightly in butter. butter. Season with salt and and pepper. pepper. Moisten with 2t Moisten with 2-!- dl. dl. (scant 1- pint, generous generous cup) thick Bdchamel Béchamel sauce sauce (se (see SAUCE). Boil Boil for for 15 15 minutes. minutes. Rub Rub through through a fine sieve. Heat Heat the pur6e purée and add butter. butter. This This purde purée is used used as as a a garnish garnish for poached or lightly boiled boiled eggs, eggs, for for small pieces pieces of of meat, meat, for for chicken, chicken, for filling patties and tartlets. tartlets. White White aspffagus asparagus salad. SALADE SALADE D'AspERGEs D'ASPERGES BLANcHEs BLANCHES the asparagus asparagus tips tips in salted salted water. water. Drain, Drain, dip in in cold cold Cook the

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water, drain again and dry in a napkin. a napkin. Arrange in a Arrange a salad bowl or an hors-d'œuvre hors-d'eavre dish. Pour on well-whisked vinaigrette, or a oil, lemon juice, a mixture of oil, well-whisked well whisked, so that the sauce pepper. This must be weil salt and pepper. covers the asparagus in a layer. Serve chilled. ASIERGES BLANCHES BLANcIIES White asparagus with with cold cold sauces. White saucesL ASPERGES AVEC sAUcEs SAUCES FRorDEs FROIDES AvEc and drain. Cook the the asparagus asparagus and - Cook Arrange Arrange on a dish serve with one dish and serve one of of the following sauces: Mayonnaise, Mustard, Mus tard, Tartare, Vinaigrette Vinnigrette (see SAUCE). SAUCE). White White asparagus with hot bot sauces. sauces. ASeERGEs ASPERGES BLANCHES asparagus with BLANcHEs AVEc AVEC sAUcEs SAUCES CHAUDES cHAUDES asparagus in salted water - Cook the asparagus and drain. drain. Serve the following following sauces: and Serve separately one one of the sauces: Butter, Bdtarde, Bâtarde, Chantilly, Maltaise, Chantilly, Cream, Cream, Hollandaise, Maltaise, Mousseuse, Noisette (see SAUCE). SAUCE). ASPERULA. ASpERULE ASPÉRULE - Plant which is is both both useful useful and ASPERUI"A. pleasant. It It is called sweet is also also called sweet woodruff, mugwort, sweet sv)eet grass and quinsy quinsy wort. wort. Its ftowers are used as as an grass and Its white white flowers are used infusion, and for distilling distilling liqueurs. ln some sorne northern northem countries it is is also used for flavouring fiavouring In sausages. sausages.

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putting slices It consists consists of ofputting slices or fillets of dishes. It of chicken, game,

- Term which applies to to a arranging cold ASPIC a way of arranging

various meats, fish, fish, vegetables, vegetables, fruit, fruit, etc., etc., into into moulded moulded various jelly. Many authors authors believe that that this this name name comes cornes from from the Many coldness recalls that that of the ca lied asp, asp, 'whose icy coldness serpent called jelly', jelly', but it is more probably derived from the Greek word aspis, which which means buckler buckler or shield. It was, in fact, in this aspr,s, moulds were made; others were made in form that the first moulds a coiled coiled snake, snake, doubtless to justify the name name the shape of a 'aspic'. Whatever its its origin, origin, the the word word aspic is is applied applied to to very Whatever preparations: foie Joie gras gras in in aspic, aspic, chicken chicken in in aspic, different preparations: partridge in aspic, lobster lobs ter in aspic, aspic, fillets fiUets of oJ sole in aspic. For methods methods of aspic aspic preparations preparations of meat, meat, chicken, For game, shellfish and and fish, fish, see see the the following following entries in their game, alphabetical order: CHICKEN, CHICKEN, LOBSTER, PHEASANT, PHEASANT, alphabetical SHRIMP, SOLE. SHRIMP, made of of fruit and set in in jelly jelly moulds are also Sweet dishes made ca lied aspics. aspics. The word word aspic is is used, used, too, too, for the actual called jelly. jelly. ln In his book book devoted to cold co Id enties, entrées, Car6me Carême describes the method of of preparing preparing aspic jelly as follows: 'Clean 'Clean and and singe singe 2 2 chickens, chickens, wash wash them them thoroughly, thoroughly, truss them, and and place place in a small marmite marmite (q.v.) with a round truss of veal, veal, other other veal trimmings and a little little ham. Add 6 boned of and blanched calves' feet, fill the marmite marmite with water, water, and from the flame. A leave to cook on a hot stove, but away from much lighter lighter aspic, aspic, easy easy to to clarify, cJarify, is is obtained obtained by by this much process. Skim thoroughly, and add half half a bay leaf, leaf, a little process. and basil, basil, a bunch of parsley and and spring onions, onions, 2 thyme and carrots and 2 onions. on ions. Keep Keep the the jelly jelly simmering simmering gently and 2 carrots for 4 hours. for 'Whisk 4 4 egg egg whites whites with a a glass glass of ofwhite or Madeira, Madeira, 'Whisk white wine or you wish to and the the same same amount amollnt of ofveal stock if ifyou to give give it it some sorne veal stock and colour; if if not, not, omit omit the the stock. stock. Add Add to to thejelly, the jelly, place place on on a a high colour; fla me, and whisk until until the mixture is boiling. Turn heat to flame, Taste, in case a little little salt is needed. very low. Taste, Coyer the pan and leave leave to simmer for about about 2 minutes, Cover be clear. cJear. mixture should be when the mixture napkin in water, water, wring wring out out well, weil, and and tie lie the Rinse a a napkin Rinse corners to an upturned chair. Strain the aspic through the napkin.' napkin.' Carême also also describes describes how how aspic aspic should be be coloured: coloured: Cardme of the principal presentations presentations of of cold co Id dishes consists consists 'One of these clarified, c1arified, transparent transparent jellies jellies of 2 colours only of these one should be be white white and the other other of of a good strong colour.' one 55 55

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j

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Arrangement of of aspic, after after Arrangement Carême Car6me

ASPIC ASPIC

Aspic moulds moulds Aspic

great Laguipière perfect colourings how the great Laguipibre achieved achieved perfect colourings He tells how jellies: 'Melt granulated sugar 'Melt granulated sugar and, and, without without moistenmoistenfor his jellies: ing it, it, let let it it colour colour little little by little on by little on red-hot red-hot cinders, cinders, which which ing quarter of should take take about about a a qu~rter of an an hour. hour. When When it it becomes becomes should amber-red caramel, glass of with half caramel, moisten moisten with half a a glass water and of water and amber-red place the pan over hotter fiame. flame. After the pan over a a hotter After several several minutes minutes of of place a clear amber-red, totally clear amber-red, totally unlike unlike the boiling it becomes a the bitter bitter get black caramel w which is allowed allowed to to get black on on a a high high fiame flame and and caramel hich is commonly called called "monkey's "monkey's blood.'" blood."' which is commonly The modern modern method process is method of given of the the clarifying clarifying process The is given under the the entryentitled entry entitled JELLIES, and and in in the below. under the one one below. jelly (4| quarts, of aspic quarts, litres (41 aspic jeUy To c1arify clarify 5 Clarification of 5 litres - To jelly stock, quarts) jelly (l lb.) lean 5| quarts) add 3 egg g. (lIb.) stock, add egg whites and and 500 lean 500 g. minced beef. Add a a tablespoon oftarragon of tarragon and and a a tablespoon tablespoon chervil, roughly roughly chopped. Whisk Whisk lightly. of chervil, lightly. Heat Heat the the stock stock a little until it is is tepid, tepid, skimming skimming off a off aIl all the the fat: fat: this this is is imimto the the boil, whisking all portant. Bring to all the Lower the the time. time. Lower the heat and and simmer gently for for 35 minutes. heat Rinse a napkin in water, wring out out thoroughly, thoroughly, and and strain strain aspic through through the napkin. the aspic jelly can Aspic jelly can be be fiavoured flavoured with with various various dessert dessert wines: port, sherry, Frontignan, port, Frontignan, sherry, Marsala, Marsala, Madeira, Madeira, Malvasia (Malvoisie). These wines, wines, which which are are only added added to to the jelly when it is used in the proportion of is tepid, are used per litre of 1 I dl. dl. per litre (3 tablespoons per pint) of (3 of jelly in the the case of dessert dessert wines, and 2 dl. in the case of Champagne, Sauternes, Alsatian, or or other white wines. Instructions Instructions for making various aspic jellies will be found found Meat jellies. jellies. under JELLIES, Meat Aspics in moulds mouldsAspics set in plain moulds, charlotte- Aspics are set moulds or moulds with a ho le in type moulds hole in the middle. Coat the mould with a a thin layer of as indicated in of jelly, as in pressing into the recipes. Decorate by pressing into the jelly small pieces truffie, cooked lean harn of trufre, ham or tongue, and white of hardand white egg for meat, meat, chicken game aspics. boiled egg chicken or or game aspics. For fish fish or aspics use use pieces pieces of trufre, truffie, white shellfish aspics white of of hard-boiled hard-boiled coral of shellfish or slivers of smoked salmon. egg, the coral

st

Aspic crofitons. Aspic croOtons. CROÛTONS cRo0roNs DE DE GELÉE cnrfs -- Aspics Aspics cut into cut into jelly must shapes -- triangles. shapes triangles, rectangles, rectangles, crescents, crescents, etc. etc. The The jelly must be clear clear and and solid. solid. be When a a number number of When of croûtons crotitons have pour the have to to be be made, made, pour the jelly into into a jelly a large large baking baking dish dish to quite firm, to set. set. When When it it is is quite firm, turn turn out out onto onto a a damp damp cloth cloth which which has has been been stretched stretched and and fastened to fastened a table. to a table. Cut with aa knife Cut up up with knife if if the the croûtons cro0tons are are rectilinear in pastry-cutter rectilinear tter if in shape, shape, or with a or with a pastry-cu if they they are round. are round. The technical The technical term gelie means crotttonner de term croûtonner de gelée means to to surround surround sorne jelly cut some cold cold food food with with croûtons cro0tons of ofjelly cut into into shapes. shapes. Aspic Aspic of freshwater crayfish of freshwater crayfish tails. Asprc DE DE QUEUES tails. ASPIC euEUEs p'fcnnvrssns -- Cook D'ÉCREVISSES (see Cook the crayfish à d la la mirepoix mirepoix (see the crayfish MIREPOIX). MIREPOIX). Shell Shell the the tails plain tails and and arrange airange them them in in aa plain round round mould mould which which has has been coated withjelly. been coated with jelly. Fill Fill the the mould mould either YFISH) or (see CRA either with with a a Crayfish Crayfi,sh mousse mousse (see CRAYFISH) or a aRussian Russian (see SALAD). salad salad (see SALAD). Chili ice. Chill on on ice. porssoNs - This Aspic Aspic of of fish. fish. ASPIC esprc DE DE POISSONS can be be made with made with - This can fish fish of various kinds, of various kinds, cut cut in in fillets, fillets, slices slices or medallions. Fill or medallions. Fill the the middle middle of of the the aspic aspic dish dish with with a a fish fish mousse mousse appropriate appropriate to particular recipe; to the the particular with Russian recipe; with Russian salad; salad; or or with with any any mixture mixture normally normally used used for for cold cold dishes. dishes. Aspic gras J. Aspic of foie gras plain of foie I. ASPIC mplc DE DE FOIE ForE GRAS GRAs -- Coat Coat a a plain jelly and mould mould with with jelly gras, and fill fill it it with with uniform uniform slices slices of of foie foie gras, garnished garnished with with large large slivers slivers of of truffies. truffies. Fill Fill the the mould mould with with jelly. Leave half-set jelly. Leave on plate or on ice ice to to set. set. Serve Serve on a plate on a or in in aa glass glass dish. dish. Aspic gras II. Aspic of of foie foie gras II. ASPIC lsplc DE DE FOIE ForE GRAS GRAS -- Coat Coat a a mould mould jelly (or jelly fiavoured with port-fiavoured port-flavoured jelly (or jelly flavoured with with any any other other heavy wine). Fill heavy wine). Fill with with truBles truffes cut cut into into neat neat round round slices, slices, round pieces of pickled tongue, round pieces of ham ham or or pickled tongue, and, and, if if desired, desired, the the whites whites of of hard-boiled eggs eggs cut cut in in rings. rings. Fill the mould withjeIly. with jelly. Chill on ice ice or or in in the Chill on the refrigerator. refrigerator. To To serve, serve, turn turn the aspic onto the aspic onto a flat dish, a fiat dish, or or onto onto slices slices of of buttered bread. If served bread. If served on a dish, on a dish, decorate decorate with with chopped chopped jelly,and jelly triangles. jelly.and triangles. This This aspic aspic can can also also be be made made by filling the mould with by filling the mould with foie gras slices gras cut slices of of/oie cut out out with a a shell-shaped shell-shaped scoop. scoop.

Lobster in in aspic (Battendier. (Battendier. Phot. Phol. Larousse) Larousse) Lobster

Sole (Battendier. Phot. in aspic Sole in aspic (Battendier. Phot. Larousse) Larousse)

56 56
Beef pot-ou-feu (Lasserre. Phot. Nicolas) Beef po t-au-feu (Lasserr e. P ho t. N ico las)

'lnr.

ASPIC

Chicken in aspic (Roberr Carrier)

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Roast garnished witb beans and strips of red pepper, Roastsirloin garnished sirloinof beef withFrench French ofbeef beans and strips of red pepper, carrot aod potato baskets (Phol. .\Iicolas) sticks and potato baskets (Pfrot. N it'olas\ carrotsticks

ASSIETTE
Aspic of frogs' legs I à I'ancienne. l'ancienne. Asprc ASPIC DE DE GRENouTLLES GRENOUILLES A À t'lNcreNue L'ANCIENNE - Poach trimmed frogs' legs legs in white wine flavoured thyme and a bay flavoured with a sprig sprig of ofthyme bay leaf. Leave Leave to cool in in the the liquor. Iiquor. Drain, Drain, dry, and and coat half half of of them them completely completely with a white white Chaud-froid Chaud-froid sauce based based on meatless meatless stock, stock, and and the other other half half with with a Chaud-froid Chaud-froid sauce coloured coloured with crayfish butter (see (see SAUCE, Compound Compound sauces). sauces). Lay Lay the frogs' frogs' legs on a wire tray, one by one, and leave them them to get quite cold. Decorate with truffies truffles cut in thin slices. slices. Coat Coat with aspic aspic jelly. jelly. Arrange Arrange the the frogs' frogs' legs legs round round the sides of of a mould which has has been been coated coated with jelly, jelly, alternating them with with peeled crayfish crayfish tails. tails. Fill the middle middle of of the the mould mould with a Parisian salad (see (see SALAD), dressed dressed with mayonnaise mayonnaise which which has has been been thickened thickened with gelatine. gelatine. Pour Pour a thin layer layer of aspic aspic jelly on ice. jelly over over the the whole, whole, and and chill chillon To To serye, serve, turn turn out onto onto a dish dish and and decorate decorate with a border border of of jelly jelly cro0tons croûtons (q.v.). (q.v.).

of cold co Id meats meats (Laroussel (Larousse) Plate of

Assiettes volantes - This This term term describes describes a a selection of several items items of food food on one one plate, in the the manner manner of an several hors-d'œuvre, particularly particularly various kinds of salty salty foods foods cut hors-d'euvre, thin slices. slices. in thin the beginning beginning of the the nineteenth Assiettes garnies - At the century, this this term term also also applied to ta a dish. century, Carême says: 'Lunch consisted of six assleltes assiettes on which Car€me cutlets, fish, chicken, chic ken, game, game, a side-dish of of vegetables, vegetables, veal cutlets, and soft-boiled soft-boiled eggs were were served.' served.' and (about 25 miles) from ASTI - Italian Italian town town situated 40 km. (about ASTI Turin. It It is is the the ancient ancient Asta Asta Colonia or Asta Asta Pompeia Pompeia of of the Turin. Romans, and is is famous famous for its sparkling wine, made from Romans, Moscato grapes, grapes, called called Asti Asti Spumante Spumante (see WINE). WINE). Moscato ASTRAGAL (Milk vetch). ASTRAGALE ASTRAGALE - Many varieties of ASTRAGAL astragal grow in Asia; it is also also found found in the the temperate astragal regions of of the the Lebanon. Lebanon. One One variety variety of of milk milk vetch vetch produces regions gum tragacanth, tragacanth, which which is is used used in confectionery confectionery and pastrypastrygum making. making.

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Little Little chicken chicken aspics aspics

Aspic of of poultry poultry and and feathered feathered grme. game. Asplc ASPIC DE DE voLAILLEs VOLAlLLES Aspic Coat slices slices of of chicken chicken or or game game with with white white or or brown brown ChaudChaudCoat froid sauce sauce (see (see SAUCE) SAUCE) and and put put them them in in a a mould mould which which froid jelly. Fill has been been coated coated with with aspic aspicjelly. Fill the the mould mould with with either either a a has chicken or or game game mousse, mousse, or or with with some sorne other other mixture mixture used used chicken

for for cold cold dishes. dishes.

of shrimps shrimps or or other other shellfish. shellfish. Asprc ASPIC DE DE cREvETTEs CREVEITES Aspic of Aspic Coat an an aspic aspic mould mould with with clear clear fish fish jelly. jelly. Decorate Decorate the the sides sides Coat with with peeled peeled shrimp shrimp tails tails and and small small pieces pieces of of truffie. truffle. Fill Fill the the of the the mould mould with with a a cold cold shrimp shrimp mousse mousse mixed mixed with with middle of middle shrimp tails tails and and truffies truffles cut cut into into large large dice. dice. Fill Fill the the mould mould shrimp with jelly, jelly, and and leave leave on on ice ice to to set. set. with be prepared prepared in in the the same same way, way, using using Crayfish aspics aspics can can be Crayfish trimmed crayfish crayfish tails tails and and crayfish crayfish mousse. mousse. Spiny Spiny lobster lobster or or trimmed lobster aspics aspics are are made made by by Using using slices slices of of one one or or other other of of lobster these shellfish, shellfish, together together with with the the appropriate appropriate mousse. mousse. these ASSIETIE - See See PLATE. PLA TE. ASSIETTE of cold cold meats meats arranged arranged on on Assiette anglaise anglaise - Assortment Assortment of Assiette a plate plate or or a a dish. dish. a The assortment assortment usually usually consists consists of of York York ham, ham, salt salt beef, beef, The tongue, rib rib of of beef beef or or roast roast beef. beef. Mortadella, Mortadella, galantine, galantine, tongue, etc., are are sometimes sometimes added added to to it. it. etc., The meat meat is is garnished garni shed with with chopped chopped jelly, jelly, cress cress and and The gherkins. The The assiette assiette anglaise anglaise is is served served chiefly chiefly at at lunch. lunch. gherkins. The term term assiettes assiettesassorties assorties describes describes various various preparations preparations The served as as hors-d'euvre, hors-d'œuvre, thotgh though hors-d'euvre hors-d'œuvre ate are usually usually served served nowadays nowadays in in special special hors-teuvre hors-d'œuvre dishes. dishes. served

Astragal Astragal a. Astragalus AstragaJus of of Crete Crete b. b. Liquorice Liquorice vetch vetch c. c. Fruit Fruit a.

58 58

ATTELET AITELET
Another Another variety variety produces produces fruit fruit in the form of of pods, pods, which, which, the seeds seeds contained contained in in them them are are formed, formed, resemble resemble before the before wonns. worms. In In the the past past these pods pods used to be added to salads (to (to mystify mystify the guests guests !). !). Astragalus Astragalus pods pods are are also also pickled in vinegar, like like capers. vinegar, seeds of There is yet another variety of astragalus, the the seeds which, when ripe, are used in cookery. cookery. which,
vegetable ASTRINGENT - Binding, Binding, contracting. contracting. The The vegetable ASTRINGENT were cooked great number of dishes were cooked a great In In the past, when wh en a burning fue was actually burning in the fireplace, the thepart part where the fire (hearth). It stews hearth that It was in in the hearth that stews dtre (hearth). was called the âtre preparations which slowly long time were were slowly a long which take a and other preparations

of walnut cutch, bark bark of of oak, oak, quinquina, quinquina, leaves leaves of walnut tree, cutch,
bramble, lemon lemon juice, quinces, quinces, etc. arbutus tree and bramble,

owe their their properties to tannin. Among Among them are astringents owe

ASTRODERME - Sea fish of of an an unusual unusual appearance, appearance, ASTRODERME Sea fish round spots, yellowish pink on on the back back and sides with black round yellowish Young astrosilvery spots spots on on the the belly. belly. Young alternating with silvery This bellies. This dermes have have purplish-blue bodies bodies and and silvery silvery bellies. dermes is well known fei" d'America d'America by Nice fishermen, fishermen, is weil known fish, called fel of France along the the whole whole of the the Mediterranean Mediterranean coast coast of along (Côte d'Azur). (C6te bouillabaise. It is chiefly used as an ingredient ingredient for ..' for bouillabaise

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cooked, surrounded by hot coals. gas, in ovens heated by gas, All these dishes are today cooked in Ali protest gastronomes protest a few few gastronomes oil. Quite coal or or oil. electricity, coal electricity, Quite a maintaining that that dishes cooking, maintaining of cooking, against these methods of against prepared in this way as as when cooked by by cannot taste so good prepared cannot the old methods. When nothing in the claim. When Experience shows that there is nothirig Experience (and kitchen utensils have today today used (and well-made utensils are used weIl-made perfection), food cooked point of food can can be be cooked high point of perfection), a high reached a reached product and whatever whatever the the method. successfully, whatever whatever the product successfully,

plant of family as as of the the same same family Herbaceous plant ATRIPLEX ATRIPLEX - Herbaceous genus Chenopodium. goosefoot genus Chenopodh*n. and the the goosefoot spinach and spinach garden orach; it is is as garden orach; it known as is commonly commonly known The atriplex atriplex is The prepared like like It is grown aIl is prepared France. It all over over France. and grown cultivated and cultivated spinach. (See ORACH.) spinach.

reign ofMarcus ive in the reign still al alive Aurelius. He was still of Marcus Aurelius. in the reign year A.D. of Alexander Alexander Severus, about the year 228. xo.228. Only one of his entitled Deipnosohas survived, entitled works has his works phistai or Specialists a gem of erudition, is a phistai in Dining, which is Specialists in giving much much information would history which we would giving information on ancient history otherwise lack. In Specialists relating ln Specialists in Dining, there are several passages relating to both practical uses, both various uses, and their their various fruit and and fruit to flowers and and pleasurable. and pleasurable. ATHÉNIENNE (À (A V) dishes various dishes L') applying to to various ATIffiMENNE - Name applying which are and onion, and fried onion, lightly fried flavoured with with lightly are usually usually flavoured garnished garnished with aubergines, sweet pimentos. and sweet aubergines, tomatoes and

ATHENA EUS - Greek writer, born in Naucratis, Naucratis, in Egypt, ATHENAEUS

(Collection of Phot. Larousse) Iarousse) Antique of Dr Dr GOllschalk. Gottschalk. Phal. Antique attelets attelets(Collecrion

Athérine

ATHÉRINE body, fish, with with a a long, long, spindle-shaped spindle-shaped body, ATfffiRINE -- Little Little fish, covered posterior end. The sides sides end. The with rounded rounded scales scales at at the the posterior covered with have the head is flattened on on the the top, top, the have a a silvery silvery stripe, stripe, the the head is flattened upper th are jaw is are very very lower, and and the the tee teeth is shorter shorter than than the the lower, upper jaw smal!. small. Two coasts of of France, France, fish are Two species species of are known known on on the the coasts of this this fish where prêtre and faux éperlan. where they are called calledprdtre andfaux iperlan. they are Common English are silversideand and sand-smelt, sand-smelt, names in in English are silverside Common narnes and species are are fishermen take enormous catches. catches. Other Other species and the the fishermen take enormous found coast lakes. lakes. found in in the and Mediterranean Mediterranean coast the estuaries estuaries and In fish. Its Its fiesh flesh is is In the smelts correspond correspond to to this this fish. the U.S.A., U.S.A., smelts delicate delicate in in flavour. flavour. Athérines are usuaIly in deep deep fat, fat, fried in Athirines are usually fried but for small small bass can be be applied applied to to this this recipes suitable suitable for bass can all recipes but ail fish. fish. ÂTRE (Hearth stone) today, This word word is is no no longer longer used used today, Afnn (Hearth stone) -- This except pastrypart of the baker's baker's or or pastryexcept to to describe describe the the central central part of the cook's oyen. cook's oven. 59 59

hasta, meanmeanATTELET Latin hasta, from the the Latin This word word cornes comes from ATTELET -- This isoften often past was ing It is spelt hatelet. hatelet.It was spelt in the the past and in staff or rod, and ing staff or rod, which used, metal skewers skewers on on which little metal describe !ittle incorrectly, to to describe used, incorrectly, various sweetbreads, lambs'sweetbreads, pieces of kidneys, lambs; meat, sheeps' sheeps' kidneys, of meat, various pieces larks, are threaded. threaded. larks, etc., etc., are To shape of ofaa in the the shape a little little utensil utensil in precise, an attelet is is a an allelet To be be precise, with mental top. pin These, with top. These, pin or with an an orna ornamental skewer, but but with or skewer, truffles, food items of of food other items and other crayfish and cocks' combs, combs, crayfish truffies, cocks' threaded hot or or cold cold for decorating decorating hot solely for are used usedsolely on them, them, are threaded on dishes grand style. style. in the the grand dishes served served in For grand entrées, advocated the the entries, Carême Car0me advocated For arranging arranging these thesegrand use cookery In modern modern cookery great number attelets. In number of of allelets. use of of aa great practice practically abandoned. abandoned. practice this has been been practically decoration has this decoration Modern decoration useof of any anydecoration as aarule, rule, the the use disdain, as Modern cooks cooks disdain, which edible. which is is not not actually actually edible. It Car6me's decorating Carême's probable that attelets decorating the allelets It is that the is probable entrées andthe effects theeffects in fact, fact, edible were,in edibleand removes were, entriesand and removes obtained beautiful. certainly beautifu!' obtained were were certainly

ATTENDU ATTENDU
ATTENDU -- French French culinary culinaryterm term applied applied to toaadish dish or or ATTENDU beverage the the consumption consumption of of which which is is intentionally intentionally postpostbeverage poned in in order pheasant should order to to improve improve it. it. Thus Thusaa pheasant shouldbe be poned attendu, that that is, is, kept kept hung, hung, before before being being cooked cooked and andeaten. eaten. attendu,
(Skewer) -- In ATTEREAU (Skewer) In his his Dictionnaire Dictionnaire de decuisine cuisine et et ATTEREAU (Paris 1836), d iconomie (Paris 1836), Burnet, Burnet, one-time one-time steward steward of of the the d'économie royal household, gives the household, gives following definition the following definition of of attereau: attereau: royal 'Name which which keepers keepers of of eating-houses eating-houses attribute attribute to kind to aa kind 'Name of ragoût ragofit made made of of fiUet fillet of of veal, veal, cut cut in in very very thin thin slices. slices. They They of are studded studded with with lardoons lardoons and pie dish and cooked cooked in in aa pie dish with with aa are poured over little stock stock poured over them.' them.' little Car€me, however, however, in in his published before his works works published before Burnet's Burnet's Carême, dictionary, describes describes a a method method of preparation of of preparation of attereaux attereaux dictionary, which indicates indicates that that this this dish dish is is in in no no way way aa ragoût. ragofrt. In ln which modern cookery, cookery, attereau attereau describes describes both both the the metal metal skewer skewer modern on which which various various ingredients ingredients are are threaded, threaded, and and the the dish dish on itself. This This is is usualJy usually served served as as an an hors-d'œuvre, hors-d'euvre, but but can can also also itself. be served served as as a a small small entrée entrde if if supplemented supplemented by garnish. by a a garnish. be Attereaux differ differ from from brochettes brochettes in in being being dipped dipped in in aa Attereaux give them sauce to to give them a a finn firm coating, coating, rolled rolled in in breadcrumbs, breadcrumbs, sauce and usually deep-fried. deep-fried. and The ingredients ingredients which which make make up up the the attereaux attereaux can can be be The cooked on on wooden wooden skewers, skewers, and and then then transferred transferred to to sil silver ver attelets. The The attereaux attereaux can can also also be be served served without without the attelets. the on which they they were cooked. cooked. skewers on sweet courses can prepared en can be be prepared m atlereau, attereau, the Sweet the method method being the given for same as the same as that given for savoury savoury atlereaux. attereaux. being Attereaux à i la la chalonaise chalonaise Thread the-attereaux the-attereaux with Attereaux with - Thread combs and and kidneys cooked cooked in in a a white white court-bouillon cocks' combs court-bouillon (q.v.), and and drained. Add mushrooms and and trufHes. (q.v.), truffies. Dip the the atlereaux attereaux in (see SAUCE). in Villeroi Villeroi sauce sauce (see Dip SAUCE). Roll Roll them in breadcrumbs breadcrumbs and fry in smoking smoking hot deep them deep fat. fat. Drain, Drain, season with with fine fine sait, salt, and and arrange arrange on paper season on a a napkin napkin or or paper garnished with fried fried parsley. doyley, garnished Atterearx à la duchesse (dessert) i la Attereaux Prepare a a mixture mixture of of - Prepare (see CUSTARD, crdme frite CUSTARD, Fried Fried custard) crème frite (see custard) to to which which have have been added added 2 crushed macaroons and and 1 I tablespoon tablespoon crystalcrystallised lised fruit, cut in very small dice and and steeped steeped in in rum. rum. When firm, thread firm, thread slices of this this mixture on on the the atlereau. attereau. Roll Roll in in very fine breadcrumbs and deep-fry in in smoking hot hot fat. fat. Attereaux I l'6cossaise l'écossaise up the Attereaux à the attereaux attereaux using using - Make up pieces (see OFF Pick led ox AL or ARIETY pieces of Pickled ox tongue tongue (see OFFAL or V VARIETY MEATS), mushrooms, and MEATS), and rather rather thick thick slices slices of trufHes. truffies. Finish recipe for Finish as described described in the recipe Attereaux à for Attereaux d la chalonaise. Attereaux Attereaux i àh la maralchlre maraîchère Use pieces of turnip-rooted - Use celery celery (celeriac) (celeriac) previously previously simmered simmered in butter; mushrooms, and cooked ham ham for for the and pieces pieces of cooked the attereaux. attereazx. Finish Finish as as Attereaux à described in the recipe for Attereaux described d la Ia chalonaise. Attereaux i à la nigoise niçoise - Make Attereaux Make up the attereaux with large stoned olives olives stuffed stuffed with a a pur6e purée of stoned of anchovies, anchovies, mushrooms, of pickled tunny. Dip them in in Villeroi pieces of and pieces (see Villeroi sauce sauce (see of concentrated tomato purée, SA UCE), with a tablespoon of SAUCE), tomato pur6e, add chopped tarragon. tarragon. Finish Finish as as described and add described in the the recipe Atlereaux d à la chalonaise. chalonaise. for Attereaux Attereaux i à la normande normande - Make Make up up the the attereaux by Attereaux attereaux by plump mussels mussels cooked d à la marinidre, marinière, drained, threading on plump threading drained, and stuffed stuffed with with finely finely pounded fish forcemeat. Add mushand cut in in round round slices. Finish Finish as as described described in the the recipe recipe rooms cut rooms for Attereaux Atlereaux d à la chalonaise. chalonaise. for Attereaux ià la la pi6montaise piémontaise - Make up the the attereaux with Attereaux with of polenta polenta (q.v.) (g.v.) cooked cooked in in butter, butter, and thick thick slices slices of of slices of slices truffies. Dip Dip them them in in egg and and breadcrumbs breadcrumbs and and deep-fry deep-fry truffies. in sizzling sizzling fat. fa t. in Attereaux ià la la Saint-Hubert Saint-Hubert - Make up up the the attereaux attereaux by by Attereaux of pheasant, pheasant, grouse, grouse, or or any any other other winged winged thread ing on on slices slices of threading Add sliced sliced mushrooms mushrooms and and pieces pieces of of cooked cooked lean lean game. Add game. Dip the the attereaux atlereaux rn in Villeroi sauce sauce (see (see SAUCE) SAUCE) to to ham. Dip ham.

whichhas hasbeen beenadded concentratedgame gamestock added concentrated stockreduced reducedto which to (q.u.).Finish afumet (g.v.). Finish as asdescribed described in inthe therecipe recipe forAttereaux afumet for Attereaux Iachalonaise. chalonaise. àdla pannesan(Parma (Parma style) Attereaur au auparmesan style)- - Cook Attereaux Cooksemolina semolina (q.v.)in inbutter, butter,and andwhen firm,thread whenfinn, threadslices the attereaux. (q.v.) sliceson on the attereaux. Addslices slicesof ofGruyère Gruydre cheese. cheese. Add Dip the theattereaux attereauxin inegg eggand andbreadcrumbs Dip breadcrumbsand anddeep-fry. deep-fry. Attereauxof ofcalves' calves'sweetbreads sweetbreads ViUeroi. Attereaux Villeroi.ATTEREAUX ATTEREAux DE DE RIsDE DEVEAU vEAU VILLEROI vrLLERor - - Braise Braise uniform piecesof RIS uniform pieces ofcalves' calves' sweetbreads in inaa white (q.v.)and white court-bouillon court-bouillon(q.v.) sweetbreads andthread thread them on onthe theattereaux. attereaux. Finish Finishas them asdescribed described in inthe therecipe recipefor for Attereaux àdla chalonaise. lachalonaise. Atlereaux Attereaux of ofchicken chickenlivers livers ài la Attereaux lamirepoix. mirepoix.ATTEREAUX ATTEREAUX DE DE ForESDE DEVOLAILLE VoLATLLE À FOIES ALA u MIREPOIX unBpox - - Fry Frychicken chickenlivers liversin in butter, drain drain and butter, and cool. cool. Thread Thread them themon onthe theatlereaux, attereaux. piecesof with pieces together with together of lean leancooked cooked ham, ham,and andsliced slicedmushmushrooms. Coat rooms. Coat the the atlereaux (q.v.)of attereaux with with aafondue root ofroot fondue (g.v.) pieces, roll vegetables vegetables cut cut into into very verysmall small pieces, roll in in breadcrumbs, breadcrumbs, and and finish finish as as described described in in the therecipe recipefor for Atlereaux Attereaux àdla la chalonaise. chalonaise. Attereaux TTEREA UX DE Attereaux of of lambs' lambs' brains brains Villeroi. Villeroi. AATTEREAUX DE CERVELLE cERvELLE D'AGNEAU D'AGNEAU VILLEROI VILLERoI - - Cut Cut up uplambs' lambs' brains brainsand and cook cook them in aa white (q.v.).Cool them in white court-bouillon court-bouillon (g.v.). anddrain, Cooland drain, and pepper, oil, and season season with with salt, salt, pepper, oil, aa few few drops drops of lemon of lemon juice, and juice, and a a liule little chopped parsley. Thread chopped parsley. Thread on onthe the atlereaux, attereaux, and and finish finish as as described in the described in the recipe recipe for for Allereaux Attereaux àdla la chalonaise. chalonaise. Atlereaux Attereaux of of calves' prepared in calves' brains brains are are prepared in the thesame same manner. manner.

Attereaux Attereaux of of lambs' lambs' sweetbreads sweetbreads Villeroi Villeroi

Attereaux Attereaux of of lambs' lambs' sweetbreads sweetbreads ViUeroi. Villeroi. ATTEREAUX ATTEREAUx DE DE Braise Braise lambs' lambs' sweetbreads sweetbreads in in a a white (q.v.) and white court-bouillon court-bouillon (g.v.) and thread thread them them on on the the atlereaux. attereaux. Finish Finish off as described off as described in in the the recipe recipe for for Atlereaux Attereaux à d la la chalonaise. chalonaise. Attereaux à la Villeroi can, in addition to the basic Attereaux d Ia Villeroi can. in addition to the basic element, also element, also contain contain mushrooms mushrooms cooked cooked in in white mushwhite mushroom court-bouillon and room court-bouillon and cut cut in in slices. slices. Attereaux of of ox palate. ATTEREAUX pALArs DE Attereaux ATTEREAT.Tx DE ox palate. DE PALAIS DE BOEUF BoEUF -Cut the the ox palate (cooked AL or (cooked as Cut ox palate as described described under under OFF OFFAL or VARIETY MEATS, MEATS, Ox palate), into VARIETY Ox palate\, into round round slices. Put them slices. Put them on attereaux allereaux with with alternate on alternate rows rows of of fried fried mushroom mushroom heads heads
RIS RIs D'AGNEAU D'AGNEAU VILLEROI vTLLERoI -

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AUBERGINE AUBERGINE
and slivers slivers of oftruffies. truffies. Coat Coat in in Villeroi Villeroi sauce sauce (see (see SAUCE) SAUCE) and and allow a\low to to cool. cool. Dip Dip thern them in in egg egg and and breadcrumbs breadcrumbs and and and rollinto intocylindrical cylindrical shape. shape. roll andarrange arrangeon onaanapkin napkingarnished garnished Deep-fryin insizzling sizzlingfat fatand Deep-fry withfried fried parsley. parsley.Serve Servewith withPirigueux Périgueuxsauce sauce(see (seeSAUCE). SAUCE). with Attereaux of of oysters oysters Monselet.Monselet. ATTEREAUx ATTEREAUX o'suitnns D'HUÎTRES Attereaux MoNsELET MONSELET - Poach Poach and and drain drain oysters. oysters. Thread Thread them them on on attereaux, together together with with cooked cooked mushrooms mushrooms cut cut in in slices, slices, attereaux, and thick thick slices slices of oftrufles. truffies. Finish Finish as as described described in in the the recipe recipe and for Attereaux Attereaux of ofbrains, brains, using using Villeroi Villeroi sauce sauce (see (see SAUCE) SA UCE) for based on on fish fish stock stock boiled boiled down down to to afumet afumet (q.v.). (q.v.). based of pineapple pineapple (dessert). (ilessert). ATTEREAUx ATTEREAUX D'ANANAS D'ANANAS Attereaux of Attereaux Thread pieces pieces of of pineapple pineapple on on the the attereaux. attereaux. Dip Dip them them in in a a Thread crème frite frite (see (see CUSTARD, CUST ARD, Fried Fried custurA custard) and and breadbreadcrime crumbs. Fry Fry in in smoking smoking hot hot deep deep fat, fat, drain, drain, and and sprinkle sprinkle crumbs. with fine fine sugar. sugar. with Apricot sauce sauce (see (see SAUCE) SAUCE) laced laced with with kirsch. kirsch. Serve with with Apricot Serve Attereaux of of salnon salmon - See See SALMON. SALMON. Attereaux Attereaux Pompadour Pompadour (dessert) (dessert) - Make Make up up the the attereaux attereaux Attereaux by threading threading on slices of of stale stale brioches, brioches, alternating altemating with with by cooked in in syrup syrup and halved apricots which which have have been been cooked halved drained. Dip them them in a crime crème frite (see (see CUSTARD, CUST ARD, Fried drained. custard) flavoured flavoured with with kirsch. kirsch. Roll in breadcrumbs breadcrumbs and fry custar{ hot fat. Drain, and sprinkle sprinkle with sugar. smoking hot in smoking of plum slices of Thread slices Attereaux Victoria Victoria (dessert) (dessert) - Thread Attereaux of slices of them with slices pudding on the attereaux, alternating them cooking apples which which have been steeped in rum. rum. Dip in egg cooking and Drain, and fat. Drain, and breadcrumbs and fry in smoking hot fat. in smoking and fry and dredge with fine sugar. dredge
dipartemenl, where Ard'dche département, AUBENAS - Small town in the Ardèche the not rival rival the may not truffies they may These, though though they found. These, are found. truffies are flavour of Périgord excellent. P6rigord truffies, are nevertheless excellent. preserves which which are are Marrons glacis are much-prized preserves are much-prized Marrons glacés made at Aubenas. Aubenas. a plant originatAUBERGIhIE AUBERGINE or or EGGPLANT EGGPLANT - Fruit Fruit of of a plant originatthe names of ing in France France under under the names of ing in in India, India, known known also also in France since *ilorgrna melongena and and morelle. morelle. It Ithas has been been cultivated cultivated in in France since In the U.S.A' it is century. seventeenth the of beginning the the beginning of the seventeenth century. In the U.S.A. it is called called eggplant. eggplant.· most used in There There ire are many many varieties varieties of of this this plant. plant. The The most used in vegetable and cookery long purple, purple, which which is is used used as as a a vegetable and cookery is is the the long are: the Bar' as as a a girnish. garnish. Among Among other other edible edible varieties varieties are: the Bargiant New purple aubergine,the round aubergine;the bentaie bentane aubergine; the round purple aubergine, the giant New York York aubergine, aubergine, and and the the round round Valencia Valencia aubergine. aubergine. for cootMethods Methods of ofpreparation. preparation. There There are are many many recipes recipes for cookgreatly. ing and the the initial initial preparation preparation varies varies greatly. ing aubergines, aubergines, and oven or in the baked stewed, to be is vegetable When this When this vegetable is to be stewed, baked in the oyen or make its fried, fried, it it must must be be steeped steeped in in salt salt for for 30 30 minutes minutes to to make its excess excess water water ooze ooze out. out. The The aubergines aubergines are are then then thoroughly thoroughly dried and cooked cooked as as indicated indicated in in the the recipes. recipes. dried and or in butter Various Various uses. uses. Aubergines, Aubergines, cut cut in in dice dice and and fried fried in butter or eggs (sur le oil, oil, can can be be used used as as a a garnish garrush for for the the following: following: eggs (sur le omelette); in an an omelette); plat, scrambled, poached, plat, scrambled, poached, fried, fried, or or cooked cooked in noisettes; ot noisettes; cutlets or fish meunibre; meunière; lamb lamb or or mutton mutton chops, chops, cutlets fish (see CHICKEN)' cocotte en or fried chicken tournedosiand tournedos; and chicken fried or en cocotte (see CHICKEN). can grilled, aubergines aubergines can fried or or grilled, lengthways, fried half lengthways, Sliced in Sliced in half fish. fillets of of fish. poached eggs, or fillets eggs' or of poached arrangement of in the be used be used in the arrangement be grilled, they can be they can or grilled, fried or and fried slices and in thick thick slices cut in Peeled. cut Peeled, tournedos noisettes, escalopes, for a foundation as used used as a foundation for escalopes, noisettes, tournedos pieces of meat. of meat. small pieces and other other small and Cut aubergines. Cut 2 firm firm aubergines. Peel 2 h crème crbme i la Aubergines à - Peel Aubergines steep in salt for (+ inch) and steep thick, and inch) thick, cm. Ct slices t round slices in round them in ] cm. them in salt for pan or or saut6 pan in a a sauté in butter butter in simmer in and simmer Dry, and minutes. Dry, 30 minutes. 30 pan. frying pan. heavy frying heavy sance (} pint, Cream sauce pint,3 cup) Cream ltdl' add I! Ulfore serving, serving, add fuit before Just dl. (i 1 cup) auberthe auberdamage the not to to damage care not (see SAUCE). taking care Stir, taking SAUCE). Stir, (see dish. a vegetable vegetable dish. in a gines. Arrange Arrange in gines. Boil cream- Boil (+ pint, pint, It 1| cups) cups) cream. dl. (t 3 dl. with 3 pan juice with the panjuice Dilute the Dilute (2 oz', g. (2 50 g. add 50 and add heat, and the heat, from the remove from hali remove by half, down by down oz., aubergines. pour over the aubergines. over the and pour Strain and fresh butter. butter. Strain cup) fresh t* cup) aubergines the aubergines Cut the FRITEs -- Cut AUBERcINEs FRITES aubergines. AUBERGINES friea aubergines. Fried pan plunge into deep pan into aadeep and plunge flour, and with flour, dredge with slices, dredge thin slices, in thin in onaa arrange on and arrange salt,and fine salt, with fine season with Drain, season oil. Drain, sizzling oil. of sizzling of napkin. napkin. into cutinto also be becut canalso deep-frying can for deep-frying intended for Aubergines intended Aubergines fan-wise. pieces, or cut fan-wise. orcut square pieces, thick square thick in lengthwise in aubergineslengthwise gratin -- Cut theaubergines Cut the au gratin Aubergines au Aubergines dish, inaadish, leave in and leave incisions and fewshallow shallow incisions Mike aa few half. Make half. hotoil. oil. insizzling fryin sizzlinghot Dry, then thenfry with salt. salt.Dry, thickly with sprinkling thickly sprinkling pulpwithout without outthe thepulp scoopout carefully scoop spoon carefully andwith witha Drain,and Drain, a spoon an addto pulp,and toititan andadd thepulp, Chop skin. Ch outsideskin. theoutside damaging the damaging op the (q.v.)mixture andaatablespoon tablespoon mixtureand duxelles(q.v.) quantity of ofduxelles equal quantity equal parsley. ofchopped chopped parsley. of putthem them andput mixture,and withthis thismixture, skinswith aubergineskins ile aubergine Fill the Fill finely withfinely Sprinklewith dish.Sprinkle fireproofdish. oiledfireproof oroiled buttered or intoaabuttered into or meltedbutter butteror addmelted toasted,add freshor ortoasted, gratedbreadcrumbs, breadcrumbs, fresh grated thetop. toP. brown the andbrown ofoil, oil,and fewdrops dropsof aafew (see SAUCE) Demi'glace(see ofDemi-glace pipea aborder borderof Cooked,pipe Whencooked, When SAUCE) aubergines. theaubergines. around the around aubergines, Halveaubergines, gratinà i la lacatalane catalane- - Halve augratin Auberginesau Aubergines egg hard-boiledegg with1Ihard-boiled mixititwith it,and andmix pulp,ch chop thepulp, scoopout outthe scoop op it, o-nign choppedonion ofchopped tablespoon Adda atablespoon finely.Add upfinely. choppedup chopped of finely offinely tablespoonof inoil, oil,a atablespoon friedin lightlyfried hasbeen beenIightly whiifihas which garlic. parsleyand andgarlic. choppedparsley somechopped gratedbreadcrumbs, breadcrumbs,sorne grated above. as cookingas Finishcooking Finish above. as Halve aubergines, gratinà il'italienne I'italienne- -Halve au Aubergines aubergines, as Aubergines au gratin quantity of pulp withan an equal chopped mixthe tfechopped andmix above, above, and pulp with equal quantity of garlic. cookFinishcookparsley and chopped little and risotto risotto and aa little chopped parsley and garlic. Finish ing as above. ing as above. Method languedocienne- -Method gratinà i lala au Auberginesau Aubergines gratin languedocienne asas meat' sausage withsausage halves aubergine theaubergine fillingthe above,filling above, halves with meaL above. as cookingas Finish cooking above. Finish

3. 3. Very large round purple Very early dwarf purple dwarfpurple purple4.4. Very early round large Very

Varieties aubergines aubergines of Varietiesof 1. 1. Long Very early Barbentane Barbentane Very early purple2.2. Longpurple

6l 61

AUBERGINE AUBERGINE

Aubergines Aubergines Imam Imam Baaldi Baaldi (Robert (Robert Carrier) Carrier)

62 62

AUK
Aubergines Aubergioes au au gratin gratin à la la portugaise portugaise - Method Method as as above. above.

Fill Fi)) the the aubergine aubergine halves halves with with their their chopped chopped pulp pulp to to which which

i

-

has an equal equal quantity quantity of of chopped chopped tomatoes tomatoes has been been added added an lightly in butter, butter, chopped chopped onion, onion, parsley parsley and and garlic. garlic . lightly fried fried in cooking as as above. above. Finishcooking Finish Aubergines la reinereine - Method Melhod as as above. ahove. Fill Fil) the the Auberginesau augratin gratiniàla aubergine an aubergine halves halves with with their their chopped chopped pulp pulp mixed mixed with with an equal equaJ quantity quantity of of salpicon salpicon (q.v.) (q.v.) of of chicken crucken bound bound with with 22 tablespoons tablespoons (3 (3 tablespoons) tablespoons) thick thick Velouti Velouté s&tce sauce (see (see SAUCE). as above. above . SAUCE). Finish Finish cooking cooking as Aubergines ta toulousainetoulousaine- Peel Peel the the aubergines, aubergines, Aubergines au au gratin gratin iIII la cut ina a dish dish cut into into thick truck slices, slices, across across or or lengthways, lengthways, and and leave leave in sprinkled pan of of hot hot oil. oil. sprinkled with with salt. salt. Dry, Dry, and and toss toss in in a a pan Arrange in layers layers in in a a fireproof fireproof dish dish in in rows, rows, alternating alternating Arrange in with of tomatoes tomatoes cut eut in in half half and and also also with an an equal equal quantity quantity of tossed in in oil. oil. tossed Sprinkle SprinkJe generously generously with witb freshly freshly grated grated breadcrumbs breadcrumbs mixed Pour on a a little littJe oil oil mixed with wilh chopped chopped garlic garlic and and parsley. parsley. Pour in the the oven. oyen . and brown brown in and This is sometimes somelimes called called aubergines aubergines d ci la ia This dish dish is
Aubergines Aubergioes au gratin i li la la turque turque - Fill Fill aubergine au bergine halves halves with their chopped pulp quantity of of pulp mixed mixed with with an an equal quantity braised braised chopped mutton, mutton, and rice cooked in in water (taking (taking

languedocienne. languedocienne.

in equal equal proportions). proportions). Add Add chopped garlic garlic and parsley, of cayenne. cayenne. Brown the top. top . parsley, and a small pinch of When tomalO sauce round round the When cooked, cooked, pipe pipc a a border horder of tomato au bergines . aubergines. Aubergines Aubergines in in gravy. gravy. AUBERGINEs AUBERGiNES AU AU JUs JUS - Proceed Proceed as as la crème, crime, brut described in the (he recipe recipe given for Aubergines Aubergines d à la but described substitute thickened stock.. substitute truckened veal stock Peel 2 large latge grecque (hors-d'œuvre)Aubergines la grecque Peel 2 Aubergines à la @ors.d'cuwe) cut them in dice or thick truck square pieces. pieces. Throw aubergines; eut prepared as as a court-bouillon prepared a time, them, a a few at a them, few at time, into into a grecque (see (see d la Ia grecque for Artichokes recipe for in the the recipe described in described Artichokes à 12 to for 12 15 to 15 and cook for a full full boil, and ARTICHOKE). Bring to a serve as and serve a terrine tenine with the liquor, and minutes.. Transfer into a minutes an hors-d'œuvre. hors-d'auvre. an Peel the the auberaubercnnrfssAUBERGINEs GRILLÉES Grilled aubergines. AUBERGINES GriJled - Peel a dish dish in a stand in gines, eut slices, and and leave to stand cut them them ioto into thick slices, grill with oil, oil, and and grill Dry them, salt. Dry them, brush with with salt. well sprink/ed sprinkled wilh well gentle heat. heat. on a a genùe on a in a the aubergines aubergines in arrange the a vegetable, vegetable, arrange serving as as a For serving For tablespoons a few few tablcspoons with a and dab dab with dish, and shape on a dish, on a crown shape crown (see BUTIER). BUTTER). butter (see d'hitel buller Maitre d'hôtel of of MaÎ1re good (Turkish cookery) cookery) --'Take Baaldi (Turkish Imam Baaldi Aubergines Imam 'Take good withlength withentire length their entire them along along their slit them sound aubergines, aubergines, slil sound pulp. Prepare a Prepare a of the the pulp. some of peeling, and out some scoop out and scoop out peeling, out and onions and pulp, tomatoes, tomatoes, onions aubergine pu/p, composed of of aubergine stuffing composed stuffing with aubergines with fill the the aubergines and fill in oil, oil, and mixture in Fry trus this mixture currants. Fry currants. pour in in sufficienl sufficient and pour dish and an earthenwarc earthenware dish Put them them ioto into an it. Put il. bay and aa bay little thyme thyme and Add aa liltle completely. Add cover them them completely. oil oil to to coyer are aubergines are the aubergines low heat heat until until the on low hours on for 33 hours leaf. Cook Cook for leaf. quite soft. cool. Leave to to cool. soft. Leave quite prepare possible, If possi cold. veryco served very beserved dish should be ish should Id . If ble, prepare 'This 'This d be to be aubergines to theaubergines to allow allow the it is is required, required, to it the day before before it it the day oil.' in the the oil.' wellsaturated saturated in weil priest has fainted'. has fainted' 'the priest means 'the Turkish means in Turkish Baaldi in Imam Baaldi Imam . way prepared in in this this way when aubergines aubergines prepared goes that legend goes that when The legend The by somovcd (ptiest), he moved by hewas wasso imam (priest), certain imam to aacertain were offered offered to were sheer from sheer hefainted fainted from that he dish Ihat thedish of the fragrant odour odour of the rragrant the joy. gastronomical joy. gaslronomical Peel (garnish). PURÉE runrnDD'AUBERGINBs pur6e (garnish). Aubergine purée ' AUBERGINES - Peel Aubergine with dishwith inaadish leave in and leave inslices slices, them in cutIhem aubergines, cul iheaubergines, the , and little withaalittle casserolewith inaacovered covered casserole andcook cook in Drythem, them,and salt.Dry sail. pur6e,add add Heat trus thispurée, sieve. Heat Rubthrough throughaasieve. andsalt. salt.Rub butterand butter andserve. serve. (3tablespoons) butter,and tablespoons) butter. 22tablespoons tablespoons(3 (seeSAUCE) SAUCE) sauce(see Bichamel sauce ofthick thickBéchamel Afew fewlablespoons tablespoonsof A
these lhese ingredients ingredients

-

I

-

added to the the aubergines aubergines before before rubbing rubbing them them through througb the the added to sieve sievewill willgive givethe Ihepur6e puréeaamore more substantial substantial consistency, consistency, and and will will make make it itwhiter. wruler . Peel the auberAubergine salad. sALADE SALADE D'AUBERcINEs D'AUBERGINES -- Peel the auberAubergine salad. gines, 10 stand stand in in a a dish dish with with gines, cut eut into into thin Ihin slices, slices, and and leave leave to salt. il Ia la vinaigrette vinaigrelle (see (see SAUCE, SAUCE, Cold Cold Sauces), Sauces), sail. Dry, Dry, season season d and and add add chopped chopped chervil chervil and and tarragon. tarragon. ,l/ote. NOle. This Th.is salad salad can can also also be be prepared prepared with with aubergines aubergines in salted which which have have been been cooked cooked in salted water, water, drained drained and and dried. dried. sic.urEns - Peel Saut6ed AUBERGINES SAUTÉES Peel the the Sautéed aubergines. aubergines. AUBERGINES (l]-inch) square pieces. aubergines 4-cm . (I-t-inch) square pieces . aubergines and and cut eut them them into into 4-cm. Leave a dish dish with with salt. salt. Dry, Dry, dredge dredge with with flour, flour, Leave to to stand stand in in a and or other other fat fat over over brisk brisk heat. heal. and saut6 sauté the the pieces pieces in in oil, oil, butter butter or Serve Serve sprinkled sprinkled with with chopped chopped parsley. parsley. sounrr6rs - Prepare Aubergire soufflés, AUBERcINES AUBERGINES SOUFFLÉES Prepare the the Aubergine souffies. aubergines in the the recipe recipe fot for Aubergines Aubergines au au aubergines as as described described in Add a pulp sieve. through scooped-out gratin. gratin. Rub Rub the the scooped-out pulp through a sieve. Add an an (see equal of thick thick Bichamel Béchamel sauce sauce (see SAUCE). SAUCE) . equal quantity quantity of Bind and a a Bind with with yolks yolks of or egg egg and and season season with with salt, salt, pepper pepper and little in whites whites of of liule grated graled nutmeg. nutmeg. At At the the last last moment moment fold fold in froth. a stiff egg egg whisked whisked to to a stift' froth . Fill FiU the the aubergine aubergine skins skins with with the the mixture, mixture, put pUI them (hem into into a a for 8 oven in a moderate cook and dish, fireproof to 10 10 fireproof dish, and cook in a moderate oven for 8 to minutes. minutes. Serve Serve at at once. once. sourrrfns Aubergire Aubergine soufr6s soufflés i à la la hongroise. hongroise. AUBERGnTs AUBERGINES SOUFFLÉES A À rl LA soNcnolsE HONGROISE - Proceed Proceed as as above, above, adding adding 2 2 tablespoons lablespoons (3 (3 tablespoons) tablespoons) chopped chopped onion onion lightly lightly fried fried in in butter, bUlter, and and seasoned seasoned with with paprika. paprika. souFFLEEs parmesarL AUBERGINEs au souff6s Aubergine Aubergine soufflés au parmesan. AUBERGINES SOUFFLÉES (3 tableAU AU rARMESAN PARMESAN - As As above, above, adding adding 2 2 tablespoons tablespoons (3 tablefilling. the to cheese grated Parmesan spoons) spoons) grated Parmesan cheese to lhe fiJJing.

of of the the lowgr This département dipartement is AUDE AUDE - This is formed formed of low,er part part of always been has good cookery where region a Languedoc, Languedoc, a region where good cookery has always been (which wiJJ found will be specialities (wh.ich the specialities Among the held in in respect. respect. Among be found held cassoulet' well-known cassou is the the well-known order) is alphabetical in their their al phabetical order) leI. in of Castelnaudary Castelnaudary cassoulet of the cassolilet in Aude Aude kinds in are t two There are - the There wo kinds the cassoulet cassoulet is the Another is Carcassonne. Another of Carcassonne. cassoulet of and the the cassoulet and Toulouse. of Toulouse. of introduced white beans, beans, introduced historians, white reliable historians, to reliable According to According long Narbonensis long in Gallia Gallia Narbonensis were cultivated cultivated in Arabs, were the Arahs, by the by The Arabs taught America. from were brought before beans before beans were brought from America. The Arabs taught with white white beans beans prepare a mutton ragoût ragofit with a mutton to prepare the inhabitants inhabitants to the (See present-day cassoulet. cassoulet. (See of the the present-day ancestor of which is is the the ancestor wh.ich the which the dish, of which of trus this dish details of further details for further CASSOULET for CASSOULET , of is understandably region Proud.) regioD is understandably proud.) production of of lIins vins ordinaires and large production has a a large Wines -- Aude Aude has Wines ordinaires and (See LANGUEDOC.) d'origine. vins d'appellation d' appellation d vins 'origine. (See LANGUEDOC.)
de comtesse de la comtesse to la household to of the the housebold Head of AUDIGER -- Head AUDIGER a of a author of is the the author Audiger i5 to Colbert. Colbert. Audiger later to and later Soissons, and Soissons, The is The title is the translate.d translated tille which the 1692 of of wh..ich published in in 1692 book published book Noblea Nobleof GOllerning Governing a Art of and the the Art Residence and Wett-brdered Residence WeJJ-Ordered Country and Country Town and Gentlemen's Other Gentlemen House and and Other man's man 's House 's Town in Domestics in and Domestics Staff and of Senior Senior Staff Duties of the DUlies and the Residences, and Residences. lord's of aa lord's composition of the composition he describes describes the In il it he General. ln General. 'household'. 'household'. pois petits pois across petits came across he came 1660, he Italy in 1660, in Ital Travelling in Travelling y in preand prcwith them them and crate with He filled filled aacraIe growing in January. in January growing . He of sight of at the thesight marvelled at who marvelled court, who French court, it to to the the French iented it sented pe tits pois became so was how That vegetable. an early such such an early vegetable. That was how petits pois became so to made ta is made effort is every effort today every even today whyeven and why fashionable, and rash.ionable, aspossible. produce them asearly earlyas them as Possible. produce The iiI/le little (wk auk family. Alcidae family ofthe the Alcidae ALeuE - - Sea Seabirds birds of AUK. ALQUE . The AUX. grown. ILS Itswings wingsare are (16jnches) fully groWfl. inches) when whenfully 38cm. cm.(/6 measures 38 measures from birdto toescape escapefrom the bird enables the whichcnables flying, which forflying, equipped for equipped it. pursuitof hunting il. fishermenhunting offishermen thepursuit the to isfrequently frequentlyto regions,ititis Arctic regions, inArctic originatingin Although originating Although 63 63

-

AUNIS AND ANDSAINTONGE SAINTONGE AUNIS
be seen in autumn and winter on the coasts of England, be seen in autumn and winter on the coasts of England, Scotland, Belgium and France. It migrates as far as Spain, Scotland, Belgium and France. It migrates as far as Spain, P-ortugal, Italy and Algeria. Not infrequently it breeds on Portugal, ltaly and Algeria. Not infrequently it breeds on the French ocean coasts. The Icelanders call it alka (aalga) the French oceancoasts. The Icelanders cali it alka (aalga) or klumba. The flesh and fat of these birds are greatly vahied or klumba. The flesh and fat of these birds are greatly valued by fishermen, who snare them among the rocks where they by fishermen, who snare them among the rocks where they nest. nest. of which are areused usedfor fordistilling purposes (see distilling purposes (seeCOGNAC). COGNAC). ofwhich Thevineyard vineyardproprietors proprietors of of this this region regionmake make aaliqueur liqueur The winefor for themselves themselves and andtheir their friends, friends, white white or orsometimes wine someiimes red, locally locally ca calledpineau. Itis ismade pouring local made by bypouring local brandy red, lied pineau. It brandy on the the must must du during fermentation, which which is is thus thusarrested, arrested. on ring fermentation, preservingail all the the fruit. fruit. preserving

vegetables and fruit of the first quality are grown. Animals vegetables and fruit of the first quality are grown. AnimaIs raised for food produce meat of excellent quality, including of excellent quality, including raised for food produce meat some very good lamb; and from the neighbouring sea and and from the neighbouring sea and sorne very good lamb; lakes of the region come fish and shellfish acceptable to lakes of the region come fish and shellfish acceptable to gastronomes. gastronomes. Among the specialities are the oysters of Marennes, La Among the specialities are the oysters of Marennes, La Tremblade, and Chdteau d'Ol6ron; they are white, or Tremblade, and Château d'Oléron; they are white, or stained with the fine green weed from the fattening ponds, stained with the fine green weed from the fattening ponds, and are considered the best in the world. The pirtuguese and are considered the best in the world. The Portuguese oysters which are bred here have a specially delicate flavour. oysters which are bred here have a specially delicate flavour. Other shellfish include mussels and clams of Cl6ron and Other shellfish include mussels and clams of Cléron and La Rochelle, cockles cockles which which are are found found in in the the Marennes Marennes La Rochelle, fattening ponds, prawns (salicoques) which are locally fattening ponds, prawns (salicoques) which are locally called chevrettes, and shrimps, which are called boucs. called chevrettes, and shrimps, which are called boucs. La Rochelle, after Boulogne, is the greatest fishing port in La Rochelle, after Boulogne, is the greatest fishing port in France, and among fish found in the region aiJ hake, France, and among fish found in the region are hake, coalfish (U.S. pollock), and sole, which are sold immediatelv coalfish (U .S. pollock), and sole, which are sold immedia tely after being caught. Fresh Fresh sardines, sardines, known known as as Royan Rovan after being caught. sardines, enjoy a wide reputation, and there are also grey sardines, enjoy a wide reputation, and there are also grey mullet (called meuils locally) and brill (U.S. sea perch)-. In mullet (called meuils locally) and brill (U.S. sea perch). In the Charente and Sdvre Niortaise and their tributaries there and Sèvre Niortaise and their tributaries there the Charente are eels which are delicious stewed or m matelote. are eels which are delicious stewed or en matelote. Fruit and vegetables vegetables are particularly good. The garden Fruit and are particularly good. The garden peas are sweet and tender; it is this variety that is canned at peas are sweet and tender; it is this variety that is canned at Bordeaux and La Roche-sur-Yon. Bordeaux and La Roche-sur-Yon. Broad beans from Marennes and the island of Oldron Broad beans from Marennes and the island of Oléron are considered the best in the world. Kidney beans and red are considered the best in the world. Kidney beans and red beans (mogettes') are excellent. beans (mogettes) are excellent. and _ Orchard Orchard and vegetable vegetable garden garden produce produce include include Saintonge Saintonge (nectarines); brugnons brugnons (nectarines); the the apples apples of of Saint-porchaire Saint-Porchaire (reinettes grrses and clochard)which are exported to England; (reinettes grises and clochard) which are exported to England; white Chasselas grapes; mushrooms such as cipes and oyster white Chasselas grapes; mushrooms such as cèpes and oyster mushrooms; Saintonge oranges; brunettes; pleurote du mushrooms; Saintonge oranges; brunettes; pleurote du panicot. panicot. The game of this region is of excellent quality. The finest The game of this region is of excellent quality. The finest butter, Which can compare with the best Normandy butter, butter, ~hich can compare with the best Nonnandy butter, is made in Aunis. is made in Aunis. Culinary Mouclade (mussels (mussels d à la la crdme); crème); Culinary specialities specialities - Mouclade mussel soup; roast mussels (cooked on cinders); oysters with mussel soup; roast mussels (cooked on cinders); oysters with sausages; razor-Jish sozp (solen); razor-fish stuffed with sausages; razor-fish soup (solen); razor-fish stuffed with breadcrumbs which have been mixed with chopped garlic breadcrumbs which have been mixed with chopped garlic and parsley and browned on top; scallops auxfiies hirbes; and parsley and browned on top; scallops aux fines herbes; ragofrt of lavagnons; small cattlefish fried in deep fat; deepragoût of lavagnons; small cut tlefish fried in deep fat; deepcrameou (crabs fried fried crameou (crabs that that have have shed shed their their shellsf; shells); hake hake soip soup (made with the fish head); chaudrie (fish soup rather liki (made with the fish head); chaudrée (fish soup rather Iike the Breton cotriade); roast eel; fried eels du Mignon. the Breton co triade) ; roast eel; fried eels du Mignon. Special meat and poultry dishes include chickmfricassde Special meat and poultry dishes include chickenfricassée with with onions onions and and potatoes; potatoes; Aunis Aunis civet, civet, which which is is made made of of pig's fry; a salmi of sea birds; vanous charcuterie; rillettes pig's fry; a salmi of sea birds; various charcuterie; rillettes (potted pork); pktds and terrines; btack and white puddings. (potted pork); pâtés and terrines; black and white puddings. Other Other special special dishes dishes of of this this region region include include roast roast garlic, garlic, cooked on hot cinders, which is eaten with butter; curds d Ia cooked on hot cinders, which is eaten with butter; curds à la chardonnette; jonchie (a kind of cream cheese made with chardonnette; jonchée (a kind of cream cheese made with ewe's or goat's milk); vafious fouaces (scones) and coireaux ewe's or goat's milk); variousfouaces (scones) and coireaux (made of maize flour); la fouie (oil seed cake); gLteau (made of maize flour); la fouée (oil seed cake); gâteau d'Assemblie; Easter gdteau; Taillebourg brioches ; grape d'Assemblée; Easter gâteau; Taillebourg brioches; grape jelly; Pons jel/y; Ponsrusks; rusks;Frangipane Frangipane tart. tart. Wines - Saintonge produces mediocre table wines, most Wines - Saintonge produces mediocre table wines, most

AttNIS AND SAINTONGE -- The The region resion of of Aunis Aunis has has AUNIS AND SAINTONGE fertile, well-cultivated lands, lands, where where crops itops of of cereals, cereals, fertile, well-cultivated

AURILLAC -- Town Town in in the the Auvergne Auvergne region, region, which which is AURILLAC the is the centre of production of of the theproduction of Cantal Cantal cheese. cheese. centre AURIOL -- Name Name for for mackerel mackerel in Marseille. in Marseille: AURIOL AUROCHS -- Wild Wildox, ox, ox plains. This ox of of the the plains. This animal, animal, which which AUROCHS past used in the the past used to to be be found found in in the the forests forests of of tempera temperate te in Europe, is is now now only only found, found, and and in in very very small small numbers, numbers, in in Europe, Lithuania, in in the the Carpathians Carpathians and and in in the the Caucasus. Caucasus. Lithuania, The meat meat of of aurochs aurochs is prepared as is prepared as ordinary ordinaiy beef. beef. The (A AURORE L') Name principally to applied principally to a a sauce, sauce, the AURORE (À L') -- Name applied the recipe for for which which is given in is given in the the section section on on sauces; sauces; and and to to ail all recipe the dishes dishes cooked cooked with with this this sauce. sauce. the This name name is given to is also also given to a a dish dish of of stuffed stuffed hard-boiled hard-boiled This (see EGGS, eggs (see EGGS, Aurora Aurora eggs). eggs). eggs The name name also also applies applies to to a a cheese cheese made made in in Normandy. Normandy. The AUSTRALIA. AUSTRALIE eusrnaur -- Australian Australian vineyards vineyards and AUSTRALIA. and wines wines (see WINE). WINE). (see AUSTRIA. AUTRICHE AUTRTcHE -- Austrian Austrian wine (see wine and and cuisine cuisine (see AUSTRIA. WINE, INTERNATIONAL INTERNATIONAL COOKER COOKERY). WINE, Y).

Papin Papin marmite marmite or or autoclave autoclave (Conservatoire (Conservatoire des Arts et et Mdtiers. Métiers. Phot. Phot. des Arts J J Boyer) Boyer)

boiling boiling point. point. No No living living bacteria bacteria can can survive survive the the temperature temperature of of 120"C. 120°C. (248'F.) of time. time. (248°F.) in in a a liquid liquid medium medium over over a a certain certain period period of Thus Thus the the autoclave autoclaveis is used used in inthe thecanning canningindustry industryto to sterilise sterilise food food products products contained contained in in hermetically hermetically sealed sealed cans. cans. (See (See PRESERVATTON PRESER VA TI ON OF OF FOOD.) FOOD.) This This instrument instrument was was invented invented by by Denis Denis Papin, Papin, and and the the original original Papin Papin marmite marmite has has become become popular popular once once again again in in the ofthe thepressure pressurecooker, cooker, which, which, by bybringing bringingfood food to to the form form of a a temperature temperature often often reaching reaching 140'C. 140°C. (284'F.),'makes (284°F.), makes it it possible possibleto tocook cookin inaavery veryshort shorttime timedishes disheswhich whichwould wouldtake take much much longer longer cooked cooked by by the theordinary ordinarymethod. method. The Theresults, results,though thoughacceptable acceptablein inaagood goodmany manycases, cases,are, are, however, however, far far from from being being as as good good as as those those obtained obtained by by the the traditional traditional methods. methods. The The decomposition decomposition of ofcertain certain foods, foods,
64 64

AUTOCLAVE AUTOCLAVE (Pressure (Pressure cooker) cooker) - High-pressure High-pressure steam steam vessel. vessel. A A sort sort of ofboiler, boiler, with with very very strong strong walls, walls, which which can can be be closed c10sed hermetically. hermetically. It It is is provided provided with with a a safety safety valve, valve, and and is is capable capable of of raising raising the the temperature temperature of of the the water water above above

AUVERGNE
meat meat in in particular, particular, is is taken taken much much further further than than in ordinary ordinary cooking. cooking. Furthermore, Furthermore, vitamins vitamins can can be be entirely entirely destroyed.

AUTO-INTOXICATION, AUTO-INTOXICATION, DIGESTM DIGESTIVE - This This form form of intoxication, intoxication, due due to to healthy healthy foods foods ingested ingested in in excessive excessive quantity quantity and and subjected subjected to to bacterial bacterial putrefaction putrefaction in in the
intestines, not be be confused confused with with alimentary alimentary intoxicaintestines, should shouJd not tion due to to ingestion ingestion of of toxic toxic foods foods or or foods foods which which have have gone gone tion due bad. bad.

AUTRICHIENNE AUTRICHIENNE (A (À L) V) - This This expression is is applied applied to various various preparations preparations characterised, as in the case of those those à la hongroise, hongroise, by being seasoned with paprika, or called d
Hungarian Hungarian pepper, pepper, and and sometimes sometimes by the addition addition of of onion, onion, lightly fried, of of fennel fenne! or sour cream. cream. lightly
porringer from Auvergne from old old Auvergne and porringer dredger, ewer ewer and Pewter sugar sugar dredger, Pewter

Auvergne (French TouriSI ( F r e n c h Governmenl o u r is t Office) c e)

",

i:x::"; "

ofi

AUVERGNE -- There of this this cookery of a belief that the the cookery is a There is belief that region potie, made soup or made of cabbage soup or potée, of of cabbage region consists consists entirely entirely of fresh pork. fresh and and salt salt pork. In dish. Each Auvergnat dish. Each pofte is specifically Auvergnat not a a specifically In fact, fact, potée is not region potie. has its its potée. France, has Ile de de France, including the the Ile of France, France, including region of There potde, a dish; the the a wonderful wonderful dish; is the There is Bourguignonne potée, the Bourguignonne Alsatian as is of Cantal; Cantal; po tie which, is that that of too, is is succulent, succulent,.as Alsatian potée which, too, the potie, which and the the very savoury, savoury, and which is is very Languedoc potée, the Languedoc Parisian potée, which figures daily fare of of the the of fare on the the bills bills of daily on Parisianpalie,whichfigures capital's poties manyother other potées There are, are, besides, besides, many capital's restaurants. restaurants. There in alphafound in in their their alphawhich will will be be found for which in France, France, recipes recipes for betical freshor or are made made of of fresh them are SOUP. Ali All of of them betical order, order, under under SOUP. salt ions, carrots, on onions, pork as with cabbage, cabbage, carrots, element, with salt pork as a a basic basic element, leeks potatoes completing the dish. dish. leeks and and potatoes completing the Auvergne picturesque (for these charmingly picturesque Velay (for these two two charmingly Auvergne and and Velay regions gastronomes offering gastronomes are rural rural areas areas offering regions are are inseparable) inseparable) are wholesome, 'with aastraightstraightcountry cooking cooking'with wholesome, unpretentious unpretentious country forward, (to quote quote Curnonsky). Curnonsky). forward, honest honest flavour' flavour' (to Besides peasant soups like soups like are peasant soup, there there are Besides the the cabbage cabbage soup, mourtayrol, (beef,ham, pot-au-feu (beef, ham, great Auvergnat Auvergnat pot-au-feu mourtayrol, the the great chicken, (chestnut soup); and the cheese the cheese cousinat(chestnut soup);and chicken, saffron); saffron); cousinat soup soup of of Cantal. Cantal. Excellent The orchards orchards grown in in Auvergne. Auvergne. The Excellent vegetabies vegetables are are grown 65 65

(apricots, peaches, peaches, fruit (apricots, choice dessert fruit of Limagne produce choice important the important pears, cherries) supply the and also also supply cherries) and apples, pears, apples, Auvergne of Clermont-Ferrand. Clermont-Ferrand. Auvergne fruit industry of crystallised fruit are weIl well known. known. chestnuts are and chestnuts walnuts and raised which which pasture lands, are raised lands, oxen oxen are In the mountainous pasture the mountainous In greatly valued, valued, Mutton is is greatly give meat flavour. Mutton of excellent excellent flavour. meat of give and VassiviEres and in Vassivières particularly that sheep raised raised in from sheep that from particularly Chaudesaigues. Chaudesaigues. its delicacy of of its known for for the the delicacy pork of is known of Auvergne is The pork The which can can of charcuterie cftarcuterie which kinds of is made into into many kinds This is flesh. This cities. and other other big big cities. Paris and shops of of Paris be found found in in the the shops be quality of of that that poultry of not have have the the quality region may may not of the the region The poultry The game of good, as of as is is the the game it is is nevertheless nevertheless good, Bresse, but but it raised at at Bresse, raised ground and winged. and winged. both ground Auvergne, both Auvergne, pike perch, tench, tench, pike Carp, perch, fish is is excellent. excellent. Carp, The freshwater freshwater fish The provide ingreingreand provide lakes, and rivers and and lakes, in the the rivers eels abound abound in and eels and the found in in the The trout trout found matelotes. The for succulent succulent matelotes. dients for dients are delicious delicious Marsenac rivers rivers are Murols and and Marsenac Massiac, Aurillac, Aurillac, Murols Massiac, Brioude flesh of of Brioude The flesh prepared au la meunière. meuniire. The or à d la bleu or au bleu prepared salmon. of Loire Loire salmon. with that that of is comparable comparable with salmon is salmon particularly morels, morels, mushrooms, particularly succulent mushrooms, In In the the spring, spring, succulent Auvergne. of Auvergne. and forests forests of woods and gathered in in the the woods are gathered are of this this specialities of The culinary culinary specialities Culinary specialities specialities -- The Culinary potie, is the There is the succulent succulent potée, very numerous. numerous. There region are are not not very region cabwith cabpork as ingredient, with basic ingredient, as aa basic salt pork is made made of of salt which which is potatoes as as acacand potatoes leeks and onions, leeks carrots, turnips, turnips, onions, bage, bage, carrots, The soupe soupe garlic as local touch. touch.The asaa local with garlic and with companiments, companiments, and pot-au-feu, in which aacabbage cabbage in which kind of of rustic rustic pot-au-feu, au is aa kind au farci farci is chopped with chopped flavoured with and flavoured meat and sausage meat stuffed with sausage stuffed with parsley is garlic and is cooked. cooked. garlic and parsiey small largeand and small hams; large are delicious: delicious: hams; The The charcuterie charcuterie are greaves (blood sausage); puddings (blood sausage); greaves black puddings country sausages; black country sausages; pork (q.v.),made kindof of pork ofaa kind madeof (cracklings) ;and (cracklings); andfricandeau fricandeau (q.v.), pork. piece of saltpork. pdti cooked ofsalt pâté thin piece cooked in in aa thin pie made made viande,aapie laviande, are tourte tourte àdla Among local specialities specialities are Among local pork puffpastry filled with with pork andfilled with puff in pastry and lined with shallow dish, dish, lined inaashallow of made of omelettemade anomelette brayaude, an and omelette brayaude, veal forcemeat; forcemeat; omelette and veal ham potatoes and lean and diced diced le diced potatoes beaten an ham with diced mixedwith beatenegg egg mixed pan, is with isfilled filled with inthe fryingpan, the frying which, istumed over in itis turned over which, before beforeit which deSaint-Flour, Saint-Flour, which grated cream;friands de grated cheese and thick thickcream;friands cheese and charcuterie; sellingcharcuterie; shopsselling are Parisianshops theParisian inthe found in arelike like those those found garlic,braised withgarlic, braised isstudded studdedwith leg which is lambbrayaude, brayaude,which legof oflamb wine, in white whitewine, aromatics in with andaromatics vegetables and usual vegetables with the the usual andsometimes sometimes with onions, onions, and and red beans, beans, with with red andserved served with inaashallow shallow cookedin with de , potatoes cooked truffade,potatoes cabbage; truffa with braised braised cabbage; garlic,and and- withgarlic, pan flavoured with panwith ofbacon, bacon,fiavoured leanrashers rashers of with lean cheese; Tomme cheese; dicedTomme added fresh diced minute - - fresh last minute atthe added at the last dish vin,aadish pork; coq pickled park; coqau anvin, potatoes Muratpickled potatoeswith with bacon; bacon;Murat Puy-de-D6me isis for thePuy-de-Dôme ofthe innsat atthe thetop topof ofthe theinns for which whichone oneof well Saint-Flour. tripouxof ofSaint-Flour. wellknown; known; the thetripoux

AUVERGNAT AUVERGNAT

MI'. . ta Moulihs ou 1ns. .lourte Tou,ce adla vionde,F"camn. Fricossin, f'ompe P,pmpe aux oux v'ande, ns. Ioguodes mou.',no,ses. moulinoises 0 ~,accons .. Toquades :i Prdlines. Polets d'or -"", : ~W::û,.b~n JA~{;h P,ol,nes. Polers do' BERRY- ~--.Confectione,y. A· to ·coat .lV"--A ~ ~ .! T,uffwes s ~ .,oQ" l S - . ., ~ , 9ALLIER r-SOD (', 1 S. ' k chees : , '" 0"(' ~"CIOU e, 1 n ...; .!>1onlllllll·iiult \l 0 • 1 . /.''''.'' ~~. Rou)adoux ~ yonnade. Pompe aux Tou,ce 0.'0 v,onae ec!.~. • 1 l . • ViireUIlr.s g,al[On'· dIa vola,lIe. F"coss'~/J .1'vt.;ri" S.\(l\ll' n Il J,op'alI'..'se Goune,/e. Sucre de Honey.. ~'7-" 0 ! . _~Jourié' ci la cerises 1 O.' la VO.la;/le
Stuffed chicken Stuffed chicken with with ! s~"r6o-fi.IJ chestnuts, Game chestnuts. ~,~, ('('p' "Oi~ Game

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A VINER -- French AVINER French word word meaning meaning to to season, season, or or impregnate impregnate aa new new wine wine cask cask to to make make it it lose lose the the taste tasteof of wood. wood. To To season season aavat vat also press the also means means to grapes as to press the grapes as the the vat vatis is being filled. being filled.

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Vegetables and frUit: Fruit pdces ~)

Preserves

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Gastronomic map of Auvergne Gastronomie Auvergne

o SlFou-rcain

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the fish fish dishes, Among the je/lied eel is dishes, Ussel jellied is notable, notable, and game dishes, among the the game dishes, Brioude thrush thrush cutlets. cutlets. The The pasta products products of Clermont-Ferrand Clennont-Ferrand are are excellent. Sweet Sweet dishes and confectionery fiagnarde.- millards and confectionery include flagnarde; millards de de cerise; Clermont-Ferrand angelica; Clermont-Ferrand angelica; Thiers Thiers crunchies; crunchies; Riom ichaudi; Murat échaudé; Murat cornets; cornets; Saint-Flour bltises bêtises and farces; and farces; Aurillac Aurillac chestnut tart buckwheat pancakes. pancakes. tart and and buckwheat Cheeses Cheeses of Auvergne include the famous Cantal Cantal cheese; cheese; the the Bleu Bleu d'Auvergne, d'Auvergne, the the small small Riommois cheeses; goat's cheese. milk cheese. Wines Wines - The vineyards of of this region {o <;lo not produce any great red sorne very good good table wines. wines. red or white wines, but some The wines wines of Auvergne Auvergne are are classed classed among among the the V.D.Q.S. They appellations Côtes d'Auvergne and and Vins They are are the the appellations C6tes d'Auvergne d'Auvergne, from from the Gamay Gamay and and white and and black black Pinot grapes. Chanturgue known of of the the local vineyards. Chanturgue is the best known AUVERGNAT AUVERGNAT - Variety of of vine, native native of of Auvergne Auvergne and cultivated cultivated in the country around Orl6ans. Orléans. It is best known because because of of the the poet poet Boileau, Boileau, and does does indeed indeed produce produce wine which, as he heady and and of of a strong strong colour. As far he says, is heady back back as as the the days days of of Louis Louis XIV, XIV, inn-keepers inn-keepers were were in the the habit as the the ofmixing it with with lighter lighter and and less-coloured less-coloured wines, such as of mixing it lignage, lignage, to to obtain obtain pale pale or ros6 rosé wines, wines, which which were were sold sold under under the of Ermitage, Ennitage, and which which are are now now known known under under difdifthe name name of ferent ferent names. names.

A VOCADO PEAR. AVOCADO PEAR. AVOCAT The fruit AvocAr -- The fruit of of the the avocado avocado tree, tree. native of of tropical tropical and and sub-tropical sub-tropical America. America. The The kernel, kernel, in in the middle middle of pulp, is of the the pulp, is about about the size of a the size of a walnut. walnut. The The fiesh flesh of of the the avocado avocado is prized by is much much prized by the the Americans. Americans. It It is is thick, thick, buttery, buttery, spreads spreads like like butter, is and is butter, and nutty in in taste. The The avocado pear is avocado pear is slightly slightly acid. acid. It It is is eaten au naturel eaten au naturel or seasoned UCE) or seasoned with with Vinaigrette Vinaigrette sauce (see SA sauce (see SAUCE) or stuffed stuffed with crab salado salad. F or sorne For some years now chefs have have been been testing testing their ingenuity in in the the creation of new new recipes for (avocado soup, for this this fruit fruit (avocado soup, creamed creamed avocados, avocados, avocados avocados as as dessert, dessert, etc.). etc.). The The best best variety of avocado pear pear cornes comes from Brazi!. Brazil.

Avoeet

in countries countries with cold or temperate temperate climates, particularly in climates, particularly cold or of Europe Europe and America. America. along the coasts coasts of along The flesh fiesh ofthe of the avocet, although although quite quite delicate, delicate, savours savours of of The consists almost almost entirely entirely of of fresh fresh the food it lives on, which consists wonns and aquatic aquatic insects. insects. fish, worms European avocet avocet is is about about the the size size ofa of a pigeon, and and is is The European Avocet shooting shooting is is pracpracrecognisable by its pied plumage. Avocet Poitou. tised in Poitou. AH the the culinary culinary methods methods All given for for teal teal (q.v.) (q.v.) can can be be given applied to avocet. avocet. applied

AVOCET_ AvocErro AVOCETIE- A genus of wading wading birds. birds. It It is is found found AVOCET. - genus of

AVICE AVICE - French French pastry-cook, pastry-cook, contemporary contemporary of of Antonin Antonin Car€me. Carême. In In his his books, books, Car6me Carême speaks speaks of of him him with great great
respect and gives gives him him first first place place among among the the pastry-cooks pastry-cooks of of respect and that brilliant brilliant epoch. epoch. that

- Village Village in Champagne, Champagne, cradle cradle of of Champagne Champagne wine wine Ay AY it became became a a sparkling sparkling wine). wine). (which was was famous even even before before it (which Leon X, Charles Quint, Quint, Henry Henry VIII VIII and and Frangois François I 1 had had Leon
66 66

AZYMOUS AZYMOUS
officers permanently stationed at Ay Ay to look look after after the the precious officers permanently stationed vineyard and supplies of of aod ensure that the court had regular supplies the wine. Henri willingly accepted the title of 'Sire of Ay'. Henri IV williogly

AYAPANA Plant originating originating in in South South America. America. Its A Y AP ANA - Plaot leaves, exuding a a pleasant aroma, are are used as infusions, leaves, exuding pleasaot aroma, used as aperients and soporifics. aperieots in the the same way way as as tea, tea, but but as as the the The infusion is made in smell ayapana is is very very strong, strong, 12 12 or 13 leaves leaves are or 13 smell of of the the ayapana enough for a a six-cup teapot. Ayapana blends blends perfectly perfectly with egg yolks, and with cream.

-

It is for comcomin taste. taste. It is used used for sweet in acid and and slightly sweet colour, col our, acid liqueur. a much-prized liqueur. and a confectionery and potes, confectiooery as weil well as as throughout in Spain, Spain, as Italy and and in In Provence, Provence, in Italy In jam, which very a very for jam, which is is a it is is used used for Algeria, it of Algeria, whole of the whole the popular preserve. popular
for reonet, rennet, which is is made from from AZtror LZY term for AZI or AZY - French term is added. added. amount of of vinegar is a certain certain amount whey to which a
word AzyME -- Etymologically, Etymologically, the the word AZYMOUS (Bread). @read). AZYME azymous meaos means unleavened unleavened.. azymous unleavened bread; of making their uoleavened The Jews had two ways of by usiog using ordinary ordinary or by the flour, flour, or either by previously grilling the l| teateasalted, allowing allowing li wann water and and salted, flour kneaded with warm fiour (l lb.) paste was pe}450 g. (1 was rolled rolled lb.) flour. flour. The The paste spoons of salt salt pet spoons 450 g. placed on a metal metal I cm. inch) and and placed on a a thickness of 1 cm. (t out to to a thickness of out $ inch) and baked in was then baked in then pricked and sheet. The rolled-out pastry was sheet. a slow oven. a grilled oatmeal flour is is from grilled oatmeal fiour Unleavened bread made from bread made Unleavened in the the same same manner. prepared in

namb of a shrub known rs 01 azarolus WhlCh whrch IS oI lne tne name of koown as Crataegus azarolus same species It is species as is also also called épine as hawthorn. ipine d'Espagne hawthorn . .Tt in France. a service tree. F.rance. This shrub is similar to a

AZAROLE of the the Neapolitan Fruit of Neapolitan medlar; medlar; common - Fruit

The Neapolitan medlar is indigenous to the whole of the Mediterranean area, and it it is is also also cultivatcd cultivated in in the the Paris Mediterranean area , aod yellowish in region. is oval, oval, reddish reddish or or yellowish region. The medlar medlar berry berry is

Azarole

67 67

BABA -- Cake Cake made made of leavened dough, of leavened dough, mixed mixed with with raisins raisins BABA and steeped in kirsch or rum after cooking. and steeped in kirsch or rum after cooking. The invention invention ofthis of this cake cake is is said said to to be be due due to King Stanislas to King Stanislas The Leczinski. Sorne Some authors authors state state that gastronome did that the the royal royal gastronome did Leczinski. not invent invent the the baba baba we know, but we know, but found found a a new new way way of of eating eating not a kugelhopf, kugelhopf, which which had had been been made made in (Lvov) since in Lemberg Lemberg (Lvov) since a 1609. He sprinkled the cake with rum and set it alight as one He sprinkled the cake with rum and set it alight as one 1609. does a a plum pudding. does plum pudding. The kugelhopf, done done in in this great success this way, way, had had a a great success at at the the The kugelhopj, court of of Lorraine, Lorraine, where where it it was was served served accompanied accompanied by by a a court sweetened and and spiced spiced Malaga Malaga wine. King Stanislas wine. King Stanislas was was an an sweetened avid reader reader of of the Thousand and the Thousand and One One Nights, Nights, and and named named his his avid favourite sweet sweet after after one one of of its favourite its heroes. heroes, Ali Ali Baba. Baba. The cake cake was introduced in was introduced at the The in Paris Paris at the beginning beginning of of the the nineteenth century by a pastry-cook, Sthorer, *ho had seen it nineteenth century by a pastry-cook, Sthorer, who had seen it in Lun6ville, court ef He fjf Poland Poland was was transferred. transferred. He in Lunéville, where where the the court made it a speciality of his establishment in rue Montorgueil, made it a speciality of his establishment in rue Montorgueil, and called and called it it simply simply 'baba'. 'baba'. Sthorer Sthorer made made the the babas babas in in advance, advance, moistening moistening them them with with a a brush brush dipped dipped in in wine wine just just before selling before selling them. them. Later, Later, the the process process was was to to immerse immerse them them in in rum-flavoured rum-flavoured syrup. syrup. In calledfribourg,, In the the 1840s, 1840s, a a cake cake of of similar similar nature, nature, called jribourg, was was made At the the same same time time a a Parisian Parisian maifte maître made at at Bordeaux. Bordeaux. At phtissier, omitting raisins pâtissier, omitting raisins from from the the dough, dough, gave gave the the cake cake another another shape, shape, and and steeping steeping it it in in a a syrup syrup of of his his own own creation, creation, produced the brillat-savarin, which later became savarin. produced the brillat-savarin, which later became savarin. Says Says Lacam: Lacam: 'He 'He gave gave to to his his friend friend Bourbonneux, Bourbonneux, with with whom at Chiboust's, Chiboust's, the the idea idea of of using using the the same same whom he he worked worked at dough dough baked baked in in a a hexagonal hexagonal mould, mould, and and creating creating a a cake cake which of the the heroes heroes of ofla la Dame Dame which was was called ca lied gorenflot, gorenflot, after after one one of de lfontsoreau.' de Montsoreau.'

Large baba baba Large mould mould (Larousse) (Larousse)

Baba

Recipe Recipe used used by by the the pastry-cooks pastry-cooks for for babas: babas: Sift Sift 500 500 g. g. (18 (18 oz., oz., 4] 4t cups) cups) flour flour into into a a large large wooden wooden bowl, bowl, make It teaspoons teaspoons make a a well weil in in the the middle, middle, put put into into this this well well l| salt salt and and 20 20 g. g. G (t oz., oz., Il cake) cake) yeast yeast which which has has been been dissolved dissolved in (6 tablespoons, tablespoons, scant seant *t cup) cup) warm waffi1 milk. milk. Add Add 7 7 whole whole in I1dl. dl. (6 eggs, eggs, and and work work the the paste paste with with the the hands hands to to mix mix well. weil. DistriDistribute bute 300 300 g. g. (11 (Il oz.,l] oz., I!cups) cups) butter, butter, which which has has been been softened, softened, in in small small pieces pieces over over the the paste. pas te. Cover, Cover, and and keep keep the the paste paste in in a wann place place until until the the yeast yeast has has risen risen to to double double its its original original a wann
Rum babas and mould (Larousse\ Rum babas and mould (Larousse)

Add Add 25 25 g. g. (l (1 o2.,2 oz., 2tablespoons) tablespoons) fine fine sugar, sugar, and and knead knead the the paste thatit itabsorbs absorbsthe thebutter. butter.Add Add 50 50g. g. (2 (2oz., oz., scant seant pastewell weilso so that I~cup) cup)currants currantsand and 50 50g. g. (2 (2oz., oz., scant seantI~cup) cup)goiden goldensultanas. sultanas.
68 68

size. size.

BADIAN BADIAN ANISE ANISE
weil.Put Putthe tbepaste pasteinto intowell-buttered well-butteredbaba babamoulds, moulds,filling filling Mix well. upto toone-third one-thirdof oftheir theirheight. height. up 1 Bake Bake in in a a hot hot oven oyen and and allow allow to to cool cool before before turning turning the the babas out out of ofthe the moulds. moulds. Sprinkle Sprinkle with with rum rum or or kirsch. kirsch. babas Syrup for for babas. babas. snop SIROP A À BABA BABA - Add Add 2* 2t dl. dl. (scant (scant ] t pint, pin t, Syrq generous cup) cup) rum rum to to l| 1t litres litres (2| (21 pints, pints, 3* 3! pints) pints) syrup syrup generous tooked to .to 104"C. 104°C. (219"F.). (219°F.). A A small small quantity quantity of of coriander coriander is is iooked ~ometimes used used to to flavour ftavour the the syrup' syrup. sometimes BABIROUSSA - This This mammal, mammal, allied allied to to the tbe wild wild boar, boar, BABIROUSSA Idiffers from from the the latter latter in in the the curious curious development development of of the the differs 'canines. Its Its general general appearance appearance and and squat squat shape shape give give it it a a canines. :certain similarity similarity to to the the rhinoceros. rhinoceros. Like Like the the latter, latter, it it lives lives certain in the the swampy swampy forests forests of of the the Malay Malay Archipelago, Arcbipelago, and and is is in ifairly easily easily tamed. tamed. Its 1ts flesh, ftesh, which which is is prepared prepared in in the the same same fairly Iway as as that that of ofwild boar (q'v.), (q.v.), is is much much ptaed. prized. wild boar way ,BACCHANALIA. BAccHANALES BACCHANALES - Festivals Festivals celebrated celebrated in BACCHANALIA. Ihonour of Bacchus. Bacchus. These These festivals festivals began began in in Egypt, Egypt, spread spread honour of Ito Phoenicia, Phoenicia, and and then th en to to Greece Greece and Italy. Italy. to iBACCHANTE - Priestess, Priestess, votary votary of of Bacchus. Bacchus. BACCHANTE 1

~ix

Bacchus and the the infa)JI infagt Bacchus Leucothea and The The nyrnph nymph Leucothea

Bacchus a barrel on a Bacchus on ofwine. Faïence. Faience. (Larousse) (Larousse)

pork in in mean pork used to to mean Once used rurrlE MAIcRE FUMÉ LARD MAIGRE BACON. LARD - Once pork. particularly salt salt pork. general, particularly general, in Segretain Segretain read in (bacon) had killed,'we had been been killed,' 'A big hog (bacon) we read we of Cockayne Cockayne we fable of in the the fable And in tale. And Moine's medieval tale. read: pats si a non Coquaigne Coquaigne a non Si paiS Si gaigne. dart, plus ii gaigne. Qui Qui plus ii dort, d'aloses et d'aloses saumons et bars, de de saumons De bars, De encloses; maisons encloses; toutes les les maisons Sont toutes Sont sont d'esturgeon; d'esturgeon; chevron ii sont Si chevron Si de bacons bacons couvertures de Les couvertures Les de saucisses. saucisses. sont de lates sont Et les les lates Et
CockaYne, land of of Cockayne, land, the the land In this this land, In gain by it. by it. would one wou more one the more one sleeps, sleeps, the more one The more The Id gain and shad shad With bass, salmon and bass, salmon With enclosed; are enclosed; houses are All the the houses AIl sturgeon; made of of sturgeon; are made rafters are Their rafters Their bacon of bacon The roof roof of The aresausages. sausages. slates are And And the theslates meals tomeals in France France to applied in once applied Adjectiveonce BACONIQUE BACOMQUE -- Adjective prepared pork, fresh orsalt, salt, prepared freshor of pork, exclusively of which consisted consistedexclusively which ways. in various in various ways.

1

BACCHUS the of the Dionysus of god of the Dionysus wine' the of wiile, Roman god BACCHUS -- Roman Greeks. in in Thebes Thebes in legend, in to legend, according to born, according He was was born, Greeks. He Boeotia. was one one mother' was his mother, Semele, bis father. Semele, was his father. Boeotia. Jupiter Jupiter washis of ters of Hermione. and Hermione. Cadmus and daughters of Cadmus of the the daugh When of fiery bolts bolts of (struck down by the the fiery down by lay dead dead (struck When Semele Simele lay her shed had not had not perished have peri would have too, would Bacchus, too, lover), Bacchus, her lover), Jupiter from young fruit of love love from fruit of the young draw out out the Vulcan draw made Vulcan Jupiter made Semele's of daughterof thedaughter Macris, the feet. Macris, his feet. at his lying at body, lying Seinele's body, Aristaeus, put Sabazius put andSabazius her arms arms and into her child into the child received the Aristaeus, received him his of his monthsof nine months the nine complete the to complete god's thigh thigh to in the him in the god's gestation. gestation. - His the nursed the Antoncienursed and Antonoe Agaveand Inno, Agave His three aunts, Inno, threeaunts, child maternal with maternaI him with for him years, and cared for andcared in rus hisearly early years, child in devotion. passed Bacchus passed Nymphs,Bacchus of the theNymphs, handsof the hands From the devotion. From into initiated Musesinitiated TheMuses Silenus.The andSilenus. Muses, and ofthe theMuses, into those thoseof him Silenus dance;Silenus anddance; harmony and of harmony knowledgeof into the himinto theknowledge taught wine. ofwine. making of andthe themaking himviniculture viniculture and taught him The than ratherthan herorather Bacchus aahero makes Bacchus hisbirth birth makes ofhis natureof Thenature aagod; we andwe godand mortal,and andaamortal, ofaagod love-child of god;but heis isthe thelove-child buthe cannot He word.He theword. pagan sense ofthe senseof inthe thepagan hisdivinity divinityin cannotdeny deny rus is corn-bearing goddessof ofcom-bearing wasthe thegoddess Cereswas asCeres wine,as lordof ofwine, isthe thelord and werethe the theywere thatthey thought that ancients thought Theancients agriculture.The andagriculture. sacred which liquid,wruch andthe theliquid, solidand presiding over overthe thesolid couplepresiding sacredcouple sus tain and life. animatelife. andanimate sustain

Badian anise Badian anise

same ofthe thesame tree ofa atree Fruitof BADIANE- -Fruit BADIAN of AI\ISE.BADIANE BADIAI\ ANISE. of name the underthe known betterknown name tasting under name of ofanise. anise.ItItisisbetter name tastingof as used anise.Itltisis Chineseanise. called star Chinese used as aa alsocalled andisisalso staranise, anise,and

69 69

BAGRATION

BAGRATION

carminative in the form of an infusion (50 to 60 g. per litre, canninative in the fom of an infusion (50 to 60 g. per litre, 2.to2l oz. per scant quart, generous quart) and in tfie prepara2 to 2-!- oz. per scant quart, generous quart) and in the preparation of certain liqueurs. Its taste is more pungent than that tion of certain liqueurs. Its taste is more pungent than that of green anise, and the essence to which this-fruit owes its of green anise, and the essence to which this fruit owes its aroma is toxic if taken in heavy doses. Cases of poisoning aroma is toxic if taken in heavy doses. Cases of poisoning as a result of taking too strong an infusion have been known. as a result oftaking too strong an infusion have been known. In India, China and Japan, this plant is burnt to scent the ln India, China and Japan, this plant is burnt to scent the houses; it is eaten after a meal to freshen the mouth, and it is houses; it is eaten after a meal to freshen the mou th, and it is also mixed with tea and liqueurs. also mixed with tea and liqueurs. Badian anise, which was brought into Europe by an Badian anise, which was brought into Europe by an English sailor at the end of the sixteenth century,ls used in English sailor at the end of the sixteenth century, is used in the manufacture of Bordeaux anisette. The seeds of badian the manufacture of Bordeaux anisette. The seeds of badian anise are used in confectionery and pastry-making. In some anise are used in confectionery and pastry-making. In sorne northern countries it is used for flavouring bread. northern countries it is used for flavouring bread. BAGRATION- Thena name ofaaRussian Russian general general who whofought fought BAGRATION - The me of against Napoleon. It is given to various dishes: Bagraion against Napoleon. It is given to various dishes: Bagration soup, Bagration salad (see SOUp, SALAD). soup, Bagration salad (see SOUP, SALAD). BAIN-DE-PBD @ootbath)-- Colloquial Colloquial French French for for an an BAIN-DE-PIED (Footbath) excess of liquid, principally coffee, if it overflows and spills excess of liquid, principally coffee, if it overflows and spills from the cup cup into into the the saucer. saucer. from the

pompe.ii fresco ARoman Roman baker, baker,after A afteraaPompeii fresco

Bain-marie Bain-marie

Cooking such as Cooking in in a a bain-marie bain-marie - Ceriain Certain dishes, dishes, such scrambled scrambled eggs, eggs, butter butter sauces, sauces, custard custard creams, creams, mousses, .oily, disintegrate meat meat and and fish fish loaves, loaves, which which may may turn turn 'oily' or or disintegrate if if they they are are cooked cooked on on direct direct heat, heat, can can be be cooked cooked in their own utensils, hot water. water. In U.S.A. a utensils, which which are are lowered lowered into into the the hot utensil is used used for for this this purpose. purpose. utensil called called the the double-boiler double-boiler is In In France, France, the the name name bain-marie bain-marie is is also also applied applied to to a utensil utensil for for sterilising sterilising babies' babies' bottles. boules.

BAIN-MARIE and confectionery, this is is a a BAIN-MARIE - In In cookery cookery and confectionery, this vessel in which sauces and and other vessel half-filled half-filled with with hot hot water, water, in which sauces delicate delicate dishes dishes can can be be kept kept hot hot until until required. required.

-

-

In France, France, the the bakers' bakers' corporation corporation was In wasaaconfraternity, confraternity, or or religious society, society, under under the religious the name name of of talemeliers. talemeliers. Their Their statutes can can be be traced traced back statutes back to to the the time time of of Saint Saint Louis, Louis, and and the oldest oldest complete complete set the set of of regulations regulations in in existence existence is is that that preserved for for us us by by Estienne preserved Estienne Boileau Boileau at at the the begjnning beginning of of the the Registres des (Register of des métiers mitiers (Regjster Registres of Trades), Trades), collected collected about about 1260. 1260. The first first clause clause decrees: 'No-one can The decrees: 'No-one can become become a a talemelier talemelier in the the suburbs suburbs of in of Paris Paris who who does does not not buy buy the the right right to to trade trade from the the King'. King'. One of of their privileges privileges was One was the the buying buying and and reselling reselling of pigs of pigs paylng for for tbis right, because without paying this right, because they they needed needed pigs pigs to to eat eat the bran which was not yet, in in those those days, days, separated separated from fiom the the flour. To To become a fiour. ter baker, a mas master baker, and and to to have have the the right right to to practise his his trade, a a baker had had to to serve serve a a four-year apprenapprenticeship, and to buy the the master's master's certificate certificate from from the king or or the king from from the king's pantler. From From the time he received this, a right this, a of inspection of inspection wasestablished. was established. Bread ofinsufficient of insufficient weight was was confiscated and and distributed to poor, penalties penalties for to the the poor, for the the violation violation of of the law being being left to the discretion discretion of the head of the head of the community. community. Appeals Appeals were were brought before the grand pantler, pantler, whose the grand whose judgement judgement was final. final. The penalty was was simple: The penalty simple: a a fine fine of of 6 6 deniers (pennies) (pennies) for any violation of the law.

1
I[

BAISER BAISER - In In some sorne regions regions of of France, France, this this is is tle the name name given given to to two two small small meringues meringues joined joined together together with with thick thick creEur cream or or other other sweet sweet mixture. mixture. BAJET - A 1 BAJET A species species of ofoyster oyster commonly commonly found found on on the the coast coast of of west west Africa. Africa. The The shell shell is is flat, fiat, round, round, and and thicker thicker than than that that of of ordinary ordinary oysters. oysters. The The flesh fiesh is is edible edible but but not not verv very delicate. deJicate. BAKERY. BAKERY. BoULANGERTe BOULANGERIE - Shop Shop where where bread bread baked baked by by the the baker baker himself himselfis is sold. sold. 1 The Thefirst first bakers bakers in in Italy Italy were were those those the the Romans Romans brought brought from from Greece, Greece, following following their their campaign campaign against against phiiip, Philip, Hannibal's Hannibal's ally. ally. Later, Later,together togetherwith withthe theireedilaves, freed slaves, bakeii bakers formed formed an an organisation organisation which which enjoyed enjoyed· considerable considerable privileges. privileges.
il
1

Ancient bakers' bakers' arms arms Ancient

70 70

BAKERY
Philip the the Fair, Fair, who who introduced introdueed reforms reforms into into this this legislegisPhilip lation, decreed decreed that that the the fines fines should should be be discretionary discretionary and and lation, proportionate to to the the offence. offence. He He appointed appointed the the Provost Provost of of proportionate Paris to to be be the the bakers' bakers' judge, judge, and, and, at at the the same same time, time, conconParis of bakery bakery was was siderably reduced reduced their their privileges. privileges. The The trade trade of siderably to be be free; free; he he forbade forbade the the buying buying of of grain grain in in the the markets markets to for resale, resale, and and permitted permitted private priva te persons persons to to buy buy in in the the for same way way as as wholesale wholesale merchants. merchants . same In 1366, 1366, Charles Charles V V ordered ordered that that the the bakers, bakers, both both in in Paris Paris In and outside, outside, should should bring bring their their bread bread to to the the market market on on marmarand of the the same same flour Bour and and ket days. days . They They must must all ail make make bread bread of ket content, the the same same weight, weight, and and sell sell it it at at the the same same price; price; and content, of loaf, !oaf, one one which which cost cost 4 4 dmiers deniers they should should make make two two sizes sizes of they and one one which which cost cost 2 2 deniers, deniers, the the price priee being being determined determined by by and the weight. weîgbt. the In 1372, 1372, the the king king decided decided that that the the price price of of bread bread in Paris Paris In should be be fixed fixed in in accordance accordanee with the the varying price priee of should grain. When When grain grain cost cost 8 sous, sous, white white bread bread or or pain pain dc de chailli grain. costing 2 2 deniers deniers a loaf loaf should weigh 251 oz. when baked' baked. iosting The bourgeoas bourgeois loaf loaf at the same price should weigh weigh 37| 371 oz. oz. I dmier, when baked. baked. Inferior quality pain de brode, costing 1 denier, qwlity pain when should weigh 36 36 oz. baked. baked. should the beginning beginning of the the fourteenth fourteenth century century Charles VI At the decreed: decreed: the bakers bakers may may not buy or cause cause to be bought either 'That the been Bour on on the Paris markets if if the market has not been grain or flour open at least one one hour. open or a a miller or no baker baker can a miller be a time be same time at the the same can at 'That no measurer of grain. bakers may grain except through the except through not buy buy grain may not 'That the the bakers intermediary a sworn-in sworn-in measurer.' intermediary of a In interminable an interminable of an VI, the the rigours of of Charles Charles VI, In the the reign of war, of bread bread sale of prices of cereals, cereals, the the sale high prices and higb war, the the scarcity scarcity and against many of of forced many causes forced other causes and other uncertain payment and against uncertain the ovens. their ovens. destroy their and to to destroy trade and their trade up their bakers to to give up the bakers A reto rethem to ordering them in 1415 1415 ordering issued in was issued decree was written decree A written build pain of banishment. of banisbment. on pain delay, on without delay, ovens without build the the ovens Further In to time. time. In time to from time issued from were issued regulations were Further regulations 1439, one being being measures, one new measures, introduced new VII introduced Charles VII 1439, Charles that In markets. In posted up in the up in the markets. be posted should he price of of bread bread should the priee that the addition, The noon.' The grain before before noon.' not buy buy grain shall not bakers shall addition, 'The 'The bakers bourgeois this and this bread, and own bread, their own baking their were baking classes were bourgeois classes regulation buying, bulk buying, from bulk bakers from preventing the the bakers at preventing aimed at regulation aimed and monoPolY. their monopoly. maintaining their and maintaining There thebakers', bakers', guilds, including including the All guilds, decrees. Ail were other other decrees. There were were 1569,aa In 1569, insignia. In and insignia. banners and own banners have their their own were to to have curious wear: wereto to wear: bakers were what bakers laid down down what regulation laid curious regulation shirt, forwereforThey were cap' They hose, aa cap. trunk hose, without trunk drawers without shirt, drawers bidden closing official closing and official Sundays and go out, on Sundays except on out, except to go bidden to days, monopolies, set up upmonopolies, toset gather together', 'to gather together', to forbidden 'to days, forbidden or weapons. orother other weapons. swordsor daggers, swords weardaggers, or to to wear The hisinthe thehismilestone in marksaa milestone century marks The seventeenth seventeentheentury tory in improvements in Therewere wereimprovements trade.There bakery trade. Parisbakery theParis of the tory of manufacture, regubran,aareguwithout bran, flour without permission to tosell sellfiour manufacture, permission lation new yeast,and thenew andthe brewer'syeast, useof ofbrewer's theuse forbidding the lation forbidding pain (bread roll) roll)proeess. pain mollet mollet (bread Process. The baked Notre-Dame baked ofNotre-Dame Cathedral of ofthe theCathedral The Chapter Chapter of bread vogue hadaavogue whichhad painde dechapitre, chapitre,which called pain wascalled which was breadwhich before ofQueen breadof favouritebread thefavourite bythe Queen superseded by wassuperseded before ititwas Marie brewer's prepared with withbrewer's breadprepared salted bread Medici:aasalted deMedici: Mariede yeast . Then as knownas breadknown camebread Thencame painàdla reine. lareine calledpain yeastand andcalled pains de de Pain mllk.Pain withmilk. kneadedwith waskneaded whichwas painsàdla laMontauron, Montauron,which Gentilly pain mollet, was therewas mollet,there Besidespaiz withbutter. butter.Besides wasmade madewith Gentillywas pain (pumpkin citrouille(pumpkin painà dla lacitrouille (palebread) andpain painblême bread)and biAme(pale !oaves), small loaves. bakersof ofsmallloaves. thebakers loaves),made madeby bythe Richelieu with and measuresand out-of-datemeasures manyout-of-date withmany away didaway Richelieudid introduced isisininforce to forceto which legislationwhich reforms,legislation boldreforms, introducedbold this day. down: Helaid laiddown: day.He this 71

'Grain 'Grain merchants merchants shall shaH not not make make their their purchases purchases except except outside outside the the ten-league ten-Ieague (40-km., (40-km., 25-mile) 25-mile) limit limit around around Paris. Paris. grain not buy pastry-cooks shall Bakers of small smaU loaves loaves and and pastry-cooks shall not buy grain Bakers of before before l1 Il o'clock o'clock in in summer summer and and noon noon in in winter; winter; large-loaf large-loaf bakers not buy buy grain grain before before 2 2 o'clock, o'clock, to to enable enable the the bakers shall shaU not put needs needs of of the the bourgeois bourgeois to to be he supplied supplied first. first. Bakers Bakers shall shall put scales and keep loaves, on their their their distinctive distinctive trade-mark trade-mark on their loaves, and keep scales and and weights weights in in their their shops, shops, on on pain pain of of being being deprived deprived of of licence licence or or even even more more severe severe punishment.' punishment.' They They were were likewise likewise forbidden forbidden to to store store away away unsold unsold bread; bread : still unsold at a they they had had to to dispose dispose of of it it at a reduced reduced price priee if if still unsold within of baking. baking. within three three days days of and appearance, and 1650, sifted In In 1650, sifted flour fiour began began to to make make its its appearance, bran a time, at a quantity to enabled enab!ed a a great great quantity to be be transported transported at time, bran onwards time onwards From that flour. From of the no no longer longer being being part part of the fiour. that time in the reign of of 1666, in the reign pigs. In In 1666, to raise allowed to bakers bakers were were not not allowed rai se pigs. Fournier, by Fournier, recorded by case was curious case a curious Louis Louis XIV, XIV, a was recorded (Molibre and bread and the the bread mollet (Molière &t pain et le le procis Moliire Molière et procès du pain mollet a (A man Poquelin, a called Poquelin, man called Revue Frangaise. the Revue roll), roll), in in the Française. (A conwhich concase, which in the the case, involved in was involved Molibre, was of Molière, relative of relative The yeast had illness). The caused illness). had caused brewers' yeast claim that that brewers' a claim cerned a cemed yeast in was in bread bread was brewet's yeast of brewer's use of the use that the declared that verdict declared verdict forbidden. therefore forbidden. was therefore and was to health, and detrimental to detrimental of number of the number century the eighteenth century the eighteenth of the By the beginning of and 500 and between 500 which between 15, to to which to 15, had risen risen to bread markets had bread a suburbs; a outlying suburbs; and the the outlying city and the city from the came from bakers came 600 bakers 600 and SaintSaintCorbeil and Gonesse, Corbeil from Gonesse, 1,000 came came from further 1,000 further but markets, but main markets, in the the main They traded traded in Germain-en-Laye. They Germain-en-Laye. holdwithout holdplied their trade without their trade who plied bakers who many bakel"s were many there were there bakers These unauthorised unauthorised bakers certificates. These bakers' certificates. ing master master bakers' ing SaintSaint-Jean-de-Latran, SaintTemple, Saint-Jean-de-Latran, the Temple, lived around around the lived the They enjoyed enjoyed the and Quinze-Vingts. la Châtre Ch0re and Denis, la Quinze-Vingts. They Denis, except people from outside, except from outside, as the city as the people in the the city rights in same rights same privileges conferred conferred had ail all the the privileges who had master bakers, bakers, who for the the master for licence. by the the licence. by

I'Arsenal) Bibliotheque (Miniature from the Boulanger-cabaretier (Miniature [rom the Bibliothèque dede l'Arsenal) Boulanger-cabaretier

BALACHAN

Bakers at at work, work, after after a a 1ithogra lithograph of 1830 lg30 Bakers ph of

jurisdiction of Louis XIV XIV abolished abolished the the jurisdiction of the the royal royal pantler. Louis Artisans and and suburban suburban merchants merchants were were now now on on the the same same Artisans footing as as those those of of the the town, town, and qualified master and newly newly qualified master footing bakers enabled to practise on to practise on the the same same conditions conditions as as bakers were were enabled their established colleagues paying the colleagues by by paying the same same taxes. taxes. The The their established principal aim of of this this concession concession was was no no doubt doubt due due to to the the principal aim fact years of after severa] several years great poverty poverty among of great among the that aCter fact that people, Treasury was and the the State State was was able was depleted, depleted, and people, the the Treasury to taxation by by imposing on suburban bakers bakers as to increase increasetaxation imposing it it on well city. in the the city. weil as as on on those those in There additional laws compelling compelling each baker to There followed followed additionallaws bring (Abb6 Jaubert, bring a a certain certain quantity quantity of of bread bread to market market (Abbé Dictionnaire great Dictionnaire Universel Universel des des Arts Arts et et Mdtiers, Métiers, 1773) 1773) - a a great hardship, hardship, as as they they had had to to get get rid rid of of all ail the bread bread after a c"itain certain hour, hour, and and so so must must sell seIJ any surplus very cheaply. cheaply. At At this this period, period, the the latter latter part part of of the eighteenth century, century, apprenticeship apprenticeship lasted lasted five five years, years, followed followed by by four four years working bakers' guild. guild. At At the the end of the nine years working for for the the bakers' the apprentice, unless unless he he was was the the master master baker's baker's son. son, had had the apprentice, to paying for a certificate, certificate, to present present his his chdd'euvre, chef-d'œuvre, and on paying might might at at last last practise practise as as a a master master baker. baker. Thus Thus matters matters concontinued French Revolution, Revolution, but but even even after after 1789 1789 the the tinued until until the the French breadmaking breadmaking industry industry remained remained under under strict strict control. It It was was only that it it became became free. free. only in in 1863 1863 that Baker's Baker's assistant. assistant. MrrRoN MITRON - The The term term comes cornes from from the the paper paper head-dress head-dress or or mitre mitre which which bakers bakers wore wore at at work. work. Bakery Bakery equipment equipment - This This changed changed very very slowly. slowly. Kneading Kneading was was done done by by hand hand for for many many centuries centuries in in a a huge huge wooden wooden trough, trough, longer longer than than it it was was wide, wide, which which stood stood on on four four legs. legs. It It had had a a flat flat cover cover called called the the tour. tour . Modern Modern bakeries bakeries have have mechanibal mechanical metal metal kneading kneading machines. machines. The The ovens ovens remained remained as as they they are are shown shown in in Diderot's Diderot's Encylopidie En cylopédie from from the the days days of of the the Romans Romans until until the the ninenineteenth teenth century: century :a a block block of ofmasonry masonry with with the the actual actual bakingbakingoven oven inside, inside, square square in in shape, shape, the the inside inside edges edges rounded rounded off, off, surmounted surmounted by by a a dome dome called called the the chapelle. chapelle. The The walls walls were were at atleast least50 50cm. cm. (20 (20inches) inches) thick thick and and the the oven oven was was heated heated by by wood. wood. Coal, Coal, burnt burnt in in a a special special fireplace fireplace below below the the opening opening
72 72

Bakers' ovens, Bakers' 's Encyclopédie ovens, reproduced reproduced from from Diderot Diderct's Encyclopidie

the oven, replaced wood of the ; then wood; gas, oil then came came gas, oil heating, heating, and and electricity . Today, electricity. Today, pipes pipes conta.ining containing a liquid which a liquid which is is first first ber circulate heated in in a a coaJ-fired coal-fired cham chamber circulate round round the the oven; oven; a a system that has the the advantage , uniform and advantage of being being clean clean, and economical. In France, breadmaking breadmaking is stiJl still mainly mainly carried on on in smallsmallscale establishments, producing producing a kg. ofbread scale a few hundred kg. of bread a day, but the the trend trend is is towards mass production in a day, but towards mass in large large factories, with with skilled factories, skilled technical technical organisation organisation and and highly highly developed mechanisation. mechanisation . developed involved in in transforming tran sforming flour flour into into bread The work involved bread is is under the entry BREAD. BREAD. described under

- Seasoning Seasoning much much used used in Siam. Siam. In In Tonkin Tonkin it it BALACHAN is known known as as nukemum. nukemum . It is is mad6 madé of of small small shrimps, shrimps, pounded pounded is with salt salt into into thick thick brine, brine, which which is is dried dried in in the the sun. sun. Balachan, Balachan, with it is is said, said, stimulates stimulates the the appetite appetite and and fortifies fortifies the.stomach. the.stomach. it BALAINE or or BALEINE BALEINE - Name Name of of a a restaurant-keeper restaurant-keeper who who BALAINE ran Ie le Rocher Rocher de de Cancale Cancale in in rue rue Montorgueil. Montorgueil. Grimod Grimod ran de la la Reynibre, Reynière, who who gave gave parties parties at at this this restaurant, restaurant, spoke spoke de very highly highly of of him. him. Car€me Carême considered considered him him to to be be a a secbndsecondvery rate caterer. caterer. (See (See RESTAURANTS RESTAURANTS OF OF BycONE BYGONE DAYS.) DAYS.) rate BALANUS - Fruit Fruit of of the the balanire, balanite, a a shrub shrub indigenous indigenous to to BALANUS upper Egypt. Egypt. It It is is about about the the size size of of a a hazelnut, hazelnut, and and when when upper an oil oil used used in in the the perfumery perfumery industry. industry. When When pressed yields yields an pressed

fresh and and very very ripe, ripe, the the fruit fruit is is edible edible and and known known as as the the desert desert fresh date; its its flavour flavour is is enhanced enhanced if ifserved served along along with with other other foods. foods. date;

BALLOTTINE BALLOTTINE
BALAOU -- French French name na me for for a a small small fish, fish, similar similar to to the the BALAOU abounds in in Martinique. Martinique. Its Its flesh flesh is is delicate delicate sardine, which which abounds sardine, and easily easily digestible. digestible. and ofcooking cooking sardines sardines can can be be applied applied to to balaou. balaou. Ali methods methods of All BALLOTTINE- Galantine Galan tine normally nonnally served served as as a a hot hot entie; entrée; BALLOTTINE it can can also also be be served served cold. cold. The The ballottine ballottine is is made made of of a a piece piece of of it meat, fowl, fowl, game game or or fish fish which which is is boned, boned, stuffed, stuffed, and and rolled rolled meat, into the the shape shape of ofa a bundle. bundle. The The term term ballottine ballottine should strictly strictly into but not not stuffedstuffed. It It is, is, apply only only to to meat, meat, boned boned and and rolled, rolled, but apply however, also also applied applied to to dishes dishes which which are are actually actually galantines. galantines. hbwever, of lamb lamb i à la la boulanglre. boulangère. BALLoTTINE BALLOTTINE D'AGNEAU D'AGNEAU Ballottine of Ballottine À m LA nourANGiRE BOULANGÈRE - Prepare Prepare llke like Shoulder of of lamb lamb d à la A boulangère (see (see LAMB). LAMB). boulangire of lamb lamb A à la la bourgeoise. bourgeoise. n,trrorrnsn BALLOTTINE o'lcxnlu D'AGNEAU A À Ballottine of Ballottine LA BouRcnotsn BOURGEOISE - Prepare Prepare like Ballottine of of lamb h à la bonne bonne LA femme (see below), below), replacing replacing the garnish indicated indicated in in that femme recipe by by garnish garnish d à la bourgeoise bourgeoise (see GARNISHES) GARNISHES) which which recipe should be be cooked with the meat. meat. braised i à la bonne femme. BALLoTTINE BALLOTTINE BaJlottine of lamb braised Ballottine Stuffa D'AGNEAU BRAISfE BRAISÉE A À LA BoNNE BONNE FEMMS FEMME - Stuff a boned boned shoulder D'AGNEAU chopped onion lamb with with sausage meat meat mixed mixed with with chopped of lamb chopped and chopped which has been lightly fried in butter or lard, and parsley. parsley. string, and with string, into a tie with a ballottine, tie Roll the shoulder into cocotte (deep the oyen. an earthenware cocotte oven. Put into an brown in the in butter, and fry dish). Slice Slice and onions in 12 medium-sized medium-sized onions fry 12 dish). has been (a oz.) lean bacon which has g. (4 together with about 100 g. (* pint, scant cup) dry dry blanched and diced. Moisten Moisten with 2 dl. (t blanched a bouquet bouquet white wine been boiled down a little . Add Ldd a a little. has been wine which has just to cover to coyer garni (q.v.) and meat stock just and enough thickened meat the ballottine. Bring to the boil. to the minutes. 45 minutes. CoYer for 45 hot oyen oven for a hot and put it in a Cover the the cocotte and a lower lower Add cook at at a and cook I lb.) potato balls balls and g. (generous 1 500 g. Add 500 put heat remove string, string, put Drain the ballottine, remove the ballottine, 35 minutes. Drain heat for 35 back in serve. and serve. cocotte, and in the the cocotte, ulBallottine garnishes. BALwith varions various garnishes. braised, witb lamb, braised, of lamb, Ballottine of and LOTTINE ballottine and the ballottine Prepare the BRAIsfE -- Prepare D'AGNEAU BRAISÉE LorrINE D'AGNEAU braise in the the as described described in dish, as earthenware dish, it in in a deep earthenware a deep braise it potatoes or preceding or bacon, potatoes adding bacon, without adding preceding recipe, but without recipe, but onions. onions. ove string. When string. remove and rem drain, and is cooked, cooked, drain, When the the ballottine ballottine is Arrange garnish, or or serve serve a garnish, with a dish, surround surround with on a a serving serving dish, Arrange on the ove remove liquor, rem braising !iquor, Boil down down the the braising garnish separately. separately. Boil the garnish the pour it it over the ballottine. ballottine' over the and pour fat, strain, strain, and the surplus surplus fat, (see GARGarnishes GARdish (sec for this this dish suitable for are suitable which are Garnishes which NISHES) bruxelbretonne, bruxelbouquetiire, bretonne, follows: bouquetière, are as as follows: NISHES) are loise, mil anais e, maci do ine, milanaise, chipolata, flamande, lo is e,chipolata, i ar dinidre, macédoine, flamande, jardinière, nivernaise. pilaf, rice, pilaf, noodles, rice, with noodles, may be be served served with dish may The dish nivernaise. The risotto, or with butter butter or dressed with vegetables dressed fresh vegetables with fresh also with risotto, also cream, prepared potatoes prepared glazed vegetables, and potatoes vegetables, and or glazed cream, braised braised or in ways. in various various ways. d, with Ballottine garnishes. BALLOTBALLoTvariorc garnisbes. with varions lamb col col{ of lamb, Ballottine of TINE en the quitecold, cold, isquite ballottine is When the ballottine FRoIDE - - Wh rrNE D'AGNEAU D'AGNEAU FROIDE pour jelly, and untilset. set' leaveuntil andleave aspicjelly, liquid aspic pour over little liquid it aa little over it Arrange buttered decrusted buttered on aa decrusted or on dish,or on aa serving serving dish, Arrange on croûton. chopped jelly' withchoppedjelly. decorate with and decorate Garnish, and cro0ton. Garnish, All poultry and poultry meatand coldmeat forcold garnishes recommended recommended for All the the garnishes are cold ballottine. ballottine. forcold are suitable suitable for BaUottine L'e' o'acNnluÀALA BALLoTTINE D'AGNEAU in jelly. lamb in of lamb Ballottine of ielly. BALLOTTINE GELÉE lambwith with oflamb shoulder of flattened shoulder andflattened Stuffaaboned boned and crrfB - - Stuff Galantine withaa mixedwith (see FORCEMEA FORCEMEAT) mixed Galantine forcemeat forcemeat (see salpicon (q.v.) composed truffies. hamand andtruffies. pickled tongue, tongue, ham ofpickled composed of salpicon(q.v.) Roll, in Cookin withstring. string.Cook tiewith andtie pieceof ofmuslin, muslin, and no[, wrap wrap in inaapiece jellystock (q.v.). galantine(q.v.). jelly stock as forgalantine recipefor inthe therecipe described in asdescribed Drain in againtightly tightlyin upagain andtie tieititup unwrap,and ballottine,unwrap, Drain the theballottine, aacloth, in alsoin andtying tyingititalso withstring stringand endwith eachend cloth,securing securingeach the and ballottineand press.Unwrap theballottine Unwrapthe underaapress. middle.Cool Coolunder themiddle.
the stock glaze it glaze it with with cold cold aspic aspic jelly jelly made made from from the stock in in which which it it was was cooked, cooked, clarified cJarified and and reinforced reinforced with with gelatine, gelatine, if if
nec€ssary. necessary.

jelly. Arrange Arrange on on a a serving serving dish dish and and garnish garnish with with chopped chopped jelly.

jellY in jelly of lamb in Ballottine oflamb Ballottine

n

as MouroN -- Proceed Proceed as DE MOUTON BALLoTTINE DE mutton. BALLOTTINE Ballottine of mutton. Ballottine lamb. of lamb. Ballottine of for Ballottine described for described garnishes. BALn,lrpork, braised, various garnishes. with varions braised, witb of pork, Ballottine of Ballottine poRc BRAISÉE pork and and of pork Bone a a shoulder shoulder of BRAIsfE -- Bone DE PORC LorrINE DE LOTTINE is braised, braised, ballottine is When the the ballottine of lamb. lamb. When prepare as Ballottine of as Ballottine prepare jelly, and with one one of of and serve serve with glaze with with jelly, string, glaze remove string, drain, remove drain, (see GARNISHES). GARNISHES). meat (see for meat used for garnishes normally normally used the garnishes the pour and pour fat, strain, strain, and remove fat, liquor, remove Boil down down the the braising liquor, Boil ballottine. the ballottine. over the over jetly. BALLOTTINE cnrfn PoRc À A LA tr GELÉE DE PORC pork in BALLoTTINE DE in jeUy. of pork Ballottine of Ballottine lamb Ballottine of of lamb prepare as as Ballottine pork and and prepare of pork Bone a a shoulder shoulder of -- Bone for in the recipe for the recipe jetly. Garnish described in as described serve as and serve Garnish and in jelly. in Ballottine of of lamb. larnb. Ballottine boned Take aa boned DE VEAU vEAU -- Take BALLoTTINE DE veal. BALLOTTINE of veaJ. Ballottine of Ballottine (U.S. sirloin sirloin loin (U.S. of loin end of of chump chump end slice of thin sUce a thin or a shoulder or shoulder for recipe for in the the recipe described in proceed as as described and proceed cutlet), and or cutlet), steak or steak lamb. of lamb. Ballottine of Ballottine with served with can be beserved hot or or cold, cold, can either hot veal, either of veal, Ballottine of Ballottine (seeGARGARmeat (see for meat garnishes recommended recommended for one of of the the garnishes one NTSHES). NISHES). various withvarious servedwith sauce' served dark sauce, with dark chicken with of chicken Ballottine of Ballottine Boneaa A BRUN snuN - - Bone DE POULARDE PouLARDE À garnishes. BALLOTTINE BALLoTTINE DE garnishes. it with with aa (see GALANTINE). Stuff it GALANTINE). Stuff fowl (see medium-sized fowl medium-sized (see FORCEFORCEpounded Pork Porkforcemeat quenelle of finely pounded of finely quenelle forcemeat(see MEAT). MEAT). previously hasbeen been previously which has in aacloth cloth which ballottine in Boil the the ballottine Boil itwith withstring. string' and tie tie it ouqand wrung out, water and and wrung in hot hotwater soaked soakedin justenough to chicken stock stock to pan with enough chicken with just in aa braising braisingpan Cook in Cook puton andsimmer simmer lid,and onthe the!id, the boil, boil,put Bringto tothe fowl. Bring coyer coverthe the fowl. minutes. for for50 50 minutes. inthe minutes the l0minu for10 ithot hotfor keepit andkeep ballottineand Drain tes in Drain the theballottine properly.Remove Remove settlesproperly. forcemeatsettles theforcemeat thatthe oyen, toensure ensurethat oven.to and muslin, and through muslin, strainthrough liquor, strain fat braising !iquor, fat from fromthe thebraising pint,scant cup) scantcup) with22dl. dl.(t Blendwith boil bytwo-thirds. down by boildown ftpint, two-thirds.Blend finesieve. sieve. throughaafine andstrain strainthrough thickened vealstock, stock,and thickened veal oven,basting basting glazeititin inthe theoven, andglaze ballottine and Unwrap theballottine Unwrap the with dish,surround surroundwith gravy.Arrange onaadish, Arrange on with with the thethickened thickenedgravy. gtavy; ofthe the tablespoonsof fewtablespoons pourover garnish, and overititaafew gravy; garnish, andpour gravyin inaasauce sauceboat. serve boat. ofthe thegravy restof servethe therest noodles, recommended:noodles, garnishesare arerecommended: The followinggarnishes Thefollowing Demidoff, bouquetidre,DemidofJ: chipolata,bouquetière, celery, orchipolata, mushroomsor celery, mushrooms pirigournigoise,orientale, orientale, périgourespagnole, milanaise,niçoise, Godard, milanaise, espagnole,Godard, allother other withail andwith Rossini, portugaise,Rossini, and dine, piimontaise,portugaise, dine,piémontaise, in small servedin fowlserved chickenor orfowl garnishes small forchicken garnishes recommended recommendedfor pieces pieceswith sauce. darksauce. withaadark various with servedwith sauce, liglrtsauce, Ballottine served varions withlight ofchicken, chicken,witb Ballottfureof and Prepare srlNc- -Prepare garnisbes. POULARDE BLANC and PouLARDs ÀA DE garnishes.BALLOTTINE BALLoTTINEDE glazeitit ligbtly. and above, cook described and glaze lightly. as describedabove, ballottineas cookthe theballottine

73 73

BALM BALM
Arrange on a fried croffton, or on a foundation of rice or Arrange on a fried croû ton, or on a foundation of rice or semolina. Surround with a garnish and serve wrth Vetouti semolina. Surround with a garnish and serve with Velouté or SuprAme sauce (see SAUCE), using the liquor in which or Suprême sauce (see SAUCE), using the liquor in which the ballottine was cooked. the ballottine was cooked. Recommended garnishes: celery, mushrooms, noodles, Recommended garnishes: celery, mushrooms, noodles, ice, Albufdrq anyersoise, banquière, banquiire,Chi Chivry, demi-deuil, rice, Albuféra, anversoise, vry, demi-deuil, ivoire, princesse, rigence, Toulouse, and, generally, with ivoire, princesse, régence, Toulouse, and, generally, with garnishes recommended for poultry prepared with light garnishes recommended for poultry prepared with light sauce. sauce. Small ballottines of chicken. pETrrEs BALrorrrNEs DE Small ballottines of chicken. PETITES BALLOTTINES DE voLAILLE Ballottines made of chickens' legs, when when the the VOLAILLE - - Ballottines made of chickens' legs, wings and breast are used for some other dish. wings and breast are used for sorne other dish. The legs are boned and stuffed as described in the first The legs are boned and stuffed as described in the first recipe for Ballottine of chicken They are braised d brun or recipe for Ballottine of chicken. They are braised à brun or d blanc, and garnished and served as described in the direcà blanc, and garni shed and served as described in the directions for Ballottine of chicken. chicken. tions for Ballottine of Sometimes this dish is given the shape of a ham knuckle, Sometimes this dish is given the shape of a ham knuckle, in which case it is served under the name of Jambonneaux in which case it is served under the name of Jambonneaux de volaille. de volaille. Ballottine of chicken in jelly (chaud-froid) f. nanorrwr Ballottine of chicken in jelly (chaud-froid) J. BALLOTTINE DE POULARDE A r.l Cnr Fr (rN cruuo-rnon) _ prepare and DE POULARDE À LA GELÉE (EN CHAUD-FROID) - Prepare and cook as described in preceding recipes. Finish as indicated in cook as described in preceding recipes. Finish as indicated in one of the recipes for cold chicken - Chicken mayonnaise, one of the recipes for cold chicken - Chicken mayonnaise, Niva, parisienne (see CHICKEN). Néva, parisienne (see CHICKEN). Ballottine of chicken in jely II. slrrorrrNE DE pouI-er A BaUottine of cbicken in jeUy II. BALLOTTINE DE POULET À L.l csriE Prepare and cook the ballottine as described in LA GELÈE -- Prepare and cook the ballottine as described in preceding recipes. Unwrap, and allow to cool in its liquor, preceding recipes. Unwrap, and allow to cool in its liquor, which has been strained and the fat removed which has been strained and the fat removed. Arrange the chicken on a serving dish, glaze, and decorate Arrange the chicken on a serving dish, glaze, and decorate with jelly made from the stock in which it was cooked. with jelly madefrom the stock inwhich it was cooked. Ballottine of glazed glazed chicken (chaud-froid). BALLoTTTNE DE Ballottine of chicken (chaud-froid). BALLOTTINE DE pouI.Er cracfn (rN crnuo-FRorD) - Cook Cook the the ballottine ballottine as as POULET GLACÉE (EN CHAUD-FROID) described in preceding recipes, chill, and prepare as in the described in preceding recipes, chili, and prepare as in the recipe for Chaud-froid of chicken (see CHICKEI.{). recipe for Chaud-froid of chicken (see CHICKEN). Ballottines of various poultry. BALLorrrN.Es DE voLArLLEs Ballottines of various poultry. BALLOTTINES DE VOLAILLES DIvERSES - Proceed with ducks, turkeys, pigeons or guineaDIVERSES - Proceed with ducks, turkeys, pigeons or guineafowl as described in the the recipe for Ballottine chicken. fowl as described in recipe for Ballottine of of chicken. Forcemeat for stuffing ducks or guinea-fowl can be mixed Forcemeat for stuffing ducks or guinea-fowl can be mixed with one-third of its gras, and and chopped chopped with one-third of its volume volume of of foie foie gras, trufles. truffles. These ballottines are served hot or cold, with garnishes These ballottines are served hot or cold, with garnishes recommended for chicken. recommended for chicken. BALM. Name applied to various BALM. BAUME BAUME - Name applied to various aromatic aromatic plants plants of of the the niint mint type. type. ,to BAMBOCHER BAMBOCHER - Slang Slang term term in in French French meaning meaning 'to live live it it up'. The word comes from the nickname of a Dutch painter, up'. The word cornes from the nickname of a Dutch pain ter, Pierre Pierre van van Laer, Laer, called called 'Le 'Le Bamboche', Bamboche', who who specialised specialised in in depicting s (barnbo chades'). depicting rustic rustic scene scenes (bambochades). BAMBOO. BAMBOO. BAMBoUBAMBOU - Arborescent Arborescent reeds reeds (a (a genus genus of ofwoodywoodygrasses) stemmed stemmed grasses) grown grown in in tropical tropical countries. coun tries. Its Its young young shoots are edible, and are pickled in vinegar and sold canned, shoots are edible, and are pickled in vinegar and sold canned, as a luxury product. The shoots, which are spiky, are eaten as a luxury product. The shoots, which are spiky, are eaten raw in China, Indo-China, India, Japan etc. raw in China, Indo-China, India, Japan etc. pickle . The. The Japanese Japanese pickle tender tender bamboo bamboo shoots shootsin in sak6 sakévinegar vinegar (sak6 is a spirit distilled from rice). In the Sunda Isles, ba-m(saké is a spirit distilled from rice). In the Sunda Isles, bamboo stems are pickled in palm vinegar. boo stems are pickled in palm vinegar. Th9 nlth of various species of bamboo is very sweet, and The pith of various species of bamboo is very sweet, and a kind of spirit oozes from it. The fruit of the bamboo is the a kind of spirit oozes from il. The fruit of the bamboo is the size of a pear, and is formed of a great number of edible seeds size ofa pear, and is formed ofa great number of edible seeds resembling ripe ears of maizn or Indian corn. young bam_ resembling ripe ears of maize or Indian corn. Young bamboo shoots boo shootsare arecovered coveredwith withfine finebut butsharp sharphairs, hairs,which whichmust must be removed be removed before before cooking, cooking, otherwise otherwise perforation perforation of of the the intestines may result. intestines may result. BANANA. BANANE- -Fruit Fruitof ofthe thebanana bananatree, tree,which grows whichgrows BAN ANA. BANANE intropical regions.About tropicalregions. About 30 30species speciesofit areknown. of itare known. in Inthe theHindu Hindureligion religion there thereis isaalegend legendin inwhich whichthe thebanana banana ln wasthe fruitforbidden thefruit forbiddento toAdam Adamand andEve Evein inthe theterrestrial terrestrial was paradise,which, which,according according to tothe thelegend, legend, was wason onthe theisland island paradise, ofCeylon, Ceylon,where where the parents of theparents ofthe thehuman humanrace racecovered covered of their nakedness nakednesswith with banana banana leaves. leaves. This Thisexplains explainsthe names thenames their of Adam's Adam's fig-tree andParadise Paradise banana, banana, which whichthe theIndians Indians of fig-treeand given to havegiven totwo twospecies speciesof of banana bananatree. tree. have The dietetic qualities of the thebanana banana are are undisputed. undisputed.It proIt pro.The dietetic qualities of vides 100 100calories calories per per100 (250 calories g.(250 100 g. per100 g.in calories per 100g. ini ts itsddried vides ried form) and and aasufficient quantity of sufficient quantity ofail all the the mineraI mineral salts saltsnecesnecesform) saryfor for the the body's body's maintenance. maintenance. sary It is is rich rich in in starch, starch, which which is is transformed transformedinto into extremely extremely It energising sugar sugar when when the the fruit fruit is is fully fully ripe. ripe. It Italso alsocon contains energising tains aI wide variety variety ofvitamins: of vitamins: A, A, B, B,BI' Br, Bz, BroBrz, D and and E. E. B lz , D wide When ripe, ripe, the the banana banana is is full full of of nourishing nourishing constituents. constituents. When It con contains 74pr cent water waterand and22 per cent cent carbohydrates. carbohydrates. It tains 74 per cent 22 per These carbohydrates carbohydrates are are only only assimilable assimilable when when the fruit is is the fruit These fully ripe; ripe; in green bananas in green bananas it it remains remains a non-assimilable a non-assimilable fully starch. starch. Bananas destined destined for for export export are are harvested harvested when when they Bananas they are are green, at still green, at a a stage stage when when their their fiesh flesh is is white white and and without without still flavour. They They have have to to be be transported transported in in conditions conditions ofa fiavour. ofa steady steady 0 temperature of 12.5" to of ]2.5° (54.5. to l3'c. to l3 to 55·5°F.) 55.5"F.) in in ships temperature e. (54·5° ships specially equipped equipped for for this purpose. They this purpose. They are are shipped shipped in specially in complete stems stems of of from from 15 15 to (33 to to 40 40 kg. kg. (33 to 88 88 lb.) lb.) wrapped wrapped complete in special paper or g special paper polythene bags, or polythene 'hands' of bags, or or in in 'hands' from 8 of from in to 12 12 bananas packed in bananas packed in cartons cartons or or crates. crates. to On arrivaI, arrival, the (which should the bananas bananas (which should be at the be at On the same same stage of of maturity maturity as as they they were were at port of at the the port embarkation) of embarkation) stage are ripened ripened either either in in converted converted cellars cellars heated heated to to a a temare temperature of from 16·5° of from 16.5' to (61.5' to 20"C. (61,5° to 20°e. to 68°F.) 68'F.) with perature with a a humidity value value of per cent of 90 90 per cent to 95 95 per cent, cent, or in in specially humidity specially equipped depôts. dep6ts. The ripening ripening period is carried out according aciording equipped to requirements, requirements, and varies from 3 to 8 days. to When bananas are to be eaten raw, preference When bananas are preference should be given a uniform golden-yellow colour, to those those which which are a uniform golden-yellow given to or lightly lightly spotted. spotted. or There are some two There are sorne two hundred hundred species of bananas bananas in in cultivation tivation throughout throughout the world. Of these, three varieties are commonly sinensis and and poyo, commonly found found on the French French market: market: sinensis similar similar to to each each other, both both slightly curved, with fragrant, tasty and gros-Michel,larger. tasty flesh, fiesh, and gros-Michel, larger, straighter, straighter, less less fragile fragile (and (and therefore therefore more resistant to handling) handling) but but less fragrant. fragrant.

BAMBOO BAMBOO MUSHROOM. MUSHROOM. cnauprcNoN CHAMPIGNON DE DE ralrsou BAMBOU -- A A mushroom mushroommuch muchvalued valuedin inChinese Chinesecuisine.It cuisine. Itis isavailable avaiJablein in
Europe only in its dried form. Europe only in its dried form.
Ripening for Ripeningplace place forbananas bananas(Pomona') (Pomona)

74 74

BANANA BANANA
Sinensis and andpoyo poyo come come from from Martinique, Martinique, Guadeloupe, Guadeloupe, the the Sinensis Ivory Ivory Coast Coast and and the the Canaries. Canaries. The The gros-Michel gros-Michel is is grown grown in in Central America, America, South South America America and and Cameroun. Cameroun. The The latter latter Central is gradually gradually being being replacedby replaced by poyo. poyo. is In In France, France, the the gros-Michel gros-Michel of of Cameroun Cameroun is is marketed marketed principally principally in in the the east east of of the the country, country, the thepoyo poyo of of the the Ivory Ivory Coast and and Canary Canary bananas bananas in in the the south, south, Antilles Antilles bananas bananas Coast in the the Paris Paris region region and and the the west. west. in
Cut Cut the the banana banana halves halves into into slices, slices, and and steep steep them them in in sugar sugar and and rum rum for for 30 30 minutes. minutes. Partly Partly fill fill the the banana banana skins skins with with (q.v.) Dessert Dessert rice rice (see (see RICE) RICE) mixed mlxed with with a a salpicon salpicon (q.v.) of of cryscrystallised and flavoured flavoured with with rum. rum. Arrange Arrange the the banana banana tallised fruit, fruit, and slices slices on on top, top, put put the the fruit fruit on on a a baking baking tray, tray, sprinkle sprinkle with with in and brown ground macaroons' melted melted butter butter and and finely finely ground macaroons, and brown in a a hot hot oven. oyen. (se SAUCE). Serve Serve with with rum-flavoured rum-flavoured Apricot Apricot sauce sauce (see SAUCE). AUx BANANES A Banana Banana crottes croOtes ià la la Bauvilliers. BauviUiers. cRoOrEs CROÛTES AUX BANANES À LA LA BALTVILLIERS BAUVILLIERS - Cut Cut a a stale stale brioche brioche into into a a dozen dozen rectanrectangular cm. (2|inches) (2+ inches) long long and and a a little little wider wider than than a a gular slices slices 6 6 cm. with sprinkle tray, a baking on Put the slices banatra. banana. Put the slices on a baking tray, sprinkle with fine fine sugar, sugar, ara.d and $aze glaze in in the the oven. oyen. Peel Peel 6 6 bananas bananas and and halve halve lengthways. lengthways. Fut Put them them on on a a buttered buttered baking baking tray, tray, sprinkle sprinkle with with fine fine sugar sugar and and cook cook in in alternating the the oven OYen for for 5 5 minutes. minutes. Arrange Arrange the the bananas, bananas, alternating with with slices slices of of brioche, brioche, in in a a circle circle in in a a fireproof fireproof dish' dish. Fill FiJI the the and vanilla, centre cooked with with milk, milk, sugar sugar and vaniJla, centre with with semolina semolina cooked sernoEnglish (see SEMOLINA. SEMOLINA. English semoand bound with with egg egg yolks yolks (see and bound (q.v.) of fruit of preserved a salpicon lina Lina pudding). pudding). Mix Mix with with a salpicon (q.v.) preserved fruit macaroons crushed macaroons finely crushed with finely dish with the whole Sprinkle the Sprinkle whole dish serving, Before serving, oven. Before in the the OYen. and brown butter, and andmelted and melted butter, brown in (see SAUCE) with flavoured with SAUCE) flavoured sauce (see Apricot sauce with Apricot surround with surround maraschino. maraschino. I-l A LA saNA,NEs À lux BANANES cno0rus AUX maltaise. CROÛTES il la la maltaise. Banana crofites cro0tes à Banana Banana for Banana reclpe for in the the recipe described in as described Prepare as MALTAIsE MALTAISE - Prepare French thick French by thick semolina by replacing semolina Bauvilliers, replacing d la la Bauvilliers, crofites à croûtes grated orange orange with grated (see CREA flavoured with pastry CREAMS), cream (see pastry cream MS), flavoured peel. peel. peel orange peel candied orange with candied of bananas bananas with circle of the circle Decorate the Decorate almonds. halved almonds. and halved and and Peel bananas bananas and rhMsfns -- Peel BANANEs FLAMBÉES flambe. BANANES Bananas flambé. Bananas put into into and put Drain, and syrup. Drain, in vanilla-flavoured vanilla-flavoured syrup. them in cook them cook liqueur, with liqueur, Sprinkle with dish. Sprinkle ovenproof dish. a timbale timbale or or a a shallow shallow ovenproof a when serving. serving. alight when and set set alight and A LA LA BANANEs À DE BANANES FLAN DE la crème. crdme. FLAN i la tart à or tart flan or Banana flan Banana Put them them lengthways. Put them lengthways. and halve halve them Peel bananas bananas and cniuB -- Peel CRÈME in the the cook in and cook fine sugar, sugar, and with fine dish, sprinkle sprinkle with in a a buttered buttered dish, in pastry, and fill and fill made of of short short pastry, flan made in a a flan Arrange them them in oven. Arrange oyen. with Sprinkle with (see CREAMS). CREAMS). Sprinkle pastry cream cream (see with French French pastry with oven. in the the oyen. brown in and brown crushed macaroons, macaroons, and crushed Peel FRITES- - Peel (garnish for BANANES FRITES for meat). meat). BANANES bananas (garnish Fried bananas Fried minutes for 30 30 minutes Marinate for lengthways. Marinate bananas lengthways. and halve the bananas halve the and light inaalight halves in juice, salt pepper. Dip Dip the the halves and pepper. salt and in oil, oil, lemon lemon juice, in required. when and fry, fry, wh batter and batter en required. Banana asBanana are the the same same as course, these these are orsweet sweet course, As aadessert dessert or As (see below). below). fritters fritters (see
steeped steeped in in maraschino. maraschino.

Curved banana banaoa from from the the Curved Canaries Canariesand and straight straight banana banana from America America from

are sometimes dried in their country of origin Bananas are Their calorific and exported in this form. fonn. Their calorific value then rises to The banana meat. The about 285 285 calories calories per 100 100 g. - twice twice that of ofmeat. banana about reduced to 'flour'. 'flour'. It takes this forrn form in a number can also be reduced cocoa.. preparations, usually flavoured with cocoa of industrial preparations, as 200, as many bananas may consist of as many as 200, and A stem stem of bananas lb.).. weighs from 35 88 lb.) 35 to 40 kg. (77 to 88 weighs FouR bananas in AU FOUR BANANDs AU Baked bananas. BANANES - Bake the bananas and melted butter and wlthout peeling them. them. Serve with melted oven without the oyen desired.. fine sugar. Serve with a fruit jelly, if desired a red fruit 6 I\rt 6 BEAUHARNAIS - Put Ba nanas Beauharnais. BANANDs BEAUHARNAJS Beauharnais. BANANES Bananas with Dust with dish. Dust fireproof dish. peeled a buttered peeled bananas buttered fireproof into a bananas into (5 tablespoons) tablespoons) fine with 4 4 tablespoons tablespoons (5 fine sugar, sugar, sprinkle sprinkle with for 5 5 oven for white in the the oyen Cook in the stove. stove. Cook heat on on the white rum, and heat rum, and with crushed crushed minutes. Pour thick cream over sprinkle with over them, them, sprinkJe glaze in in a a hot hot and glaze macaroons melted butter, butter, and a httle little melted macaroons and and a oyen . Serve dish. same dish. in the the same oven. Serve in and Peel and Bananas BoURDALoUE - Peel BANANtrs BOURDALOUE Bananas Bourdaloue. Bourdaloue. BANANES in the the as described described in proceed as poach and proceed poach the bananas in in syrup, syrup, and (see APRICOTS) . recipe APRICOTS). bourdaloue (see for Apricots recipe for Apricots bourdaloue Peel bananas, bananas, Ba nanas in AU BEURRE BEURRE - Peel BANANEs AU butter. BANt\NES Bananas in butter. with put and sprinkle sprinkle with dish, and fireproof dish, put them in a a buttered them in buttered fireproof (180'C., 350°F., Mark 350oF., Gas Gas Mark sugar. oven (180°C., in the the oyen sugar. Cook Cook slowly slowly in 4) minutes. 20 to to 30 30 minutes. 4) for for 20 Banana COMPOTE. See COMPOTE. compote -- See Banana compote poach the the Bananas Peel and and poach coxo6 - Peel BANANEs CONDÉ Cond6. BANANES Bananas Condé. recipefor for Apricots Apricots bananas in the the recipe proceed as described in as described and proceed bananas and Condé (see APRICOT). APRICOT). Condi (see

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Bananas à ilacr6ole la créole Bananas

Bananas u CRÉOLE cnforp- cnarlNfns ÀALA BANANEsGRATINÉES lacréole. cr6ole.BANANES Bananas àI la Choose Remove lengthwise. Remove andcut cutthem them lengthwise. firm bananas bananas and Choose finn the water. inboiling boilingwater. minutesin for22minutes theskins skinsfor andsoak fruitand soakthe thefruit Drain, cool. tocool. incold coldwater waterto anddip dipthem themin Drain,and
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Fried bananas with cream

BANDOL

(669426 Ashurbanipal (669-626 Ashurbanipal
n.c.) feasting with B.C.) feasting with his his

qtet(British queen (British Museum) Mweum'l

Banana fritters. fritters. BEIGNETS BETcNETs DE BANANEs -- Halve DE BANANES Halve the the bananas bananas Banaoa lengthways and and steep steep them them for for an an hour hour in in rum rum or or kirsch kirsch and and lengthways sugar. When When required, required, dip dip them them in in batter and deep-fry batter and deep-fry in in sugar. sizding fat. fat. Drain, Drain, dry, dry, and and sprinkle sprinkle with with fine fine sugar sugar before before sizzling serving. serving. Batter. Make Make a a smooth paste with smooth thick thick paste with 3 3 tablespoons tablespoons Batter. (scant t cup) flour flour and and warm wann water. water. Add Add a a tablespoon tablespoon olive olive * cup) (scant oil, and and leave leave to to stand stand for for 2 2 to to 3 3 hours, hours, stirring stirring from from time time to to oil, time. time. Just before before using, using, fold fold 2 2 stiffly stiffy whisked whisked egg egg whites whites into into the the Just batter. batter. Banana mousse mous$e glacé glac6 ICE CREAMS See lCR CREAMS AND AND ICES, ICES, Banana - See Fruit mousse. Fruit mousse. Banana soufflé. sorff6. SOUFFLÉ sourrrf AUX AUx BANANES BANANESa tablespoon Banana - Blend a flour and a a small small pinch of salt into a a smooth paste with wittr,l dl. flour and pinch of 1 dl. (6 scant 1milk which has been been boiled with with (6 tablespoons, tablespoons, scant * cup) milk 35 3 tablespoons) and allowed sugar and allowed to 35 g. g. Q (2 tablespoons, tablespoons, 3 tablespoons) sugar cool. (or 1a vanilla teaspoon vanilla vanilla essence) cool. Add Add half halfa vanilla bean (or ] teaspoon and the boil, stirring ail all and stir stir well. weIl. Bring Bring slowly to just just under the the be that the time; time; remove remove from from the heat. The texture should be of of thick thick cream. cream. Rub with Rub the the pulp pulp of of 4 bananas bananas through through a fine sieve, mix with 2 and add add this 2 egg egg yolks yolks and and a heaped heaped tablespoon butter, and mixture stiffly whisked mixture to the the cream cream in the saucepan. Add the stifly egg egg whites. whites. Butter and pour Butter a a soufr6 soufflé dish, sprinkle with fine fine sugar, sugar, and in in the the mixture. mixture. Bake Bake in in a a slow oven oyen (160"C., (160°C., 325"F., 325°F., Gas Mark Mark 3) 3) for for 12 12 to to 15 15 minutes. minutes.

BANIX)L BANDOL - Charming Charming fishing port port in the &ipartement département of
Var Var which which has has given given its its name name to to excellent white, red red and ros6 rosé wines wines produced produced in in the the locality. locality. (See pROVENCE.) PROVENCE.) BANGI BANGI - Small Small tree tree which which grows grows in in the the philippines. Philippines. It is lactescent lactescent and and produces produces a a pleasant, pleasant, green green coloured coloured fruit, the size size ofan of an orange. orange. BANILLES BANILLES - Long, Long, tapering tapering small small pods pods which which have have some sorne similarity similarity to to the the vanilla vanilla bean. bean. They They contain contain a a fragrant, fragrant, sugary sugary juice juice which which is is often often used used instead instead of of vanilla vanilla in in the the
manufacture manufacture of ofchocolate. chocolate.

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BANQUET BANQUET - The The word word possibly possibly comes cornes from from banc banc (bench). (bench). It It may may have have been been on on benches benches that that the the first first Christians Christians sat sat as as they agapes in in the the catacombs. catacombs. they celebrated celebrated their their agapes Whatever Whatever the the origin origin of of the the word, word, banquet banquet signifies signifies a a sumptuous sumptuous meal meal given given to to a a large large number number of of guests guests on on festal festal or or ceremonial ceremonial occasions. occasions. Or Or it it is is given given to to bring bring together together
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people of of the thesame sameliterary literary or people tes, or orartistic artistic tas tastes, orreligious religious or or political ideas, ideas, or or of of the the same political same social profession, or social status, status, profession, or ethnic origin, origin, and and so soon. on. ethnic The mystic mystic character character of The of aa banquet banquet is is to to be foundin prebefound inprehistory. In In the the origins history. origins of of ail allhuman human activity activity there there was wasmagic, magic, the need need of man to the of man to make make the the mysterious mysterious forces forces of of nature nature favourable to to him. favourable him. On On the the walls walls of ofthe the Trois Trois Frères Frires caves cavesin in Aribge, there primitive painting there is is aa primitive painting of Ariège, of aa sorcerer sorcerer in in cereceremonial robes, robes, performing performing aa sacred monial sacred dance dance in in the the middle middle of of an immense immense herd an herd of of cattle; cattlb; apparently apparently sorne some kind kind of of incantaincantation to to make make the tion the tribe's tribe's hunting hunting successful. successful. When a When a slaughtered slaughtered animal animal layon ground, it lay on the the ground, it was was divided into into two divided parts, the two parts, the first first for for the the benevolent deities, benevolent deities, the the other other for for the the tribe, tribe, clan clan or or family. family. In got In this this way way men men got used used to to meeting meeting together, together, to to divide divide amongst amongst themselves themselves the the parts of chosen chosen parts of the the animal. animal. They They continued continued to to do do this this on on the the occasion occasion of great events of the the two two great events of of their their lives, lives, birth and birth and death. death. These These were were the the first first banquets. banquets. When large therings at gatherings large ga at table possible, the table became became possible, the era era of of banquets banquets began. The The most magnificent were were those those that that took took place in the fertile fields fields of of the the orient, orient, especially especially rich rich in in spices spices and and fiavourings. flavourings. The The banquets banqueb of tbe the Egyptians Egrptians The Egyptians Egyptians were were very very - The careful in their cooking, cooking, because because they they believed believed that that illnesses illnesses were caused by the wrong choice choice and and cooking cooking offood. of food. ConContrary trary to the customs customs of most Eastern Eastern countries, countries, the the women women took charge took charge of of the the organisation organisation of of banquets banquets in in Egypt, Egypt, directing directing the the service and and presiding at guests were at table. table. The The guests wire ushered into ushered into an an ante-room ante-room on on their their arrivaI, arrival, where where they they washed their their hands washed hands and and feet. feet. They They then then disported disported themthemselves in various games before the feast. feast. banqueting hall, At the entrance to the banqueting hall, servants servants crowned crowned them with wreaths of flowers. The The first first drinks drinks were were served, served. the meal meal began. prayers were said, and the prayers guests sat began. The The guests sat on on the the and the the various dishes dishes were placed near floor, and were placed near them, them, in in Young musicians provided music on the harp, lyre baskets. baskets. provided music on the harp, lyre and tambourine; sometimes there there were were performances by and by acrobats and mimes. mimes. acrobats Herodotus, Athanaeus Athanaeus and and Plutarch Plutarch have have recorded recorded that Herodotus, that in order order to to stimulate stimulate the the guests to to enjoy enjoy earthly earthly pleasures pleasures to to the full, full, a a coffin coffin was was sometimes sometimes brought brought in at the the end end of of the the the in at skeleton in in it, it, so so that that they they should should meal, with with an imitation skeleton meal, of life, Iife, especially especially appreciate more more highly the the good good things things of appreciate those of of the the table. table. those of the the Assyrians Assyrians and and the the Chaldeam Chaldeans - Strabo The banquets banquets of The - Stra bo that the the epitaph epitaph inscribed inscribed on on the the tomb tomb of of SardanaSardanatells us us that tells

BANQUET BANQUET

Fresco Fresco showing showing a a meal meal in in

Greek Greek times limes

son of Anacyndara, palus reads: reads: 'sardanapalus, 'Sardanapalus, the the son Anacyndara, had palus day. Passer-by, a day. Tarsus built in a the towns of Anchiale and Tarsus matters!' and be merry, for nothing else matters!' eat, drink and armies their armies of their victories of The Assyrians Assyrians celebrated the the victories The with banquets. In an Assyrian bas-relief, we can see the king reclining on a sumptuous couch, the queen sitting at his feet, reclining on stringed instruslaves playing on the table table richly richly decked, decked, slaves the they were feet; they no feet; have no ments. The table have on the the table vessels on The vessels ments. designed to be in one copious draught. be quaffed in gives a a description description Maspéro, his Lectures Historiques, Historiqtres, gives rnhis Masp6ro, in Ashur-bani-pal, the by Ashur-bani-pal, of ordered by of these these banquets banquets ordered of one one of its power: of its king under whom the height of whom Nineveh reached the for comers for all corners open to ail 'The doors of the remained open the palace remained the walls, walls, hung on on the seven draperies hung Multicoloured draperies days. Multi-coloured seven days. transforming yards into into immense immense banqueting courtyards the court transforming the night, till night, morning till halls. from morning into them them from crowded into People crowded halls. People liked. they liked. whatever they stretching and ordering whatever on couches couches and out on stretching out to this this admitted to were admitted Women and as men, men, were as well well as and children, children, as prevented them them largesse. duties prevented whose duties were soldiers, soldiers, whose Nor were largesse. Nor drink and drink food and leaving king sent sent food the king forgotten; the the barracks, leaving the barracks, forgotten; to come.' not come.' could not who could to those those who gardens capable of capable of In and gardens were orchards orchards and Babylon, there there were In Babylon, The sumpsumpsupplying a long long siege. siege. The food during during a with food town with the town supplying the of the the those of tuousness equalled those there equalled the banquets banquets there of the tuousness of Assyrians. Assyrians. nomads were nomads The Hebrews were The Hebrews Hebrews -- The of the the Hebrews banquets of The banquets the for to occupy occupy the Chaldea to out of of Chaldea come out period, having having come for a a long long period, the land of the peace on banks of on the the banks and peace Prosperity and land of of Canaan. Canaan. Prosperity Jordan of the the table. table. pleasures of partake of the pleasures of the to partake them to enabled them Jordan enabled luxury and and when luxury At pleasures, but but when simple pleasures, were simple At first first they they were very refinement became very their banquets banquets became introduced their were introduced refinement were table, but but elaborate. down to to table, satdown kings they they sat of the the kings time of At the the time elaborate. At They later to eat. eat. They couches to on couches reclining on of reclining habit of adopted the the habit later adopted guests arrived arrived perfumed when guests and when with essences, essences, and perfumed their wine with their wine poured over over for was poured perfume was water and and perfume holy water for aa banquet, banquet, holy places them, their places andtook took their flowers, and with flowers, crowned with they were were crowned them, they according rank. to their their rank. according to pipe.' Music andpipe.' 'with the tabret and harp, the the tabret the harp, was made made 'with Music was Women were they were feasts, but but they tothe thefeasts, admitted to firstadmitted not at atfirst Women were werenot accepted the entertained,the handsomely entertained, were handsomely andwere in time, time, and accepted in Sabeans wrists theirwrists putting bracelets on their bracelets on desert putting from the the desert Sabeans from and heads. their heads. crowns on ontheir and crowns 'One The says:'One Athenaeussays: Persians -- Athenaeus of the thePersians banquetsof The banquets thousand king's table; table; theking's forthe dailyfor areslaughtered slaughtered daily animalsare thousand animais horses, thesmaller smaller of the mostof andmost deerand asses, deer oxen,asses, camels,oxen, horses,camels, animaIs. Arabian asArabian suchas arealso alsoconsumed, consumed, such Manybirds birdsare animals.Many
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geese and cocks.' and cocks.' ostriches, geese ostriches, given by by a banquet banquet given describes a Esther describes of Esther Book of The Book The prowas profavour was fall from from favour Vashti's fail when Queen Vashti's Ahasuerus, when orders. king's orders. at the the king's appear, at to appear, refused to had refused she had claimed after she gardens, pblace gardens, in the the palace served in banquet, served magnificent banquet, This magnificent This gold, and and and gold, of silver silver and were of The couches couches were days. The lasted seven seven days. lasted gold cups. cups. poured into into gold was poured of wine was abundance ofwine an abundance organised were organised Feasts were City Feasts the Greeks Greeks of the The banquets of The - City In occasions. In religious occasions. or religious on social social or Greeks on the ancient ancient Greeks by the by citizens occasions, citizens for special special occasions, these banquets banquets for addition to to these addition within day, within every day, together every meal together a sacred eat a sacred meal to eat were required to were and the the fire and presence of sacred fire of the the sacred prytaneum, in in the the presence the prytaneum, the was custom was if tbis this custom that if Greeks believed believed that gods. The The Greeks protecting gods. protecting of their their favour of lose the the favour would lose they would day, they a single missed by single day, by a missed gods. gods. and meal, and attend the the meal, lot to to attend by lot men were were selected selected by In Athens, Athens, men In perform this duty. this duty. to perform refused to punished if if they they refused were severely severely punished were and robes and white robes wore white table wore at the the sacred sacred table Those who who sat sat at Those parasites, then sacred then aa sacred were called called parasites, They were flowers. They crowns of of flowers. crowns The contempt. The of contempt. a term term of to become become a destined to later title. but but la ter destined title, but of Demosthenes, Demosthenes, but time of the time by the parasites had disappeared by had disappeared parasites in the the together in eat together required to to eat prytanes were still required were still the prytanes the prytaneum. prytaneum. guests The guests Greek banquet. banquet.The to aaGreek invited to never invited Women were were never Women hall, the banqueting banqueting hall, entering the off before before entering their shoes shoes off took their took gods the gods invoked the and invoked washed, and for aa time, time, washed, couches for rested on on couches rested feast. Young Young the feast. down to tothe sitting down before sitting and country country before of home home and of dancing were dancing and there there were lute, and andJute, played upon harp and girls played the harp upon the girls girls. girls.

banquet at Greek musicat andmusic Dancing Dancing and aa Greek banquet

BANQUET BANQUET
The banquets of the Romans - The splendours of Imperial _Tbe banquets of tbe Romans - The splendours of Imperial Rome were reflected in their banquets. The Romans often Rome were reflected in their banquets. The Romans often

sacrificed the dishes themselves to presentation and ostentasacrrnced the dishes themselves to presentation and ostentation. At one meal Heliogabalus served to his guests 600 tion. At one meal Heliogabalus served to his 600 ostrich brains, peas with grains of gold, lentils with precious ostrich brains, peas with grains of gold, lentils stones, and other dishes with pearls and amber. stones, and other dishes with pearls and amber. The room where the Romans took their meals was called The room where the Romans took their meals was called the triclinium; it was the custom to put only three couches the tricliniwn; it was the custom to put round a table. Each guest brought his own napkin. On arrival, round a table. Each brought his own the guests changed into white robes and sandals, and took the white robes and and took their places at table according to their status. After invoking at according to their status. After invoking the Penates, Lares and Jupiter, they began the feast, eating Lares and Jupiter, they began the feast, eating with their fingers. fingers. with their

A Roman banquet A Roman banquet

The first first course course was was the the hors-d'œuvre, hors-d'euvre, served served with with a a Iight light The wine. The The second second was was the coena, which the coena, which was was the the main main course, couise, wine. after which which sacrifices sacrifices were were made made to to the the Lares Lares amid amid silence. silence. after The third third course course was was the the dessert, dessert, fresh fresh or or dried fruit or dried fruit or fruit fruit The pastries, but baked in in pastries, but there there was was sometimes sometimes a a more more solid solid baked course instead instead of of dessert. dessert. In In a a menu menu found found in in the the ruins ruins of of course Pompeii, this this course course included included sows' sows' udders, udders, wild wild boar's boar,s Pompeii, head, fricassie of wild wild duck, duck, and and a a cream cream made made of of fiour flour and and head, fricassée of Vicence cakes. Vicence cakes. Musicians, poets poets and and dancers dancers appeared at at important important _ Musicians, banquets, sometimes there there were were gladiator fighti, acrobanquets, and and sometimes OI~It11~rr\r fights, bats bats and and clowns. clowns. There accounts of grandiose luxury of the the grandiose luxury of of the There are are many many accounts barbaric gives us Romans. petronius Petronius gives barbaric feasts feasts given given by by the the Romans. some from a of what what they they were were like like in in this this extract extract from sorne idea idea of description Trimalchio's feast: feast: of one one of of these, these, Trimalchio's description of 'On 'On a a tray tray of of relishes relishes stood stood a a small small bronze bronze ass, ass, carrying carrying twin containing green green and and the the other other biack black twin baskets, baskets, one one containing olives. Salvers, moulded like olives. Salvers, moulded Iike bridges, bridges, contained contained dormice, seasoned seasoned with with honey honey and and poppy seeds. seeds. There There were sizzling sausages on a a silver silver gridiron, with Syrian Syrian plums plums and pomesausages on granate ..A granate seeds seeds placed placed beneath it. it ... A basketwas basket was placed placed before us_containing a hen, hen, wings wings spread spread out ou t as as if if she she were were hatching. ha tching. us con taining a We We broke broke the the egg, egg, which which was was made made of of light light pastry pastry looking looking exactly . . and and found found in in it it a a plump plump beccafico beccafico exactly like like the the shell shell .... (garden (garden warbler), warbler), deliciously deliciously spiced, hidden hidden insidl inside the the y-olk. yolk. Crystal Crystal flagons, carefully carefully sealed, were brought in. in. Around Around the neck of each the neck each bottle bottle hung hung a a label: Falernian opimian op imian wine ;vine 100 100 years years old.' old.' The The long long account account goes goes on on to to list list the the fantastic fantastic manner manner in in which ;a of the the which dishes dishes were were served served; a tray tray with with the the twelve twelve signs signs of zodiac reproduced chef had had zodiac reproduced on on it it in in a a circle, circle, on on which which the the chef placed dishes dishes analogous to to the the particular constellation constellation - a a piece of of beef beef over over Taurus (the (the Bull), kidneys kidneys and and testicles testicles over Cancer (the (the Crab), Crab), the the uterus uterus of a a sow sow over over Virgo Virgo (the (the over Cancer Virgin), hare over over Sagittarius Sagittarius (the (the Archer), Archer), two two mullets mullets Virgin), a a hare (the over over Pisces Pisces (the Fish), Fish), and and so so on. on. An An enonnous enormous wild wild boar boar was was served served on on a a platter, platter, with with little little pastry pastry sucking pigs pressing ..A pressingon on the the teats teats .... A slave slave gave the the boar boar a a stab irrthe belly and out out flew flew a a cloud cloud of of thrushes, trying trying to to escape. escape. belly and Bird Bird catchers catchers caught caught them them with with fowlers' fowlers' rods. rods, and and offered offered them themto tothe theguests. guests.
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Thebanquets banquebof (100 ofthe theGauls Gauls B.C.) The food ofthe the The (100 B.C.) - -The food of earlyGauls Gaulsconsisted consistedmainly mainlyof offresh fresh orsalted pork,the saltedpork, the or early animalsthey theyraised raisedin inthe theforests, forests,and andmilk. milk.Their Theirmeals meals animais togetherwere werelong, long,served servedby by young people. brazierwi with AAbrazier th spitsand andcauldrons cauldronswas was placed near the tables,and andfood foodwas was cookedin inthem. them. cooked guestssat Theguests saton onbundles bundles of ofstraw strawround roundlow lowtables. The tables. quantitiesof Greatquantities ofmeat, meat,boiled, boiled,roasted roastedon onthe thespit spitor Great or grilled,with withaalittle littlebread, bread,constituted constituted the themeal. meal. grilled, Posidonious, the theGreek Greekstoic philosopher, has stoicphilosopher, hasleft Posidonious, lefta a description of ofthe themeal: meal: description 'Thefood food isisserved served in inaac1ean cleanway: way:on onsil silver 'The ver or orcopper copper dishesin inrich richhouses, houses,on onearthenware earthenwareor orwood wooden dishes en ones onesin inthe the homes of ofthe jointand the poor.Each Eachman mantakes takesaawho whole andbites; homes le joint bites; should the the piecebe too toughor betoo ortoo toobig, hecuts cutsititwith big,he should withaa small knife, knife,the thescabbard scabbard ofwhich which is isattached attachedto tohis hissword. small sword. Asingle singledrinking drinking vessel vesselof ofearthenware earthenwareor ormetal metalis A ishanded handed round by byslaves slaves and and makes makesmany manyrounds, rounds,but round butone onedrinks drinks little at at aa time.' time.' little The Gauls Gaulsdrank drank various variouswines wines from from the thehorns hornsof The of wild wild oxen, ornamented ornamented with goldor with gold orsilver silver rings;and andsometimes oxen, sometimes from the the skulls skulls of of their their enemies enemies killed killed in in battle,or from orof oftheir their own dead parents, whose dead parents, whosememory memory they own they thus thus wished wished to to honour, out out of piety. of filial filial piety. honour, The wines wines of of Bezier Bezier and and Vien Vienna, andItalian The na, and Italian and andGreek Greek wines, were were seen seen on on the the tables tables of of the wines, the rich. rich. They They were were taken taken in in quantities, and small quantities, and diluted diluted with small with water. water. The poor drank The poor drank and hydromel beer, and hydromel -- herb herb and and spice-fiavoured beer, spice-flavoured honey, honey, diluted with with water. water. diluted Fish was was eaten eaten in in areas areas near near the Fish sea, and and mainly grilled, the sea, seasoned with with salt salt and and cumin cumin and and sprinkled seasoned sprinkled with with vinegar. On special special occasions, occasions, the guests sat the guests On at a sat at a round round table, aa prominent place place being given to being given prominent to the the most most distinguished distinguished or or the most most valiant. valiant. There There was was a the a custom custom that that the the legs legs of of the the animals served served should should be allotted to animais be allotted the bravest. to the bravest. This This was was a a quarrelso and source of of quarrels, and often often a a fight source fight to to the the death. death. The banquets of of the the Gallo-Romans Tbe Gallo-Romans -- The The wealthy wealthy GalloGalloRomans adopted Latin Latin customs, customs, and and their their banquets were were modelled on the Roman, though they they discarded discarded the custom custom of reclining reclining on on couches. of la Bédolière, B6dolibre, in in his his Moeurs De la Moeurs et et vie privie des des Français, Frangais, describes the the banquets banquets of describes of the the Gallo-Romans; here here are are extracts: 'Some Gauls, disdaining disdaining the 'Sorne Gauls, the indolence of of the the Romans, Romans, use use benches, stools and and other wooden seats seats covered covered with a a carpet instead ofcouches. instead of couches ... . . The guests put on special robes and sandals and take their places around the table . .. . . Slaves Slaves bring in a great quantity of meat, roast or or boiled, which which is is carved with great skill skiU and dexterity by by servants. The meal meal starts starts with a tasting of of mulsurn mulswn ot or medwn, mulled wine wine mixed medum,mulled with sai ver is placed placed in the centre centre of with honey honey .... . . A salver of the table table and various various dishes dishes are put on it one after the other: fresh eggs, quarters of of beef, beef, mutton, pork, goat, goat, all seasoned seasoned with yolks of egg, egg, black black pepper, pepper, brine, brine, cumin, cumin, salt . ... . As As a a dessert, dessert, the the guests guests are are served with hot or cold cold tarts. tarts, honey honey cakes, cakes, soft cheese, cheese, grilled escargots, medlars, chestchestnuts, figs, Gaul peaches and and grapes. grapes. At the end of of the meal meal nuts, figs, hot hot mulswn mu/sUIn is is brought in once again, and and slaves distribute toothpicks made made of feathers, wood and and silver.' silver.' toothpicks The banquets banquets of of the tbe Franks Franks - Caius Caius Sollius Apollinaris Apollinaris The that one one could could find find in in the the banquets of of the the Sidonius states states that Sidonius Franks Franks 'the 'the elegance elegance of of Greece, Greece, the the abundance abundance of Gaul, Gaul, the the of ltaly, Italy, the the pomp pomp of of public public ceremonial ceremonial allied allied to to dispatch of lasUOlOllsness of of a a private private table, table, of of the the order order befitting befitting a a the fastidiousness palace.' king's palace.' of the the period period mention mention silver silver tables, tables, gold gold and and Writers of silver utensils, utensils, tablecloths tablecloths fashioned fashioned from from fresh fresh roses. roses. The The silver Franks were were very very hospitable, hospitable, and and had had a a strict strict code code of of table table Franks

BANQUET BANQUET
manners. Wine Wine was was passed passed round round the the table table and and the the guests guests manners. drank from from the the same same cup. cup. Lamps Lamps were were considered considered to to drank desecrate the the table table at at a a banquet; banquet ;the the room room was was lit lit by by torches torches desecrate held aloft aloft by by slaves. slaves. held French French banquets banquets from from the the Middle Middle Ages Ages to to the the fifteenth fifteenth century - The The beginning beginning of ofa a banquet banquet was was announced announced by by the the century sound sound of of a a horn, horn, a a privilege privitege reserved reserved for for the the highest highest personages kingdom. Guests Guests washed washed their their hands hands with with personages in in the the kingdom. perfumed perfumed water water before before sitting sitting down, down, and and after after each each course; course; forks forks had had not not been been invented; invented; food food was was eaten eaten with with fingers. fingers.
Faience Faïence and and Nevers Nevers porcelain, porcelain, Venetian Venetian glass. glass. Forks Forks and and long-handled long-handled spoons spoons had had come come into into use, use, and and cooking cooking lad had become become more more refined. refined. Belon, Belon, inhis in his TraitC Traité des des Oyseaux Oyseaux writes writes of of 'a 'a thousand thousand little little disguises disguises of of flesh, ftesh, made made into into soups' soups, jricassées, hashes, hashes, salads.' salads.' After After roast roast and and boiled boiled joints joints and and Jricassies, game, game, there there were were cold cold desserts'such desserts 'such as as fruits, fruits, milk milk products, products, sweetmeats, sweetmeats, cakes, cakes, cheese, cheese, chestnuts, chestnuts, Capendy Capendy apples, apples, a a salad salad of of lemons lemons or or pomegranates.' pomegranates.' French French banquets banquets ofthe of the seventeenth seventeenth century century - In In the the reign reign of of Louis Louis XIII, XIII, there there was was less less display display at at banquets banquets and and more more emphasis emphasis on on harmony harmony and and simplicity. simplicity. Under Under Louis Louis XIV, XIV, however, however, there there were were usually usually four four substantial substantial dishes dishes - roast roast

Meal served served to Grandgousier, Grandgousier, Gars:?ti:;.i*-, Gargaotua 's father, from from an old old edition edition of of the Meal works of Rabelais

of presented. The dessert, of plumage, ca Ives and calves and pigs ornately presented. fruit preserves, dried fruit followed by was followed by dried fruit and creams, fruit and creams, was (spiced wine) wine).. pastry pastry and and hippocras hippouas (spiced great banFrench banquets sixteentb century the sixteenth banqueb of the - The great a love love of of opulence; quets given during show a quets given century show this century during this dinner plate, gold and and silver silver dinner richly and engraved engraved gold richly wrought and

side table, on a Goblets and tankards were placed on a side table, and and tankards Goblets This manner fiUed by pages pages who brought them them to the guests. Th.is filled end of the meals survived until the end of serving wine during meals In royal courts, the dishes were tasted eighteenth century. century. In a talisman, to assure with a by a by a special servant, or touched with not poisoned. The was not the royal personages that that the the food food was the menus were exotic, and included roast peacocks with gilded in their pheasants dressed dressed in and pheasants bills and claws, claws, swans swans and bills and

XIV Louis XIV of Louis the reign reign of during the A Royal Royal banquet banquet during A

Kings ble at ta table Kings at (woodcut,, Lyon, (woodcut 1508) Lyon, 1508)

79 79

BANQUET

Seventeenth quet fare Seventeenth century cenlUry French French ban banquet rare (Giraudon) (Giraudon)

poultry and meat, as well soup. These meat,poultry and game gameas weil as as tureens tureens of ofsoup. These were were followed followed by by melons, melons, various various salads salads in in bowls bowls 'or 'or in in little !ittle plates plates

to to make make serving serving them them easier,' easier,' comments comments Nicolas Nicolas de .de BonBonnefons nefons (Ddlices (Délices de de la la campagne), campagne), and and goes goes on on to to describe describe what what he he considers considers to to be be an an ideal ideal banquet banquet for for a a company company of of thirty thirty people. people. Among Among other other dishes dishes there there should should be be a a potage potage de de Ia la

Reine, Reine, made made of of minced minced partridge partridge or or pheasant, pheasant, in in the the first first course; course; roast roast venison venison haunches haunches baked baked in in pastry pastry in in the the second; second; woodcock, woodcock, turkeys, turkeys, chickens chickens and and whole wbole lambs lambs in in the the third; third; snipe, snipe, thrushes,larks thrushes, larks and'all and 'ail sorts sorts of ofsmall small fried fried things' tbings' in in the the fourth; fourth; whole wbole salmon, salmon, trout, trou t, carp, carp, pike, pike, withy'icassdes withJricassées of ofturtle turtle in in the the fifth; fifth; and and three three finishing finishing courses courses which which would would include include blancmanges, blancmanges, fruit, fruit, almonds almonds and and green green walnuts, walnuts, preserves preserves in in syrup, syrup, or or dried dried marzipans marzipans and and sugar sugar almonds. almonds. French French banquets banquets of of the the eighteenth eighteenth century century - Great Great pomp pomp accompanied accompanied banquets banquets in in the the reign reign of of Louis Louis XV. XV. On On the the occasion occasion of of the the anointing anointing of of the the king king in in 1772, 1772, a a royal royal banbanquet quet was was held held in in the tbe archiepiscopal archiepiscopal palace palace at at Rheims. Rheims. After After gorgeous gorgeous processions processions headed headed by by musicians musicians playing playing oboes, oboes, trumpets trumpets and and flutes, fiutes, the the king king was was led led to to a a table table on on a a dais ofstate. state. dais and andjoined joinedby byhigh bigh officers officers of The Thecompany companycomprised comprised the the noblest noblestin in the the land, land, but but ladies ladies and not seated seated with with the the gentlemen, gentlemen, and and and princelings princelings were were not had had to to wait wait until until the the king king had had retired. retired. According According to to the the old old document document from from which which the the above above descriptions descriptions are are taken: taken: 'During 'During this this sumptuous sumptuous banquet banquet the the Duchess Duchess of of Lorraine, Lorraine, who, wbo, from from her her tribune, tribune, could could see see all ail the the succulent succulent dishes dishes filing filing past past without without being being able able to to touch touch them, them, quietly quietly nibbled nibbled biscuits, with with which which she she was was fortunately fortunately provided provided .... After biscuits, . . After the the dinner, dinner, the the Archbishop Archbishop of of Rheims Rheîms said said grace grace - the the Duchess Duchess of of Lorraine Lorraine by by this tbis time time had had reached reached her her reserves reserves of ofdried dried plums plums-- and and the the king kingwas was re-conducted re-conducted to to his his apartapart-

ments in in the the same same order order and and with with the the same same ceremony ceremony with with ments which he he had had been been ushered ushered in.' in.' which Madame Vigie-Lebrun's Vigée-Lebrun's Greek Greek supper. supper. Among Among legendary legendary Madame eighteenth century century meals meals was was a a supper supper given given by by the the artist. artist. eighteenth Vigée-Lebrun. In her her memoirs memoirs she she describes describes 'the 'the most most Vig6e-Lebrun. brilliant supper supper I 1 ever ever gave,' gave,' which which was, was, in fact, a miniature miniature brilliant Her brother brother was was reading reading a a book book of of travels travels to to her her one one banq uet. Her banquet. afternoon while while she she was was resting, resting, and and came came to to a a passage passage afternoon describing a a Greek Greek dinner dinner and and the the manner manner of of preparing preparing describing

Cutlerybelonging belongingto to Louis LouisXIV XIV Cutlery

80 80

BANQUET BANQUET
decided to several several sauces. sauces. Madame Madame Lebrun immediately immediately decided have she was these sauces sauces for for a a supper party party she have certain certain of these giving giving that tbat evening and summoned her cook, ordering ordering that Greek Greek sauces sauces should be served with witb chickens cbickens and eels on the menu. evening's menu. and vases urns and had a a collection collection of Greek urns A friend who had decorated of his best best pieces, pieces, and the room was was decorated lent her her several several ofhis lent classical style. in classical and Monsieur Boutin, Two guests, Monsieur Vaudreuil and guests o'clock, but the other guests not able to come come until ten o'clock, were not Lebrun dressed Madame Lebrun half-past nine. Madame arrived soon after half-past draperies she had in her the women in Grecian fashion from draperies found cloaks and and other picturesque and found studio workroom, and garments for the men. guests, her her brother While they they waited waited for for the the two late guests, While two late recited several several odes when the the others others Anacreon. and and when recited odes of of Anacreon, they found found the the company Gluck's cborus chorus company singing singing Gluck's arrived, they bières from Le Dieu de M. de de Cu Cubibres et de de Cnide, with M. de Paphos et accompanying them on a lyre whicb from which he had improvised from accompanying guitar. a guitar. 'In all my life 1 I have never seen two faces more astonished than those of Monsieur de and his his companion,' companion,' de Vaudreuil Vaudreuil and than 'They continues Madame Lebrun in event. 'They in her recital of the event. were astounded and and charmed.' as sauces, as Greek sauces, with the the Greek At supper, were served served with supper, dishes were well as a They drank drank and currants. They a sweet made made from honey and a bottle of old Cyprus wine which a present to to the the which bad had been a artist. remarks. artist. 'That was all the excess,' excess,' she remarks. Rumour quickly ran about this this famous famous ran round round Versailles about supper. Rome the In Rome francs. In to have cost 20,000 francs. supper. It was said to whispered to francs, in in Vienna Vienna to to 40,000 francs, raised to whispered figure was was raised 60,000 st Madame Madame In fact, fact, it it co cost 60,000 francs, in Petersburg Petersburg to 80,000. In Lebrun, according to her memoirs, 15 francs. l5 francs. French The beginning century French banquets banque$ in the nineteenth century - The of this publication of Brillat-Savarin's la of BriJlat-Savarin's Ia the publication century saw this century saw the Physiologie goitt, in the rules rules of of in which which he he established established the Physiologie du du goût,

Prince of given by birth of of the the Prince of Banquet te the Banquet given Alba to celebrate the birth by the the Duke Duke of of Alba to celebra Asturias in 1707

Marie Antoinette on the ocCasion of the birth of the Dauphin in 1785 (engraviog on metal, Louvre) Banquet given in Banquet given in honour honour of of Louis Louis XVI XVI and andQueen Queen Marie Antoinette on the occasion of the birth of the Dauphin in 1785 (engraving on metal, Louvre)

81 8l

BANQUET BANQUET

given on Dinner given Dinner on77Mareil March1806 1806by bythe the printdealers Paris Paris print dealers to totheir their feUow fellow dealer dealer Le LeConfrère, The legend Confrdre. The legend on onthe the print prin t bears bears the following inscription: the following inscription: 'They beg 'They beghim him to toaccept acc€pt this thislight light sketch their esleem sketchas asaatoken tokenof oftheir esteemand and friendship. friendship. May heremember rernember them May he them sometimes sometimes in in his his retirement retirement and and for foraa long long lime timeenjoy the happiness happiness he enjoy the he deserves heart and deserves for for rus his kindness kindness of ofheart and probity' probity'

'

great gala dinner harmoniously. For a a great dinner he laid laid down: down: dining harmoniously. be luxuriously luxuriously lit, lit, the cloth be the c10th of 'That the dining-room be be of the utmost cleanliness, and and the the temperature from from 13 13 to to 16 16 utmost c1eanliness, (6l"to R6aumur thermometer (61 degrees by the Réaumur () to 66°F.). 66"F.). 'That the men be witty wi withoutpretensions and the women 'That thout' pre tensions and women channing without without being too coquettish. charming 'That the choice of dishes dishes be be exquisite but restrained in 'That in number, and and the win wines the first first quality, each the es of the the best of of its kind. 'That the order for the the former should he be from from the the most substantial to the lightest, and for the latter from the lightest to those with the greatest greatest bouquet. 'That the speed of of eating eating should should be moderate, dinner the speed be moderate, being the last affair of the day; and guests behave and that the guests like at the like travellers who who aim aim to to arrive at the same same destination together. 'That the coffee be scalding hot, and the liqueurs specially chosen house.' chosen by the master of the house.' He added added rules rules for the guests' entertainment entertainment after dinner: 'That the salon bebe sufficiently sufficiently spacious a game spacious to organise organise agame of cards for for those who who cannot do do without, without, and and to to leave enough room to enable enable the rest to enjoy conversation. 'That the guests be be held by the pleasure pleasure of the company, 'That by the hope hope that that the evening evening will will not not pass without without and stirred stirred by and sorne further entertainment.' entertainment.' some In In the same sa me epoch, epoch, the the gastronome Grimod de la Reynière Reynibre established a Charte de bon manger.In manger. In his bis Manuel des des also established governing banquets. He himhi mamphitryons are decreed laws governing arnphitryons self gave gave grand dinners, some sorne of ofthem self them eccentric; he once sent out invitations invitations for a dinner in the form forro of of obituary notices, out of a big bidding his his guests guests 'attend 'attend the the funeral funeral and obsequies obsequies of bidding feed.' feed.' Fashionable Fashionable restaurants, restaurants. During the nineteenth nineteenth century, century, there was was a vogue for for magnfficent magnificent banquets banquets in certain resthere At one one such dinner, dinner, given given at Rocher Rocher de de Cancaleby Cancale by taurants. At taurants. a certain certain English English Lord Lord W., W., Marennes oysters, oysters, a a ham roasted a on a spit, grouse grouse brought brought specially from Scotland, salads, salads, on

special dishes and special sweet sweet dishes and several several kinds kinds of of cheese, cheese, figure figure on on the the menu. menu. The The wine wine was was Clos-Vougeot, and the Clos-Vougeot, and the company company did did not not depart depart until three o'clock until three o'clock in in the morning. the morning. Banquets onder the Second under the Second Empire Empire -- There There was was a number a number of gastronomical galas, of magnificent magnificent gastronomical galas, and and in in the the sections sections headed headed COOKING given of COOKING and and MENUS, MENUS, examples examples are are given of what what these these state state dinners dinners were were like. like.

The coronation dinner dinner of of Charles Charles X X at Reims The coronation at Reims

82 82

BS{mQUILLES

Novernber 1905 Banquet held held in la Galerie des Machines in Paris, 5 November

quite different different in were quite in the later Later banquets - Things were (22 Sepbanquets and at the celebrated 'mayors' banquet' banquet' (22 guests of the President 1900), 22,295 guests President of of the Republic, tember 1900), frock coats and and crush hats, hats. were were served with an attired in in frock identical menu:
Hors-d'auvre Hors-d'œuvre Filet de boeuf m Bellevue Bellevue boeuf en Pains de canetons de Rouen Poularde de Bresse rôtie r6tie de faisan Saint-Hubert Ballottine Saint-Hubert Ballottine defaisan Salade Potel succCs Condé Condi Glace succès Desserts number of guests sat down Never before had such a large number together at a a single meal, recounts M. Christian Guy in his achieved Histoire Histoire de la cuisine française; this was successfully cuisinefrangaise; successfully achieved et Chabot. by the excellent organisation organisation of Maison Potel et of official official banquets It is interesting to note that the menus of never mention mention the may have cheeses served. This may have been never the cheeses served. This formed part of the dessert and so needed no because cheese fonned special mention.

grand cru grape. The The Banyuls Banyuls grand from the from black Grenache grape. the black have to have to undergo undergo an an obligatory maturing period of thirty consumption. months in wood wood before being released for consumption. tree. Its BAOBAB known tropical African African tree. BAOBAB - The The largest largest known fruit is monkeys eat eat it. it. Its fruit is called called monkey-bread, because because monkeys flavour, is made a slight acid flavour, pulp, which is very sweet with a inhabitants a refreshing drink much liked by the local inhabitants into a grows, and is drunk of of the region where this magnificent magnificent tree grows, a great deal in Morocco and Egypt. a in the The Africans dry shade, The dry the leaves of the baobab in the shade, and mix it with call lalo, and reduce them to powder which they caUlalo, their food.

-

(A LA) BANQUIDRE (À BANQUIÈRE Garnish used used for chicken, calves' - Garnish vol-au-vent It It is made of of quenelles, mushrooms, sweetbreads, vol-au-vent. sauce. (See thin slivers slivers of banquidre sauce. thin truffies and of trufles and banquière GARNTSHES.) GARNISHES.) BANTAM BANT AM A variety of Java Java chickens, named after the -A town where they origjnated. originated. These birds have a very delicate prepared in the same way as ordinary chickens. ordinary chickens. flesh, and are prepared
which allowed BANVIN - French word for the feudal right which the seigneur wine from his estate estate for for a a certain the from his seigneur to to sell sell the the wine time, before The word word is also used for the is also time, before anyone anyone else. else. The used for proclamation announcing private day after announcing the after which which priva proclamation te the day could Id sell persons cou sell new wine.

Baobab

BAI\YUIS Commune in the eastem eastern Pyrenees, which has BANYULS - Commune given its name to a well-known appellation controlée controlie dessert a well-known crz, which is is produced wine and Banyuls grand cru, - Banyuls and from the slaty in a a restricted mountainous terrain from the terrain in restricted zone slaty mountainous comprising the communes of of Banyuls, Banyuls, Port-Vendres, Port-Vendres, comprising the communes Cerbbre and Collioure. This wine is made almost exclusively exclusivelv Cerbère
83

A hot hors-d'euvre; triangular patties, BARAQUILLES hot hors-d'œuvre; -A filled (q.v.) of winged game fillets, with a a salpicon calves' fillets, caives' filled with salpicon (q.v.) winged game gras, trutHes foie gras, sweetbreads, foie trufles and mushrooms, bound with (see SAUCE). Madeira-flavoured Allemande sauce AarMadeira-flavoured sauce (see SAUCE). Barprepared as rissoles. aquilles are also prepared aquilles

BARASHmflrffMesU BARASHEKII2f.MASLA
(Butter lamb) (Russian cookery) lamb with butter which has been rendered left in ic€ ice water. Coyer Cover the model with a thin down with a utter, tter, pressing down a coarse-weave coarse-weave cloth to give the appearance appearance of fleece. fleece. Mark the eyes with ttle circles of truffies, trufles, or two raisins. Put Put a small green ranch in the lamb's mouth. is a a feature of the This symbolic lamb is the traditional traditional table Easter meal in Russia. laid for the ritual Easter BAR Make
FRlr as described described in barbel. sARBtLLoN Proceed as Fried BARBILLON FRIT Fried barbel. - Proceed bass (see BASS). BASS). for Fried bass the recipe for cnnr,6 -- Proceed Proceed as as described BARBILLON GRILLÉ Grilled Grined barbel. BARBILLoN for Grilled Dass (see BASS). in the recipe for Grilled bass in A LA MsuNItnn meunibre. BARBILLoN Ln MEUNIÈRE BARBILLON À Barbel à I la meunière. - Proceed .Bass à meuniCre (see BASS). in the recipe for Bass d la meunière as described described in A LA rl MODE Droos DES nEs des mariniers. BARBEAU À Barbel à i la mode des a l-kg. (2-lb.) barbel and cut off MARINIERS MARTNIERs - Clean and scale al-kg. fish, fins. Put the roe, if any, any, back into the fish, and fins. the wattles and pepper. and pepper. seasoned with salt and lightly in in butter 2 chopped 4 shallots and 4 Fry ions and Fry 2 chopped on onions shallots lightly without browning, browning, and place in an earthenware earthenware dish, together (a oz.) chopped g. (4 and 100 g. with 7 or 8 chopped dried walnuts and mushrooms. pepper, fish, season and pepper, Make a a few slits in in the fish, season with salt and dish. Add Addz and place on the above ingredients in the dish. 2 glasses g. (4 oz., ~ red wine, and into small red and 100 g. i cup) butter divided into Bring slowly to the boil on top of the stove, th then pieces. Bring en cook in a hot oyen basting frequently. Ten minutes oven for 35 minutes, minutes, basting and with breadcrumbs and before the end cooking, sprinkle sprinkle with end of cooking, end of the 35 in the oyen. melted butter and and replace in oven. By the end away. minutes the wine should should have boiled away. with chopped parsley before serving. Sprinkle with n6rr -- Make in a Roast barbel. barbel. BARBEAU BARBEAU RÔTI Make slits a mediumslits in in the of anchovy in the slits, slits, sprinkle insert fillets fillets of sized sized barbel, barbel, insert with oil or melted butter, season, and roast in the oyen oven or on a spit. frequently during cooking. a spit. Baste frequently placed on fish is cooked and and placed a dish, dish, dilute the When the fish on a juices with I tablespoon pan juices with white white wine, wine, boil boil down, down, add add 1 juice, stir weil, butter and a dash of lemon well, and serve with the butter lemon juice,stir fish. (see BUTTER) BUTTER) d h|tel butter butter (see Anchovy butter Matte d'hôtel butter or or Maître can be served at the same time. parts of the of in sorne the south south of ON BARBER Name used used in BARBERON some parts - Name France for for salsify. BARBERRY. ÉPINE-VINETTE shrub. Its fpNn-vtNsrrs -- A common prickly shrub. pickled in green berries like capers. capers. The green can be be pickled in vinegar, vinegar, like berries can berries, a red red colour in in November, contain berries, which which ripen ripen to to a and are are used great deal used to to make tric acid, and a and ci citric malic and a great deal of malic jam, and syrup, jam, and a a kind kind of wine. for Barberries are are also also used used to a refreshing drink drink for to make a is used used brewed from the the roots is feverish feverish conditions. conditions. A tisane tisane brewed as a in cases of a diuretic, diuretic, especially especially in of jaundice. AU SEC sEc Dried candied barberries. coNFITE AU fpINe-vINErrE CONFITE barberries. ÉPINE-VINETTE red a fine fine red An An old old recipe says: 'Take large large ripe barberries of a (21b.) lb.) berries, cook colour. Leave them in c1usters. kg. (2 For 1 I kg. clusters. For (2jlb.) feather (see SUGAR). lf kg. (2~ SUGAR). Put in the li lb.) sugar to a large feather appear. barberries and boil on a high flame until bubbles bubbles appear. 'Ta\<:e the stove. When the fruit is beginning to. 'Take off to cool, put offthe . it in in a on a a thick c10th cloth until a hot cupboard, leaving it to drain on paper to finish next white paper to finish Transfer to clean white next day. day. Transfer to sheets sheets of c1ean which has has draining. with sugar sugar which draining. Dust Dust the the c1usters clusters of berries berries with the been rubbed through a very fine sieve, sieve, and return them to the hot cupboard to dry off completely.' offcompletely.' ('Paddler') BARBOTEUR ('Padd.ler') for the the - Common French name for domestic duck. (See DUCK.)

BARBADOS DEs BARBADES BARBADOS CREAM. CREAM. CRÈME cnirr,c DES - Liqueur made of lemon, lemon, orange and peel, mace, mace, cinnamon, and citron citron peel, cinnamon,
which was once a cloyes, sugar a fashionable cloves, sugar and and eau-de-vie, which drink.

BARBAREA. BARBARÉE nARSARfE also called called herb herb of - also - This plant piquant, rather St Barbara, yarrow, and rocket and yellow rocket - has a piquant, flavour not unlike that s, and the same cress, and has has the not unlike that of cres bitter flavour properties. It grows wild in damp and sandy anti-scorbutic properties~ places. called land cress or American cress A variety variety of barbarea, called (U.5. winter (U.S. winter cress) is cultivatedand cultivated and eaten in salads. Barbarea can can be be prepared in in ail all the ways ways recommended recornmended for cresso cress. In certain regions it is mixed with spinach. spinach.
BARBARIN BARBARIN a fish fish of the mullet family. - French name for a

(U.S. squash) BARBARINE marrow (U.S. BARBARINE A variety variety of of marrow squash) of -A various shapes and sizes. an elongated sizes. It has an elongated shape, rather like a a cucumber, plain yellow or parti-coloured, sometimes sometimes striped with green. The best barbarines are pale yellow, and and given for marrows can be prepared according to the recipes given and and cucumbers. cucumbers.

Barbel

BARBEL. BARBEAU, BARBILLON BARBTLLoN fish recognisable recognisable by - River fish the snout, and the the barbels at the end of and at the corners of ofthe ofthe jaws. In is found found in in ail all the rivers. In France, the the common barbel is The southern barbel is found in the found in in the south of France, France, in Alpes-Maritimes Pyr6n6es-Orientales. Alpes-Maritimes and in the Pyrénées-Orientales. The bel is The flesh flesh of the is insipid, insipid, and and it it has the bar barbel has too too many pleasant. The bones bones to be pleasant. The fish fish feeds feeds on on the river bed bed and the river to be nibbles at at the the fishermen's bait, bait, especially especially those those of of animal origin, is fond fond of crickets origin, which are very much to its taste. It is and grass-hoppers, and in the autumn rises to the in and grass-hoppers, the surface in their pursuit. pursuit. Large barbel, found found in the Loire, are considered considered the best, and roast. The The small may be and may be poached, braised, baked baked or or roast. ones, usually called barbillons, are grilled or fried. Recipes are grilled or fried. for be applied to U.S.A. The The soft for barbel can be to the the catfish of U.S.A. barbel are roes of reputed to are delicate, but the ofbarbel the hard roes are reputed be be poisonous. BoiJed variou sauces. BARBEAU BOUILLI BoUILLI -Boiled barbel barbel with with various sauces. BARBEAU (see COURTPoach Poach the the barbel barbel in in Court-bouillon Court-bouillon IV IV (see BOUILLON). BOUILLOI$. Drain boiled potDrain thoroughly. thoroughly. Garnish with boiled atoe.s and fr.esh frssh parsley. Serve, as as recommended recommended in individual recipes, recipes, with with melted Butter sauce, santce, melted butter butter or or White White sauce, sauce, Butter Hollandaise Hollandaise sauce or Caper Caper sauce (see SAUCE). SAUCE). Barbel Barbel à t la bourguignonne. bornguigDonne. BARBEAU À A LA r,c, BOURGUIGNONNE souncuIGNoNNE in the recipe as described in recipe for for BrW Brill à d la bourguigbourgaig- Proceed as nonne (see BRILL).
.

BARD. BARDER -- To a piece of of meat, To bard bard means to cover a to coyer poultry, game or, more rarely, a large fish before braising it, rarely,alarge with thin slices ofbacon string. of bacon or or salt salt or fresh pork, tied with string. After cooking, the barding fat is removed. removed. Its main purpose is meat, or or breast of poultry. of the meat, is to protect delicate delicate parts of It is, is, however, however; customary customary to to serve serve roast game - woodcock, quail, pheasant, fat or pheasant, partridge, etc. or bacon which etc. - with the fat was used used for for barding.

pork fat BARDING fat bacon, or or pork fat bacon, n.mon -- Slices Slices of of fat FAT. BARDE BARDING FAT. game, as (fresh or salted) as (fresh as weil well as and game, enveloping poultry and salted) for enveloping
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BARQUETTES
various cuts of meat, before they they are.braised, are braised, poached poached or various
roasted. roasted. 1 for liningpdt4s liningpâtés cooked pie-cru st and Itt is also used for cooked in pie-brust terrines. terrines.

BARIGOULE - Name for a mushroom mushroom which is also ca lied BARIGOULEcalled
and bourigoule in in the brigoule the south south of France. It is very brigoule and It is good to eat.

given to stutfed say that the term terrn d à la barigoule, barigutle, given stuffed artichokes, na me of the mushroom mushroom which is used in is derived from the name the south-east south-east of France for filling artichokes. of France

(À LA) Sorne authors LA) BARIGOULE (A authors of cookery cookery books - Some

BAR-LE-DUC BAR-LE-DUC which is is famous for its - Town in Lorraine which redcurrant redcurrant jams.
BARLEY; - One of of the most ancient BARLEY. ORGE ancient cultivated cultivated cereals, oRGEwhich still exists in its original form on the shores of of the Red original forrn and Caspian Seas. Seas. is poorer in gluten than wheat, and its flour Barley grain is does not forrn formed with water. It is form an elastic elastic paste when forrned therefore not suitable ingredient for as an an ingredient for bread. bread. Barley therefore not suitable as (once a a staple which is with wheat (once is generally mixed with bread, which food for is rarely made nowadays. for agricultural labourers), is rarely made good keeping It has good keeping qualities but is difficult to digest. (barley water) of the A infusion (barley the most water) was wzn one one of A barley barley infusion medicines prescribed by Hippocrates. Hippocrates. Barley water popular medicines (I! g. (l-! 20 g. is it, wash wash 20 is refreshing and and emollient. To prepare it, emollient. To I litre in 1 tablespoons, 2 tablespoons) pearl barley, and boil in (1| (1 i pints, generous quart) water water until cooked. Leave to stand for back of a and press well well with with the back for a a short time, time, strain, strain, and wooden spoon. spoon. A tisane, which is slightly slightly laxative, is made in the proportion of 1 I litre (scant quart, I to 2 tablespoons to 1 tablespoons barley water to generous quart) water. generous is beneficial in in feverish feverish This tisane tisane is water. This conditions. conditions. Barley is used in cookery in the form of hulled barley and porridge pearl barley, pearl barley, mainly used for creams, porridge mainly used for soups, soups, creams, (bouillie), and (see MUTTON, garnish for (bouillie), ragoitts (see and as as garnish for ragoûts Ragoût of Ragoitt of mutton with barley). flakes and and barley flour are are used used to lighten cereal Barley flakes barley flour to lighten produces malt (q.v.). germinated barley produces Artificially germinated diets. Artificially D'oRGE -Cook 250 g. Barley sucRE D'ORGE Barley sugar sugar (confection). SUCRE - Cook 250 (4| quarts, 5-! 5] quarts) (9 oz., li cups) hulled barley in 5 litres (4-! oz.,l| water for for 5 hours. the liquid liquid (which resembles white hours. Strain Strain the jelly) and previously cooked cooked to jelly) and decant. Add sorne sugar, previously decant. Add some sugar, (l10"C., 230°F.) soufr6 degree (110°C., soufflé 230"F.) to until to this liquid, and cook until (150"C., 302°F.). sugar reaches reaches crack degree (150°C., sugar Pour onto an 302"F.). Pour oiled marble slab (or oiled metal sheet) and when it begins to cool, cut into long strips strips and twist. This is the original method of making barley sugar sticks. are now now made from They are from drawn drawn sugar. prnrf Consomm6 with pearl barley. CONsOMMÉ Consommé A L'ORGE r'oRcE PERLÉcoNsourrd À lN g. (4 oz., Wash 100 generous -! oz.,generous barley in warrn warm water ] cup) pearl barley (4* pints, add it to pints, 5-! pints) consommé to 2-! 2+ litres litres (4-! 5| pints) and add consomm6 (meat a stalk of celery, and simmer slowly for 2 hours. stock). Add a Cream of barley soup See SOUPS SOUPS AND BROTHS. - See Hulled barley barley broth. nfcocrroN D'ORGE Hulled broth. DÉCOCTION D'oRcE MONDÉ MoNDf - Wash (4 oz., g. (4 100 g. oz., generous -! hulled barley in warm warm water, * cup) hulled (3 quarts, 7-! and soak soak in in 3-! pints) cold 3| litres litres (3 and 7| pints) cold water for for an g. (4 hour. Add 25 g. teaspoons) salt, 2 carrots, 1 onion studded @ teaspoons) a clove, 4 with a leeks and 4leeks and 2 stalks celery. Simmer very very slowly for 3 3 hours, hours, and and strain. slowly for strain. This This barley is most refreshing. broth is Mutton broth with barley barley See SOUPS SOUPS AND BROTHS, - See Mutton broth.

Barnacles

and regions flie, bassin, jamble jamble and for example, regions of France, for example, flie, of France, arapède. arapide. eaten raw, or with vinaigrette 1 ts flesh is rather tough and is eaten Its dressing. dressing. Small limpets can be prepared like mussels, while can be grilled, or the large ones are butter and grilled, are often brushed with butter' en mate/ote, matelote, etc. etc. prepared à d l'américaine, l'amiricaine, en
BERNACLE Bird of BARNACLE BARNACHE, BERNACLE BARNACL,E GOOSE. GOOSE. BARNAcI{E, - Bird greyleg goose. goose. It passage resembling the greyleg It is is also also called called oiepassage marine (sea goose) in France. marine Barnacle geese winter on the coasts of Europe. Their Their flesh Barnacle is edible is the the same same as as for is edible but but indigestible. Preparation Preparation is bustard (q.v.).

joint of of mutton BARON French name of of a large joint - This is the French comprising the The term is also comprising le and term is legs. The the sadd saddle and the the two two legs. applied to to lamb. piece of beef: beef : a baron In England, it is only used for a large piece used mostly U.S.A. the term is used of beef, or double sirloin. In U.S.A. hindquarters (both legs and both loins) oflamb. of lamb. for the hindquarters anecdote is is told about about baron baron or sirloin of of The following anecdote fond of a hearty eater, was fond beef. King Henry VIII, who was a a double loin roast beef. One day, delighted by the sight of a it. The noble set before him, him, he he conferred knighthood upon it. has been sanctioned by title bestowed bestowed on this piece of beef has on this is known day as known to this day as sirloin sirloin or baron custom, and and the cut is of beef. as a a roast, roast, and and someThe sirloin is generally prepared as The sirloin is where the dish is is much In England, where times times cooked on a a spit. In the dish pudding, which it is is served with Yorkshire Yorkshire pudding, which is esteemed, it served with pan under under the made from from batter made batter cooked cooked in in the the dripping pan joint. roasting joint. garnished Barons of mutton or lamb are are also also roasted, roasted, garnished Barons of mutton or lamb vegetables; or they can be served with their their own gravy, with vegetabJes; and garnished with with watercress. and filled with with various BARQUETTES BARQLIETTES Oval tartlet tartlet shells shells filled - Oval compositions compositions before before cooking. cooking. They They can can be be baked baked blind (empty) and and then then filled. a Barquettes are also used for a Barquettes hors-d'euvre (q.v.) or a a small hors-d'œuvre TARTLETS. e ntr de. (For more sweet sw eet barquettes, b ar que t t e s, see see T ARTLETS.) small small entrée. ) ABRrcors -- Make I. BARQUETTES AUx ABRICOTS Apricot barquettes barquettes 1. sAReuerrEs AUX (9 oz., 2* g. (9 2f cups) sieved Flaky pastry (see DOUGH) sieved Flaky DOUGH) with 250 250 g. I egg yolk, 150 flour, scant teaspoon salt, 21 2| teaspoons sugar, 1 generous I cup) butter and and 1 I dl. (6 tablespoons, tablespoons, scant g. (5 oz., generous1cuP) 1 water. l cup) "rrp) ($ inch) cut out the paste to a a thickness thickness of 3 to 4 mm. (t Roll out pastry-cutter and fluted oval line boat-shaped a fluted out oval pastry-cutter and line out with with a boat-shaped tartlet tarti et tins tins with with the the ovals. ovals. Prick the the bottom of the the paste to to prevent it rising ring baking. rising du during baking. Sprinkle with with fine fine sugar.
85

BARNACLE. BERNICLE suRNrcrs BARNACLE. Common name name for for the the limpet, - Common the mollusc with the conical shell that attaches itselfto itself to rocks on the seashore. It is on is known known by by various names in in ditferent different

BARREL

Making ttes (Inr o us s e) Making barque barquettes (Larousse)

Stone Stone and and quarter quarter fresh fresh apricots, apricots, and and arrange arrange in in the tartlets, tartlets, skin side side down. Bake Bake in a moderate moderate oven oyen (180oC., (180°C., 350oF., Gas Mark Mark 4) 4) for about about 20 20 minutes. minutes. Take the the tartlets tartlets 350°F., Gas out of of the the tins tins and cool them them on a wire cake tray. Spoon Spoon apricot apricot jam jam into into them. them. Break Break the the apricot stones, stones, blanch blanch the the kernels, kernels, and and put two two halves ha Ives on on each tartlet. tarti et. Apricd barquettes II. sA,neuETrES BARQUETIES Arrx AUX ABRrcors ABRICOTS - As in Apricot barquettes preceding puff pastry pastry instead instead of flaky pastry. pastry. preceding recipe, recipe, using using puff Apricot à I'ancienne. l'ancienne. BAReTJETTES BARQUElTES Aux AUX ABRJABRIApricot barquettes barquettes A cors COTS A À L'ANcIENM L'ANCIENNE - Fill Fill flaky pastry pastry tartlets tartlets with vanillavanillaflavoured tter cream Butter cream (see (see CREAMS). CREAMS). Decorate Decorate with with halves halves flavoured .Ba
of of blanched blanched almonds almonds and and crvstallised crystallised cherries. cherries.

(49| (49t gallons, gallons, 62 62 gallons), gallons), in in Cognac about 205 205 litres litres (45 gallons, 56 gallons), in Mdcon Mâcon about about 213 litres (47 gallons, gaJlons, 58| gal58t gallons), and in Nantes, 2l0litres 210 litres (46 gallons, 57t 571 gallons). Ions).

BARROT - French ivord word for for a a small small barrel barrel containing containing anchovies; anchovies; the term term applies only to anchovy barrels.

-

BARSAC - Commune Commune in in the Gironde that has has given given its name name to a fine white white Bordeaux Bordeaux wine. Barsac Barsac has has the right to appellation Sauternes. Sauternes. (See BORDEALIX.) BORDEAUX.) the appellatrbn BASELLA BASELLA flndian (lndian spinach). spinach). BASELLE - Edible plant, native of tropical countries, countries, cultivated cultivated in some sorne parts of of France. It of
is is prepared prepared in the the same way as spinach. spinach.

BASIL. BASIL. BAsILtc BASILIC - Plant Plant cultivated cultivated in in gardens gardens for the sake of its fragrance. fragrance. There There are several several varieties: varieties: sweet sweet basil, basil, the
Dcstl, bas il, which is is often often grown grown as as a a pot herb. herb. It'is Itis used used in Provenca, together with with garlic, garlic, for for flavornng flavouring pistou, pistou, a Provence, together popular popular soup soup in in this this region. Basil once considered considered a a royal royal plant; plant; only only the the soverergn soverelgn Basil was was once (basilats) (basileus) could cut it, and even ev en then then only with a golden plant has has now now come come into common common use. use. sickle. The plant
leaves which are leaves of ofwhich are dried dried and and used used as as a condiment condiment in cookery; cookery; monk's monk 's basil, basil, which can can be be similarly preserved; and bush and, bush

Basil
Savoury Savoury barquettes barquettes

BARREL. BARREL. BARIL BARIL - Small Small cask cask of of variable variable capacity, capacity, usually usually 72 (l5~ gallons, gallons, l9it 19i gallons) gallons) used used as as a a container container for for 72 litres litres (15f
brandy, vinegar, vinegar, oil, oil, anchovies, anchovies, herrings herrings or or other other fish, fish, olives, olives, brandy, of wine wine in in Britain Britain amounts amounts to to ll5 115 litres litres (25 (25 etc. A A barrel barrel of etc. gallons, 31 gallons), gallons), in in Tuscany Tuscany 20 20 litres litres (4f (41 gallons, gallons, 5f 5t gallons, 3l gallons). gallons). BARRIQUE - Large Large cask cask or or barrel barrel used used for for transporting transporting BARRIQUE liquids in in France. France. Its Its capacity capacity varies varies in in different different regions. regions. In In liquids Bordeaux Bordeaux and and in in the the south south of of France France it it is is about about 225litres 225 litres 86 86 composed of offried cèpes andAnna and Anna potatoesin potatoes in dariole dariole moulds moulds composed fried cCpes sprinkled with with chopped chopped Bayonne Bayonne ham. ham. sprinkled BASQUAISE (A (À LA) LA) - Garnish Garnish for for large large cuts cuts of of meat meat BASQUAISE

BASS BASS
BAS-ROND -- Term Term incorrectly incorrectly used used in in sorne some cookery cookery books books BAS-ROND instead of of baron (q.v.). baron (q.v.). instead BASS. BAR sAR -- This This fish, fish, which which is is also also called called sea sea dace, dace, sea wolf sea wolf BASS. or sea perch abounds sea perch abounds in in the the Mediterranean. Meditgrranean. It It is is also also found, found, or in srnaller smaller numbers, numbers, in in the the Atlantic Atlantic Ocean. Ocean. Bass Bass does does not not in normally go go beyond beyond the the English English Channel, Channel, and and rarely rarely penepenenonnally trates into into the the Baltic. Baltic. trates . Two species species are are known: known: the (sea wolf) the common common bass bass (sea wolf) on on Two the Mediterranean Mediterranean coast, coast, and and striped striped bass. Dass. The The common common the Dass is is seen great deal seen a a great deal in in French French markets, markets, and and is is recogrecogbass nisable by by its its silvery, grey-blue back silvery, grey-blue back and and white white belly. belly. The The nisable bass of of the the U.S.A., U.S.A., while while not prepared not exactly exactly the the sa same, is prepared bass me, is in the the same gastronomes do same way. way. Sorne Some gastronomes do not not admit admit that that the the in flesh of particular delicacy, of the bass bass has any any particular delicacy, but but many many people people flesh like it. it. like prepare. Clean To prepare. fish through Clean the the fish gills and through the the gills and through through a a To light incision incision.made on the the belly. belly. Do Do not not scale scale the the bass bass if if it it is is made on light poached, but scale be poached, it, without scale it, without breaking breaking the the skin, if it skin, if it is is to be to be be braised, braised, fried grilled. Wash fried or or grilled. Wash and and dry dry the the fish. fish. to a few few light light incisions on part of on the the fleshy fleshy part of the the back, back, Make a it along slit it along the the backbone, or or cut cut into into unifonn-sized pieces; uniform-sized pieces; proceed according to to the the recipe recipe cbosen chosen. proceed .
pieces. Cook Cut the the bass bassinto into unifonn uniform pieces. Cookas asdescribed described in inthe the Cut recipe for (see BRILL). for Curried Curuied fillets ofbrill brill(see BRILL). recipe fillets of Bass Dugléré. Dugl6r6. BAR nen DUGLÉRÉ oucr,6nf- - Scale Scale aabass bass weighing weighingabout about Bass (1* lb.). Cut g.(li-Ib.). 750 g. pieces of Cut into intopieces ofequal equal size. size. Melt Meltsorne some butter butter 750 inaasauté pan, and saut6 pan, andadd add1 1tablespoon tablespoon chopped chopped onion, onion,44peeled, in peeled, seededandchopped and chopped tomatoes, tomatoes,1Itablespoon tablespoon coarselychopped coarselychopped seeded parsley, a quarter of asprig sprig of of thyrne, pinch thyme, quarter of aabay bayleaf, leaf,and andaapinch parsley, garlic. Put ofgrated Put the bass on the bass on this thisfoundation, foundation,season, and season, and of grated garlic. moisten with pint, i3cup) with It 1+dl. dl.(t cup) dry dry white white wine. wine. Bring Bring to to moisten $ pint, pan, and the boil, boil, coyer cover the the pan, and transfer it to transfer it to the theoyen, oven,cooking cooking the for 12 12 to to 15 15 minutes. minutes. Drain piecesof Drain the the pieces of bass bassand arrange and arrange for them on on aa dish dish in in the fish. theshape shape of of the the fish. them Remove the the thyme thyme and and bay pan, add bay leaf leaf from from the g. thepan, add 60 Remove 60 g. (2! oz., (3 tablespoons) oz., 1 cup) butter butter and and 2 2 tablespoons tablespoons (3 tablespoons) (2t * cup) (see SAUCE) VeloutC sauce sauce (see SAUCE) made made of of fish fish stock. Velouté stock. Pour Pour the the sauce over over the fish and the fish and sprinkle parsley. sprinkle with with chopped chopped parsley. sauce Alternatively, instead instead ofusing of using velouté velouti sauce, sauce, thicken with aa Alternatively, thicken with tablespoon of kneaded butter, of kneaded butter, or tablespoon or with with j tablespoon tablespoon Bour flour mixed with with 2 (3 tablespoons) 2 tablespoons tablespoons (3 mixed tablespoons) water; water; this this last last is is called à dlameuniire. caUed la meunière. Fillets of of bass. bass. FILETS DE BAR BAR -- Bass FrLErs DE Fillets prepared Bass is is not not often often prepared in fillets, fillets, but but when when this in this method method is is adopted, adopted, the the fillets fillets should should be skinned skinned and and weil be given for well trimmed. trimmed. Ali All the the recipes recipes given for whole whole given for (U.S. porgy well as bass, as as weil as those those given for bream bass, porgy or bream (U.S. or scup), scup), mullet or or river river trou muilet t, can trout, can be be applied applied to to fillets fillets of of bass. bass.So So can can given for recipes given recipes for fresh fresh cod, whiting, mackerel mackerel and, generally, cod, whiting, and, generally, for ail all sea for fish. sea fish. Fried bass. bass. BAR FRrr -- This Fried BAR FRIT This method method is is suitable for smallsuitable for smallsize size bass. bass. Scale Scale the the fish, fish, make make a a few few slits, and soak it in slits, and soak it in salted salted milk which milk . Dredge which has has been been boiled get cold boiled and and allowed allowed to to get cold. Dredge with with Bour flour and and deep-fry deep-fry in in sizzling oil. sizzling oil. Drain, Drain, dry, dry, sprinkle garnish witb sprinkle with with fine fine salt, salt, and and garnisb with fried fried parsley and . parsley and slices lemon. slices of of lemon When When no no small are available, small bass bass are available, large large fish, fish, eut cut into into slices slices or or steaks, prepared in steaks, can can be be prepared in the the same same way. way. Bass au gratin BAR Bass au gratin. BAR AU AU GRATIN GRATTN -- This This metbod method is is mostly mostly applied applied to to fillets fillets of of bass. bass. Proceed Proceed as as described described in in the the recipe recipe for gratin (see (see SOLE). for Sole Sole au au gratin SOLE).

t

Bass

Boiled or poached bass or poacbed bass with with various various sauces. Boiled sauoes. BAR BAR BOUILLI BourLLr into Court-bouillon III (see (see COURTBOUILLON). BOUILLON). As soon as it boils, draw the pan to to the edge edge of of the burner, and poach, simmering simmering lightly. Drain the bass, and and garnish with fresh parsley. garnish Serve with melted butter, or with Hollandaise Hollandaise sauce or Serve or any any (see SAUCE). other sauce recommended recommended for boiled fisb fish (see SAUCE). poached fish, Boiled all poached Boiled bass, bass, like ail fish, is is served served with with steamed or boiled potatoes. Braised bass witb with various sauces garnishes. BAR sauoes and and garnisbes. sAR BRAISÉ nRArsf bas s, and and spread the inside inside with a a large piece of - Clean the bass, butter which which has has been been kneaded kneaded with parsley and with chopped chopped parsley and pui it in pepper. Season seasoned with salt and pepper. outside. Put Season the thJoutside. in a fish kettle on a foundation of sbredded ions shredded carrots and and on onions lightly Iightly fried in butter. Add (q.v.). Moisten Add a a bouquet garni (q.v.). with with dry dry white wine; for a bass weighing 1 (2f lb.) use 3 I kg. (2i 3 dl. (} (t pint, pint, lf li cups) cups) wine. wine. Sprinkle Sprinkle with with 2 2 tablespoons tablespoons (3 tablespoons) melted butter. butter. Bring to to the boil, then transfer the the fish kettle kettle to the oyen oven and cook, uncovered, uncoverecl, for 25 25 to to 30 30 minutes, basting basting frequently. frequently. . minutes, Drain Drain the the bass and arrange braising arrange on a dish. Reduce the braising fish. Add the gamish. liquor, add butter, and pour over the fish. garnish. Serve with Espagnole sauce (made with fish stock) or with Serve AlI gamishes recommended for Velouté (see (see SAUCE). SAUCE). All Velouti garnishes recommended fish are suitable for bass (see (see BRILL, BRILL, TURlarge braised fish SALMON). BOT, SALMON). bass with witbvarious FROID - Cook the fish, fish, Cold bass various sauces. BAR FRorD whole or in large large pieces, in Court-bouillon (see COURTwhole Court-bouillon III (see COURTBOUILLON). Allow Allow to to cool cool in in the the liquor. Iiquor. Drain, Drain, and BOUILLOI$. garnish garnish with fresh parsley. parsley. Serve Serve with a a cold sauce. sauce. bass can also be prepared by following one Cold bass one of the recipes given given for salmon and salmon trout. Cooked in courtrecipes Cookd,in bouillon, it can can also also be be served served with with the garnishes garnishes used used for for large bouillon,it cold fish, fish, such su ch as hard-boiled hard-boiled eggs, eggs, stuffed artichoke articboke hearts, hearts, cold lettuce hearts, hearts, macidoines macédoines of of vegetables, vegetables, etc. etc. lettuce Curried bass bass ià I'indienne. l'indienne. BAR AU AU cuRRrE. CURRIE, A À r'lNorENNs L'INDIENNE Curied pocn6 - Put the bass ou pocHÉ OU -

Double grill for Double grill for small small fish fish

Grilled bass bass witb with various various sauces. sauces. BAR sAR GRILLÉ cRrr,r"6 -- This This method method is applied to bass of of medium size. Scale the to bass size. Scale the fish, fish, make make a a few few shallow incisions, season, season, dredge dredge with with flour, flour, brush brush with with oil oil or melted butter, grill on or melted butter, and and grill a moderate on a moderate heat. heat. Turn the bass once during cooking, the bass cooking, and and baste baste with with oi! once during oil or or melted melted butter from from time time to to time. time. Gamish parsley, and Garnish with with fresh fresh parsley, and surround surround witb with slices slices of of decoratively decoratively eut cut lemon. lemon. Serve Serve with with Maitre Malte d'hôtel dh\tel buller, butter, Anchovy buller, (see BUTTER), butter, Ravigote Ravigote buller butter (see BUTTER), or or one one of of the special . grilled fish special sauces sauces recommended recommended for for grilled fish. Bass Bass à i la la livornaise. livornaise. BAR nln À A LA LA LlVORNAISE LrvoRNAnn -- This This metbod method is is suitable for for small-size bass. Scale Scale 4 4 bass, put small-size bass. bass, season, and put season, and them in them in a a well-buttered well-buttered or or oiled oiled fireproof fireproof dish dish on a foundation foundation on a t, scant consisting of pint, (see dl. (1 Tomato fondue 2 dl. of 2 cup) Tomato scant cup) $ pin fon&te (see FONDUE) ion, and plenty of FONDUE) mixed mixed with with plenty of chopped chopped on onion, and flavoured with a pinch of a pinch of pounded garlic. Scatter breadcrumbs breadcrumbs on on top, top, sprinkle with oil, and cook oil, and sprinkle with cook in the in the oyen oven for for about about 15 15 minutes. minutes. Sprinkle Sprinkle with with chopped chopped 1?arsley parsley before before serving. serving.

87 8',1

BASTE BASTE
Bass I à la la meunibre. meUllière. sAR BAR A À rA LA l{suminr MEUNIÈRESuitable for for small5mallBass - Suitable make a few few incisions, Incisions, sprinkle with with bass. Scale them, them, make size bass. /lour, and and cook cook in in a frying frying pan pan in in butter. butter. Use Use an oval-shaped ovaJ-shaped flour, pan, if if possible. possible. pan, When the the fish fish is is cooked cooked and golden on both both sides, place place When a dish dish and sprinkle sprinkle with with chopped chopped parsley parsley and a few few drops drops on a of lemon lemon juice. juice. of Heat the butter butter left in in the pan pan until it browns, browns, adding adding more if if necessary, necessary, and pour it over the the fish. Bass Bass prepared prepared more this way may may be be served with various various garnishes garnishes (see (sec SOLE, SOLE, in this meunière). Sole meuniire). Bass I à la portugaise portugaise I. 1. n.m BAR A ,\ L,c. LA ponrucAlsE PORTUGAISE - Scale Scale a bass bass Bass weighing about 300-400 300-400 g. (t (ilb.). lightly along along the back, lb.). Slit lightly weighing buttered pan. pan. season, and put into a buttered quantities of white white wine and concentrated fish Boil equal quantities afume/ (q.v.), (q.v.), pour pour over over the fish, and cook in stock down to afumet pan for for 15 15 minutes. minutes. Drain the the bass, put in in a the covered pan fueproof dish, and surround surround with a border border of thick Tomato fireproof fondue (sec FONDUE). Boil Boil down down the the pan juices, juices, add add 3 3 (see FONDUE). fondue tablespoons (scant (scant I J cup) cup) Veloutd Velouté sauce (see SAUCE) SAUCE) based tablespoons fJsh stock and some sorne butter, butter, and pour pour it over over the bass. on fish Glaze in a a very very hot hot oven, oyen, and and sprinkle with with chopped Glazn in parsley before serving. serving. ponrucAlsE portugaise Il. BAR A À L.c, LA PORTCGAISE - Proceed Proceed as Bass à II. sAR i la portugaise described for Bass Bass Dugliri Dugléré (but (but leaving leaving the the fish fish whole). described for Place in a fireproof dish. Boil down the pan juices, to which butter has has been been added, pour pour over ovcr the the fish, fish, sprinkle sorne sprinkle some butter glaze in a very with breadcrumbs, and very hot hot oven. oyen. and glaze with pnowNqALE - Scale the BAR A ,\ rn LA PROVENÇALE provençale. san la provengale. Bass à la bass, make a few shallow flour, and and fry dredge with with flour, a few shallow slits, slits, dredge bass, oil. briskly in oiL When cooked and put the sides, put on both sides, and golden brown on When sauce (see fish in in a fireproof dish, Provençale sauce wfth Provengale dish, cover cover with a fireproof fish SAUCE), sprinkle brcadcrumbs and and brown and oil, oil, and with breadcrumbs sprinkle with in a hot oyen a few few minutes. for a a hot oven for SprinkJe parsley before serving. serving. with chopped parsley Sprinkle with garnishes. BAR BAR BRAIS6 BRAISÉ Stuffed variou garnishes. bass with with variollS braised bass Strffed braised FARCI bass with forcemeats special forcemeats with one one of of the the special a bass FARcr - Stuff Stuff a above. recommended for bove. it as as described described a fish. Braise Braise it large fish. for large BÂTONNETS or or BATONS BÂTONS - Various Various preparations preparations shaped shaped BATONhIETS the form of of little little sticks. sticks. in the BÂTONNETS ALlx AUX AMANDES AMANDES - Fancy Fancy Almond bfltonnets. bâtonnets. sAroNNETs A}nond biscuits (cookies), (cookies), which come into into the the category of of petits petits biscuits fours. fours. Pound 250 250 e. g. O (9 oz., oz., l| li cups) cups) blanched blanched almonds almonds in in a mortar mortar Pound 250 g. g. (9 (9 oz., oz., generous generous cup) cup) fine hne sugar. sugar. Turn into into a bowl bowl with 250 and mix mix witn with f 3 egg whites and 1 1 dl. (6 (6 tablespoons, tablespoons, scant scant f t rum. Blend Blend thoroughly thoroughly into a smooth smooth paste paste and and roll roI! out cup) rum. 2 cm. Q (l inch) inch) thick thick on on a marble marble slab siab lightly lightly dusted dusted with with flour. fiOUL 2 Cut the the paste paste into strips 8 cm. (3 inches) inches) wide, and cut eut the the Cut cm. (| into bdtonnets,2 bâtonnets, 2 cm. (i inch) wide. wide. Dip Dip them them into into strips into strips beaten egg white then into crystallised sugar. Brush lightly beaten wilh butter, butter, sprinkle sprinkle with flour, and bake the the baking trays with bâtonnets in a moderate oven oyen (180'C., (I80°e., 350'F., 350°F., Gas Mark 4). bdtonnets Bfltom BâtollS with vanilla vallilla icing. king. rAroNs BÂTONS cr,lcfs GLACÉS A ,\ rn LA vlmns VANILLE Pound Pound 250 g. (9 o2.,lfr OZ., li cups) cups) blanched almonds with 250 g. g. (9 (9 oz., generous generous cup) cup) fine fine sugar sugar in a mortar. mortar. Turn Turn into a basin basm and add 3 3 egg egg whites whites and and f 1teaspoon teaspoon vanilla vanilla extract. ex tract. Blend Blend the and lightly floured ftoured marble marble mixture thoroughly and roll out on a lightly (} nch) thick and about slab until the paste is I 1 cm. <i about 15 15 cm' cm. (6 (6 inches) inches) wide. widc. Coat with with a a layer of vanilla-flavoured vanilla-/lavoured Royal Royal icing (seeICING). (see ICING). Cut into sticks 2 cm. (f, inch) wide' wide. Brush Brush a a sticks 2 icing baking baking tray with melted melted butter, butter, sprinkle sprinkle with flour, ftour, and bake bake the bâtons· in a moderate oven oyen (180'C., (180°e., 350oF., 350"F., Gas Mark 4). thebdtons.iqamoderate

a

i

-

as in the recipe for Almond bdtonnets, using 250 g. Almond bâtonne/s, g. (9 oz., oz., li recipe for oz., generous cup) fine sugar, 200 g. cups) almonds, 250 g. (9 OZ., g.

Chocolate Chocolate bfltonnets. bâtonnets. sAroNNErs BÂTONNETS AU AU cHocot,lr CHOCOLAT - Proceed

ll

(7 (7

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(l o2.,2 oz.,lf 25 g., tablespoons) vanillaOZ., 11 cups) cups) coc<ia, cocoa, 25 g., (1 OZ., 2 tablespoons) flavoured whites. /lavoured sugar, 3 egg whites. cumin to cUMIN Cumin CumiD bfitonnets. bâtonnets. sAroNl.IETs S,\TONNETS AU AU CUMIN Add cumin - Add Short pastry paslry 1/ II (see DOUGH), when when rolling it it out. Cut into mto a buttered roll them, on a small sticks, sticks, roll small them, place place on buttered baking tray, oven (200'C., brush with egg, egg, and bake in a moderately hot oyen (200°C., ü 400'F., 400 F., Gas Mark 6). AvELINES - These Aux AVELINES sAroNNETs AUX Hazelnut bfltonnets. BÂTONNETS Hazelnut bâtonnets. biltunnets, replacing as Almond way as are the same Almond bâtonnets, in the same way are made made in and have been almonds haze/nuts which which have been blanched blanched and with hazelnuts almonds with with kirsch. the mixture with dried in the the oyen. oven. Flavour the dried in

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BASTE. JUTER -- To braising stock roasting or stock over pour roasting or braising To pour a to keep it moist during cooking. in order to a joint in BAT·culinary term for tail offish. of fish. The length offish of fish BAT - French culinary is is measured from from eye eye to to tail. BAT. provided with mammal provided with BAT. CHAUVE-SOURIS cn,c,uvE-souRrs Small mammal - Small membranous The meat meat is membranous wings wings which which enable enable it it to to /ly. fly. The esteemcd in China. in certain oriental countries, notably notably in esteemed in BA-T A-CLk"ll have been been invented dessert said to bave said to BA-TA-CLAN - Pastry dessert pastry-cook. It is still by It is still Parisian pastry-cook. celebrated Parisian Lacam, the the celebrated by Lacam, made Paris cake cake shops. shops. in high-c1ass made in high-class Paris almonds in in Pound 250 li cups) freshly blanched (9 oz., g. (9 blanched almonds 250 g. oz.,l| a by one; one; add 9 one by 9 eggs, and add eggs, one Turn into into a a bowl, bowl, aod mortar. Turn a mortar. g. (13 (13 oz., mix 11: cups) Add 375 cups) fine fine sugar flavoured mix weil. well. Add 375 g. oz.,lt sugar ftavoured g. (6 tabJespoons, 125 g. with rum, 125 cup) rum, I dl. scant 1 vanilla, l dl. (6 tablespoons, scant with vanilla, * cup) quite (4 1 cup) (4 oz., until quite and mix mix thoroughly flour, and thoroughly until cup) sieved o2.,1 sieved /lour, smooth. smooth. Pour and bake bake in in a a fluted edges with fluted edges and into a a sballow tin with shallow tin Pour into and coyer cover moderate leave to cool, and to cool, cooked, leave When cooked, moderate oYen. oven. When with icing. vanilla icing. with vanilla
(see SAUCE). BÂTARDE given to SAUCE). Butter sauce sauce J I (sec to Buller Name givcn BATARDE -- Name

ü (150'C., 302 ECLAIR.) 302'F.). cooked to crack dcgree F.). (See ÉCLAIR.) degree (lsoac., RoYALrx (hot hors-d'oeuvre). hors-d'oeuwe). BÂTONS sAroNs ROYAUX bitons (hot Royal Royal bâtons - Roll rectangles. cut into small rectangles. a piece of of shortcrust paste and cut out out a with Chicken Chicken and partridge each with middle of each partridge forceFill Fill the the middle force(see FORCEMEAT). ends each piece, sealing the ends meat (see FORCEMEAT). Roll each fried parsley. weil. well. Deep-fry in smoking smoking hot fat. Garnish with fried

made from DE JACOB sAroNs DE Cakes made JAcoB bfitom. BÂTONS Jacob's Jacob's bâtons. - Cakes (see DOUGH) paste (see Chou Chou pasœ DOUGH) in the shape of little hollow sticks sugar pastry cream, and coated on top with sugar filled with French French pastry

BAT AVlA -- Variety in summer in season summer hearted lelluce lettuce in season in Variety of of hearted BATAVIA or winter. or winter.
glass or metal conconBATEAUX or metal name for for china, china, glass French name BATEAUX - French tainers They are for serving cold hors-d'œuvre. hors-d'euvre. They are usually usually used for serving cold tainers used boat-shaped, name. hence their their name. boat-shaped, hence
88 88

pArs A FRIRE Frying balter batter 1 I rnns -- Fryiog FOR FRYING. FRYING. PÂTÉ,\ BATTERS FOR (12 OZ., 'Sift 350 g. (12 flour into into a a (Car0me's recipe) cups) flour 350 g. o2.,3 (Carème's 3 cups) - 'Sift (2 oz., g. (2 50 g. oz., in which which 50 warmed water in mix with sligbtly bowl, bowl, mix slightly warmed paste, free from free from a soft melted. Stir to a soft paste, has been been me/ted. Stir to butter has ;\* cup) butter (3 ta tablespoons) and 2 ta a pinch of salt salt and tablespoons lumps. Add a blespoons (3 blespoons) whites. egg whites. in 2 fold in 2 stiffiy and fold well, and stiffiy whisked egg brandy, brandy, stir stir weil, Use at at once.' once.' Use (9 oz., I g. (9 flour, 1 cups) sifted sifted flour, 250 g. oz.,2f Mix 250 Frying batter lltr- Mix Frying 2! cups) (| pint, pint, seant pint, t 2 dl. dl. (t scant cup) beer, beer, 2 l] dl. dl. (i oil, If tablespoon tablespoon oil, 3 cup) $ pint, into a a smooth smooth brandy into a tablespoon tablespoon brandy and a warm water water and cup) cup) warm in using, fold fold in pinch of fine salt. Just before using, a pinch of fine salt. Just adding a batter, batter, adding whites. egg whites. whisked egg 2 2 stiffiy stiffiy whisked Mix (for fruit glazed in the oven)oven) - Mix fruit fritters fritters glazed in the batter (for Frying baller Frying g. 250 g. previous recipe, recipe, using using 250 in the as dcscribed described in the previous the batter as the batter (3 tablespoons) tablespoons) (9 OZ., 2 tablespoons flour, 2 tablespoons (3 cups) sifted sifted flour, o2.,2| (9 2! cups) (+ pint, (+ pint, pint, scant pint, t] cup) scant 2 dl. dl. (t cup) beer, beer, 2 1+ dl. dl. (i melted butter, butter, 1+ melted pinch of a pinch of I tablespoon brandy, a egg, 1 tablespoon brandy, cup) water, one one whole whole egg, cup) water, pinch of and a a pinch of salt. salt. sugar sugar and

formal occasion and Chabot. Phot. /\rico!as) Nicolas) Buffet set set out out ror for a a formaI occasion(Potel Chabot. Phof. Buffe! (Potet wu!

CREAM BAVARIAN BA V ARIAN CREAM
After After mixing, mixing, keep in a warm place to ferment. Just before using, whisk the batter. glaze fruit fritters, drain after frying, place on a To glaze a metal icing sugar, sprinkled with with icing sheet which which has has been been lightly lightly sprinkled sheet oyen. and set in a hot oven. Frnng The batter should Fryiog batter (for vegetable fritters) - The be prepared at least an hour before use. g. (9 oz., 2i cups) sifted flour with 4 tablespoons Mix 250 g. oz.,2f (5 tablespoons) tablespoons) melted butter, 2 whole eggs, a good pinch of a batter. salt, and enough water to make not too thick a Frnng Frying batter (for (for meat and fisb fish fritters) - Put 250 g. (9 oz., 2i cups) sifted flour into a a bowl. bowl. Make a 2| a weil well in in the centre centre (5 tablespoons) oil or melted and put into it 4 tablespoons (5 butter, 4 dl. (* (à- pint, scant 2 cups) slightly butter,4 slightly warmed water, and a good pinch of salt. wood en spoon. spoon. well with a wooden salt. Mix weil Just before using, fold in 4 stiffiy stiffy whisked egg whites. (12o2.,3 Frying batter (i Frying (à la provengate) provençale) 'Mix 350 g. (l20z., 3 cups) -'Mix (5 tablespoons) Aix yolks,4 egg yolks, 4 tablespoons sieved flour, 2 egg tablespoons (5 oil, and enough enough cold water to make make a soft paste. Add a small pinch of salt, fold in 2 2 stiffiy salt, and and fold stifry whisked egg egg whites. Use (Car6me's recipe). at once.' (Carême's Batters (sweet) - See DOUGH.
BA VAROIS BAvARoIs - Cold sweet once known Traiti in his his Traité fromage bavarois, the name name Carême Car€me gives it in fromage des entremets de douceur. given to it by a The name bavarois a French chef who bavarois was given practised practised his art in a stately stately home in Bavaria. This not be confused This dish, consistency, should be confused dish, of solid should not solid consistency, liquid preparation known as the with the liquid known as the bavaroise (q.v.), which used to be called crème crDme bavaroise, and, according to which used culinary historians, was invented in Bavaria towards the end culinary historians, of the seventeenth century. quite differently differently The bavarois was prepared quite bavarois in in past days days was present-day methods; the mixture mixture was bound only with from pre,sent-day clarified some modern clarified isinglass, not with with egg yolks, as used in sorne reClpes. recipes.

hours in the iced water, water, COyer chill for 2 hours with white paper, and chili cover with refrigerator, or on crushed ice. refrigerator, it wipe it hbt water, wipe dip the mould in hot the bavarois, dipthe To loosen tlie dry, and turn turn into a dish. flayoured wlth wrth for bavarois used for bavarois flavoured The same recipe may be used (anisette, chocolate, tea, brandies coffee, chocolate, brandies and various liqueurs (anisette,

BA V ARIAN CREAM. BAVARIAN CREAM. as as

Armagnac, Calvados, fine Champagne Champagne brandy, Calvados, Curaçao, Curagao, fine Armagnac, kirsch, kummel, kummel; rum, etc.), lemon, tangerine, orange, praline of burnt almond, hazelnuts, hazelnuts, etc. A LA r.l CÉVENOLEcfvrNors BAvARoIs À cream i la la cévenole. c6venole. BAVAROIS Bavarian cre am à Fill with a a ueam. FiII Bavarian cream. Coat a mould with layer of with a layer of Basic Bavarian glacds, pur6e of marrons glacés, mixture of a purée of marrons mixture of this this cream cream and and a refrigerator. flavoured with kirsch. Chill in the refrigerator. decorate with and decorate Turn'out a dish, dish, and Turn . out the the bavarois bavarois onto onto a (see CREAMS). with marrons Surround with Chantilly cream CREAMS). Surround Chantilly cream (see glacis. glacés. Coat a A LA r,c, CRÉOLE cRforn -- Coa Bavarian cream à BAVARoIS Bavarian VAROIS À ta A la créole. cr6ole. BA of alternate layers of with sweet mould with sweet almond oil and fill it with alternate rum-flavoured and pineapple-flavoured Basic Basic Bavarian rum-flavoured and pineapple-flavoured cream) mixed mixed with with a salpicon (q.v.) ofbananas cream, of bananas steeped in rum. (see Turn out with Chantilly cream (see out onto onto a a dish, dish, decorate decorate with Chantilly cream Turn and sprinkle sprinkle with a pastry-bag, and CREAMS) piped through through a blanched, shredded pistachio nuts. blanched, A LA l.l NORMANDE NoRMANDE Bavarian cream à i la normande. BA slvARots Bavarian VAROIS À Line a a mould mould with with a layer of of Calvados-flavoured Calvados-flavoured Basic Line a layer (see SAUCE) sauce (see cream, fill fill with with thick thick Apple Apple sauce Bavarian cream, gelatine which has been dissolved in water. whisked with gelatine water. whisked Turn out with apple apple quarters out on on a a dish dish and and surround Turn surround with peeled, cooked Top with whipped cooked in syrup, and weil wbll drained. Top peeled, cream.

Bavarian cream, cream, after after Carême Car€me Bavarian

Bavarian cream cream mould

The following inc\ude include severa] several of Carême's Car0me's recipes. g. VAROISÀ - Blend 500 g. Basic Bavarian BAvARoIS A LA ra CRÈME cniwBavarian cream. BA (18 oz., yolks in (18 in a a small small oz., 2! 2f cups) 16 egg egg yolks cups) fine fine sugar sugar and and 16 pinch of salt. pan over low sauce When the saucepan salt. When low heat, heat, adding a a pinch (If; pints, mixture quite smooth mixture is I litre litre (l~ is quite with ] moisten with smooth moisten quart) milk which has generous quart) boiled and and has been been previously boiled (l oz.) gelatine g. (1 gelatine which flavoured with a vanilla bean. Add 25 g. has has been been dissolved until the the Keep stirring dissolved in in cold cold water. water. Keep stirring until mixture is not boil. is thick do not thick enough to coat coat the the spoon; spoon; do enough to Transfer Transfer to a a bowl and leave to cool, frequently fanning it to help the process. process. (lf pints, As soon as the mixture in 1 I litre (I~ mixture begins to set, set, fold in (4 oz., g. (4 generous quart) stiffiy whipped cream ~ cup) oz.,1",rp) cream and and 100 g. finesugar. . fine sugar. Pour the bavarois into a mould which has been rinsed with

(CarGme). FROMAGE parfait amour FRoMAGE amour (Carême). Bavarian Bavarian cream cream au au parfait peel of 'Shred half a half the the peel of a - 'Shred shredded lemon, lemon very finely. Boil 2 cups milk, add the the shredded (8 oz., g. (8 I cup) Leave to cup) sugar. sugar. Leave to 6 and 225 225 g. oz., 1 6 crushed crushed cloves cloves and infuse for an and strain through a a muslin cloth cloth into a infuse an hour, hour, and a (l oz.) g. (1 and clarified clarified isinbasin. basin. Add Add 25 25 g. oz.) slightly slightly warmed and glass, and basin glass, and a a few few drops drops of of cochineal cochineal essence. Put Put the the basin a bowl As soon as as the the mixture mixture begins to to set, fold into a bowl of of ice. As set, fold in whipped cream.' in (Car0me). FROMAGE pistachio nuts FRoMAGE Bavarian Bavarian cream cream witb with pistachio nuts (Carême). 'Shell about pisBAVARoIS AUX 100 choice choice pisBAVAROIS AItx NOIX NoD( VERTES vERTEs -- 'Shell about 100 pound them in a a mortar, mortar, and and moisten moisten with with a a tachio tachio nuts, nuts, pound them in le water from time litt little to prevent them them turning oily. oily. time to to time to (8 oz., g. (8 I cup) cream. Put Dissolve 225 225 g. cup) sugar in in 2 2 cups cups cream. Put the the oz., 1 pounded nuts nuts into a bowl, and add add the cream, a a little little at at a a into a bowl, and the cream, a time, Leave for for an an hour, hour, and and strain through a well. Leave time, stirring weiL strain through fine fine sieve. sieve. (l oz.) g. (1 Add warm clarified clarified isinglass isinglass which Add 25 25 g. oz.) slightly slightly warm mixture into into a has has been been dissolved in a a !ittle little water. water. Pour Pour the the mixture a dissolved in place on ice mould shed ice mould or a medium-sized terrine, terrine, and and place crushed or a on cru (with a for 15 minutes. a large large silver if posfor 15 minutes. Stir silver spoon, spoon, if well, (with Stir weil, sible) As soon as it it begins sible) and and stir again from from time to to time. time. As soon as stir again to a smooth-flowing is mixture is to set, all the until a smooth-flowing mixture set, stir stir ail the time time until achieved. achieved. Add a httle little at at a a time, until the time, until Add whipped whipped cream, cream, a the bavarois bavarois has has a a velvety texture. Keep on on crushed Keep crushed ice ice for for an an hour hour and before turning turning and a a half before out out onto onto a a dish. dish.
pARFArr AMOUR AMoUR BAVAROIS AU PARFAIT BAvARors AU

89
Duck a/sacienm' (Phol. ico/as) (Phot. N Drtck à/' Nicolas) d I'alsacienne

BAVARIAN CREAM BA VARIAN CREAM

Bavarian cream cream made made with fruit fruit (Robert Carrier) Carrier) Bavarian

90

BAYONNE BAYONNE
Bavarian Bavarian cream cream aux roses roses (Car0me). (Carême). FRoMAGE FROMAGE BAVARoIS BA VAROIS RosBs ROSES - 'Strip the the petals petaIs ofl off about 30 freshly freshly picked with a pinch of roses, and put put them, them,with of cochineal grains, into roses, and 225 g. g. (8 (8 oz., oz., I 1 cup) cup) clarified clarified boiling boiling sugar sugar syrup. Cover, Coyer, and 225 add 25 when it it has has become become just just warm, add 25 g. g. (l (l oz.) isinglass. isinglass. when Strain the the mixture mixture through muslin into a bowl, and when it Strain begins to set, fold in whipped cream.' begins Bavarian fruit cream. BAVARoIs BAVAROIS ALrx AUX FRUITS - Put into a Bavarian pint,2f, bowl 5 dl. (scant bowl5 (scant pint, pint, 2f 2i cups) fruit fruit pur6e, purée, 5 dl. (scant pint, 2i (l oz.) cups) cups) heavy heavy (30") (30°) syrup, syrllp, thejuice thejuice of of31emons, 25 g. (l and25 3 lemons, and gelatine gelatine which which has has been been dissolved dissolved in a little water water and strained through muslin. through (scant pint, pint, 2i 2l cups) cups) whipped weIl, and add I + litre (scant Blend well, cream. Pour Pour into a mould mould which has been coated with sweet cream. rinsed in ice water) and and leave to set for about almond oil (or rinsed 1+ hours. l| (CarOme). FROMAGE BAvAFRoMAcE BAVAMocha coffee Bavarian cream (Carême). ROIS AU cnr6 CAFÉ Mor,c, MOKA1+ cups) mocha coffee oz.,l| Rors - 'Put 175 g. (6 oz., a small a moderate fire, fire, heat on on a small saucepan, and heat beans into a stirring constantly constantly until until they acquire a a reddish-yellow reddish-yellow they acquire stirring is complete as as the as soon the beans become colour. Roasting is soon as oily. 'Drop them into a 3 cups boiling milk, a basin containing containing 3 coyer, and leave until the milk is just warm. Strain through through cover, (l g. (l a 225 g. (8 oz., 25 g. and 25 a fine clotho I cup) sieved sugar and cloth. Add Add225 oz., 1 oz.) isinglass. Blend te smooth, and strain again. quite again. Blend until qui 'When the mixture and cream, and mixture begins to set, set, add whipped cream, pour into a fully set.' set.' a mould. mould. Place on on crushed ice until fully Strawberry Rub Aux FRAISES FRAISES -- Rub BAvARoIs AUX cresm. BAVAROIS Strawberry Bavarian cream. 2+ pulp through cup) strawberry through 2| dl. dl. (scant + strawberry pulp ] pint, generous cup) a generous cup) heavy cup) heavy a fine sieve, 2| dl. (scant + sieve, and add 2+ I pint, generous oz.) gelatine syrup (30°), juice of (1o2.) gelatine (30"), the juice g. (! 15 g. and 15 lemon, and of a a lemon, which water and and strained strained which has in a a little little water has been been dissolved dissolved in through (scant ! pint, generous generous cup) cup) muslin. Add Add 2! 2+ dl. dl. (scant through muslin. I pint, whipped cream cream to the the mixture. Pour in a a rereice, or or in into a chill on crushed ice, and chilI Pour into a mould mould and on crushed frigerator. large with large a dish dish and and surround surround with frigerator. Tum Turn out onto a out onto hulled fine sugar. with fine sugar. hulled strawberries, sprinkled with strawberries, sprinkled Apricot, pear, raspberry and other pineapple, pear, peach, pineapple, raspberry and other Apricot, peach, fruit prepared in way. in the the same same way. fruit bavarois bavaror can can be be prepared Striped BAVARoIS vanilla Bavarian Bavarian cream. cream. BAVAROIS and vanilla Striped chocolate chocolate and RUBANÉ (9 oz., g. (9 250 g. oz., nr À A LA LA VANILLE VANILLE -- Sift Sift 250 nun.q.N6 AU AU CHOCOLAT cnoeoI-.a.r ET generous yolks and and egg yolks generous cup) 8 egg add 8 into a fin'e sugar a saucepan, saucepan, add cup) fine sugar into a is mixture is pinch of heat until until the the mixture very low low heat a pinch of salt. over very salt. Stir Stir over perfectly (scant pint, pint, 2* 2l cups) cups) milk milk perfectly blended. Boil 5 5 dl. dl. (scant blended. Boil separately, other to the the other Add slowly slowly to vanilla bean. bean. Add sefarately, add add 1 I vanilIa mixture, en thé thti When low heat. heat. Wh mixture, and and stir constantly over over low stir constantly ta resul ting custard tly to remove aspoon, to coa coat spoon, remove resulting custard thickens thickens sufficien sufficiently from from the the heat. heat. Strain (2 oz., g. (2 parts. Add 50 g. oz., in two Add 50 and divide divide in two parts. custard and Strain the the custard 2 part, and in and blend blend in to one one part, chocolate to 2 squares) melted chocolate squares) melted whipped whipped cream cream Blend whipped it begins to set. set. Blend cream when when it begins to whipped cream similarly mixture. into the remaining custard custard mixture. the remaining similarly into Rinse Id in almond with sweet a mou in ice ice water, water, or or brush brush with sweet almond Rinse a mould oil. mixtures, taking taking Fill with with alternate alternate layers layers of of the the two two mixtures, oil. Fill care preceding one has set layer until one has set care not not to add a a new new layer until the the preceding to add properly. shed ice, refrigeraice, or properly. Place in the the refrigeracrushed Place the mould on or in on cru the mould tor, To loosen loosen the thebavarois, bavarois, and leave leave to 1| to to 2 2 hours. hours. To tor, and to set set 1+ dip it, and and tum bavarois mould in in warm water, dry dry it, turnthe the bavarois dip the the mould warm water, into glass dish. into a a glass dish. Striped (various flavours). BAvARoIS flavous). BAVAROIS cream (various Striped Bavarian Bavarian cream RUBANÉS pARFUMs DIVERS asdescribed in the the Proceed as described in DIvERs -- Proceed nuslNfs AUX AUx PARFUMS previous previous recipe. cream can can be bemade made Variegated Bavarian Bavarian cream recipe. Variegated by mixture and strawberry by using alternate layers layers of of vanilla vanilla and strawberry mixture using alternate (or (or any apriandapricoffee, vanilla vanillaand any other red fruit), fruit), vanilla vanilla and and coffee, other red cot, vanilla and pistachio nuts, etc. cot, vanilla and pistachio nuts, etc. Vanilla (Car0me). FROMAGE A s.avA.nolsÀ FRoMAGEBAVAROIS cream (Carême). Vanilla Bavarian Bavarian cream LA VANILLE - Add a andbring bring cups cream creamand to 33cups vanilla bean bean to LA vANTLLE - Add a vanilla

Aux AUX

cream Bavarian cream Striped Bavarian Striped

cream by by oneonereduce the the cream heat and and reduce the heat Lower the the boil. boil. Lower to to the (l oz.) g. (1 and 25 25 g. oz.) (8 oz., g. (8 cup) sieved sieved sugar sugar and I cup) 225 g. oz., 1 third. Add 225 third. Add muslin into into aa through muslin isinglass. Blend Blend thoroughly, thoroughly, strain strain through isinglass. mixture begins begins place on ice. When When the the mixture on crushed crushed ice. basin, and place basin, and cream. fold in in whipped whipped cream. to to set, set, fold
ways prepared in in several several ways beverage prepared BA VAROISE -- Pleasant Pleasant beverage BAVAROISE milk, etc. etc. from from tea, tea, syrup, syrup, milk, Bavarian part of century several several Bavarian eighteenth century the eighteenth In In the ofthe the early early part tea habit of of taking taking tea were in in the the habit in Paris Paris were princes princes sojouming sojourning in des Fossés-Saint-GennainFoss6s-Saint-Germainrue des the Café together together at Procope, rue atthe Cafi Procope, but they they (today rue I'Ancienne-Com6die): but des-Prés des-Pr6s (today rue de de l'Ancienne-Comédie): decancrystal decanfrom crystal them from to them insisted be served served to it should insisted that that it ihould be rather syrup rather with capillary capillary syrup ters, preferred it it sweetened sweetened with and preferred ters, and given tb new to the the new was given than name bavaroise bavaroise was Thence the the name than sugar. sugar. Tbence by replacing replacing it, simply simply by beverage. to serve serve it, caf6s began began to Other cafés beverage. Other the to the cooked to the clarified sugar sugar cooked with clarified the capillary capillary syrup syrup with milk. consistency adding milk. and adding consistency of of aa syrup, syrup, and very (+ pint, pint, scant cup) very scantcup) Bavaroise 2 dl. dl.(t Bavaroise 1 I -- Mix Mix together together 2 syrup sugar syrup I tablespoon strong fine sugar, sugar, 1 tablespoon sugar strong tea, tea, 1 I tablespoon tablespoon fine mixture yolk. Whisk the mixture until the (104"C., 220°F.) Whisk until (l04°C., 220'F.) and and an an egg egg yolk. teaspoons milk and and55 teaspoons becomes boiled Ïnilk little boiled Add aa little becomes frothY. frothy. Add kirsch. kirsch. liqueur. otherliqueur. orany anyother Flavourings maraschino, or Flavourings can can be be rum, rum, maraschino, (4oz., g.(4 cup) yolks with oz.,t with 125 125g. i cup) Bavaroise II -- Whisk Whisk 44 egg egg yolks Bavaroise II (3tablespoons, scant**cup) fine dl. (3 tablespoons,scant Add itdl. fine sugar sugar until until thick. thick. Add "rrp) generous cup) pint,generous cup) (scant1 syrup 220°F.), 2i dl. (104'C.,220F.),2| dl. (scant syrup (104°C., I pint, freshly milk. boiling milk. amount boiling and the the same same amount freshly made made hot hot tea, tea, and (6 dl. (.6 Add 1I dl. Whisk frothy. Add very frothy. is very mixture is Whisk until until the the mixture tablespoons, Calvados. rum, kirsch kirsch or orCalvados. cup) rum, scant1 tablespoons, seant +cup) lemon The on with orange, flavoured with orange,lem also be befiavoured can also The bavaroise bavaroisecan or milk. inboiling boiling milk. infused in first be beinfused should first vanilla, which whichshould orvanilla,

BA VAROISE AUX expression French slang slang expression CHOUX -- French ALIX CHOUX BAVAROISE describing andorgeat. orgeat. absinth and mixture of ofabsinth describing aamixture BAY. inareaatraditional leavesare traditional inBayleaves rnunrER-sAUcE - - Bay BAY. LAURIER-SAUCE gredient (q.v.).The bay Theberries berriesof ofthe thebay gredient of bouquet-garni(q.v.). ofthe the bouquet~garni tree called herbscalled aromatic herbs of aromatic distillation of in aa distillation tree are are used usedin Fioravanti. Fioravanti. BA YONNE - - Town wherethe theegg egg inthe Basses-Pyr6n6eswhere Town in theBasses-Pyrénées BAYONNE and inbeeninissaid tohave have been saidto mayonnaise is calledmayonnaise and oil sauce called oil sauce vented. are,in in whichare, hamswhich forBayonne Bayonne hams known for It is isalso alsoknown vented. It fact, Orthez. town,Orthez. inaaneighbouring neighbouring town, fact, made madein The improve Itisisalso alsoused usedto toimprove raw.It isusually usually eaten eatenraw. The ham ham is the garnish asaagamish cookedas andcooked andsauces, sauces,and ragoittsand flavourof ofragoûts theflavour for ways. prepared in invarious various ways. foreggs eggsprepared Bayonne produceexcellent region produce excellent neighbouring region andthe theneighbouring Bayonne and local (amixture (q.v.)(a cabbage, garbures(q.v.) mixture of ofcabbage, aregarbures Thereare localdishes. dishes.There bacon, Pyr6n6es inthe thePyrénées popularin goosefat ryebread, bread,popular fatand andrye bacon,goose 91 9l

BEAN BEAN
district), preserved preserved goose, goose, preserved preserved pork, pork, locally locally caJIed called district), methode. Ail All the the charcuterie charcaterieof of the theBayonne Bayonne region regionis good, methode. is good, especially the (blood) puddings. the black black (blood) puddings. especially Among the the sweets, pAtd de sweets, pâté (a citron decédrat cidrat (a preserve), is citron preserve), is Among delicious, and and Bayonne Bayonne chocolate chocolate is is noted. noted. delicious,
BEAN. HARICOT HARrcor --A pulse ofwhich of which there there are are many many varieties, varieties, BEAN. A pulse some edible, edible, others others ornamental. ornamental. Among Among edible edible varieties virieties are are sorne beans, which which grow grow to glimbing beans, to aa height height of (6 to of 2 2 to to 3 3 m. m. (6 to 10 l0 c1imbing feet), and and are are trained trained on poles. The on bean bean poles. The dwarf dwarf varieties varieties feet), need no no support. support. In In most most varieties varieties the pod is the pod is tender tender and and need edible when young. when young. edible Edible bean pods falI bean pods fall under under the general heading the general heading of green of green Edible beans. In In sorne some varieties varieties the pod remains the pod remains tender tender and anO good go6a to to beans. eat even even when when fully fully grown, grown, but but in in the the case case of parchmentof parchmenteat skinned beans, beans, it it becomes becomes tough tough and and leathery. leathery. skinned

.

BROAD BEANS BEANS (U.S. (U.S.Shell plant Shellbeans). beans). FÈVES rivrs -- Anoual Annual plant BROAD of the the Leguminosae Leguminosae family, family,cultivated cultivated for for its itsseeds, seeds,which which of as food serveas food for for man man and and for for animais. animals. The The broad broad bean, bean, of of serve which the Windsor is the Windsor is best best known, known, is is the the common common bean bean of which of Europe. Other Other well-known well-known broad broad beans beans are are the the lima lima bean, bean, Europe. species originating in South originating in South America America and andcultivated cultivated exaa species extensively in in California; California; the the soya soya bean of China, China, Japan bean of tensively Japan and and India, now now very very widely widely cultivated. cultivated.Sorne Some beans, beans, such such as as the the India, horse bean beanof Scotland and and the pea ofsouthern thecow cow pea of southern U.S.A. U.S.A. are are horse ofScotland chiefly used used for for forage. forage. chiefly The fresh fresh broad broad beans beans that that are are commonly commonly used used in in Europe The Europe do not not have have a a very very high high food food value. value. Dried Drid beans, beans, on on the the other other do hand, are are rich rich in in amino amino acids acids and potassium salts; and potassium salts; they they also also hand, contain large quantities of large quantities of nitrogenous nitrogenous substances substances and and contain Vitamins Band B and E. Their nutritive E. Their nutritive value greater value is is therefore therefore greater Vitamins than fresh fresh beans. beans. However, However, eaten eaten in in excess excess they they can can cause cause than (favism). serious blood blood disorders disorders (favism). serious (4 oz.) g. (4 100 g. oz.) unpodded yield approximately unpodded beans beans yield approximately 50 g. 50 g. 100 (2 oz.) oz.) comestible comestible beans. beans. (2 To cook cook fresh broad beans. beans. SheU Shell the the beans. beans. Remove Remove the the To fresh broad tough outer outer skin skin and and cook cook in in boiling boiling salted salted water water with with a a tough bunch of of savory. savory. Drain, Drain, and proceed according and proceed according to bunch to the the selected recipe. recipe. selected Fresh broad broad beans beam à I l'anglaise. l'anglaise. FÈvES rAvns FRAÎCHES rneicrrs À A L'ANGLAISE r'ANcLArsE Fresh Cook the the beans beans as as indicated indicated above, above, but leave leave in in their their skins. skins. - Cook Drain, and and serve serve with with fresh fresh butter. butter. Drain, Fresh broad broad beans beans in in bUtter. birtter. FÈvES rtvrs FRAîcHES rnalcrrts AU Fresh AU BEURRE BEURRE as for for Peas Peas in (see PEAS), and in butter (see and add add chopped Proceed as chopped savory. savory. proceed as in cream. cream. FÈvES rtvns À A LA cRÈME Broad beans in cniun -- Proceed as for (see PEAS). Moisten with thick fresh Peas in in butter (see Peas fresh cream, and simmer for for a a minute minute or two. and Broad beans beam à la la croque-au-sel. FÈvES rirvx À A LA r.l CROQUE-AUBroad cnoeus-luFresh broad spr - Fresh beans served raw as served raw as an an hors-d'œuvre. SEL broad beans hors-d'euvre. guests shell The guests shell the the beans themselves, seasoning The beans themselves, seasoning them with coarse salt. salt. This This hors-d'œuvre hors-d'euvre is is popular all all over over the with coarse of France. south of Fresh beans à la la française. frangaise. FÈVES rilvss FRAÎCHES rndcrns A Fresh broad beaos À LA r,c, FRAN9ATSE - Shell and skin the beans, and cook as for peas FRANÇAISE Peas à d lafrangaise (see of savory. lafrançaise (see PEAS), together with a bunch of savory. Pur6e Purée of fresh broad beam beans for garnishing. runfo puRÉE ne DE FtvBs FÈVES rn llcffis - Proceed (see FRAÎCHES Proceed as as for for Purie Purée of of fresh fresh garden peas peas (see PEAS). Puree Purée of bean soq soup - See SOUPS AND BROTHS. BROTHS. Fresh broad bearn beans with ssvory. savory. riivrs FÈvES rn.licrcs FRAÎCHES A À LA senSARRrErfi RIETTE - Shell Shell and skin the beans, beans, and cook in boiling salted salted water water with with a bunch bunch of of savory. Drain, Drain, return return them them to the the pan, pan, and and shake shake over over heat heat for for a few few seconds to get rid of of any any moismoisture ture left. left. Add Add fresh butter butter cut into small pieces. pieces. Mix carecarefully fully so as not to damage damage the the beans. beans.

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FIELD Buropean broad FIELD BEANS. BEANS. r'Evrnorss FÉVEROLES -European broad bean, bean, smaller smaller than th an the the ordinary ordinary kind, kind, cooked cooked in in the the same same way. way. These These beans beans usually usually remain remain white. white. Field Field bean bean flour flour is is sometimes sometimes added added to to wheaten wheaten flour flour for for the the manufacture manufacture of of bread. bread.

k
Varieties Varietiesofbeans of beans

FLAGEOLET FLAGEOLET BEANS. BEANS. HARrcors HARICOTS FLAGEoLETs FLAGEOLETS - Used Used mainly mainly as as a a garnish garnish (whether (whether fresh fresh or or dried) dried) for for meat meat dishes. dishes. They They are are excellent excellent with with cuts cuts of of mutton mutton or or lamb. lamb, and and make make delicately delicately flavoured flavoured pur6es. purées. They They are are not not common common in in U.S.A. U.S.A. Fresh Fresh flageolets. flageolets. HARJcors HARICOTS FLAGEoLETs FLAGEOLETS FRArs FRAIS - Small Smal1 beans beans of of a a greenish greenish colour. colour ..They They are are cooked cooked in in the the same same way way as as Fresh Fresh white white haricot'beans haricotbeans (see (see below). below). All Ali recipes recipes for for haricot haricot beans beans are are suitable suitable for for flageolets. flageolets.

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FRENCH FRENCH BEANS BEANS (U.S. (U.S. String String beans). beans). HARrcors HARICOTS vsRrs VERTS -A A delicately should be be freshly freshly delicately flavoured flavoured vegetable, vegetable, which which should picked, when they they only only need need to to be be topped topped and and tailed..With tailed .. With picked, when older olderbeans, beans, it itis isnecessary necessary to to cut cut away away the the stringy stringy edges. edges.
92 92

BEANS. BEANS, RED RED
Wash Wash the the beans beans in in cold cold water, water, drain, drain, and and put put them them in in a a large saucepan full full of of boiling boiling salted salted water water (l| (lt teaspoons teaspoons large saucepan salt per per litre, litre, scant scant quart, quart, generous generous quart quart water). water). Leave Leave the the salt

saucepan uncovered uncovered and and cook cook over over a a high high flame. frame. The beans beans saucepan are are ready ready when when they they are are tender tender but but still firm firm in in texture. texture. Do Do not overcook. overcook. Drain Drain thoroughly. thoroughly. not Ifthe If the beans beans are are to to be be kept kept for for later later use, use, or or are are to to be be dressed with oil oil and and vinegar vinegar as as a salad, salad, they they should should be be put put in in a a colancolanwith der der under under running running water. water. If If they they are to to be be served at once in in butter, cream crearn or some sorne other other way, they they should not be be cooled butter, after being being boiled, but but should be be well weil drained. drained. after French bearc beans A à I'anglaise. l'anglaise. HARIcors HARICOTS vERTs VERTS A À t'lNcrllss L'ANGLAISE French - Boil Boil the the beans beans in salted water, drain, and dry in a cloth. c1oth. butter. Serve with fresh butter. beans i à la la bonne bonne femme. femme. HARIcors HARICOTS vrnrs VERTS A À rl LA French beans BONNE FEMME FEMME - Boil the beans in salted salted water until they are BoNNE three-parts cooked. Drain, Drain, and dry in a cloth. cloth. three-parts Blanch about about 200 g. (6 oz.) lean bacon, and cut into small Blanch butter. Add 500 g. (l (1 lb.) of the nearly cooked dice. Fry in butter. beans, moisten with thickened brown veal stock, cover coyer the beans, completely pan, pan, and and simmer simmer slowly slowly until until the the beans beans are are completely cooked. httle butter and sprinkle sprinkle with When ready to serve, add a little chopped parsley. HARIcors vERTs VERTS AU BEURRE beans in brown brown butter. HARICOTS French beare NOISETTE - Boil the beans in salted water as indicated above. NoIsETTE (l oz., clotho Brown 25 g. (1 2 tablespoons) oz.,2tablespoons) Drain, and dry in a cloth. well a pan, add the beans, season, season, and toss them weil butter in a untiJ they have absorbed the butter. Sprinkle Sprinkle with chopped until serving. parsley before serving. HARtcors vERTs d'h6tel. HARICOTS VERTS French beans in butter à i la maître maitre d'hôtel. AU À rl LA MAÎTRE ' HÔTEL AU BEURRE BEURRE i, Boil the as indirulirnr D o'H6rsr the beans as - Boil pan over a pan cated above, and and drain drain thoroughly thoroughly. . Toss them in a all moisture left in heat for for a a few few moments to to ensure that that ail them has evaporated. pieces 90 to Season, and small pieces and add add butter cut into very small - 90 per butter 100 g. bu Uer to 500 g. t I cu p bu tter per cup g. beans (3 to 4 oz., scan scant butter all y are ail 1 lb. they I lb. beans). Mix the so that the the butter so the beans in the evenly coated coated.. Sprinkle with parsley before serving. French A LA m CRÈME nlruco'rs VERTS vERTs À cntlr,c -French beans beans in in cream cream I. I. HARlCOTS Boil are three-parts until they water until Boil the the beans beans in in salted they are salted water cooked. Drain, and dry in a and coyer cover a clotho cloth. Toss Toss in melted butter, and with has been with fresh fresh thick thick cream. cream. Simmer Simmer untiJ until the the sauce sauce has reduced reduced to Season. its original volume. volume. Season. to half its French vERTs À A LA u CRÈME Frenci beans II. HARICOTS rHmcom VERTS cntuE -beam in in cream cream n. Follow preceding recipe, in a recipe, but the beans beans in a Follow the the preceding but simmer simmer the (see SAUCE) rather sauce (see instead of of cream. cream. rather thin thin Béchamel Bichamel sauce SAUCE) instead Add butter just before serving. serving. French prepared in in this way and and sprinkled with French beans beans prepared this way sprinkled with chopped verts à d la la tourangelle. tourangelle. called haricots haricots verts chopped parsley are are called Dried for a a HARIcoN VERTS vERTs SECS sEcs -- Soak Soak for Dried French French beans. beans. HARICOTS long French beans. beans. fresh French like fresh and cook cook like long time time in in cold cold water water and French FRANQAISE vERTs À A LA LA FRANÇAISE French beans à i la la française. frangaise. HARICOTS n^lRlcors VERTS (l inch) . (1 Proceed pieces about inch) long. long. Proceed about 3 3 cm cm. Slice the the beans beans in in pieces - Slice as for Peas française (see . (see PEAS) PEAS). asfor Peas à lafrangaise d la French vERTs AU AU GRATIN GRATIN -gratin. HARICOTS HARIcors VERTS beans au au gratin. French beans Proceed in an an beans in Put the the beans ueatn. Put as for beans in in cream. Proceed as for French French beans ovenware grated cheese. melted butter butter over over cheese. Pour Pour melted dish with with grated ovenware dish them grated cheese. cheese. Brown Brown slowly slowly more grated and sprinkle with more them and sprinkle with in in the the oyen. oven. French vERTs AU AU JUS rus -- Boil Boil the the gravy. HARICOTS HARIcors VERTS beans in French beans in gravy. beans cooked. are three-parts three-parts cooked. until they in salted water until they are beans in salted water Drain, Moisten with with in butter. butter. Moisten slowly in Drain, and and stew them slowly stew them thickened thickened brown brown stock. stock. French A LA rl vsnrs À HARIcors VERTS lyonnaise. HARICOTS la lyonnaise. i la beans à French beans LYONNAlSE (l lb.) French water. g. (lIb.) beans in in salted salted water. French beans Boil 500 500 g. LyoNNArsE -- Boil Drain drv in in a cloth. and dry a clotho Drain and

Brown Brown 100 100 g. g. (a (4 oz., bZ., 1 1 cup) chopped chopped onions on ions in in butter butter and and add add the the beans. beans. Saut6 Sauté all ail together; together; the beans beans should be be very very slightly browned. browned. Sprinkle Sprinkle with with chopped parsley parsley and and add add a a little little vinegar. vinegar. peNlcnfs - Boil Mixed Mixed beans. beans. HARIcors HARICOTS vERTs VERTS PANACHÉS Boil separately, separately, in in salted salted water, equal quantities quantities of of French beans beans and small fresh fresh kidney kidney beans beans (flageolets). (flageolets). Drain Drain thoroughly. thoroughly. Blend Blend the the two two in in butter or cream. cream. French beare beans à la la normande. normande. HARIcors HARICOTS vERTs VERTS A À m LA NonNORMANDE MANDE - Proceed Proceed as as for for French French beans in in crearn. cream. After After the beans beans are are cooked, blend in yolks yolks ofeggs. of eggs. Just Just before before serving serving add butter.

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French bean saI salad French ad

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DE HARICOTS HARrcors VERTS vERTs -- Boil Boil the the French bean salad. SALADE DE French bean saI ad. SALADE a cloth. with Drain and and dry in in a cloth. Serve Serve with in salted salted water. Drain beans in a French dressing. a while the beans are are still the beans still hot, The salad can be seasoned while salad can The be seasoned with thinly chopped mixed mixed herbs herbs or or with flavoured with with finely finely chopped flavoured sliced onion onion rings. sliced HARIcors VERTS vERTs SAUTÉS saurfs AU eu in butter. butter. HARICOTS Fr.ench beans sautéed saut6ed in Ft;ench and dry dry in in a a in salted BEURRE the beans beans in salted water. Drain and BEURRE - Boil the browning in a a heavy iron pan in in butter, butter, slightly slightly browning cloth. Sauté Saut6 in cloth. parsley. chopped parsley. with chopped the beans. beans. Sprinkle Sprinkle with the provengale. HARICOTS ru'nrcors VERTS vERTs beqns sautéed saut6ed à la la provençale. French beans French pnovENgALE - Proceed beans as for for French French beans A LA Proceed as slurft À L,c, PROVENÇALE SAUTÉS butter. Just Just before before for the sautied in oil for the butter. in butter, butter, substituting substituting oil sautéed parsley. grated garlicand garlic and chopped chopped parsley. a little little grated add a serving, add serving, PRESERVATION OF OF See PRESERVATION bears - See French beans Preserved French Preserved FOODS. FOODS. punfo DE Boil DE HARICOTS HARIcors VERTS vERTs - Boil French beans. beans. puRÉE Puree of of French Purée for in a a clotho cloth. Stew Drain and and dry dry in Stew for in salted water. Drain beans in salted water. the beans the a fine fine sieve. rub them sieve. in butter, and rub them through through a butter, and a few few minutes minutes in a potato, and and puree half mashed potato, half its its volume volume of of mashed Add to to this this purée Add just before before serving. mixture. Add Add butter butter just serving. heat up up the the mixture. heat HARIeors VERTS vERTs À A LA LA TOMATE ToMATE beare in in tomato tomato sauce. sluce. HARICOTS French beans French are three-parts three-parts in salted water until until they they are Boil the beans in salted water the beans - Boil for a a few few minutes minutes in aa clotho cloth. Stew Stew for Drain, and and dry dry in cooked. cooked . Drain, (see sauce (see Tomato sauce tablespoons Tomato in butter, butter, and add several several tablespoons and add in parsley. with chopped chopped parsley. SAUCE). Simmer. Simmer. Sprinkle Sprinkle with SAUCE).

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sometimes Lima beans, beans, sometimes DE LIMA LIMA -- Lima LIMA BEANS. BEANS. HARICOTS HARIcors DE LIMA green,like They are are green, peas,are popular in America. They in America. called Cape Cape peas, called are popular like beans. ofbroad flageolets, and about the the size size of and about flageolets, broad beans. (see below) below) are are beans (see All recipes white haricot haricot beans recipes for for Fresh Fresh white Ali for lima lima beans. beans. suitable for suitable

RED BEANS. BEANS. HARICOTS RoucEs n c.Rrcors ROUGESRED (U.S. Iddney RoucES HAnrcors ROUGES beans). HARICOTS kidney beans). Fresh red red beans beans (U.S. Fresh beans white haricot haricot beans way as as Fresh Fresh white in the FRAIs -- Cook the same same way FRAIS Cook in for red red (see below). aresuitable for white white beans beans are suitable for recipes for below). Ali All recipes (see beans. beans. in the the Cook in RoucEs SECS sEcs -- Cook HARIcors ROUGES Dried red red beans. beare. HARICOTS Dried (see below). recipes All recipes beans (see below). All haricot beans way as as Dried Driedwhite same white haricot same way red beans. beans. dried red are suitable for dried suitable for for dried dried white white beans beans are for
93 93

BEANS, BEANS, TONKA TONKA
Red beam beans in in red red wine wine à la la bouguignonne. bourguignonne. HARIcors HARICOTS Red VIN Roucn ROUGE A À r,.c, LA nounc[IIGNoNNE BOURGUIGNONNE - Cook Cook the ROUGES AU AU vrN RoucEs red wine, with herbs and beans in equal parts of water and red a piece of blanched lean bacon, or lean smoked bacon. are soft, drain and and fry When the the beans beans are soft, drain fry them, them, together When with some sorne coarsely chopped bacon, in in butter. butter. Serve with with creamed creamed butter. bu tter.

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flame for a Drain, and put in a saucepan. Toss them over a ftame in75 o2.,6 tablespoons) few seconds to dry them. Blend in 75 g. (3 oz., 6 tablespoons)

TONKA coumarin, a TONKA BEANS - The seed of a pulse rich in coumarin,
volatile oils and fragrant crystalline substance, fragrant crystalline substance, analogous to volatile manufacture ofsome of some liqueurs. camphor, used in the manufacture camphor,

WHITE HARICOT HARICOT BEANS. BEANS. HARrcors FRESH WHITE HARICOTS FRESH
FRAIS FRAIS -

BLANcS BLANCS

They can also aromatic aromatic vegetables and bouquet garni (q.v.). They and a r bouquet be cooked cooked as follows: Cut a carrot and an onion into quarters and brown them a bouquet garni and and 300 g. lightly in butter. Add the beans, a lightly (5| pints, (ll oz.) blanched lean bacon. Coyer with 3 3litres (11 litres (5t Cover with 6-t 6] pints) water, seasoned with salt. after 25 add the to the the boil, boil, and the beans. Bring to and after 25 minutes minutes add greatly improves This method Simmer slowly. method of cooking greatly slowly. This a number the ftavour flavour of the beans, which can be dressed in a of different ways. must be in cold cold water (Dry white haricot beans must be soaked soaked in for a time before cooking.) cooking.) HARIcors BLANCS BLANcS FRAIS FRAIS Fresb white beans beans à bretonne. HARICOTS Fresh i la la bretonne. A À LA Le BRETONNE nr.sroNr{E - Cook the beans as indicated in the previous put them recipe. them in pan. Blend Bretonne Drain, and and put in a a pan. Blend in in Bretonne recipe. Drain, (scant I pint, pint, dl. (scant} sauce (see SAUCE) in the proportion of 2-t 2| dl. quart, generous quart) I litre (scant quart, generous cup) sauce to to 1 cooked beans. Simmer for a few minutes, and and sprinkle with chopped parsley. parsley. FRAIs AU HARIcors BLANCS BLANcS FRAIS Fresh beans in butter. HARICOTS Fresh white white beans in botter. previous recipes. BEURRE - Cook the beans beans as indicated in the previous BEURRE-

Cook in boiling salted water to which has been been added - Cook

quart, generous generous quart) cooked butter to every litre (scant quart, to every beans. FRAIS EN Fresh white beam beans en cassoulet. HARIcors HARICOTS BLANcS BLANCS FRAIS cAssouLET CASSOULET - The cassoulet of Languedoc is made from dried also be from fresh white haricot beans, white beans, but but it it may may also be made made from beans. (See CASSOULET.) A LA r.c, BLANcs FRAIS nRxs À cream. HARICOTS HARIcors BLANCS Fresh white beans beans in cream. cniirvrs CRÈME - Cook the beans as indicated in Fresh white haricot Return to fresh cream. cream. Retum beans. Drain, Drain. and and coyer cover with thick fresh beans. reduced to cream has has been to half the cream the the pan, pan, simmer until the been reduced and add fresh fresh cream. cream. Mix Mix.well. volume, and its volume, weil. EsrouFFAT DE fresh white beam I l'occitane. I'occitane. ESTOUFFAT Estorffat of fresh Estouffat beans à (+ lb.) g. (-t L'occIrANE BLANcs FRAIS rnHs A HARIcors HARICOTS BLANCS À L'OCCITANE - Brown 250 g. diced and and blanched, in butter or belly belly of pork, or salt pork, diced peeled, chopped goose fat. Add 1 chopped tomatoes, chopped onion, onion,2 I chopped goose 2 peeled, garlic. Cook for l+ l0 minutes. Add Add li little crushed crushed garlic. for 10 and a a little and (2f pints, pints, 3t pints) white white haricot beans beans which which have litres 3f pints) litres (2àparts cooked, cooked, and and then drained. Coyer, Cover, and then drained. been three three parts been finish cooking. finish HARIcors BLANCS FRAIS beans à i la lyonnaise. lyonnaise. HARICOTS Fresh white beaœ and drain the beans. To To each litre A m LYONNAISE rvoNNAIsE À LA - Cook and (scant quart, quart, generous generous quart) quart) beans 2 onions add 2 onions thinly beans add (scant a few few in butter until until tender. Simmer for for a and cooked in tender. Simmer sliced sliced and (3 2 tablespoons with 2 tablespoons (3 minutes in in a a casserole. casserole. Sprinkle Sprinkle with minutes tablespoons) chopped chopped parsley. tablespoons) parsley. HARICOTS BLANcS FRAIS FRAIs tnRlcors BLANCS beam witb with parsley. Fresh Fresh white white beans asfor Aux FINES FINEs HERBES ITERBEsAUX - Proceed as for Fresh white beans in butter, with chopped parsley added. with puRfn DE DE HARICOTS HARIcors BLANCS BLANcS besns. puRÉE fresh white white beans. Purée Puree of of fresb a fine fine sieve. sieve. FRAIS FRAIs - Cook the beans, drain, and rub through a it is pur6e, stirring with until it with a a wooden spoon spoon until Warm this Wann this purée, in the add fresh fresh butter in the proportion smooth. Before serving, serving, add

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( N ico las\ Haricot beaos beans (Nicolas)

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BEARN, BÉARN, PAYS PA YS BASQUE, BASQUE, BIGORRE BIGORRE
of 100 100 g. (4 (4 oz, oz., * t cup) cup) butter butter to to 500 500 g. g. (generous (generous 1 1lb., lb., 2 2 cups) cups) of
pur6e. purée.
Il Dried Dried white white beam beans in in tomato tomato sauce. sauce. HARIcors HARICOTS BLANcS BLANCS sEcs SECS e AU Cook and and drain drain the the beans. beans. To To each each litre litre (scant (seant AU ToMATEs TOMATES - Cook

If the bean bean pur6e is is to be be served as as a a vegetable vegetable or or a a garnish Ifthe
SALADE SALADE DE DE HARIcors HARICOTS BLANcS BLANCS Cook and drain the the beans. Put Put them them in a salad bowl bowl Cook and dress dress with with oil oil and and vinegar, vinegar, season with with salt, salt, pepper and (parsley, chervil chervil and chives). Mix and chopped mixed herbs (parsley, weil. well. seasoning. Onion This This salad salad needs needs a lot lot of of seasoning. Onion rings rings or or chopped onion may be added to it.
FRAIS FRArs

it should should be be fairly thick. tbick. it Fresh white bean bean salad. salado Fresh

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quart, quart, generous quart) quart) beans beans add add 3 3 dl. dl. (] (t pint, pint, l| li cups) cups) Tomato fondue (see (see FONDUE) FONDUE) flavoured flavoured with with a a little little garlic garlic and a a tablespoon tablespoon chopped chopped parsley. parsley. Simmer Simmer all aIl together in a pan pan for for a few minutes, minutes, and and serve. serve. together

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BEAR. BEAR. ouRs OURS - Bear Bear meat meat can only only be be used used after after it it has has been been marinated marinated for a long long time. time. It is is not not particularly tasty ta st y and and is is often tough. tough. Prepare Prepare in in any way way suitable for for wild wild boar boar or or venison. venison. Some Sorne gastronomes consider consider bear's bear's paws paws to to be be a a
great delicacy. delicacy. Bear Bear ham. JAMBoN JAMBON D'ouRsD'OURS - This This ham, ham, common common in in Russia Russia and some sorne European countries, countries, is cured in in the same way way as as pork pork ham. ham. It It is eaten eaten cooked or or raw. raw. All AlI recipes recipes for for pork pork ham ham are suitable for bear bear ham. ham. Bear's prw. IATTE PATTE DE DE L'ouRs L'OURS - The The earliest earliest delicacy delicacy known known to the Chinese. Mencius, Mencius, who lived about about a a hundred hundred years years like, so after after Confucius, Confucius, said: 'Fish 'Fish is what what Illike, so are are bear's bear's paws; but if if I 1 cannot cannot have both, I 1 will will forego the fish fish and and choose the bear's bear's paw.' paw.' The supply of this tbis delicacy is now very limited, limited, and and is is to to be had, if if at at all, aU, in north China. China. Its l ts taste is is unique. unique. Mr. Mr. Cheng, Cheng, to the Court-of St. James', one-time ambassador ambassadorto James', said: 'The 'The nearest nearest comparison is that it it is like the fat fat part of of the best best ham, or rather much better, for it it has not not the greasiness greasiness of of the latter. It is so smooth and delicious de\icious that it it simply simply melts in the mouth.' mou th. ' To cook. Wrap the paw paw in clean c1ean mud and bake bake in in the oven. oven. When the mud becomes firm finn like clay, take the paw out of of the oven, leave to cool, and peel peel off off the mud - this will will autoautoSimmer in water, offthe matically matically tear off the hairy hairy skin of of the paw. Simmer frequently to get changing the water frequently get rid rid of of its its gamey gamey smell smell and taste. When the paw has become become very soft and 'tasteless', 'tasteless', cook over low heat with shredded chicken meat, lean Jean ham, harn, sherry enable the ingredients and just enough water water to to enable ingredients to to yield'a yielda slices, like thick gravy. Cut in in sUces, like ham.
See ARBUTUS. BEARBERRY. RAlSIN nnrsm D'ouRs BEARBERRY. D'OURS - See ARBUTUS.

DRIED WHITE HARICOT HARICOT BEANS (U.S. (U.S. Horticultural Horticultural
beans). HARIcors HARICOTS BLANcs BLANCS sBcsSECS - Dried Dried white white haricot haricot beans beans are

usually soaked for a long time in water, but this traditional traditional practice practice is a bad one. If If dried beans beans or or other other dried vegetables vegetables have have to be soaked they tbey should be left for a short short time time only. only. Some recipes recommend 12 12 or even even 24 hours of soaking, Sorne wheqeas for a a few few hours, hours, may may cause cause slight sligbt whereas soaking, even even for fermentation which noticeably fermentation noticeably spoils spoils the the flavour flavour of of the the beans and can and can also make them thern slightly poisonous. To To swell the llto beans, 1 soaking is sufficient. to 2 hours bours soaking sufficient. good quality If the beans beans are are of of good quality and have have been been dried within If theycan be cooked without soaking. soaking. can be the year, they Pick through the the beans and and wash wash them. them. Put Put them them in in a Pick cold water, and bring slowly deep saucepan with plenty of cold Season. Flavour with aromatic to the boil. Skim. Season. aromatic vegetables V"j~'-laLJl'-" (onions cloves, quartered (on ions stuck with c1oves, quartered carrots, a bouquet stuck with garlic). Cover the pan and garni (q.v.) clove of garlic). (q.v.) and a a small c10ve simmer very very slowly. some cases, especially especially for cassoulet (q.v.) and estoufat In sorne estouffat (q.v.) it is advisable to cook the dried beans with fat. This is done by adding to the stock salted bacon, chine of salt pork and fresh fresh pork skin. skin. This adds or knuckle of pork, and adds flavour to to the beans. can be used in the sarne same Once cooked, dried white beans can la bretonne, bretonne, en d la ways as as fresh fresh white white beans: ways beans: in in butter, butter, à d la lyonnaise, in cream, with herbs, estouffat, à cassoulet, en estouffat, berbs, as pur6e, in salad, etc. a purée, BLANcS SECS sEcs I'am6ricaine. HARIcors beans à i l'américaine. HARICOTS BLANCS Dried Ihied white beans way, adding usual way, in the usual Cook the beans in À A L'AMÉRICAINE r'eufnrclrxr -- Cook (lI litre (1 bacon to a litre opr,prt"\llC 1 t pints, generous I lb.) lean bacon 500 g. (generous bacon. quart) dried haricot beans. beans. Drain, trim and dice the bacon. add the the bacon sauce, add tomato sauce, Mix bacon and Mix the beans with with tomato the beans is well cooked. until the the bacon is simmer until HARIcors BLANCS BLANcS SECS sEcs À A Dried white white beans beam à i l'anglaise. I'anglaise. HARICOTS Dried with seasoning I'ANGLAIsE -- Boil Boil the beans in in water water with seasoning and the beans L'ANGLAISE and drain. fresh butter. drain. Serve Serve with fresh herbs, and HARIcors BLANCS BLANcS Dried white white beans bears à i la la berrichonne. berrichonne. HARICOTS Dried BERRIcHoNwS A LA LA BERRICHONNE sscs À SECS - Proceed as for Dried white beans au gratin (see below). Alternate thick mutton Alternate layers of beans and thick pour hash in in an an ovenware dish. Sprinkle with breadcrumbs, pour ovenware dish. and brown in the oven. melted butter over, over, and rnelted HARIcors BLANCS beans à I la la charcutière. charcutilre. HARICOTS white beans Dried white Dried piece of beans with with a a piece of A LA LA CHAhCUTlÈRE cHARcur$ns - Cook Cook the the beans secs À SECS is cooked, and herbs. herbs. When the ham is desalted lean lean raw raw ham, ham, and desalted coarse dice. Drain tbe the beans thoroughly. drain it and and eut cut into coarse drain (5 oz., in butter. Add 150 g. (5 cups) chopped on onion Brown 150 oz.,lf, Brown li cups) ion in diced ham. ham. the diced the beans beans and simmer, simmer, presently adding the the 6 small Cook 6 small pork Transfer to a buttered ovenware ovenware dish. Cook to a Transfer (cripinettes) in press them them down down on on in butter, butter, and and press sausages (crépinettes) sausages add the the butter butter and add the beans. with breadcrurnbs, breadcrumbs, and beans. Sprinkle Sprinkle with the Brown slowly. slowly. were cooked. cooked. Brown in which which the the sausages sausages were in gratin. HARICOTS AU HARIcors BLANCS BLANcS SECS sncs AU beans au au gratin. Dried white white beans Dried concenand add add sorne some concenand drain drain the the beans, beans, and cRATIN -- Cook Cook and GRATIN into a a buttered ovenware dish, buttered ovenware veal stock. Pour into trated veal stock. Pour trated and add add melted melted butter. with toasted breadcrumbs, and sprinkle with toasted breadcrumbs, Brown slowly slowlv in in the the oven. oven.

t

The art cookery BTGoRREof cookery BASQUE, Bf,ARN PAYS Ufi.CO ....".JJr... BIGORRE - The art of of is highly esteemed in these three three picturesque picturesque provinces provinces of

the Pyrenees. the many specialities - Among the Culinary specialities many notable notable dishes dishes preserved goose goose garbure, a lou trebuc, trebuc, preserved a substantial soup; lou are garbure, are B6arn, onion soup to pork; toulia and ou/iat ouliat in Béarn, to Bigorre and toulian or pork; in Bigorre added, and which is is is sometimes sometimes added, a dash dash of vinegar is which a which garlic, when leeks and and garlic, also made cheese, tomatoes, leeks made of of cheese, when it it also &t berger. name of soupe soupe du the name takes the takes lamb is is a historie dish; tender lamb IV is is a historic dish; Poule au pot d'Henri IV in mutton cutlets in in Béarn, B6arn, rnutton be had had in the the Ossau Ossau valley in to be to estouffat; or estouffat; also daube à d la la béarnaise, biarnaise, or are also Barbges; there there are Barèges; pork, turkey and goose, and duck. preserved go preserved ose, pork, produces excellent local wines. wines. The excellent local Wines - Béarn B6arn produces Wines produces Basses-Pyr6n6es prod dCpartemenl of of the the Basses-Pyrénées département uces several wines d'origiru appellations d'origine the appellations categories of the come under the the categories that come and V.D.Q.S. V.D.Q.S. and appelations d'origine The Jurançon Jurangon is the best known of of the appelations The King of the King of Navarre wine that wines. It It was was with with this this wine that the wines. IV. It It is is Henry IV. lips of his nephew, the the future future Henry of his moistened the the Iips moistened a robust, rosy-tinged with an unusual, mellow bouquet, rosy-tinged wine with a 'Manseng' vine. vine. This vine, This vine, and cornes comes frorn from the the so-called so-called 'Manseng' and gives the and Sauvignon, also gives the with the Sauvignon, also together with the Sémillon S6millon and produced in Pacherenc de in the nortb north of of Vicbilh, a a white white wine produced de Vicbilh, Pa<;hererlC province. the province. the perfect accomaccomvery strong wine, the the perfect strong wine, a very is a The Madiran is The V.D.Q.S. Among the the V.D.Q.S. region. Among anisine of of the the region. the cuisine to the paniment to

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95 95

BEARN, PAYS BASQUE, BÉARN, BASQUE, BIGORRE BIGoRRE

(French Governmenl Sauveterre de B6arn, Ofice) B6arn (French Tourist Office) Sauveterre Béarn, Béarn Government Tourisi

lrouldguy, the red wine of the Basque country, country, there is the Irouléguy, red wine thete B6arn, the and red the white wines of Béarn, the Rousselet, the white and red wines Rousselet, and and the B6arn which are are beginning seriously to very dry ros6s rosés of Béarn - which rival Provence. rival those those of Provence. great gourmet, who studied a great Paul PauJ de Cassagnac, a studied the wines Adour basin, quotes among the remarkable vintages of the Adour vintages 1870, 1886, 1886, 1898, 1898, 1904 1904 and of 1870, and 1916. of the the Madiran those those of a Madiran of 1848 which was He had also occasion occasion to drink a still 'at the height of its form'. still gathered late, towards the end 'The Portet is a white wine, gathered

and soft, or dry, depending on of November. It is is sweet and on the year. feature of of the Jurançon sweetness, 'The characteristic characteristic feature Jurangon is its sweetness, a syrup. which does not destroy its bouquet or turn it into a years are are mostly irregular; often often the vintage years The mostly irregular; the good The vintage are swamped swamped in qualities of Jurançon Jurangon are qualities in the the excess of sugar. 1886, and 1916 produced splendid results.' 1905 and 1886, 1905 B6arn and and is A is· also made in in Béarn A red red Jurançon Jurangon (Bouchy) is'also greatly esteemed as a a table cannot compare wine, but but it greatly table wine, it cannot esteemed as Jurangon. with white Jurançon.
Lamprey, Shad, Sahed leg of

cEAN:H.J

ffi*i{*'''
Ham

:?^%ru^zi,A
ftt r. pot i
Lonquinguesrrtp!t{
Poule

PoiEi,-a duck preserves (confits)

omelette,

ry:"H:f:Sffi lmffi;*xl#@ffif':iffiW
ci.r6prr, sguids,
Sea-perch, Grey

ou

i[;l;i["'"7

mullet, "''"="

{ .I-

'-"1

i i +-_';;il;;;;;!-,

--''.;il:;::'
o;aaornl

Macaroons. Bas.que flan

speclolitier

i",:,f:.:.:^1^n*-*'+-ttr:*'^(t**

Elzekoria (pumpkin soup). Purce.de ciboure, Piperoile, Songuetc,-Broye, Cro.gucts Aliches noifes (black bread), Salurgue, /vlicnes noires (Dlack Cretons. Solursue. Creions, Lretons,5olurgue,

Hochto, Soutd chicken, Pigeon
Merveilles, Crespets.

e,t*yo,t. fl.:i{i'ffli:jfiii::ifl, ,.,,r"r salmi,
Duck s'fiver,

b€ornois, breadlbread), '' iiipiinut, Aticutt,'
Postis

_\\ lzird (chafrois) stew tf .l-_ (confi) \\\ preserve t \ li --rr \ \ -'.-fu'-*r4'r'r'r-r
--\\ \\ i

ffiffi#ff,

\
ano

f

Map of of B6arn Map Béarn

96

BEAUVILLIERS BEA UVILLIERS
BEARNAISE BÉARNAISE SAUCE - This famous sauce is said to have have origina ted in in B6arn, Béarn, though some sorne culinary writers assert originated
that it originated originated at Saint-Germain-en-Laye Saint-Gennain-en-Laye and and was named named that in honour honour of Henry IV, the Great Biarnal's. Béarnais. But in fact the Henry IV pavilion pavilion dates as a restaurant restaurant from the year year 1836 1836
and the recipe for Bdarnaise Béarnaise sauce first appeared in 1818 in la Cuisiniire Cuisinière des villes vil/es et des campagnes. Ia
- Animals Animais intended intended for for slaughter, slaughter, which which come under the the general general term tenn of livestock, livestock, are enumerated under that that heading. heading. In addition, some sorne beasts beasts of of burden, burden, such under as horse, mule, donkey and camel, cameJ, are edible. as animais, i.e. ground game, game, ail which Among the wild animals, all of which are are edible, edible, are deer, chamois, fallow-deer, fallow-deer, red red deer, deer, wild are deer, boar.

BEAUGENCY BEAUGENCY - Small Small town town in in Loiret, Loiret, producing wine wine which resembles Burgundy) resembles the the Basse-Bourgogne (Lower (Lower Burgundy)
wines. wines.

BEAST. BEA ST. stTE B~TE

-

BEAUHARNAIS BEAUHARNAIS (A (A LA) LA) - Method of of preparing preparing small cuts cuts .t ourne do s. of meat, mainly ofmeat, mainlytournedos. Garnish Garnish with small artichoke artichoke hearts and Biarnaise Béarnaise sauce sauce (see (see SAUCE), vtith with a a pur6e purée of tarragon added to it; it; and little potato potato balls.

BEAUJOLAIS - Ancient French region that has given its

sweetbreads, mushrooms, used as a garnish for vol-au-vent, vol-au-vent, sweetbreads, and tourtes (q.v.), a Velouti bouchdes (g.v.), bound bound with a Velouté souce sauce or bouchées and Supr~me sauce (see SAUCE). Suprtme Ragoût of of Hatilles béatilles (titbits) - Here is an old recipe: Ragoftt g. Q 'Gently cook in butter 250 g. (9 oz.) lambs' lambs' sweetbreads sweetbreads

BEATILLES BÉATILLES (Iitbits) (Titbits) - Cocks' combs and kidneys, lambs'

name to a 'gulping'wine 'gulping' wine with a very strong strong bouquet bouguet which which must must be be drunk drunk when when it it is is young young and and fresh. fresh. L6on Léon Daudet Daudet said that Lyon was watered by three rivers: the Rh6ne, Rhône, the Sa6ne and Saône and the the Beaujolais. The appellation'Beatjolais' appellation 'Beaujolais' is linked Iinked with the viticultural viticultural region of of Burgundy Burgundy (q.v.). (g.v.).

BEAUMONT - Savov Savoy cheese cheese in season from from October October to
June.

BEAUNE - Sub-prefecture Sub-prefecture of of the the Cdte-d'Or. Côte-d'Or. Famous since the Middle Ages for the excellence of of its wines. It has
given appellation conirôlée. contr1lie. given its name to an appellation of the southern part of the COteThe white and red wines of Côte'Cdte de Beaune'. They d'Or are classed under the name of 'Côte

(which (which have have previously previously been been soaked soaked in in co Id water cold water and

blanched). Skin and soak in cold water water 125 g. (4 oz.) cocks' blanched). (q.v.). Add 25 g. (1 court-bouillon (g.v.). (1 oz.) combs, and cook in a court-bouillon cocks' kidneys, cooked in in I 1 dl. (6 tablespoons, scant 1cup) } cup) Madeira and a tablespoon butter. and a butter. Sauté briskly in in butter Saut6 briskly 250 g. (9 oz.) sliced and seasoned Cook 250 g. seasoned chicken livers. Cook (9 (9 oz.) trimmed and washed mushrooms in butter. Put the sweetbreads, chicken chicken livers, Iivers, cocks' combs and kidneys lambs' sweetbreads, cocks'combs g. (4 oz.) sliced and the mushrooms in a Add 125 g. a saucepan saucepan.. Add (f pint,3 truffies and and lf li dl. (t pint, cup) Madeira. Madeira. Simmer with a lid on on,. (q.v.) using concentrated chicken stock. stock. 'Make a a Velouté Veloutd (g.v.) Add to it half its volume of fresh fresh cream. cream. Boil down by half. Lace with a a little Madeira. add add sorne Lace with little Madeira, butter, strain, strain. and some butter. pour over ragottt.' the ragoût.' over the

are among are among the the finest finest of of the the Burgundy wines wines (see (see BURGUNDY). The annual annual wine auction of The wine auction of the the Hospices Hospices de de Beaune attracts buyers from all over the world. attracts from ail
served as Steward of the Household served Steward of Household to the Count Count ofProvence of Provence and Attach6 Attaché Extraordinary of of the Royal Household. Household . (n 1782, according to The restaurant which which he he founded (in The was situated 1786 according to Brillat-Savarin, in to others) was in 1786 rne de de Richelieu and was called la Grande Grande Taverne de at 26 26 rue Londres. It can be considered considered the first real to be real restaurant to etc. were in Paris. Rivarol, Pelletier, Champcenetz, etc. opened in

great cuisinier. He was a a great Beauvilliers was BEAWILLIERS BEAUVILLIERS - Beauvilliers

t

(French Governmenl A Beaujolais wine-cellar wine-cellar (French Government Tourisl Tourist Office) Ofice) A

97

BEAUVILLIERS BEA UVILLIERS
habituis and and more more th issue of than one issue of the the Journal Journal des des Apôtres Ap\tres habitués an one was composed composed after good dinner after a a good dinner in in another another restaurant restaurant was that Beauvilliers Beauvilliers owned owned in in rue rue de de Valois. Valois. He He bought bought three three that arcades of of the the Palais-Royal Palais-Royal in in 1790 1790 for for 157,000 157,000 francs. francs. arcades During the the turmoil turmoil of of the the Revolution Revolution la Grande Taverne Taverne la Grande During de Londres Londres had had to close its to close its doors. doors. Towards Towards the the end end of of the the de Directoire, Beauvilliers Beauvilliers reopened reopened it. it. In In 1824 1824 he he wrote wrote his his Directoire, book l'Art l'Art du dt cUisinier, cuisinier, which which for for a a long long time remained an an time remained book authoritative standard standard work. work. Brillat-Savarin Brillat-Savarin wrote: wrote: authoritative 'Beauvilliers had prodigious memory. had a a prodigious memory. He He recognised recognised 'Beauvilliers people whom and welcomed welcomed people whom he he had had not not seen seen for for twenty twenty and years, people people who who may may only only have have eaten eaten at at his his restaurant restaurant years, once or or twice. twice. once 'He would advise would ad which dish dish not not to to take, take, which which to to snap snap 'He vise which up, and and would would then then order order a a third third one which no one which no one one else else up, would have have thought thought of; of; he he wou would have wine wine brought brought up up Id have would from the vaults, to the vaults, which only to which only he he had had the . . . But the key key ... But this this rôle r6le from of a a host host lasted lasted but but a a moment moment and and having having accomplished accomplished it it of he would would vanish. vanish. And And a a little little while while later later the the amount amount of the of the he dinner bill bill and and the paying it the bitterness bitterness of of paying it showed showed clearly clearly dinner that one one had had dined great restaurateur. dined with with a a great restaurateur. Beauvilliers Beauvilliers that made his his fortune, fortune, lost lost it it and and made made it it again again several several times.' made BEAUVILLIERS Garnish for for braised braised meat meat consisting consisting of of - Garnish BEAUVILLIERS spinach kromeskies, kromeskies, toma tomatoes puree of stuffed with with a a purée of brains, brains, spinach toes stuffed and salsify salsify sautéed saut6ed in in butter. butter. and BEALIILLIERS AND BONVALET These two two cakes, cakes, the the BEAUVILLIERS AND BONV ALET - These recipes for for which which are are almost almost identical, identical, were were created created towards towards recipes the middle middle of the nineteenth nineteenth century. of the century. the of Beauvilliers' Beauvilliers' old One of pupils. Monnier, old pupils. Monnier, set set up up a a One cake shop in rue rue Monsieur-le-Prince Monsieur-le-Prince and, shop in and, as as homage homage to his to his cake teacher, named named his his creation creation after after him. him. This This was was the first the first teacher, cake intended intended for for travel, travel, wrapped wrapped in in tin tinfoil. cake foi 1. The Bonvalet Bonvalet cake cake was was created created by Jules Leroy, Leroy, head head The by Jules pastry-cook at at Machin's, Machin's, 99 de Turenne, Turenne, and pastry-cook 99 rue rue de and he he dedidedicated it it to a Monsieur Monsieur Bonvalet Bonvalet in is the cated to a in 1869. 1869. Here Here is the recipe recipe for these cakes, as given by as given for these cakes, by Phil6as Philéas Gilbert: Gilbert: 'Pound 200 g. (7 200 g. oz., scant scant lf almonds with an equal Q oz., 'Pound 11 cups) cups) almonds with an equal amount of sugar, add 5 egg amount of sugar, add 5 egg whites whites little !ittle by by little. little. Rub Rub this mixture sieve. mixture through through a a sieve. 'Blend (18 oz., 500 g. g. (18 oz., 2{ 2i cups) cups) sugar sugar with with 350 350 g. g. (12 (12 oz., oz., 'Blend 500 l] butter and and 4 4 whole whole eggs eggs in in a a bowl. bowl. When When quite quite 11 cups) cups) butter smooth, add smooth, add the the almond almond mixture, mixture, 175 175 g. g. (6 (6 oz., oz., lf li cups) cups) fine fine cake cake flour, flour, the the same same amount amount of of rice rice flour flour and and potato potato flour. flour. Add Add 7 7 egg egg whites whites whisked whisked to to a a stiff stiff froth. froth. Cook Cook in in a a moderate moderate oven oven (160'C., (1 60°C., 325oF., 325°F., Gas Gas Mark Mark 3) 3) in in a a special special cake-baking trois à trois cake-baking tin tin (with (with. a a hole hole in in the the middle) middle) called called d frCres, frères, sprinkled sprinkled with with potato potato flour. flour. 'When 'When the the cake cake is is cold, cold, ice ice it it with with kirsch kirsch icing icing and and fill fill the the centre CREAMS) or Chantilly ueam cream (see (see CREAMS) or Plombiire Plombière ice ice centre with with Chantilly ueanf(see cream' (see ICE ICE CREAMS CREAMS AND AND ICES). ICES). BEAVER. CASTOR - A A mammal mammal rare rare in in Europe Europe but but common cornmon BEA VER. cAsroR in in U.S.A. U.S.A. Its Its meat meat is is sometimes sometimes eaten, eaten, but but has has a a rather rather disagreeable disagreeable musky musky flavour. flavour. BEC BEC (Berk) (Beak) - Word Word often often used used in in French French colloquial colloquial exexpressions, pressions, such such as as rincer rincer le le bec bec (to (to wet wet one's one's whistle), whistle), which which means drink; tortiller tortiller &t du bec bec (to (to wolf wolf down, down, to to make make means to to drink; short food), which bec, which short work work of offood), which means means to to eat;fin eat;finbec, which means means a a gourmet. gourmet. BEC-PLAT BEC-PLAT ('Flat-beak', ('Flat-beak', i.e. i.e. Shoveller) ShoveUer) - Common Common French French name name for for spoon-bill spoon-bill duck, duck, called called so so because because of of its its flat flat beak. beak. It It can can be be prepared prepared in in all ail the the ways ways suitable sui table for for Wild Wild duck duck (see DUCK). (see DUCK). BEC-POINTU BEC-POINTU - French French name name for for white white skate. skate. They They call call it it 'sharp 'sharp beak' beak' because because its its head head is is elongated elongated and and the the body body oval. oval. It It can can be be prepared prepared as as ordinary ordinary skate skate (q.v.). (q.v.). (Hooked DOse) BECARD (Hooked nose) -- French French term term for for old old male male salmon. BÉCARD salmon. Its snout snout begins begins to protrude like to protrude like a a hooked hooked beak, beak, hence Its hence the the (See SALMON.) name. (See SALMON.) name.

BECASSEAU -- French French name name for young woodcock, for the the young BÉCASSEAU woodcock, until its its seventh seventh month. month. until All the the methods methods of preparation given of preparation given for for woodcock Ali woodcock are are applicable, but btil becasseau becassean are are mostly mostly cooked cooked on applicable, on a a spit. spit.

Woodcock Woodcock

(Louis de) BECHAMEIL (Louis de Nointel, a a financier BÉCHAMEIL - Marquis de who made made his fortune during the the Fronde Fronde (the rising of the the who aristocracy and and the the ParIiament Parliament against against Mazarin in in 1648aristocracy got himself 53) and and got himself the the post of Lord Lord Steward Steward of the Royal Royal 53) Household to to Louis XIV. XIV. The invention of béchamel bichamel sauce is attributed to him but is more more likely to have been been the invention of a court of a court chef chef who who dedicated it B6chameil as as a it to to Béchameil tion compliment. compliment. The old old Duc d'Escars said: said: 'That fellow Béchameil B6chameil has The all I was serving serving breast ln crème crime twenty al! the luck. 1 breast of of chicken d à la years before he he was born, I have never had the chance chance bom, but 1 years of giving sauces!' giving my name to the most insignificant of sauces!'

.

BECHAMEL SAUCE SAUCE - Was bdchamel BÉCHAMEL béchamel sauce sauce really invented by Marquis Louis de de B6chameil? Béchameil? Was this financier financier a gasgourmet, and was he in any way competent tronome and a gourmet, competent in in the culinary culinary art? We do not know, but everything everything seems to indicate indicate that, in fact, bichamel béchamel sauce, sauce, being being a major sauce, sauce, must must have been been perfected perfected by one of the queux queux de semestre - cooks cooks in in the service service of of the royal royal kitchen. kitchen. Originally, béchamelwas made made by by adding adding a a liberal Iiberal amount amount Original!y, bichamelwas of of fresh fresh cream to a thick thick veloutd velouté sauce. sauce. Nowadays N owadays bdchamel béchamel is is made made by by pouring pouring boiling boiling milk milk on white roux (blend of butter butter and and flour). flour). When a a meat meat bichamel béchamel is wanted, wanted, lean lean veal, veal, diced and simmered in in butter butter with with a minced minced onion. onion, is is added. added. (See (See SAUCE.) SAUCE.) B6chamel Béchamel sauce (Car0me's (Carême's recipe) recipe) - 'When the velouti velouté is is thick, thick, bind bind it it with with egg yolks yolks and and thick thick cream. cream. Stir with with a a wooden wooden spoon to to make make sure sure the the sauce sauce does does not not stick stick to to the the pan. of butter butter the the size size pan. Remove Remove it it from from the the heat, heat, add add a a piece piece of of of a a walnut walnut and and a few few tablespoons tablespoons of of thick thick double double cream. cream. Add of grated grated nutmeg, nutmeg, sieve sieve through through a a white white cloth cloth Add a a pinch pinch of and and keep keep hot hot in in a a bain-marie.' bain-marie.'
BECQUETER BECQUETER - French French slang slang word word which which means'to means 'to peck peck at at food'. food'.

BEDSTRAW. BEDSTRA W. clu,rE-r GAILLET - Plant Plant of of the the Rubiaceae Rubiaceae familv. family. The The flowering flowering tops tops of of the the yellow yellow bedstraw bedstraw or or cheese-rennlt cheese-rennet contain contain a a substance substance which which is is used used in in the the curdling curdling of of milk. milk. It It is is used used in in the the preparation preparation of of Cheshire Cheshire cheese. cheese.
BEECH. BEECH. t$rnr IffiTRE - Handsome Handsome tree tree found found in in upland upland groves. groves. Beech nut is is good good to to eat. eat. Beech Beech oil oil is is extracted extracted from from these these Beech nut nuts, and is is second second only only to to olive olive oil oil in in quality. quality. nuts, and

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98 98

BEEF BEEF
Beech Beech nut. nut. rllNs FAINE - (See (See above.) above.) Its Its flavour flavour is is midway midway between between that that of ofthe the hazelnut hazelnut and and the the chestnut, chestnut, with with a a sligbtly slightly

-

astringent astringent taste taste which which disappears disappears when when roasted, roasted, as as in in the the case case of of chestnuts. chestnuts.

with greasy covered coveredwith greasy spots, spots, as as in in the the case case of ofhorse horsemeat. mea t. In In France France beefis beef is classified classified in in three three categories categories according according to to fine-grained firm and its itsmarket marketvalue, value, which which depends depends on on how how firrn and fine-grained sinews and the the texture texture is, is, as as well weil as as on on the the proportion proportion of ofsinews and fat: fat:

fat. fat. Blotting Blotting paper paper applied applied to to the the surface surface should should never never be be

First First category. category. Fillet, Fillet, porterhouse porterhouse steak, steak, rump, rump, rump rump steak, steak, silverside silverside and and inner inner parts parts

sirloin, sirloin, top top of of the the flank flank

Tourist Ofice) Cattle Cattle market market at Bordeaux Bordeaux (French (French Govenrment Governmenl Tourisl Office)

nourishfortifying and most nourishBEEF. BoETJFBOEUF - Beef Beef is the most fortifying BEEF. ing of of ail all red meat. graded beef, graded qualities of of beef, are three three qualities In France, there are France, there work done and sex offattening, work state offattening, accordirtg accordilg to breed, age, state includes the meat of bullocks, heifers, of of the animal (for beef includes cows and bulls). feeding and feeding in rearing and The English have long specialised in have long imported Durham Shorthorns were imported cattle for for beef. beef. County County Durham stock. of beef-producing stock. the strain strain of into improve the into France to to improve Limousin, Charolais, Limousin, crossbreeds, Charolais, The The Durham-Manceau Durham-Manceau crossbreeds, good for fatteriing. for fatteIiing. are also also good Salers are Garonne, Normandy and Salers Normandy and

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the tothe andelastic elasticto firmand Prime redin incolour, colour,firm Prime beef isbright bright red beefis withthe the touch. fatintermingles intermingles with thefat freshsmell; smell; the It has hasaafresh touch. It grainsof of yellowish grains lean, orslightly pepperingit slightlyyellowish whiteor itwith with white lean,peppering

and and round. round. Second Second category. category. Top Top of of sirloin, sirloin, plate, plate, top top ribs, ribs, fore-rib fore-rib and and three-rib, three-rib, shoulder shoulder ofbeef, of beef, chuck chuck end end ofclod, of clod, and and clod. clodo Third Third category. category. Flank, Flank, brisket, brisket, leg leg of of beef, beef, neck, neck, oxoxcheek, of beef, beef, knuckle. knuckle. cheek, shin, shin, ox-knees, ox-knees, shin shin of generally Cows' Cows' meat meat is is inferior inferior to to that that of of bullocks, bullocks, generally cows speaking, speaking, although although the the flesh fiesh of of young young heifers heifers and and sterile sterilecows can can often often be be extremely extremely good. good. Bull's Bull's meat meat is is tough; tough; it it swells swells a a great great deal deal in in cooking, cooking, but but is is not not suitable suitable for for anything anytrung exc€pt except the the stockpot. stockpot. The The meat meat of of a a young young bullock bullock is is usually usually the the b9s1. best. pet cent Good Good quality quality beef beef is is 97 97 per cent assimilable assimilable (provided (provided it it is is residue, is not not eatenlo eaten to excess) excess) and, and, since since it it leaves 1eaves little littleresidue, is easily easily larger in say, is to that digested. Eating beef beef to to excess, excess, that is to say, in larger digested. Eating quantities quantities than than the the digestive digestive juices juices can can cope cope with with (saturation (saturation leads individual) to point individual varies from point varies from individual to individual) leads to to intestinal intestinal it calories it disorders. disorders. The The fattier fattier the the piece piece of of beef, beef, the the more more calories is fat is meat of amount excessive amount of meat fat provides. an excessive However, an provides. However, eat the the so many explains why difficult to digest, which difficult to digest, which explains why so man y people people eat fat. the meat and leave meat and leave the fat. part which is which is for the the part French terrn term for .le boeuf boed - French Aiguillette de Aiguillette the is the This is boa{. This de boeuf and pidce anlotte and de culotte ialled pointe also called also pointe de pièce de poachedor poached. braised or is usually and is part rump and of the the rump top top part of usually braised -niron in England England served Joint DE BoETJF BARoN beef. of Baron of beef. BARON DE BOEUF - Joint served in part a part and a sirloins and the two two sirloins It comprises comprises the time. It at Christmas Christmas time. at ribs. the ribs. of the of joint is d l'anglaise I'anglaise sirloin as Roast Roast sir is trea treated large joint This large This ted as loin à (see below). below). (see defines origin, defines English origin, word, of of English This word, BIFTEcK -- This Beefsteak. BIFTECK Beefsteak. grilled. The The name name is is and grilled. fillet and from the the fillet beef taken taken from a slice slice of of beef a conteor contrefrom the the sirloin, sirloin, or taken from beef taken given to a slice of beef also given to a slice of also filet. filet. fried in in butter butter also be be fried it may may also grilling beefsteak, beefsteak, it Instead of of grilling Instead Contre' Entrecbte, Chateaubriand, Chateaubriand, Contresee Entrecôte, recipes see For recipes lard. For or lard. or is cooked, is raw or or cooked, minced beef, beef, served served raw France, minced etc.In filet, etc. filet, In France, also called called bifteck. bifteck. also Trim A L'AMÉRICAINE L'ltrdnrclrNn -- Trim BIFTEcK À l'am6ricaine. BIFTECK Beefsteak à l'américaine. Beefsteak finely, meat finely, the meat mince the (14 oz.) offfat, cut off g. (14 fillet of of beef, beef, cut oz.) fiUet 4@ g. 400 fat, mince of in the the centre centre of nest in little nest Make aa little cakes. Make flat cakes. into flat and shape shape into and yolk of into it. it. of egg egg into raw yolk a raw each'steak'and slip a each 'steak' and slip parsley, and parsley, onion and chopped onion cakes chopped beef cakes the beef with the Serve with Serve pickled in vinegar. in vinegar. and capers capers pickled and diet. prescribed in in aa building-up building-up diet. is often often prescribed dish is This dish This Mince A L'ANDALOUSE r'Ar'IDII-ousn -- Mince BIFTEcK À l'andalouse. BIFTECK Beefsteak à l'andalouse. Beefsteak (2 oz., chopped g. (2 oz.,loap) 50g. it 50 g.(14 (14 oz.) add to to it 400 g. beef finely, add oz.) beeffinely, 400 t cup) chopped garlic. pounded garlic. pinch of of pounded with aa pinch butter, with fried in in butter, onion lightly lightly fried onion in fry in and fry flourand with flour Dredge with flatcakes. cakes.Dredge into fiat Season and shape into and shape Season oil. oil. have been been which have half tomatoes tomatoes which on half cakeson beef cakes Arrange the the beef Arrange pilaf. with rice rice pilaf. dish with thedish of the centreof Fill the the centre in oil. oil. Fill saut6ed in sautéed juicesleft meat with with the meat frying the from frying pan juices left over overfrom Dilute the the pan Dilute add down, add boil down, cup) sherry; sherry; boil (6 tablespoons, scant t* cup) dl.(6 tablespoons, scant 1I dl. cakes. pour over beef cakes. the beef over the and pour butter and butter thesteak steak Seasonthe ACHEV cnevAr, BIFTEcKÀ cheval. BIFTECK Beefsteak àI cbeval. Beefsteak AL - - Season Arrange quickly in inhot hotbutter. butter'Arrange pepperand saut6 quickly andsauté andpepper withsalt saltand with and butter and Pourbutter top.Pour eggson ontop. friedeggs twofried plate with oneor ortwo withone onaaplate on beef. thebeef. overthe cookingjuices thecooking the juices over pArfCHAUD DEBOEUF BoEUF crnuo DE pie(English cookery). PÂTÉ Beefsteak pie Beefsteak @nglish cookery). into beefinto qualitylean lean beef lb.)best bestqwi.lity ttkg. kg. ($ lb.) Cut li AL'ANGLAISE l'lNcmtsn- -Cut À pepper and and withsalt, salt,pepper Seasonwith inch) thick. thick. Season cm.(-! slices1 cm. slices Ginch) and onionand chopped onion withchopped andsprinkle sprinklewith gratednutmeg, nutmeg, and grated water. orwater. piedish. Addstock stockor dish.Add intoaapie parsley.Put slicesinto Putthe theslices parsley.

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Beersleak pie

101

BEEF BEEF

Sirloin sleok
Round steolt

Porlerhouse sleok
Rump

roosl

(lub

steok

Stonding rib roost

Flonk sleok

Short ribs
Rolled rib roosl Brisket
(Corned beef)

(huck pol roosl
American cuts cuts of of beef beef American

Stew meo men l t Slew

Wet the the edge edge of of the the pie pie dish, dish, put put a border border of of pastry pastry around around Wet it, moisten moisten with with a a little little water water and and put put on on a lid lid of of pie pie or puff it, pastry. Seal Seal the the edges, edges, ornament ornament the the top top with pieces pieces of pastry. pastry cut cut in in fancy fancy shapes, shapes, brush brush over over with beaten beaten egg yolk, pastry and make make a a hole hole in in the the centre centre to to allow allow steam steam to to escape. escape. Bake Bake and in a a moderate modera te oven oven for for l| 1i to to 2 2 hours. hours. Serve Serve hot. hot. in Beefsteak ià la la russe russe Oitok). (bitok). BTFTEcK BIFTECK A À r.r LA nusse RUSSE - For each Beefsteak - For each 125 g. g. (4 (4 oz.) oz.) lean lean beef; beef; cut away all ail fat and serving, trim trim 125 serving, remove sinews. sinews. Mince Mince finely finely and and add add 25 25 g. g. (l (1 oz., oz., 2 2 remove nutmeg. tablespoons) butter. butter. Season Season with with salt, salt, pepper pepper and nutmeg. table'spoons) Shape into into flat fiat cakes, cakes, dip dip in in flour flour and and fry fry in in clarified clarified butter. butter. Shape Add 2 2 tablespoons tablespoons (3 (3 tablespoons) tablespoons) crearn cream (sour (sour cream, crea m, for Add and I 1 tablespoon tablespoon demi-glace demi-glace (q.v.) (g.v.) to to the the butter butter preference) and preference) left in in the the pan. pan. Put Put I1tablespoon tablespoon chopped chopped onion, onion, lightly lightly fried left in butter, butter, on on each each meat meat cake, cake, and and garnish garnish with with saut6ed sautéed in potatoes. potatoes. Beefsteak tartare. tartare. BIFTEcK BIFTECK A À r.l LA r.cnrARE TART ARE - Proceed as Beefsteak - Proceed as in the the recipe recipe for for Beefsteak Beefsteak d à I'amiricaine l'américaine but but omit omit described in described theraweggyolk. Serve Tar Tartare sauce separately (see (seeSAUCE). the raw egg yolk. Serve t ar e s auce separately SAUCE). 102 t02

Bifteck i à la la tartarc tartare (Ledoyen. (Ledoyen. Phot. Phol. Nicolas) Nicolas) Bifteck

BEEF BEEF
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Cold Left-over DEssERTE -- Left-over DE DESSERTE BouILLI DE soruF BOUILLI boiled beef. beef. BOEUF Cold boiled pieces various with various served with pieces of cut in in thick thick slices, slices, served beef, cut of boiled boiled beef, sauces. sauces. r, LA rn Cold rRotn À parisienne. BOEUF BoUILLI FROID BoEUF BOUILLI i la la parisienne. Cold boUed boiled beef beef à on aa PARISIENNE Arrange on thin slices. slices. Arrange beef into thin boiled beefinto Cut the the boiled IARISIENNE -- Cut long with boiled boiled potatoes row. Garnish Garnish with long dish dish in in aa straight straight row. (peeled beans, (peeled and tomatoes, French beans, in slices), sliced tomatoes, and cut cut in slices), sliced quarters any other other quarters of watercress and and any eggs, watercress of hard-boiled hard-boiled eggs, vegetabJes onion with thin thin onion meat with Decorate the the meat vegetables in in season. season. Decorate rings, UCE) and (seeSA and SAUCE) sauce (see with Vinaigrette Vinaigrette sauce rings, and and sprinkle sprinkle with chopped cold. Serve cold. parsley, chervil chervil and and tarragon. tarragon. Serve chopped parsley, Left-over boiled beef can be various invarious be prepared in beefcan ofboiled Left-over piecesof ways, m fritot croquettes, kromeskies, en boulettes, croquettes, ways, including: boulettes, fritot (i.e. (i.e. fried enmiroton. fat), en miroton. in deep deepfat), fried in BoUed ntABrn- - Cut Cut ALA L.q,DIABLE BotnLLIÀ BoEUF BOUlLLI diable. BOEUF beef ài la ladiable. Boiled beef boiled sprinkle mustard, sprinkle withmustard, Spread with slices. Spread beef into into thick thick slices. boiled beef with white breadcrumbs. breadcrumbs. with white and coat coatwith oil.and with melted melted butter butteror oroil, Grill golden. Serve with Servewith making both both sides sides golden. heat, making Grill on lowheat, onaalow Diable (see SAUCE). sauce(see SAUCE). Diable sauce 103 r03

soNcnotsB A LA r-,1 HONGROISE BoUILLI À BoEUF BOUILLI hongroise. BOEUF beef ànla la hongroise. Boiled beef Boiled in butter in in oil oil or or butter and sauté saut6 in large dice, dice, and into large beef into the beef -- Cut Cut the lightly been lightly has been (4 oz., onion has chopped onion g. (4 cup) chopped oz.,l 100g. which 100 which 1 cup) (se SAUCE). sauce (see SAUCE). paprika.Add Crearn sauce AddCream with paprika. Season with fried. Season fried. sAUcE BoUILLI SAUCE BoEUFBOUILLI sauoe. BOEUF horseradish sauce. with horseradish Boiled beef beef with Boiled sauce Horseradish sauce with Horseradish thestockpot stockpot with from the Beef from RAIFoRT - - Beef RAIFORT (seeSAUCE) separatelY. servedseparately. SAUCE) served (see AL'INDIENNE I'tNomNNB - BouILu À BoEuF BOUILLI l'indienne. BOEUF beef àn l'indienne. Boiled beef Boiled powder curry powder substitutingcurry lahongroise, hongroise, substituting beef àdla LlkeBoiled Boiled beef Like (seeRICE). RICE). separately(see I'indienrcseparately paprika. Serve Riceàdl'indienne Serve Rice for paprika. for (old recipe). BoUILLI BoELJFBOUILLI recipe).BOEUF pauvrehomme homme (old aupauvre Boiled beef beefau Boiled pAUvREHOMME cut into intoslices, slices, beef,eut boiled beef, Left-over boiled HoMIVIE- - Left-over AUPAUVRE AU and onions pepper, chopped spring on withsalt, salt,pepper, sprinkled ions and sprinkled with stock' offthe thestockor fat skimmed off dripping or parsley.Add [ttle dripping Addàa!ittle parsley. breadandbreadwater,and glassof orwater, garlic,aaglass ofstock stockor pot,aapinch pinchof ofgarlic, pot, hot quarter of houron onhot anhour ofan forquarter tosimmer simmerfor Leave ta crumbs. crumbs.Leave greattreat by treatby (Thisdish, consideredaagreat wasconsidered said,was dish,ititisissaid, ashes. ashes.(This Louis XV.) LouisXV.) BourLLI SAUCE sAUcE BoEUF BOUILLI piquante sauce. sauce.BOEUF Boiled withpiquante beefwith Boiled beef

BEEF BEEF
piquantesauce IIeUANTE - Beef Beef from fromthe thestock stockpot, with Piquante sauce pot, with (see SAUCE) served separately. (see SAUCE) served separately. Boiled beef pnovsxprovengale. BOEUF beefà t la la provençale. BoETJF BOUILLI BourLLr ÀALA r,.lPROVENBoiled Prepare as Boiled beef d la hongroise, 9ALE; substituting for ÇALE - Prepare as Boiled beef à la hongroise, substituting for the cream cream sauce sauce an an equal quantity of equalquantity Tomato fondue (see ofTomaLO fondue(see the FONDUE) fiavoured flavoured with garlic. Sprinkle with garlic. Sprinkle with withchopped chopped FONDUE) parsley. parsley. Boiled beef beef with with root root vegetables. vegetables. BOEUF sosuFBOUILLI BourLLr AUX Arrx Boiled nlctxss- Boiled beef beef served withvarious served with various stock stockpotvegetables, RACINES- Boiled pot vegetables, as carrots, such as carrots, tumips, turnips, leeks. leeks. such gherkins, pickles, Sea salt, salt, gherkins, pickles, etc., etc., are are served served at at the thesa same me Sea time. time.
PIQUANTE -

Boiled beefsautéed beefsauteed à ila lyonnaise. BOEUF BoEuFBOUILLI Bourr,rr SAUTÉ slurf ÀALA r,,c, la lyonnaise. Boiled (generous lIb.) g. (generous Cut 500 500 g. I lb.) boiled beef into small boiled beefinto small Cut slices and and fry fry in in cooking cooking fat fat or or buttèr. butter.Add g. (8 (Boz., Add225 225g. o2.,2 slices 2 cups) chopped chopped on previously fried onions, fried in in butter. butter. Cook Cook cups) ions, previously together, season season with pepper. Sprinkle with salt salt and and pepper. Sprinkle with with chopped chopped together, parsley and (3 tablespoons) and 2 2 tablespoons tablespoons (3 tablespoons) vinegar, vinegar, heated heated in in parsley pan in the pan in which which the the beef was cooked. beef was cooked. the Boild beef beef sautéed sauteed Parmentier. Parmentier. BOEUF BoEuF BOUILLI BorlLLr SAUTÉ SAUT6 Boiled IARMENTTER -- Cut Cut 2 2 medium-sized medium-sized potatoes potatoes into into large large dice dice PARMENTIER fry in and fry in butter. butter. When When nearly nearly done, done, remove remove from pan. In from the the pan. In and the same same butter butter brown (generous lib.) g. (generous brown 500 500 g. pieces of I lb.) cut-up cut-up pieces of the boiled beef. beef. Add Add the potatoes and the potatoes and fry fry everything everything together. together. boiled Sprinkle with parsley. with chopped chopped parsley. Sprinkle Boiled beef beef with with tomato tomato sauce. sauce. BOEUF BoEUF BOUILLI Bor.JrLLr, SAUCE sAUcE Boiled ToMATE Beef from from the the stockpot stockpot with with Tomato Tomatosauce (see sauce (see - Beef TOMATE SAUCE) served served separately. separately. SAUCE) Beef bouillon. bouillon. BOUILLON BourLLoN DE DE BOEUF BoEUF -- This This stock, stock, which which Beef constitutes the the basis basis of of c1ear clear soups, soups, is is also also used used for for moistenmoistenconstitutes ing sauces. sauces. ing Beef stock stock is is obtained obtained by by cooking cooking lean lean beef with with carrots, carrots, Beef leeks, celery onions, leeks, celery and parsnips in water for and parsnips for about about 4 hours. hours. onions, When the the stock stock is is to to be be served as soup, turnips are served as are added. added. When For the the method method of of preparation stock, see see SOUP, SOUp, For preparation of beef stock, Clear soup. Clear soup. Braised beef. ESTOUFFADE rsrouFFADE DE DE BOEUF BoEUF Fry lightly lightly 300 g. 300 g. Braised beef. - Fry (11 oz.) oz.) lean, diced bacon bacon in in butter. Drain, and and (II lean, blanched, blanched, diced butter. Drain, in (3* lb.) fry l* kg. kg. (3t lb.) beef, beef, cut cut into into pieces, in the the same same butter butter fry each (4 oz.). g. (4 oz.). Add Add 3 3 medium-sized medium-sized each weighing weighing about about 100 100 g. quarters. Season onions Season with pepper, add with salt and and pepper, add onions cut cut into into quarters. pounded crushed clove of garlic. pounded thyme, thyme, bay bay leaf leaf and a crushed When sprinkle in Wh en all ail these these ingredients ingredients are well weil browned, sprinkle 2 flour. Let flour colour 2 tablespoons tablespoons (3 (3 tablespoons) tablespoons) fiour. Let the the fiour slightly, (lf pints, slightly, stirring stirring all ail the time. time. Moisten Moisten with with I 1 litre (li generous quart) red red wine wine and and the the same amount am ou nt of stock. generous quart) Blend add a a bouquet bouquet garni garni (q.v.'1and (q.v.) and bring to the boil. Blend well, weil, add Cover Coyer the the pan pan and and cook cook in in a slow oven oyen for 2| 2-!- to 3 hours. Drain Drain on on a a sieve sieve placed placed over a a bowl. Put the the pieces of beef beef and and bacon bacon into into a a pan, pan, add add to to them 300 300 g. (ll (II oz.) mushrooms, rooms, sliced sliced and and saut6ed sautéed in in butter. butter. Skim surplus surplus fat fat off the the sauce; sauce; boil boil it it down, down, strain, and pour pour over over the meat. meat. Simmer gently for for 25 25 minutes. minutes. Sim mer gently Brisket. POITRINE DE DE BoEUF BOEUF - This This part part of of beef beef is is used used for Brisket. porrRrNE the the stockpot. stockpot. It It can can also also be be cooked cooked as as Forequarterflank. Forequarter flank. Carbonades Carbonades of of beef beef I à la la flamande. flamande. c.qnsoNA,DEs CARBONADES DE DE BoEUF BOEUF pr,lrulNDE - Cut A Àm LA FLAMANDE Cut 750 750 g. g. (l* (li lb.) lb.) lean lean beef beef (thick (thick skirt, or or chuck) chuck) into into thin thin slices. slices. Season Season with with salt salt and and pepper, pepper, brown brown quickly quickly on on both both sides sides in in sizzling sizzling fat fat (lard (lard or or clarified clarified stock stock fat). fat). Remove Remove from from the the pan pan and and in in the the same same fat fat fry fry 4 4 mediummediumsized sized chopped chopped onions on ions until until golden. golden. Put Put the the beefand beef and onions onions into into a a casserole casserole in in alternate alternate layers layers and and add add a a bouquet bouquet garni garni (q.v.). (q.v.). Dilute (1 pint,2| pint, 2-!- cups) cups) beer beer and and a a Dilute the the pan panjuices juices with with 6 6 dl. dl. (l few tablespoons stock. stock. Thicken Thicken with with 3 3 tablespoons tablespoons (scant (scant few tablespoons cup) Brown Brown roux roux (see (see ROUX), ROUX), add add a a tablespoon tablespoon brown brown *t cup) sugar, sugar, stir, stir, cook cook for for a a few few moments moments and and strain strain through through a a fine onto the themeat. meat. finesieve sieveonto LyoNNArsELYONNAISE -

Bringto tothe theboil, boil,coyer coverwith witha alid, lid,and andcook cookin inthe Bring theoyen oven 2|hours. hours. 2+ Carbonades of ofbeef beefwitb withlambic lambic(Belgian cookery). CARCarbonades cen@elgiancookery). BoNADES DE DBBOEUF BoEr.JFAU AULAMBIC LAMBTc- -Cut Cutthe thebeef beefinto intoslices BONADES slicesand and fryas asdescribed describedabove abovein inthe therecipe recipefor forCarbonades Carbonadesof fry ofbeef beef laflamande. àdla flamande. Removefrom fromthe panand thepan andin inthe thesame samefat fatfry frythe Remove theonions. onions. Brown Iightly, lightly,sprinkle good tablespoon sprinklein inaagood tablespoon of Brown flourand offiour and cookfor foraafew few moments. moments. cook Futthe thebeef beefslices intoaacasserole, slicesinto casserole, season, season,add addaabouquet Put bouquet -and garni (q.v.), (q.v.), moisten moistenwithlambic with lambic (strong (strong Belgian Belgianbeer),and garni beer), bring to the boil. Cover the casserole withaalid bring to the boil. Coyer the casserole with lidand andcook cookin inaa hot oyen ovenfor for2~ Zlhours. hot hours.

Chateaubriand Chateaubriand

1+

Chateaubriand -- Thick Chateaubriand ken from Thick slice slice of beef fillet fillet ta of beef taken from the the middle of of the the fillet, middle fillet, weighing weighing between between 400 g. (14 (14 oz. 400 and and 800 800 g. oz. and li lf lb.). lb.). It It is and is usually grilled, garnished usually grilled, garnished with with- Château Chhteau (see POTATOES) POTATOES) and potatoes (see (see and served with Colbert served with Colbert sauce sauce (see SAUCE) or or Maître Mattre d'hôtel SAUCE) (see BUTTER). d h6tel buller butter (see BUTTEP(\. ChateauChateaubriand can can either briand either be be fried, fried, or or cQoked cooked in in any any way way suitable suitable for for T-bone steak, fiUets fillets and T -bone steak, and rump steak. steak. Grtlled. Brush Brush the Grilled. the chateaubriand chateaubriand with with butter, butter, and and season. season. place under First place juices, then under a First a hot grill to hot grill to seal seal the the juices, lower then lower the heat heat and and continue the continue cooking, cooking, keeping keeping it it a a little little underunderdone. Fried. Season Fried. Season the the chateaubriand, chateaubriand, and and sauté saut6 in in hot hot butter. butter. Fry briskly briskly but Fry but on on a a medium medium Bame, flame, to to avoid avoid the meat the meat becoming dry. dry. Keep Keep underdone. Garnish Garnish and and serve serve with with a a sauce sauce made from from the diluted diluted pan juices. garnishes recommended The garnishes The recommended for for T-bone, T-bone, rump rump steaks, steaks, tournedos and and small fil1et fillet steaks are are applicable to to chateauchateaubriands. briands. Contre-filetContre-fiIet- Cut ofmeat of meat located located above the loins and and chine of the animal, c1assed classed in the first category of beef. beef. It It can can be be grilled grilled or, after being boned, trimmed trimmed and and dressed, it it can can be be roasted roasted or braised. braised. Grilled. Cut into thick slices Gritted. slices and grill as T-bone or or rump steaks. steaks. Roast. See CULINARY METHODS, METHODS, Average Average cooking Roast. See cooking timesfor times for roasts. Proceed as as described described in in the the recipe recipe for Braised. Proceed Braised. for Braised beef Sened Served as a a remove, remove, the contre-flet,braisd contre-filet, braised or or roasted, roasted, beef. is accompanied accompanied by by vegetables. vegetables. It is very good good served served cold. cold. is à l,ancienne. l'ancienne. coNTRE-Frrsr CONTRE-FILET snetsf BRAISÉ A À Contre-filet braised i L'ANClENNE - Proceed Proceed as described in in the the recipe recipe for Top L'ANcIENNE for Top below). rump braised braised d à I'ancienne l'ancienne (see below). rump Contre-filet braised braised A à la bourgeoise. bourgeoise. coNrns-FTLET CONTRE-FILET snarsf BRAISÉ Contrefilet À r,c, LA nouncEorsE BOURGEOISE - Proceed as described described in in the the recipe recipe for for A - Proceed as Top of of rump rump d à la la bourgeorse bourgeoise (see (see below). below). Top CONTRE-FILET FRorD FROID Contre-filet cold, cold, with with various various salads. salads. coNTRE-FTLET Contre-filet GARNI - Arrange Arrange as as described, described for for Contre-filet Contre-filet jellied jellied (see (see cARNI

104 t04

BEEF
(Cr6ole cookery). BOEUF Ln CRÉOLE la Créole BoEtIF A cnfore i la Cr6ole (Créole Beef à À LA a casserole, a tablespoon of olive olive oil into a Put some fat and a for as for and add 2 sliced onions. Cut the beef in large pieces as Beef ragottts (see below), and put them on this bed of of onions. Bee! ragoûts garlic, a a clove of garlic, a sprig Add a a tablespoon tomato sauce, sauce, a Add few pinches of saffron. and a a few saffron. Cook and parsley and of thyme thyme and for 3 hours with the lid on. The beef and the onions gently for juice, but if if at the end of cooking cooking the juice give out juice, juice becomes Ifthere ofwater water or stock. If there too concentrated, add a few drops of is too much it down. mu ch sauce, boil boil it BoEUF is prepared Daube of beef. DAUBE DE BOEUF - This old dish is in different ways in different regions. in different in different regions. Basically, it consists (q.v.) in braising a daubière daubiire (q. of a piece of beef, beef, cooked in in a v.) in a piece wine added to it. In some provinces liquor, with white or red wine whole, is cooked who le, in the meat (usually taken from the rump) is escalopes. others it is cut into square pieces or thick escalopes. others Prepared in this way, the daubes are very similar sirnilar to Braised Prepared beef. I'ancienne. DAUBE DE DE BOEUF BoEUF À A l'nNcrsNNB i l'ancienne. Daube of beef à L'ANCIENNE (strips of salt a piece rump with with thick thick lardoons lardoons (strips piece of rump - Lard a pork) for a a few few hours in white and marinate marinate for hours in white wine wine and pork) and with sliced carrots and and onions, brandy, sliced carrots onions, parsley, brandy, together together with parsley, asfor leaf and pounded garlic. Proceed as for Top rump thyme, bay leaf (see below). la bearnaise. DE BOEUF BoEUF À A LA ra BÉARsfeni la Daube of beef à béarnaise. DAUBE DE (4+ lb.) beef, taken from rump or shoulder NAIsE NAISE - Cut 2 kg. (4} each of these of beef, into 5-cm. (2-inch) square pieces. Lard each (strip of salt pieces with a a thick thick lardoon (strip salt pork), which has pork), which garlic, seasoned and garlic, been rolled rolled in in chopped parsley and seasoned with been powdered thyme with brandy. leaf, and and bay leaf, and sprinkled sprinkled with thyme and Leave to 2 hours to marinate for 2 hours in in red red wine wine and and brandy, Leave marinate for and onions, a a sprig of parsley with sliced carrots and parsley and thyme, daubiire (q.v.) with slices and a a bay leaf. Line a a daubière and slices of Bayonne and sliced ham, alternating with with layers layers of of carrots carrots and ha m, alternating ions sliced on onions which have lightly fried fried in lard or goose fat. fat. Dry the have been lightly in lard which pieces of beef, dredge with flour, flour, and and put them in in layers layers in dredge with garni (q.v.). (q.v.). Bring the stock daubidre. Add a a bouquet garni the the daubière. stoek in which the was marinated marinated to add 2 the meat was to the the boil. 2 cru crushed which boil, add shed and simmer for 25 minutes. Strain and pour cloves of garlic, and meat. There should enough liquor liquor to cover the over the meat. should be enough meat completely; completely; if not, not, add add a a few few tablespoons meat meat stock. meat stock. daubiire with with a a lid, lid, sealing it with with a strip Cover Cover the the daubière sealing it strip of flour-and-water paste. Bring to the flour-and-water the boil on top of the the stove, maintaining an even heat, for for4 then cook in the oven, maintaining 4 hours. in the having first flrst removed removed the daubiire, having Serve Serve in the daubière, the bouquet garni and and skimmed off surplus fat. garni B6arn, this daube is served with broyo instead instead of bread. In Béarn,

(Iarousse) Preparation Preparation of contre-filet contre-filet (Larousse)

artichoke hearts, harda salad, below). Serve with with a below). salad, stuffed artichoke boiled eggs, boiled eggs, lettuce hearts, etc. LA GELÉE cBI-Er À LA Contre-filet jeUied. CONTRE-FILET coNTRE-FILET A Contre-filet jellied. - Useful for serving left-over pieces of roast contre-filet. Trim the piece, coat with with slightly coloured jelly, garnish with coloured strong strong aspic jelly, cro0tons round and put jelly chopped jelly jelly and watercress, and jelly croûtons and watercress,
the border of of the serving servine dish.

Contre-filet Contre-filet

garnishes. CONTRE-FILET Contre-filet cARNI coNtne-FILET GARNI Contre-filet with with garnishes. - The method of for this meat. For For their their method following following are are suitable this meat. suitable for (Those followed preparation followed by preparation see by the GARNISHES. (Those see GARNISHES. (b) are letter letter (b) are suitable for Braised contre-filet. suitable for B i atr ix, bouquetière, Algérienne, b ou que t ii r e, ienne, alsacienne als ac ienne (b), anversoise, anv e r s o is e, Béatrix, Algir (b), Br bourguignonne Brillat-Savarin, chdt elaine, illat - Savar in, bruxelloise, brux e lloise, châtelaine, bour guignonne (b), du che s s e, fav or it e, chipolata chipolata sausages (b), Clamart, C lamar t, dauphine, duchesseJavorite, (b), fr ang ai s e, hongroise,jardinière, I angu e do c i e nn e, flamande amande '(b),jrançaise, h o ng r o i s e, j ar d inii r e, languedocienne, fl (b), macédoine, (b), lyonnaise lorraine marqichire, mentonlorraine (b), lyonnaise (b), macidoine, maraÎchère, naise, piémontaise, nivernaise, orientale, piimontaise, naise, moderne, moderne, niçoise, nigoise, nivernaise, por r omaine, sarde. portugaise, pritanière, provençale, ov engale, Richelieu, Riche lieu, romaine, tugaise, pr itanii r e, pr The contre-filet can can also be served with buttered or braised pasta green vegetables, potatoes, macaroni ta green macaroni and and other other pas vegetables, potatoes, pur6e of dried products, rich pilaf, risotto, and dried vegetables. rich pilaf, and purée gratin. COQUILLES DE BOEUF BoEUF Coquilles (scallop sheUs) coeuILLES DE shells) au au gratin. AU with half-slices of of boiled AU GRATIN cRATIN Line scallop scallop shells shells with - Line (see potatoes sauce (see ltalian sauce potatoes which been coated with [tahan have been coated with which have SAUCE). boiled beef cut up and fil! fill with thin slices slices of cold boiled SAUCE), and and small. with cheese cheese and small. Cover Cover with with more more sauce, sauce, sprinkle sprinkle with breadcrumbs and brown in the oven. preparing hot and A number of recipes for and cold cold coquilles for preparing will be found found under HORS-D'(EUVRE, Scallop Scallop shells. under HORS-D'ŒUVRE,
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provengale Daube Daube J la provençale d la

BEEF BEEF
Daube of of beef beeflii la provengale. DAUBE la provençale. o.lunr DE on BOEUF sosur À A LA re Daube Cut the pieces, lard the beef beef into into pieœs, lard them them and and PROVENÇALE - - Cut marinate for for 2 2 hours as described above, but using white wine marinate hours as described above, but using white wine instead of red and of red and adding adding 3 (scant f,cup) 3tablespoons tablespoons (scant;\cup) oil oil to it. to il. instead pieces Drain the pieces of put them of beef beef and and put them into into aa daubière daubiire which which Drain tbe should be be large large enough enough to to take take al] all the the ingredients, ingredients. Spread Spread in in should layers, alternating alternating with with frcsh fresh bacon bacon rinds rinds eut cut into into small small dice, dice, layers, blanched, diccd diced bacon, bacon, sliced sliced carrots, carrots, chopped chopped onions, onions, raw raw blanched, chopped mushrooms, mushrooms, peeled peeled and and chopped chopped tomatoes, pountomatoes, pounchopped garlic and ded c10ves cloves of of garlic and stoned black olives. olives. Put Put a a bouquel stoned black bouquet ded (q.v.) in garni (q.v.) in the the middle middle of of ail all these these ingredients ingredients and, and, besides besides garni the usual usual aromatic aromatic herbs, herbs, add add a piece of a small small piece of bitter bitter orange orange the peel. peel. Pour the the marinating marinating Iiquor liquor over over the the whole, whole, add add some some Pour veal stock, stock, and and coyer, cover, sealing lid with sealing the the lid with a a strip flourstrip of of flourveal paste. Cook and-water paste, Cook in in a a moderate moderate oyen for 5 oven for 5 or or 6 6 hours. hours. and-water Serve in in the the daubière, daubiire, having having !irst first removed removed the the bvuquel bouquet Serve garni and and skimmed skimmed off offsurplus fat. garni surplus fat. Entrec0te or or Steak Steak Entrecbte is part of is the the part of the the meat meat - Entrecôte Entrecôte between the the bones bones of ribs of of the the ribs of beef. beef. A A slice slice ta from taken between ken from the con/refile! contre-filet or from the or from the rUll]p rump is is often often served served under under this this the name. name. The real real entrecôte entrecite is grilled; a is usually usually grilled; a slice slice of of contrefile/, contre-filet, The often called called rump rump steak steak in in France, France, is is sometimes sometimes fried fried in in often butter. butter. These steaks generally boned steaks are are generally boned before grilled. before being being grilled, These pieces are When the the pieces are thick, thick, however, however, rib rib bones bones are are left left on. on. When Grilled. Trim Trim and and flatten flatten the the steak, steak, brush with butter butter or or Grilled. brush with oil, season season and and cook cook under grill, tirst under a a grill, first on on a a brisk brisk and and then then on on oil, a lowered lowered hea!. heat. Arrange Arrange and and serve serve as as indicated indicated in in the the recipe. recipe. a Sautded. Trim Trim and and flatten flatten the the steak, steak, season season il it and and sauté saut6 Sautéed. briskly in butter. Arrange and garnish as and garnish indicated in as indicated in the the briskly in butter. Arrange juices Ieft recipe. Pour Pour over over it it the the pan left over over from frying, rectpe. pan Juices from frying, having diluted them and finished as described described in having diluted them and tinished off off as in the the recipe. recipe. In steak taken confie-filet, ln France, France, a a steak taken from from ribs ribs of of beef, beef, or or con/refile/, (about I g. (about of 500 g. considered sufficient sufficient for of 400 400 to to 500 1 lb.) lb.) is is considered for four four persons. persons. Entrec0te Steak i Entrecôte or or Steak à la la b6arnaise béarnaise - Grill Grill the the steak, steak, and and garnish (see POTATOES) and watergarnish with with Chdteau Château potatoes potatoes (see POTATOES) and water(s*, cress. Serve Bdarnaise sauce SAUCE) cress, Serve Béarnaise sauce (sec SAUCE) separately. separately. EntrecOte Entrecôte or or Steak Steak I à la la Bercy Bercy - Grill Grill the the steak steak and and cover coyer with with Bercy Bercy butter butter (see (see BUTTER, BUTTER, Compound Compound butters). butters) , .Grand-mlre'Entrec0te Entrecôte or or Steak Steak i à la la bonne bolll.le femme, femme, or or 'Grand-mère' Saut€ Saute the the steak steak in in butter, butter, browning browning on on both both sides. sides. Surround Surround it glazed onions, it in in the the pan pan with with 12 12 small small glazed onions, 2 2 blanched blanched potatoes potatoes cut eut small, small, and and 50 50 g. g, (2 (2 oz.') oz.) diced diced and and blanched blanched salt salt pork pork or or bacon. bacon. Cook Cook all ail together. together. Arrange Arrange in in an an earthenware earthenware dish, dish, with with the the garnish garnish surrounding surrounding it. il. Dilute Dilute the the butter butter left left in in the the pan pan with with + ±dl. dl. (3 (3 tablespoons, tablespoons, scant seanl * t cup) cup) stock stock or or water water and and pour pour over over the the dish. dish, Sprinkle Sprinkle with witb chopped chopped parsley. parsley, Entrec0te la bordelaise Entrecôte or or Steak Steak iàla bordelaise - Grill Grill the the steak. steak. Arrange Arrange on on a a dish dish and and place place l0 10 slices sJices of of poached poached and and drained drained bone bone marrow marrow on on top. top. Serve Serve with with Bordelaise Bordelaise sauce sauce (se (sec SAUCE). SAUCE). The The steak steak can can also also be be served served saut6ed, sautéed, with with the the pan pan juices juices added added to to the the sauce. sauce. Entrec0te Entrecôte or or Steak Steak ià la la bourguignonne bourguignonne - Sautd Sauté the the entreentrecdte in butter, butter, and and garnish garnisb d à la la bourguignonne bourguignonne (see (sec GARGARcôte in NISHES). NISHES), Dilute Dilute the the pan pan juices juices with with I 1 dl. dl. (6 (6 tablespoons, tablespoons, scant seant ]1cup) cup) red red wine, wine, add add I1dl. dl. (6 (6 tablespoons, tablespoons, scant seant *t cup) cup) demi-glace demi-glace (q.v.), (q,v.), boil boil down, down, strain strain and and pour pour over over the the dish. dish. Entrec6te or Steak Entrecôte or Steak Dumas Dumas -- Season Season and and cook cook conte-filet contre-filet steaks steaks over over a a high high heat. hea!. Lay Lay them them on on a a heated heated meat roeat plate plate and and place place 3 3 slices slices of of previously previously cooked cooked beef beef marrow marrow on on each. each. . Make a sauce with the residue Make a sauce with the residue left left in in the the pan pan by by adding adding I1dl. * cup) dl. (6 (6 tablespoons, tablespoons, scant seant! cup) dry dry white whitewine wine and and 2table2 tablespoons spoons (3 (3 tablespoons) tablespoons) chopped cbopped shallots. shal.lots. Boil Boil down down by by
pRovENqALE
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three-quarters. Pour (6 tablespoons, Pour in in 1I dl. dl. (6 tablespoons, seant} scant * cup) cup) three-quarlers. veal stock stock and and bring b